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Sample records for published literature relating

  1. Citation parameters of contact lens-related articles published in the ophthalmic literature.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Genís; Sanz, Joan P

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at exploring the citation parameters of contact lenses articles published in the Ophthalmology thematic category of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). The Thompson Reuters Web of Science database was accessed to record bibliometric information and citation parameters of all journals listed under the Ophthalmology area of the 2011 JCR edition, including the journals with main publication interests in the contact lens field. In addition, the same database was used to unveil all contact lens-related articles published in 2011 in the same thematic area, whereupon differences in citation parameters between those articles published in contact lens and non-contact lens-related journals were explored. Significant differences in some bibliometric indicators such as half-life and overall citation count were found between contact lens-related journals (shorter half-life and fewer citations) and the median values for the Ophthalmology thematic area of the JCR. Visual examination of all Ophthalmology journals uncovered a total of 156 contact lens-related articles, published in 28 different journals, with 27 articles each for Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, Eye & Contact Lens, and Optometry and Vision Science. Significant differences in citation parameters were encountered between those articles published in contact lens and non-contact lens source journals. These findings, which disclosed contact lenses to be a fertile area of research, may be of interest to researchers and institutions. Differences in bibliometric indicators are of relevance to avoid unwanted bias when conducting between- and within-discipline comparisons of articles, journals, and researchers.

  2. Critical appraisal of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  3. [Analysis of relation between the development of study and literatures about benign positional paroxysmal vertigo published international and domestic].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jianping; Sun, Xiaohui; Dai, Song; Sang, Yuehong

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common vestibular disorder that causes vertigo. Study of BPPV has dramatically rapid progress in recent years. We analyze the BPPV growth We searched the international data quantity year by year in database of PubMed, ScienceDirect and WILEY before 2014 respectively, then we searched the domestic data quantity year by year in database of CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data before 2015 by selecting "Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo" as the keywords. Then we carried out regression analysis with the gathered results in above databases to determine data growth regularity and main factors that affect future development of BPPV. Also, we analyzes published BPPV papers in domestic and international journals. PubMed database contains 808 literatures, ScienceDirect contains 177 database and WILEY contains 46 literatures, All together we collected 1 038 international articles. CNKI contains 440 literatures, VIP contains 580 literatures and WanFang data contains 449 literatures. All together we collected 1 469 domestic literatures. It shows the rising trend of the literature accumulation amount of BPPV. The scattered point diagram of BPPV shows an exponential growing trend, which was growing slowly in the early time but rapidly in recent years. It shows that the development of BPPV has three stages from international arical: exploration period (before 1985), breakthrough period (1986-1998). The deepening stage (after 1998), Chinese literature also has three stages from domestic BPPV precess. Blank period (before the year of 1982), the enlightenment period (1982-2004), the deepening stage (after the year of 2004). In the pregress of BPPV, many outsantding sccholars played an important role in domestic scitifction of researching, which has produced a certain influence in the worldwide.

  4. An Editor's Tips on Publishing in Library Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    Writing for professional library literature can be a challenging experience, especially for new writers and new librarians. This article reviews a variety of how-to-write publications intended for librarians--those books and articles that provide advice and inspiration to aspiring library writers on how to publish in library literature. Applying…

  5. Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Children of Color of the USA: a Scoping Review of Literature Published Between 2013 and 2017.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Anthony; Neophytou, Andreas M; Balmes, John; Thakur, Neeta

    2018-04-16

    Given racial disparities in ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and asthma risk, this review offers an overview of the literature investigating the ambient air pollution-asthma relationship in children of color between 2013 and 2017. AAP is likely a key contributor to the excess burden of asthma in children of color due to pervasive exposure before birth, at home, and in school. Recent findings suggest that psychosocial stressors may modify the relationship between AAP and asthma. The effect of AAP on asthma in children of color is likely modulated by multiple unique psychosocial stressors and gene-environment interactions. Although children of color are being included in asthma studies, more research is still needed on impacts of specific criteria pollutants throughout the life course. Additionally, future studies should consider historical factors when analyzing current exposure profiles.

  6. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines

  7. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-09-07

    A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines of clinical governance that ensure

  8. [Analysis of literature citations in original articles published in Spanish and international nursing journals and journals in 2 closely related disciplines].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Flores-López, María José; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    To compare Spanish nursing journals with 2 English-language standard journals, as well as Spanish journals in closely related disciplines, to identify possible quantitative and qualitative shortcomings in scientific documentation. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study of the references contained in 796 articles from 6 Spanish journals from 3 health disciplines (2000-2002) and 2 English-language nursing journals (2000-2001). The number of references, type of publication cited, and language of the document cited were compared in individual journals, and in journals grouped by discipline and according to language. Spanish-language nursing journals had the lowest mean number of references per article (X- = 16.20) when compared with psychology journals (X- = 31.24), medical journals (X- = 31.39) and international nursing journals (X- = 37.11). Among Spanish journals, citation of English-language publications was most frequent in medical journals (X- = 26.28) and least frequent in nursing journals (X- = 6.04). In contrast, citation of Spanish documents was most frequent in nursing journals (X- = 9.79) and least frequent in medical journals (X- = 4.43). Although scientific publication of Spanish nursing has improved, it is not comparable to publication of closely related disciplines and international nursing. The low citation of English documents clearly reveals the risk of scientific insularity.

  9. Predatory Publishing: An Emerging Threat to the Medical Literature.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Weinstein, Debra F

    2017-02-01

    The quality of medical literature is increasingly threatened by irresponsible publishing, leading to rising retraction rates, irreproducible results, and a flood of inconsequential publications that distract readers from more meaningful scholarship. "Predatory publishers" offer rapid publication with loose peer review, exploiting a system in which faculty seek longer bibliographies to achieve academic promotion. In this Commentary, the authors highlight some of the evidence that this problem exists and suggest actions to address it. Recommendations for protecting the medical literature include preventing predatory journals from being indexed by the National Library of Medicine; encouraging academic promotions committees to ensure that they prioritize value over volume of publications and that faculty understand that priority; excluding publications from predatory journals on curricula vitae and requiring that retractions are included; developing sanctions for repeated retractions or duplicate publications; and convening an expert panel to better elucidate this problem and determine strategies to combat it.

  10. Using meta-regression models to systematically evaluate data in the published literature: relative contributions of agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use exposure pathways to house dust pesticide concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Data reported in the published literature have been used qualitatively to aid exposure assessment activities in epidemiologic studies. Analyzing these data in computational models presents statistical challenges because these data are often reported as summary statist...

  11. 'Spin' in published biomedical literature: A methodological systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kellia; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    In the scientific literature, spin refers to reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers so that results are viewed in a more favourable light. The presence of spin in biomedical research can negatively impact the development of further studies, clinical practice, and health policies. This systematic review aims to explore the nature and prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and hand searched reference lists for all reports that included the measurement of spin in the biomedical literature for at least 1 outcome. Two independent coders extracted data on the characteristics of reports and their included studies and all spin-related outcomes. Results were grouped inductively into themes by spin-related outcome and are presented as a narrative synthesis. We used meta-analyses to analyse the association of spin with industry sponsorship of research. We included 35 reports, which investigated spin in clinical trials, observational studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The nature of spin varied according to study design. The highest (but also greatest) variability in the prevalence of spin was present in trials. Some of the common practices used to spin results included detracting from statistically nonsignificant results and inappropriately using causal language. Source of funding was hypothesised by a few authors to be a factor associated with spin; however, results were inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the included papers. Further research is needed to assess the impact of spin on readers' decision-making. Editors and peer reviewers should be familiar with the prevalence and manifestations of spin in their area of research in order to ensure accurate interpretation and dissemination of research.

  12. Publishing Sami Literature--From Christian Translations to Sami Publishing Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltto, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Publishing in the Sami languages has always been difficult. The Sami are currently spread across four countries, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. There are nine different Sami languages, some of them with only a few speakers. The Sami publishing industry is entirely dependent on government funding as it does not have its own funds nor is there…

  13. Veterinarian Nominated Common Conditions of Rabbits and Guinea Pigs Compared with Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Natalie J.; Lyons, Emma; Grindlay, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Rabbits and guinea pigs are increasingly popular pets in the UK, yet little is known about their common ailments, or how these relate to what appears in the published literature. The aim of this study was to characterise the common conditions of rabbits and guinea pigs, and to compare these with the topics found in the published literature. Information about the common conditions seen in rabbits and guinea pigs in clinical practice was obtained from a survey of UK veterinarians. The common conditions seen were compared with results from a structured literature search. Conditions relating to the dental (29.9%), and skin (37.6%) body systems were commonly nominated by veterinarians for rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. A total of 655 rabbit and 1086 guinea pig citations were examined and there appeared to be a mismatch between the conditions nominated in the veterinary questionnaire, and those found in the literature. This is the first time that the published literature has been compared to the nominated caseload of veterinarians in practice, and there is concern that the literature about rabbits and guinea pigs may not be representative of, or relevant to the caseload seen in clinical practice. This is of importance for clinicians being able to apply an objective, evidence-based approach. The publishing of clinically-relevant, research-based evidence should be prioritised. PMID:29165371

  14. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  15. Matrix Summaries Improve Research Reports: Secondary Analyses Using Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Correlation matrices and standard deviations are the building blocks of many of the commonly conducted analyses in published research, and AERA and APA reporting standards recommend their inclusion when reporting research results. The authors argue that the inclusion of correlation/covariance matrices, standard deviations, and means can enhance…

  16. Searching for disability in electronic databases of published literature.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Emily S; Peterson, Jana J; Judkins, Dolores Z

    2014-01-01

    As researchers in disability and health conduct systematic reviews with greater frequency, the definition of disability used in these reviews gains importance. Translating a comprehensive conceptual definition of "disability" into an operational definition that utilizes electronic databases in the health sciences is a difficult step necessary for performing systematic literature reviews in the field. Consistency of definition across studies will help build a body of evidence that is comparable and amenable to synthesis. To illustrate a process for operationalizing the World Health Organization's International Classification of Disability, Functioning, and Health concept of disability for MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. We created an electronic search strategy in conjunction with a reference librarian and an expert panel. Quality control steps included comparison of search results to results of a search for a specific disabling condition and to articles nominated by the expert panel. The complete search strategy is presented. Results of the quality control steps indicated that our strategy was sufficiently sensitive and specific. Our search strategy will be valuable to researchers conducting literature reviews on broad populations with disabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A scoping review of 10 years of published literature on community-based rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, Shaun; Nixon, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of peer-reviewed literature on community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in low- and middle-income countries published in English from 2003 to 2012. This scoping review involved a systematic search of electronic databases using specific keyword/subject heading combinations. Journal articles were included if they were published in English, used "CBR" as related to rehabilitation with persons with disabilities and not limited to high-income countries (HICs). Data were charted according to both pre-determined and emergent categories. A subset of articles was charted by two reviewers to ensure reliability of variables. A total of 114 articles were included. Fifty-two articles presented empirical research and 49 were published in one of two journals. The articles represented CBR activity in 26 specific countries, although only two of these were in Europe and only one was in the Americas. Authors were predominantly affiliated at universities and in HICs. This scoping review identified and characterized a large pool of literature on CBR, facilitating its incorporation into research and practice. Future research should examine the engagement of persons with disabilities in creating CBR literature, and analysis of literature in languages other than English. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) has been promoted as a rehabilitation strategy of choice in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but it has been critiqued for lack of an evidence base. A large number (114) of peer-reviewed articles were published on CBR between 2003 and 2012. Just under half of these articles (45%) presented empirical research, indicating that the evidence base for CBR is growing but will benefit from continued, rigorous inquiry. Furthermore, researchers from LMICs appear to be largely under-represented in published CBR research, flagging the need to support LMIC partners to share their CBR research in peer-reviewed journals.

  18. Literature-Related Discovery (LRD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    accepted) water purification literature. The annular region between the inner and outer circles represents literatures related directly and...procedures (thalamotomy and pallidotomy) destroy regions of the brain that produce the uncontrolled spasmodic movements in PD patients [11]. A...more recent procedure, deep brain stimulation, sends electricity through a probe to normalize electrical activity in the brain region , reversing the

  19. Publishing Not Perishing: How Research Students Transition from Novice to Knowledgeable Using Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Grignon, Julien; Steven, Rochelle; Guitart, Daniela; Byrne, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Current understandings suggest that three aspects of writing practice underpin the research student publication process: knowledge creation, text production and identity formation. Publishing a literature review is the first opportunity most students have to publish. This article compares the pedagogical benefits of different literature review…

  20. Critical review and appraisal of published clinical literature: useful skill in biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Foote, Maryann

    2008-01-01

    Critical review of published literature may be necessary during several stages of biotechnology product development. The reviewer should develop a standardized method for reviewing and comparing published papers on a given topic and should be aware of common errors found in published papers.

  1. The health of the Roma people: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Hajioff, S; McKee, M

    2000-11-01

    The Roma people originated in northern India and have been known in Europe for nearly a thousand years. For much of that time they have been the subjects of discrimination and oppression, culminating in the extermination of half a million Roma in the Nazi death camps. While it is widely believed that the health of Roma people is often poorer than the majority population, these inequalities remain largely unresearched. Published literature on the health of the Roma people was identified using Medline. Opinion pieces were excluded, as were papers relating to anthropometry and to genetic markers. The resultant papers were analysed by country of study and by disease type or care group. Some 70% of papers identified related to just three countries; Spain and the Czech and Slovak Republics. Much literature concentrates upon communicable disease or reproductive health. The limited evidence suggests increased morbidity from non-communicable disease, but there is little published on this topic. Evidence on health care, though fragmentary, suggests poorer access to health services and uptake of preventative care. Published research on the health needs of the Roma population is sparse. The topics that have received attention suggest a focus on concepts of contagion or social Darwinism, indicating a greater concern with the health needs of the majority populations with which they live. There is a need for both further research into the health of Roma people; with particular emphasis on non-communicable disease; and also for interventions that improve Roma health. Such research must, however, be handled with sensitivity, recognising the social and political context of the society concerned.

  2. The health of the Roma people: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Hajioff, S.; McKee, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The Roma people originated in northern India and have been known in Europe for nearly a thousand years. For much of that time they have been the subjects of discrimination and oppression, culminating in the extermination of half a million Roma in the Nazi death camps. While it is widely believed that the health of Roma people is often poorer than the majority population, these inequalities remain largely unresearched.
METHODS—Published literature on the health of the Roma people was identified using Medline. Opinion pieces were excluded, as were papers relating to anthropometry and to genetic markers. The resultant papers were analysed by country of study and by disease type or care group.
RESULTS—Some 70% of papers identified related to just three countries; Spain and the Czech and Slovak Republics. Much literature concentrates upon communicable disease or reproductive health. The limited evidence suggests increased morbidity from non-communicable disease, but there is little published on this topic. Evidence on health care, though fragmentary, suggests poorer access to health services and uptake of preventative care.
DISCUSSION—Published research on the health needs of the Roma population is sparse. The topics that have received attention suggest a focus on concepts of contagion or social Darwinism, indicating a greater concern with the health needs of the majority populations with which they live. There is a need for both further research into the health of Roma people; with particular emphasis on non-communicable disease; and also for interventions that improve Roma health. Such research must, however, be handled with sensitivity, recognising the social and political context of the society concerned.


Keywords: gypsies; inequalities; ethnicity; social exclusion PMID:11027202

  3. NETS[middle dot]A Scholarship: A Review of Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Bathon, Justin; Flora, Kevin L.; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, no systematic analysis of the current body of literature has aimed to understand the extent to which school technology leadership is being investigated. This review of the literature presents a content analysis of articles published from 1997 through 2010 housed in the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) database on the topic of…

  4. A Review of the Published Research Literature on Arts and the Handicapped, 1971-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Linda D.; Gambach, James

    The document presents findings of a search of research literature in the area of arts and the handicapped published between 1971 and 1981. The literature search addresses the various art forms of visual art, drama, music, and dance/movement as well as the major handicapping conditions: mental retardation, hearing impairments, speech handicaps,…

  5. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur.

  6. Publication Anxiety: Emotion and the Stages of Publishing in the Library and Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    Although instruction in writing for Library and Information Science (LIS) publication is becoming more prevalent, emotions inherent in the publishing cycle are seldom discussed. Through a review of the literature this article investigates how LIS writers can develop their technical skills in publishing scholarly articles, and then looks at…

  7. Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Published in the Urological Literature from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Corbyons, Katherine; Han, Julia; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Systematic reviews synthesize the current best evidence to address a clinical question. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based clinical practice, systematic reviews are being increasingly sought after and published. We previously reported limitations in the methodological quality of 57 individual systematic reviews published from 1998 to 2008. We provide an update to our previous study, adding systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012. We systematically searched PubMed® and hand searched the table of contents of 4 major urological journals to identify systematic reviews related to questions of prevention and therapy. Two independent reviewers with prior formal evidence-based medicine training assessed the methodological quality using the validated 11-point AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) instrument. We performed predefined statistical hypothesis testing for differences by publication period (1998 to 2008 vs 2009 to 2012) and journal of publication. We performed statistical testing using SPSS®, version 23.0 with a 2-sided α of 0.05 using the Student t-test, ANOVA and the chi-square test. A total of 113 systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012 met study inclusion criteria. The most common topics were oncology (44 reviews or 38.9%), voiding dysfunction (26 or 23.0%) and stones/endourology (13 or 11.5%). The largest contributor was European Urology (46 reviews or 40.7%), followed by BJU International (31 or 27.4%) and The Journal of Urology® (22 or 19.5%). The mean ± SD AMSTAR score for the 2009 to 2012 period was 5.3 ± 2.3 compared to 4.8 ± 2.0 for 1998 to 2008 with a mean difference of 0.5 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.2, p = 0.133). While the number of systematic reviews published in the urological literature has increased substantially, the methodological quality of these studies remains suboptimal. Systematic review authors and editors should make every effort to adhere to well established methodological standards to enhance

  8. A Review of Literature Published in 1973 on Mathematics Education in the Community Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimmestad, Beverly, Swadener, Marc

    Twenty-eight reports, articles, and papers published in 1973 which concern mathematics education in the community junior college are reviewed. Much of this literature was found in "The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal,""The American Mathematical Monthly," or among Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) reports. The references are…

  9. MSL: Facilitating automatic and physical analysis of published scientific literature in PDF format.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Published scientific literature contains millions of figures, including information about the results obtained from different scientific experiments e.g. PCR-ELISA data, microarray analysis, gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry data, DNA/RNA sequencing, diagnostic imaging (CT/MRI and ultrasound scans), and medicinal imaging like electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), echocardiography  (ECG), positron-emission tomography (PET) images. The importance of biomedical figures has been widely recognized in scientific and medicine communities, as they play a vital role in providing major original data, experimental and computational results in concise form. One major challenge for implementing a system for scientific literature analysis is extracting and analyzing text and figures from published PDF files by physical and logical document analysis. Here we present a product line architecture based bioinformatics tool 'Mining Scientific Literature (MSL)', which supports the extraction of text and images by interpreting all kinds of published PDF files using advanced data mining and image processing techniques. It provides modules for the marginalization of extracted text based on different coordinates and keywords, visualization of extracted figures and extraction of embedded text from all kinds of biological and biomedical figures using applied Optimal Character Recognition (OCR). Moreover, for further analysis and usage, it generates the system's output in different formats including text, PDF, XML and images files. Hence, MSL is an easy to install and use analysis tool to interpret published scientific literature in PDF format.

  10. MSL: Facilitating automatic and physical analysis of published scientific literature in PDF format

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Published scientific literature contains millions of figures, including information about the results obtained from different scientific experiments e.g. PCR-ELISA data, microarray analysis, gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry data, DNA/RNA sequencing, diagnostic imaging (CT/MRI and ultrasound scans), and medicinal imaging like electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), echocardiography  (ECG), positron-emission tomography (PET) images. The importance of biomedical figures has been widely recognized in scientific and medicine communities, as they play a vital role in providing major original data, experimental and computational results in concise form. One major challenge for implementing a system for scientific literature analysis is extracting and analyzing text and figures from published PDF files by physical and logical document analysis. Here we present a product line architecture based bioinformatics tool ‘Mining Scientific Literature (MSL)’, which supports the extraction of text and images by interpreting all kinds of published PDF files using advanced data mining and image processing techniques. It provides modules for the marginalization of extracted text based on different coordinates and keywords, visualization of extracted figures and extraction of embedded text from all kinds of biological and biomedical figures using applied Optimal Character Recognition (OCR). Moreover, for further analysis and usage, it generates the system’s output in different formats including text, PDF, XML and images files. Hence, MSL is an easy to install and use analysis tool to interpret published scientific literature in PDF format. PMID:29721305

  11. Citation Patterns to Traditional and Electronic Preprints in the Published Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngen, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the growing importance of electronic preprints in the published literature of physics and astronomy and address several areas of concern regarding the future role of electronic preprints in scientific communication. Topics include a history of preprints in astronomy and physics; inaccuracies in preprint citations; and archival issues.…

  12. Review of Periodical Literature on the History of Education Published in 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Kirke, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the periodical literature on the history of education published in 2016. It discusses general long-term trends in the field, but focuses mainly on the key areas of research in 2016 itself. The review is divided into several sections: ancient, medieval and early modern history; schooling and education policy; the history of…

  13. A meta-synthesis study of literature review and systematic review published in nurse prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prescribing represents a new aspect of practice for nurses. To make qualitative results more accessible to clinicians, researchers, and policy makers, individuals are urged to synthesize findings from related studies. Therefore this study aimed to aggregate and interpret existing literature review and systematic studies to obtain new insights on nurse prescription. Methods: This was a qualitative meta synthesis study using Walsh and Downe process. In order to obtain data all Digital National Library of Medicine's databases, search engines and several related sites were used. Full texts with "review and nurs* prescri* " words in the title or abstract in English language and published without any time limitation were considered. After eliminating duplicate and irrelevant studies, 11 texts were selected. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis. Multiple codes were compared based on the differences and similarities and divided to the categories and themes. Results: The results from the meta synthesis of the 11 studies revealed 8 themes namely: leading countries in prescribing, views, features, infrastructures, benefits, disadvantages, facilitators and barriers of nursing prescription that are discussed in this article. The results led to a schematic model. Conclusion: Despite the positive view on nurse prescribing, there are still issues such as legal, administrative, weak research and educational deficiencies in academic preparation of nurses that needs more effort in these areas and requires further research. PMID:25405142

  14. A meta-synthesis study of literature review and systematic review published in nurse prescribing.

    PubMed

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Prescribing represents a new aspect of practice for nurses. To make qualitative results more accessible to clinicians, researchers, and policy makers, individuals are urged to synthesize findings from related studies. Therefore this study aimed to aggregate and interpret existing literature review and systematic studies to obtain new insights on nurse prescription. This was a qualitative meta synthesis study using Walsh and Downe process. In order to obtain data all Digital National Library of Medicine's databases, search engines and several related sites were used. Full texts with "review and nurs* prescri* " words in the title or abstract in English language and published without any time limitation were considered. After eliminating duplicate and irrelevant studies, 11 texts were selected. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis. Multiple codes were compared based on the differences and similarities and divided to the categories and themes. The results from the meta synthesis of the 11 studies revealed 8 themes namely: leading countries in prescribing, views, features, infrastructures, benefits, disadvantages, facilitators and barriers of nursing prescription that are discussed in this article. The results led to a schematic model. Despite the positive view on nurse prescribing, there are still issues such as legal, administrative, weak research and educational deficiencies in academic preparation of nurses that needs more effort in these areas and requires further research.

  15. Psychotropic treatments in Prader-Willi syndrome: a critical review of published literature.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, O; Cohen, D; Thuilleaux, D; Consoli, A; Cabal, S; Tauber, M

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic syndrome. The phenotype includes moderate to intellectual disability, dysmorphia, obesity, and behavioral disturbances (e.g., hetero and self-injurious behaviors, hyperphagia, psychosis). Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed in PWS for symptomatic control. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to examine psychotropic medications used in PWS. MEDLINE was searched to identify articles published between January 1967 and December 2014 using key words related to pharmacological treatments and PWS. Articles with original data were included based on a standardized four-step selection process. The identification of studies led to 241 records. All selected articles were evaluated for case descriptions (PWS and behavioral signs) and treatment (type, titration, efficiency, and side effects). Overall, 102 patients were included in these studies. Treatment involved risperidone (three reports, n = 11 patients), fluoxetine (five/n = 6), naltrexone (two/n = 2), topiramate (two/n = 16), fluvoxamine (one/n = 1), mazindol (one/n = 2), N-acetyl cysteine (one/n = 35), rimonabant (one/n = 15), and fenfluramine (one/n = 15). We identified promising treatment effects with topiramate for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, risperidone for psychotic symptoms associated with uniparental disomy (UPD), and N-acetyl cysteine for skin picking. The pharmacological approach of behavioral impairment in PWS has been poorly investigated to date. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted. Behavioral disturbances in Prader-Willi syndrome including aggressive reactions, skin picking, and hyperphagia might be very difficult to manage. Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed, but weight gain and increased appetite are their major side effects. Topiramate might be efficient for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, N-acetyl cysteine is apromising treatment for

  16. Primary care teams in Ireland: a qualitative mapping review of Irish grey and published literature.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, M; Cullen, W; MacFarlane, A

    2015-03-01

    The Irish government published its primary care strategy, Primary Care: A New Direction in 2001. Progress with the implementation of Primary care teams is modest. The aim of this paper is to map the Irish grey literature and peer-reviewed publications to determine what research has been carried out in relation to primary care teams, the reform process and interdisciplinary working in primary care in Ireland. This scoping review employed three methods: a review of Web of Science, Medline and Embase databases, an email survey of researchers across academic institutions, the HSE and independent researchers and a review of Lenus and the Health Well repository. N = 123 outputs were identified. N = 14 were selected for inclusion. A thematic analysis was undertaken. Common themes identified were resources, GP participation, leadership, clarity regarding roles in primary care teams, skills and knowledge for primary care team working, communication and community. There is evidence of significant problems that disrupt team formation and functioning that warrants more comprehensive research.

  17. Post-marketing surveillance in the published medical and grey literature for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty catheters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Polisena, Julie; Forster, Alan J; Cimon, Karen; Rabb, Danielle

    2013-10-10

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) may identify rare serious incidents or adverse events due to the long-term use of a medical device, which was not captured in the pre-market process. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a non-surgical procedure that uses a balloon-tipped catheter to enlarge a narrowed artery. In 2011, 1,942 adverse event reports related to the use of PTCA catheters were submitted to the FDA by the manufacturers, an increase from the 883 reported in 2008. The primary research objective is to conduct a systematic review of the published and grey literature published between 2007 and 2012 for the frequency of incidents, adverse events and malfunctions associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Grey literature has not been commercially published. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed for medical literature on PMS for PTCA catheters in patients with CAD published between January 2007 and July 2012. We also searched the grey literature. This review included 11 studies. The in-hospital adverse events reported were individual cases of myocardial infarction and hematoma. In studies of patients with coronary perforation, more patients with balloon angioplasty were identified compared with patients who required stenting. Our systematic review illustrates that the volume and quality of PMS studies associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with CAD are low in the published and grey literature, and may not be useful sources of information for decisions on safety. In most studies, the objectives were not to monitor the long-term safety of the use of PTCA catheters in clinical practice. Future studies can explore the strengths and limitations of PMS databases administered by regulatory authorities.

  18. A critical review of published research literature reviews on nursing and healthcare ageism.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Nam, Mavis A; Murphy, Jill; Victorino, João P; Gondim, Ellen C; Low, Gail

    2017-12-01

    To establish how common and impactful nursing and healthcare ageism is and whether proven interventions or prevention methods exist. Ageism has been a concern since 1969 when it was first introduced as a concept for social reform. As ageism has been linked to lower quality health services and reduced health care access, it is imperative that healthcare and nursing ageism is prevented or identified and reduced or eliminated. A qualitative narrative review of published research literature reviews using a scoping design to map all published reviews was undertaken. The EBSCO Discovery Service (providing access to articles in 271 databases, including MEDLINE and CINAHL) and Directory of Open Access Journals (providing access to over 9,000 open access journals) were used to find review articles. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and limited by English language and peer-review publications, 12 eligible reviews were identified and information from them was systematically identified, assessed and synthesised. The 12 reviews did not provide clear and convincing information to determine how common and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, nor what can best be done to prevent or address it. Although each review had value since research literature was collected and discussed on nursing or healthcare ageism, the array of literature search and analysis methods, and diversity in conclusions reached about the evidence is highly problematic. Research literature reviews offering a more balanced perspective and demonstrating greater care in finding and using quality evidence are needed. At this point in time, there is no clear understanding of how widespread and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, and what can best be done to prevent or address it. Nurses need to be aware that ageism may be common and impactful, and guard against it. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination repr...

  20. Gynecological sarcomas: what's new in 2018, a brief review of published literature.

    PubMed

    Gantzer, Justine; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2018-05-26

    In this article, we focus on recent published data (2017) on the management of gynecologic sarcomas. The most significant data published in 2017 develop definition of a new molecular subtype of high grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) using molecular technics added to histological analysis. The identification of a new translocation on presumed uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) points to refinement of nosological classification, with fragmentation of even rare tumors into distinct molecular entities: gynecologic sarcomas are now distinguished into distinct entities from a heterogeneous group of tumors. Other articles have discussed the real incidence of unsuspected sarcomas after fibroid mini-invasive surgery and evaluate the risk of relapse and dissemination after morcellation. Among several criteria, preoperative imagery could become a useful tool. For systemic treatment, no clinical trials changing practices were published, only one positive nonrandomized phase II with carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in the treatment of uterine sarcomas after the conventional first line, especially in LMSs and ESSs. Many articles were published on this confidential domain in oncology demonstrating interests on rare sarcomas. All specialties were represented in the literature, even though we are still waiting for urgent improvements in early diagnosis and therapeutic strategies to transform the poor prognostic of these tumors.

  1. A systematic review of the published literature on team-based learning in health professions education.

    PubMed

    Reimschisel, Tyler; Herring, Anna L; Huang, Jennifer; Minor, Tara J

    2017-12-01

    Summarize the published literature on team-based learning (TBL) in health professions education (HPE) using the TBL conceptual framework to identify gaps that can guide future research Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC, and Google Scholar were searched through May 2016 for English-language articles regarding the use of TBL in HPE. Reviewers independently extracted data and coded for the seven elements in Michaelsen's Model of TBL. A total of 118 articles met inclusion criteria. The number of articles published yearly on TBL has grown steadily, more than tripling between 2011 and 2016. Most studies (55; 47%) involved undergraduate medical students and took place in the US (72; 61%). The most commonly studied framework component was Teacher and Learner Attitudes (97; 82%). Other commonly studied elements included Learning Outcomes (85; 72%) and Team Characteristics (25; 21%). Contextual Factors affecting TBL was addressed in one study. A substantial body of literature examines the effect that TBL has on traditional measures of achievement. However, many dimensions of TBL have not been well studied, including Teacher Decisions about TBL, Contextual Factors that affect TBL, Learners' Engagement, and Pattern of Engagement within Teams. Future research in these areas could determine the best use of TBL in HPE.

  2. Review and bibliometric analysis of published literature citing data produced by the Gap Analysis Program (GAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial datasets providing information on land cover, predicted species distributions, stewardship (ownership and conservation status), and an analysis dataset which synthesizes the other three datasets. The intent in providing these datasets is to support the conservation of biodiversity. The datasets are made available at no cost. The initial datasets were created at the state level. More recent datasets have been assembled at regional and national levels. GAP entered an agreement with the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance branch of the USGS to conduct an evaluation to describe the effect that using GAP data has on those who utilize the datasets (GAP users). The evaluation project included multiple components: a discussion regarding use of GAP data conducted with participants at a GAP conference, a literature review of publications that cited use of GAP data, and a survey of GAP users. The findings of the published literature search were used to identify topics to include on the survey. This report summarizes the literature search, the characteristics of the resulting set of publications, the emergent themes from statements made regarding GAP data, and a bibliometric analysis of the publications. We cannot claim that this list includes all publications that have used GAP data. Given the time lapse that is common in the publishing process, more recent datasets may be cited less frequently in this list of publications. Reports or products that used GAP data may be produced but never published in print or released online. In that case, our search strategies would not have located those reports. Authors may have used GAP data but failed to cite it in such a way that the search strategies we used would have located those publications. These are common issues when using a literature search as part of an evaluation project. Although the final list of publications we identified is not

  3. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  4. Booklets for children related with Earth Sciences published in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaniz, S. A.; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.

    2009-04-01

    The Centro de Geociencias, at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, has published a series of booklets for children, entitled "Simple experiments to understand a complex Earth". It is part of the activities of the Mexican committee of the International Year of the Planet Earth. Each booklet contains experiments related with an Earth Sciences topic and includes the procedure to do one of the "Ten most beautiful experiments in physics" (Crease, P., Physics World May 2002 p17 and September 2002 pp19-20). In Mexico, as in other developing countries, there is very little information about Science in general and Earth Sciences in particular, in the basic education programs. Also, there is poor bibliography in Spanish about science experiments. For this reason, we try to fill the vacuum by distributing free the booklets in Science Museums and rural basic schools in paper, and by Internet in the Centro de Geociencias web site (http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/geociencias/difusion/indice.html). At present, we have been distributed 100,000 copies of 5 issues: 1."Atmospheric pressure and the falling bodies", it deals with the Galileo experiment of falling bodies, he proposed that all the bodies fall down at the same velocity. We discuss the properties of the atmosphere air (temperature, pressure and volume) and concluded that Galileo is right but when the bodies are very light. 2. "The light and the colors" is based in the Newton's decomposition of sunlight with a prism experiment. This booklet contains nine experiments to explain the colors that we find in Earth like the blue of the sky, the orange of the sunset, the rainbow and the mirage. 3. "¿Eureka! oceans and continents float". This booklet presents seven experiments related with density and buoyancy to explain the principles of the Plate tectonics theory. 4. "Climate hanging by a thread", Foucault pendulum demonstrates the rotation of Earth without seeing the stars, in this booklet, we explain, through 9

  5. Trends in female representation in published ophthalmology literature, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Deepika N.; Huang, Jiayan; Ying, Gui-shuang; Pietrobon, Ricardo; O’Brien, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine trends in female first and last authors in clinical ophthalmology literature published from January 2000 to December 2009. Methods A total of 3760 articles in American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO), 2347 articles in Archives of Ophthalmology (Archives), and 3838 articles in Ophthalmology spanning 10 years of published ophthalmology peer-reviewed literature were examined. All original research articles and brief reports indexed online were included. Author gender was determined by an exhaustive Internet search. Articles were excluded if the sex of the author could not be determined or was not applicable (for example, articles by a study group rather than an individual author). Results Gender information was identified in 86.8% of articles for first authors and 86% for last authors. The number of female first authors (P < 0.0001) and last authors (P = 0.005) increased significantly in the study period in all journals examined, with a significant association between the sex of the first and last authors (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.96–2.46; P < 0.0001), when examining all articles. Female representation increased for last authors significantly only in Ophthalmology. There was a significant correlation between gender of the first author and total number of authors that was not observed with last-author sex. Conclusions Female first authorship has increased from 2000 to 2009 and is correlated with the gender of the last author; however, there were fewer female last authors compared to female first authors in the same period. PMID:24459456

  6. Formulating autism systemically: Part 1 - A review of the published literature and case assessments.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Patricia M

    2017-07-01

    Autism is a psychiatric disorder of unknown aetiology. In this article, the literature on genetic, neurological, psychological, relational and cultural causes of autism is reviewed, beginning with the 2014 review of Crittenden, Dallos, Landini et al. (pp. 64-70) up to and including recent publications in 2017. Some of the findings were unexpected; others led to new questions. The unexpected findings were the minimal contribution of genes to autism, the extremely evident neurological differences, the interpersonal quality of the psychological findings (that lacked evidence of parents' behaviour), the relational evidence that mothers' childhood trauma, perinatal stress and marital stress increased the risk of autism, and the reciprocal relation between funding for treatment of autism and diagnoses of autism. Notably, there was an abundance of genetic studies, numerous neurological studies and only scattered psychological, relational and cultural studies, thus rendering those findings speculative. The new questions included whether mothers used postural/gestural signs to signal their children to maintain distance and whether mothers experienced wariness of males as a result of childhood trauma, with their sons possibly experiencing gender confusion. Following the literature review, a small archival set of video-recorded and transcribed assessments of attachment of cases of autism were examined for evidence to corroborate or refute the psychological and relational findings of the literature review. The findings were striking in their support of mothers' use of postural/gestural communication regarding distance, children's close attention to mothers' bodily signals, without looking at mothers' face, mothers' greater comfort when they approached their sons than when their sons approached them, one boy's lack of verbal self-representation and mothers' childhood triangulation. These became hypotheses regarding what to look for in Part 2 of this article, a prospective, 12

  7. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64–1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11–0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:28253258

  8. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-01

    We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11-0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.

  9. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  10. EPA Published Research Related to the Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A list of publications that will support the draft assessment report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. These publications have undergone peer review through the journal where the paper has been published.

  11. Mental health recovery: A review of the peer-reviewed published literature.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sini; Munro, Ian; Taylor, Beverley Joan; Griffiths, Debra

    The concept of mental health recovery promotes collaborative partnership among consumers, carers and service providers. However views on mental health recovery are less explored among carers and service providers. The aim of this review was to analyse contemporary literature exploring views of mental health consumers, carers and service providers in relation to their understanding of the meaning of mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery. The literature review questions were: How is mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery viewed by consumers, carers and service providers? What are the differences and similarities in those perceptions? How can the outcomes and recommendations inform the Australian mental health practices? A review of the literature used selected electronic databases and specific search terms and supplemented with manual searching. Twenty-six studies were selected for review which included qualitative, mixed method, and quantitative approaches and a Delphi study. The findings indicated that the concept of mental health recovery is more explored among consumers and is seldom explored among carers and service providers. The studies suggested that recovery from mental illness is a multidimensional process and the concept cannot be defined in rigid terms. In order to achieve the best possible care, the stakeholders require flexible attitudes and openness to embrace the philosophy.

  12. The health economics of bladder cancer: an updated review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Christina; Dinh, Tuan; Lee, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a current view of the economic burden of bladder cancer, with a focus on the cost effectiveness of available interventions. This review updates a previous systematic review and includes 72 new papers published between 2000 and 2013. Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common and expensive malignancies. The annual cost of bladder cancer in the USA during 2010 was $US4 billion and is expected to rise to $US5 billion by 2020. Ten years ago, urinary markers held the potential to lower treatment costs of bladder cancer. However, subsequent real-world experiments have demonstrated that further work is necessary to identify situations in which these technologies can be applied in a cost-effective manner. Adjunct cytology remains a part of diagnostic standard of care, but recent research suggests that it is not cost effective due to its low diagnostic yield. Analysis of intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), neo-adjuvant therapy for cystectomy, and robot-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy suggests that these technologies are cost effective and should be implemented more widely for appropriate patients. The existing literature on the cost effectiveness of bladder cancer treatments has improved substantially since 2000. The body of work now includes many new models, registry analyses, and real-world studies. However, there is still a need for new implementation guidelines, new risk modeling tools, and a better understanding of the empirical burden of bladder cancer.

  13. Systematic assessment of the representativeness of published collections of the traditional literature on Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Yubo; Lu, Chuanjian; Zhang, Anthony L; Chang, Suyueh; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-05-01

    The traditional Chinese medical literature provides a substantial resource for natural products research. When undertaking systematic searches, investigators need to assess the scope, content, and relevance of collections both singly and in comparison. This study examines eight collections of pre-modern literature, develops an approach to quantitatively assess their content, and compares their relative inclusivity. All publications listed in each collection were collated and a uniform scoring system was developed to account for variant editions, incorporation of multiple books under a single title, addition of commentaries, and other factors affecting content. Comparisons were undertaken between collections to determine the degree of overlap, genres of literature represented, and relevance to natural products research. Following adjustments for differences in how books were listed, duplications, and variant editions, Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine) (4th edition CD) is the largest collection of complete books containing 1009 different books. Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica) contains 2026 titles including multiple editions and extracts, so after adjustments the number of different complete books is approximately 740. No collection was fully inclusive of the others, but Zhong Hua Yi Dian includes between 52.1% and 91.5% of the books in the six smaller collections. Comparing traditional collections is complex due to variant editions and multiple titles. This necessitates examination of the text rather than title alone. Prior to undertaking systematic searches, the characteristics of collections need to be investigated, duplicated books identified, and differences between editions should be assessed. Its size, electronic format, and broad spread of genres makes Zhong Hua Yi Dian suitable for systematic searches, but due to the lack of bibliographical detail on included

  14. The Benefits of Publishing Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews for PhD Candidates and Other Early-Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Byrne, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Universities increasingly expect students to publish during a PhD candidature because it benefits the candidate, supervisor, institution, and wider community. Here, we describe a method successfully used by early-career researchers including PhD candidates to undertake and publish literature reviews--a challenge for researchers new to a field. Our…

  15. Global Epidemiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a Systematic Review of the Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, A; Logroscino, G; Traynor, BJ; Collins, J; Simeone, JC; Goldstein, LA; White, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is relatively rare, yet the economic and social burden is substantial. Having accurate incidence and prevalence estimates would facilitate efficient allocation of healthcare resources. Objective To provide a comprehensive and critical review of the epidemiologic literature on ALS. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE (1995–2011) databases of population-based studies on ALS incidence and prevalence reporting quantitative data were analyzed. Data extracted included study location and time, design and data sources, case ascertainment methods, and incidence and/or prevalence rates. Medians and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated, and ALS case estimates derived using 2010 population estimates. Results In all, 37 articles met inclusion criteria. In Europe, the median (IQR) incidence rate (/100,000 population) was 2.08 (1.47–2.43), corresponding to an estimated 15,355 (10,852–17,938) cases. Median (IQR) prevalence (/100,000 population) was 5.40 (4.06–7.89), or 39,863 (29,971–58,244) prevalent cases. Conclusions Disparity in rates among ALS incidence and prevalence studies may be due to differences in study design or true variations in population demographics, such as age, and geography, including environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Additional large-scale studies that use standardized case ascertainment methods are needed to more accurately assess the true global burden of ALS. PMID:23860588

  16. Message Framing in Vaccine Communication: A Systematic Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Penţa, Marcela A; Băban, Adriana

    2018-03-01

    Suboptimal vaccination rates are a significant problem in many countries today, in spite of improved access to vaccine services. As a result, there has been a recent expansion of research on how best to communicate about vaccines. The purpose of the present article is to provide an updated review of published, peer-reviewed empirical studies that examined the effectiveness of gain versus loss framing (i.e., goal framing) in the context of vaccine communication. To locate studies, we examined the reference list from the previous meta-analytic review (O'Keefe & Nan, 2012), and we conducted systematic searches across multiple databases. We included 34 studies in the qualitative synthesis. The relative effectiveness of goal-framed vaccine messages was often shown to depend on characteristics of the message recipient, perceived risk, or situational factors, yet most effects were inconsistent across studies, or simply limited by an insufficient number of studies. Methodological characteristics and variations are noted and discussed. The review points to several directions concerning moderators and mediators of framing effects where additional rigorous studies would be needed.

  17. SMS-reminder for vaccination in Africa: research from published, unpublished and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    Manakongtreecheep, Kasidet

    2017-01-01

    Immunization for children against vaccine-preventable diseases is one of the most important health intervention method in the world, both in terms of its health impact and cost-effectiveness. Through EPI and various other programs such as the Decades of Vaccines, immunization has been improving the health of children around the world. However, this progress falls short of global immunization targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). Furthermore, the African region still lags behind in immunization, and suffers from a high proportion of vaccine preventable diseases as a result. Reminders and recall for vaccination have been shown to improve health care-seeking behaviours, and have been recommended for application in routine and supplemental measles immunization activities. With mobile phones becoming more accessible in Africa, SMS vaccine reminder system has been proposed as a convenient and easily scalable way to inform caregivers of the disease and the importance of immunization, to address any concerns related to immunization safety, and to remind them of vaccination schedules and campaigns. There have been 6 published articles and 1 unpublished article on the effect of SMS reminder system for immunization in Africa. The studies done has shown that SMS vaccination reminder has led to improvements in vaccination uptakes in various metrics, whether is through the increase in vaccination coverage, decrease in dropout rates, increase in completion rate, or decrease in delay for vaccination. PMID:29296158

  18. SMS-reminder for vaccination in Africa: research from published, unpublished and grey literature.

    PubMed

    Manakongtreecheep, Kasidet

    2017-01-01

    Immunization for children against vaccine-preventable diseases is one of the most important health intervention method in the world, both in terms of its health impact and cost-effectiveness. Through EPI and various other programs such as the Decades of Vaccines, immunization has been improving the health of children around the world. However, this progress falls short of global immunization targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). Furthermore, the African region still lags behind in immunization, and suffers from a high proportion of vaccine preventable diseases as a result. Reminders and recall for vaccination have been shown to improve health care-seeking behaviours, and have been recommended for application in routine and supplemental measles immunization activities. With mobile phones becoming more accessible in Africa, SMS vaccine reminder system has been proposed as a convenient and easily scalable way to inform caregivers of the disease and the importance of immunization, to address any concerns related to immunization safety, and to remind them of vaccination schedules and campaigns. There have been 6 published articles and 1 unpublished article on the effect of SMS reminder system for immunization in Africa. The studies done has shown that SMS vaccination reminder has led to improvements in vaccination uptakes in various metrics, whether is through the increase in vaccination coverage, decrease in dropout rates, increase in completion rate, or decrease in delay for vaccination.

  19. Recently published analytical methods for determining alcohol in body materials : alcohol countermeasures literature review

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-10-01

    The author has brought the review of published analytical methods for determining alcohol in body materials up-to- date. The review deals with analytical methods for alcohol in blood and other body fluids and tissues; breath alcohol methods; factors ...

  20. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2016-08-15

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination represents the earlier works. As an historical chronology, the focus is on the emergence of key, specific aspects of the overall topic (often termed PiE) in the published literature and on the most highly cited works. This examination is not a conventional, technical review of the literature; as such, little attention was devoted to the more recent literature. The many dimensions involved with PiE span over 70years of published literature. Some articles began to appear in published works in the 1940s and earlier, while others only began to receive attention in the 1990s and later. Decades of early research on what at the time seemed to be disconnected topics eventually coalesced in the mid-to-late 1990s around a number of interconnected concerns and issues that now comprise PiE. Major objectives are to provide a new perspective to the topic, to facilitate more efficient and effective review of the literature by others, and to recognize the more significant, seminal contributions to the advancement of PiE as a field of research. Some of the most highly cited articles in all of environmental science now involve PiE. As of April 2015, a core group of 385 PiE articles had each received at least 200 citations; one had received 5424 citations. But hundreds of additional articles also played important roles in the evolution and advancement of the field. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Amy; Bessette, Randi S.

    The purpose of this study is to consider the literature that looks at the implications of information technology for scholarly journals which have historically been a linchpin of communication among scholars in which research results are released, discussed, vetted, and disseminated among faculty, students, and scholars. With the expansion of the…

  2. A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Shepherdson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A deluge of empirical research became available on MOOCs in 2013-2015 and this research is available in disparate sources. This paper addresses a number of gaps in the scholarly understanding of MOOCs and presents a comprehensive picture of the literature by examining the geographic distribution, publication outlets, citations, data collection and…

  3. Biogenic amines--a possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.

    PubMed

    Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

    2015-03-15

    Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A narrative review of the published chiropractic literature regarding older patients from 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article was to perform a narrative review of the chiropractic literature regarding older patients between 2001 and 2010. Methods: A three step search strategy of the literature involved electronic searching, hand searching and reference tracking. Results: One hundred and eighty eight articles germane to chiropractic geriatric practice and education were retrieved. Discussion: Compared to the review of the literature conducted prior to 2000, the number of references on chiropractic geriatric education increased from 3 to 11, the number of demographic studies increased from 9 to 18, the number of case reports increased from 25 to 83, the number of clinical trials increased from 4 to 21 (only two RCTs found) and the number of references on clinical guidelines and general clinical information increased from 18 to 55. Conclusion: This review found 188 retrievable articles available to practitioners to effectively care plan for their older patients, a better than three fold increase in the number of references found during a similar review conducted at the end of the previous decade. However, there is clearly a gap in the evidence base of chiropractic geriatric care, particularly the under-representation of clinical trials of all kinds involving older chiropractic patients. PMID:21629461

  5. Improving adult immunization equity: Where do the published research literature and existing resources lead?

    PubMed

    Prins, Wendy; Butcher, Emily; Hall, Laura Lee; Puckrein, Gary; Rosof, Bernard

    2017-05-25

    Evidence suggests that disparities in adult immunization (AI) rates are growing. Providers need adequate patient resources and information about successful interventions to help them engage in effective practices to reduce AI disparities. The primary purposes of this paper were to review and summarize the evidence base regarding interventions to reduce AI disparities and to scan for relevant resources that could support providers in their AI efforts to specifically target disparities. First, building on a literature review conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify articles that either discussed interventions to reduce AI disparities or provided reasons and associations for disparities. We scanned the articles and conducted an internet search to identify tools and resources to support efforts to improve AI rates. We limited both searches to resources that addressed influenza, pneumococcal, hepatitis B, Tdap, and/or herpes zoster vaccinations. We found that most articles characterized AI disparities, but several discussed strategies for reducing AI disparities, including practice-based changes, communication and health literacy approaches, and partnering with community-based organizations. The resources we identified were largely fact sheets and handouts for patients and journal articles for providers. Most resources pertain to influenza vaccination and Spanish was the most prevalent language after English. More evaluation is needed to assess the health literacy levels of the materials. We conclude that additional research is needed to identify effective ways to reduce AI disparities and more resources are needed to support providers in their efforts. We recommend identifying best practices of high performers, further reviewing the appropriateness and usefulness of available resources, and prioritizing which gaps should be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What Are the Real Procedural Costs of Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Literature Review of Published Cost Analyses.

    PubMed

    Doble, Brett; Wordsworth, Sarah; Rogers, Chris A; Welbourn, Richard; Byrne, James; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-08-01

    This review aims to evaluate the current literature on the procedural costs of bariatric surgery for the treatment of severe obesity. Using a published framework for the conduct of micro-costing studies for surgical interventions, existing cost estimates from the literature are assessed for their accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness based on their consideration of seven 'important' cost components. MEDLINE, PubMed, key journals and reference lists of included studies were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies had to report per-case, total procedural costs for any type of bariatric surgery broken down into two or more individual cost components. A total of 998 citations were screened, of which 13 studies were included for analysis. Included studies were mainly conducted from a US hospital perspective, assessed either gastric bypass or adjustable gastric banding procedures and considered a range of different cost components. The mean total procedural costs for all included studies was US$14,389 (range, US$7423 to US$33,541). No study considered all of the recommended 'important' cost components and estimation methods were poorly reported. The accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness of the existing cost estimates are, therefore, questionable. There is a need for a comparative cost analysis of the different approaches to bariatric surgery, with the most appropriate costing approach identified to be micro-costing methods. Such an analysis will not only be useful in estimating the relative cost-effectiveness of different surgeries but will also ensure appropriate reimbursement and budgeting by healthcare payers to ensure barriers to access this effective treatment by severely obese patients are minimised.

  7. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (Gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non–communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Conclusions: Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe. PMID:23390466

  8. Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: a systematic review of published literature, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Smith, David M D; Paterson, Pauline

    2014-04-17

    Vaccine "hesitancy" is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. It recognizes a continuum between the domains of vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal and de-polarizes previous characterization of individuals and groups as either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The primary aims of this systematic review are to: 1) identify research on vaccine hesitancy; 2) identify determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact; and 3) inform the development of a model for assessing determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings as proposed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) for dealing with vaccine hesitancy. A broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy around vaccines, was applied across multiple databases. Peer-reviewed studies were selected for inclusion if they focused on childhood vaccines [≤ 7 years of age], used multivariate analyses, and were published between January 2007 and November 2012. Our results show a variety of factors as being associated with vaccine hesitancy but they do not allow for a complete classification and confirmation of their independent and relative strength of influence. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific - varying across time, place and vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in authorship based on gender and nationality in published neuroscience literature.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Sawhney, Anshudha; Atluru, Aparna; Amritphale, Amod; Dubey, Archana; Trivedi, Jaya

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the disparity in authorship based on gender and nationality of institutional affiliation among journals from developed and developing countries. Original articles from two neuroscience journals, with a 5 year impact factor >15 (Neuron and Nature Neuroscience) and from two neurology journals from a developing country (Neurology India and Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology) were categorized by gender and institutional affiliation of first and senior authors. Articles were further divided by the type of research (basic/translational/clinical), study/target population (adult/pediatrics/both) and field of neurology. Data was collected for the years 2002 and 2012. There are large disparities in authorship by women and from developing countries in high impact factor neuroscience journals. However, there was a non-statistical rise in female first and senior authorship over a 10 year period. Additionally there was a significant increase in first authorship from institutions based in developing countries in the two neuroscience journals examined (P < 0.05). In the two neurology journals based in India there was a significant increase in the number of articles published by international investigators between 2002 and 2012 (P < 0.05). Over the last decade, there has been a non-statistical increase in proportion of female first and senior authors, and a significant increase in authors from developing countries in high impact factor neuroscience journals. However they continue to constitute a minority. The disparity in authorship based on gender also exists in neurology journals based in a developing country (India).

  10. Demographic factors, fatigue, and driving accidents: An examination of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Di Milia, Lee; Smolensky, Michael H; Costa, Giovanni; Howarth, Heidi D; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews the literature pertaining to the association between demographic variables (e.g., age, sex, race, socio-economic status) with fatigue, and when feasible, accident risk. It also explores their potential influence and interaction with some working arrangements, commute time, personality characteristics, and circadian chronotype. Fatigue has been implicated in a range of impairments that can have detrimental effects on individuals, and it is differentially associated with conventional demographic variables. However, several major methodological limitations prevent clear conclusions. First, there is absence of a shared definition both within and across disciplines. Second, although fatigue has been investigated using a variety of diverse designs, they have either been too weak to substantiate causality or lacked ecological validity. Third, while both subjective and objective measures have been used as dependent variables, fatigue has been more often found to be more strongly linked with the former. Fourth, with the exception of age and sex, the influence of other demographic variables is unknown, since they have not yet been concomitantly assessed. In instances when they have been assessed and included in statistical analyses, they are considered as covariates or confounders; thus, their contribution to the outcome variable is controlled for, rather than being a planned aspect of investigation. Because the interaction of demographic factors with fatigue is largely a neglected area of study, we recommend greater interdisciplinary collaborations, incorporation of multiple demographic variables as independent factors, and use of within-participant analyses. These recommendations would provide meaningful results that may be used to inform public policy and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-08-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

  12. The impact of new vaccine introduction on immunization and health systems: A review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Dentz, Holly; Wang, Susan A.; Burchett, Helen E.; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Mantel, Carsten F.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the impact of new vaccine introduction on countries’ immunization and broader health systems. Six publication databases were searched using 104 vaccine and health system-related search terms. The search yielded 15,795 unique articles dating from December 31, 1911 to September 29, 2010. Based on review of the title and abstract, 654 (4%) of these articles were found to be potentially relevant and were referred for full review. After full review, 130 articles were found to be relevant and included in the analysis. These articles represented vaccines introduced to protect against 10 different diseases (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, human papilloma virus infection, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae disease, rotavirus diarrhea and typhoid), in various formulations and combinations. Most reviewed articles (97 [75%]) reported experiences in high-income countries. New vaccine introduction was most efficient when the vaccine was introduced into an existing delivery platform and when introduced in combination with a vaccine already in the routine childhood immunization schedule (i.e., as a combination vaccine). New vaccine introduction did not impact coverage of vaccines already included in the routine childhood immunization schedule. The need for increased cold chain capacity was frequently reported. New vaccines facilitated the introduction and widespread use of auto-disable syringes into the immunization and the broader health systems. The importance of training and education for health care workers and social mobilization was frequently noted. There was evidence in high-income countries that new vaccine introduction was associated with reduced health-care costs. Future evaluations of new vaccine introductions should include the systematic and objective assessment of the impacts on a country’s immunization system

  13. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal.

  14. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Results: Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). Conclusion: This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. PMID:27799973

  15. Publishing trends in Chinese medicine and related subjects documented in WorldCat.

    PubMed

    Leung, Shirley; Chan, Kylie; Song, Lisa

    2006-03-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been the subject of increasing interest in the past 30 years, both as a discipline and in the larger context of alternative medicine. It has steadily been accepted by and integrated into the medical and health-care fields in many countries. This study aims to gain an overview of how CM has been interpreted and presented to the world outside China and to identify emerging trends. This study is designed to analyse the publishing trends of CM and related subjects in all languages except Chinese, ranging from books and serials to audio-visual and electronic resources found in WorldCat, the world's largest bibliographic database produced by OnLine Computer Library Center (OCLC). The findings showed a flourishing growth of publications in CM and related subjects beginning in the 1970s with greater coverage on acupuncture. The materials in English language constitute the major portion of total output. We conclude that Chinese medicine has steadily gained recognition in the world based on the analysis of publication records. The translation of original works and analysis of journal literature and conference proceedings on Chinese medicine merit further study.

  16. The methodological quality of systematic reviews published in high-impact nursing journals: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Tarja; Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Elo, Satu; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2014-02-01

    To analyse systematic review articles published in the top 10 nursing journals to determine the quality of the methods employed within them. Systematic review is defined as a scientific research method that synthesises high-quality scientific knowledge on a given topic. The number of such reviews in nursing science has increased dramatically during recent years, but their methodological quality has not previously been assessed. A review of the literature using a narrative approach. Ranked impact factor scores for nursing journals were obtained from the Journal Citation Report database of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge). All issues from the years 2009 and 2010 of the top 10 ranked journals were included. CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched to locate studies using the search terms 'systematic review' and 'systematic literature review'. A total of 39 eligible studies were identified. Their methodological quality was evaluated through the specific criteria of quality assessment, description of synthesis and strengths and weaknesses reported in the included studies. Most of the eligible systematic reviews included several different designs or types of quantitative study. The majority included a quality assessment, and a total of 17 different criteria were identified. The method of synthesis was mentioned in about half of the reviews, the most common being narrative synthesis. The weaknesses of reviews were discussed, while strengths were rarely highlighted. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews examined varied considerably, although they were all published in nursing journals with a high-impact factor. Despite the fact that systematic reviews are considered the most robust source of research evidence, they vary in methodological quality. This point is important to consider in clinical practice when applying the results to patient care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  18. Exploring relation types for literature-based discovery.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Judita; Stevenson, Mark; Gaizauskas, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Literature-based discovery (LBD) aims to identify "hidden knowledge" in the medical literature by: (1) analyzing documents to identify pairs of explicitly related concepts (terms), then (2) hypothesizing novel relations between pairs of unrelated concepts that are implicitly related via a shared concept to which both are explicitly related. Many LBD approaches use simple techniques to identify semantically weak relations between concepts, for example, document co-occurrence. These generate huge numbers of hypotheses, difficult for humans to assess. More complex techniques rely on linguistic analysis, for example, shallow parsing, to identify semantically stronger relations. Such approaches generate fewer hypotheses, but may miss hidden knowledge. The authors investigate this trade-off in detail, comparing techniques for identifying related concepts to discover which are most suitable for LBD. A generic LBD system that can utilize a range of relation types was developed. Experiments were carried out comparing a number of techniques for identifying relations. Two approaches were used for evaluation: replication of existing discoveries and the "time slicing" approach.(1) RESULTS: Previous LBD discoveries could be replicated using relations based either on document co-occurrence or linguistic analysis. Using relations based on linguistic analysis generated many fewer hypotheses, but a significantly greater proportion of them were candidates for hidden knowledge. The use of linguistic analysis-based relations improves accuracy of LBD without overly damaging coverage. LBD systems often generate huge numbers of hypotheses, which are infeasible to manually review. Improving their accuracy has the potential to make these systems significantly more usable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  19. Spin in RCTs of anxiety medication with a positive primary outcome: a comparison of concerns expressed by the US FDA and in the published literature.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Lian; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Turner, Erick H; de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M

    2017-03-29

    This study aimed to determine the presence of spin in papers on positive randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antidepressant medication for anxiety disorders by comparing concerns expressed in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviews with those expressed in the published paper. For every positive anxiety medication trial with a matching publication (n=41), two independent reviewers identified the concerns raised in the US FDA reviews and those in the published literature. Spin was identified when concerns or limitations were expressed by the FDA (about the efficacy of the study drug) but not in the corresponding published paper. Concerns mentioned in the papers but not by the FDA were scored as 'non-FDA' concerns. Only six out of 35 (17%) of the FDA concerns pertaining to drug efficacy were reported in the papers. Two papers mentioned a concern that fit the FDA categories, but was not mentioned in the corresponding FDA review. Eighty-seven non-FDA concerns were counted, which often reflected general concerns or concerns related to the study design. Results indicate the presence of substantial spin in the clinical trial literature on drugs for anxiety disorders. In papers describing RCTs on anxiety medication, the concerns raised by the authors differed from those raised by the FDA. Published papers mentioned a large number of generic concerns about RCTs, such as a lack of long-term research and limited generalisability, while they mentioned few concerns about drug efficacy. These results warrant the promotion of independent statistical review, reporting of patient-level data, more study of spin, and an increased expectation that authors report FDA concerns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Is the published literature a reliable guide for deciding between alternative treatments for patients with early cervical cancer?

    PubMed

    Zola, P; Volpe, T; Castelli, G; Sismondi, P; Nicolucci, A; Parazzini, F; Liberati, A

    1989-03-01

    The quality of the methodology and reporting of studies on the treatment of early cervical cancer published in English and French language over the period 1975-1985 were examined using an explicit, pre-defined protocol aimed at assessing their internal validity and generalizability. One hundred and fifty-two articles reporting results on over 40,000 patients treated with surgery, radiotherapy, or the combination of the two, were examined. The astonishing lack of formal comparative studies together with the poor quality of those actually carried out were the two major findings of our study. More than half of the reviewed papers (54%) were single series studies. Among the remaining 46% only a few formally compared the two treatments (i.e. surgery vs. radiotherapy), the remainder dealing with comparisons of specific surgical or radiotherapeutic techniques. With reference to study quality, the existence of a pre-specified research protocol could not be ascertained in most studies. A description of patients' characteristics and information on the source population were deficient in most papers reviewed; information on the two aspects was in fact satisfactorily reported in only 7% and 47% of the papers, respectively. Finally, the lack of standardization of follow-up methods (i.e. type and modalities) and of information on treatment compliance were two other severe methodological deficiencies. In view of this poor quality and of the intrinsic difficulty of drawing firm scientific conclusions from non-experimental investigations, the reliability of this literature remains highly dubious. Another possible caveat is that what is published is a biased sample of the overall evidence because of the well known tendency of authors to write about and editors to publish positive results more frequently than negative ones.

  1. Quality tools and resources to support organisational improvement integral to high-quality primary care: a systematic review of published and grey literature.

    PubMed

    Janamian, Tina; Upham, Susan J; Crossland, Lisa; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-04-18

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify existing online primary care quality improvement tools and resources to support organisational improvement related to the seven elements in the Primary Care Practice Improvement Tool (PC-PIT), with the identified tools and resources to progress to a Delphi study for further assessment of relevance and utility. Systematic review of the international published and grey literature. CINAHL, Embase and PubMed databases were searched in March 2014 for articles published between January 2004 and December 2013. GreyNet International and other relevant websites and repositories were also searched in March-April 2014 for documents dated between 1992 and 2012. All citations were imported into a bibliographic database. Published and unpublished tools and resources were included in the review if they were in English, related to primary care quality improvement and addressed any of the seven PC-PIT elements of a high-performing practice. Tools and resources that met the eligibility criteria were then evaluated for their accessibility, relevance, utility and comprehensiveness using a four-criteria appraisal framework. We used a data extraction template to systematically extract information from eligible tools and resources. A content analysis approach was used to explore the tools and resources and collate relevant information: name of the tool or resource, year and country of development, author, name of the organisation that provided access and its URL, accessibility information or problems, overview of each tool or resource and the quality improvement element(s) it addresses. If available, a copy of the tool or resource was downloaded into the bibliographic database, along with supporting evidence (published or unpublished) on its use in primary care. This systematic review identified 53 tools and resources that can potentially be provided as part of a suite of tools and resources to support primary care practices in

  2. Health systems and noncommunicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Priya; Abdullah, Asnawi; James, Chris; Dodd, Rebecca; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in countries of the Asia-Pacific region requires well-functioning health systems. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, health systems are generally characterized by inadequate financial and human resources, unsuitable service delivery models, and weak information systems. The aims of this review were to identify (a) health systems interventions being implemented to deliver NCD programs and services and their outcomes and (b) the health systems bottlenecks impeding access to or delivery of these programs and services in LMICs of the Asia-Pacific region. A search of 4 databases for literature published between 1990 and 2010 retrieved 36 relevant studies. For each study, information on basic characteristics, type of health systems bottleneck/intervention, and outcome was extracted, and methodological quality appraised. Health systems interventions and bottlenecks were classified as per the World Health Organization health systems building blocks framework. The review identified interventions and bottlenecks in the building blocks of service delivery, health workforce, financing, health information systems, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. Studies, however, were heterogeneous in methodologies used, and the overall quality was generally low. There are several gaps in the evidence base around NCDs in the Asia-Pacific region that require further investigation. © 2013 APJPH.

  3. Adverse drug reactions and adverse events of 33 varieties of traditional Chinese medicine injections on National Essential medicines List (2004 edition) of China: an overview on published literatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yuan, Qiang; Marshall, Gareth; Cui, Xiaohua; Cheng, Lan; Li, Yuanyuan; Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Boli; Li, Youping

    2010-05-01

    We conducted a literature review on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to 33 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections (CMIs) on China's National Essential medicines List (2004 edition). We aimed to retrieve basic ADR information, identify trends related to CMIs, and provide evidence for the research, development, and application of CMIs. We electronically searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, January 1978-April 2009), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI, January 1979-April 2009), the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (January 1989-April 2009) and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (January 1984-April 2009). We used the terms of 'adverse drug reaction', 'adverse event', 'side effects', 'side reaction', 'toxicity', and 'Chinese medicine injections', as well as the names of the 33 CMIs to search. We also collected CMI-related ADR reports and regulations from the Chinese Food and Drug Administration's 'Newsletter of Adverse Drug Reactions' (Issue 1 to 22). Then we descriptively analyzed all the articles by year published, periodical, and study design. We also analyzed regulations relevants to ADRs. (1) We found 5405 relevant citations, of which 1010 studies met the eligibility criteria. (2) The rate of publishing of research articles on CMI-linked ADRs has risen over time. (3) The included 1010 articles were scattered among 297 periodicals. Of these, 55 journals on pharmaceutical medicine accounted for 39.5% of the total (399/1010); the 64 journals on traditional Chinese medicine, accounted for only 19.5% (197/1010). Only 22 periodicals with relevant articles were included on the core journals of the Beijing University List (2008 edition); these published 129 articles (12.8% of the included articles). (4) The relevant articles consisted of 348 case reports (34.5%), 254 case series (25.2%), 119 reviews (11.8%), 116 randomized controlled trials (11.5%), 78 cross-sectional studies (7.7%), 61

  4. Themes in the literature related to cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shannon Munro; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle

    2009-01-01

    This article aimed to identify themes in the literature related to patient-healthcare provider beliefs, barriers to adherence, and interventions pertaining to cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Twenty quantitative and qualitative primary research studies including 2 meta-analyses published between 1995 and 2008 were analyzed for themes and practice implications to synthesize existing research on cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Databases searched included EBSCO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, HealthSource, and PsychLit using the search terms patient- provider adherence, adherence and shared decision making, adherence and decision support, patient- provider goal setting, and cardiovascular disease risk reduction. The emergent themes found in this literature review included (1) complex medication regimens; (2) risk perception, quality of life, and competing priorities; (3) motivation for change; (4) provider clinical inertia; and (5) goal setting, feedback, and reminders. Studies reporting the highest rates of adherence to cardiovascular disease risk reduction recommendations incorporated patient-provider goal setting and decision support, self-management techniques, and personalized printed communication. Goal setting in cardiovascular disease risk reduction is a relatively unexplored area and is an important component of shared decision making and adherence to cardiovascular disease health recommendations. The following review will address the 5 themes identified in more detail and provide a basis for improved clinical practice.

  5. A summary of trauma and trauma-related papers published in BJOMS during 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Kusanale, Atul; Mackenzie, Neil; Arakeri, Gururaj; McLeod, Niall; Brennan, Peter A

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 49 trauma and related papers published in British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during the period January 2008 to December 2009. 16/49 (32%) of these publications were full length articles, which covered areas such as epidemiology, service provision, materials and operative surgery. In addition there were other articles including short communications, technical notes, letters to the editor and interesting cases. Whilst fewer full length articles were published compared to the other sub-specialties, it was reassuring to see that the studies represent all aspects of trauma. More basic science and randomized control studies relating to trauma need to be encouraged. Copyright 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in clinical ocular outcomes between exogenous and endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Sporothrix: a systematic review of published literature.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Soto, Max Carlos

    2017-09-28

    Sporotrichosis is an implantation mycosis caused by Sporothrix species prevalent worldwide, which occasionally can also result in intraocular infection presenting as an exogenous or endogenous infection (disseminated sporotrichosis). Knowledge in its clinical recognition and management is limited. To systematically review and analyse data from published literature with a view to comparing clinical outcomes between exogenous and endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Sporothrix . Case reports of intraocular sporotrichosis, published from 1960 to 2016, were retrieved from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, LILACS and SciELO databases. The entire data set was divided into two patient groups: (1) exogenous endophthalmitis and (2) endogenous endophthalmitis. Primary outcomes were differences in ocular findings and clinical ocular outcomes between the two groups. From 16 publications retrieved, a total of 8 eyes of 8 patients with exogenous endophthalmitis and 13 eyes of 10 patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. Compared with exogenous endophthalmitis, endogenous endophthalmitis was more common in patients infected with HIV (p=0.001) and those from hyperendemic areas (p=0.036). Anterior uveitis (p=0.015) and posterior uveitis (p=0.04) were more common in the exogenous and endogenous endophthalmitis groups, respectively. The majority of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis had partial or full clinical resolution of ocular lesions with systemic amphotericin B alone or in combination with an oral antifungal, whereas patients with exogenous endophthalmitis had poor outcomes with irreversible vision loss, enucleation and evisceration. Anterior uveitis is more common in exogenous endophthalmitis with worse overall outcomes and complications, compared with endogenous endophthalmitis where posterior uveitis is the most common clinical manifestation, especially in patients infected with HIV and those from hyperendemic areas. Sporothrix infection should be included in

  7. Evaluation of Articles Related to Program Development in Education Published in the Journal of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make an overall assessment of articles related to program development in education that appeared in the "Journal of Primary Education," which had been published between 1939 and 1966. For this purpose, the articles in the journal were analyzed by using content analysis, and evaluated in terms of program…

  8. Erlotinib usage after prior treatment with gefitinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A clinical perspective and review of published literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Jindal, Aditya; Behera, Digambar

    2014-12-10

    Erlotinib and gefitinib are among the most widely researched, used and available molecularly targeted therapies for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They are both tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the past decade, there have been reports on clinical benefit from use of erlotinib after gefitinib failure in NSCLC patients. A review of published literature on this focussed topic is provided herein. Pooled analysis of published literature shows that majority of patients were female (60.6%), non-smokers (64.5%), had adenocarcinoma histology (88.3%) and were of East Asian ethnicity (92.3%). Presence of sensitizing EGFR mutation was detected in 48.4% of subjects. Disease control rates with prior gefitinib therapy and with subsequent erlotinib treatment were 79.4% and 45.4% respectively. Based upon our review, the most important predictive factor for clinical benefit from erlotinib identified was previous response to gefitinib. The exact explanations for the potential benefit from erlotinib use in this patient population is still not known and further studies are required to determine the role of molecular mechanisms especially those related to resistance to initial EGFR TKI therapy.

  9. Literature, Literary Values, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through April 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 20 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the teaching of children's literature; the study of American Indian literature and Biblical literature at the college level; the relationship between response to…

  10. Duplicate publications and related problems in published papers on oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Le, A; Moran, C M P; Bezuhly, M; Hong, P

    2015-07-01

    As duplicate publication is unethical, our aim was to find out how common it is among published papers on oral and maxillofacial surgery. We used PubMed to identify index articles published in 2010 in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and the European Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, and searched for possible duplicate publications from 2008 to 2012 using the first or second and last authors' names. Suspected duplicates were categorised into "non-duplicate" (no overlap), "duplicate" (identical results and conclusions), or "salami-sliced" publications (part of the index article repeated or continued). Of the 589 index articles, 17 (3%) had some form of duplication, but specifically, we found 3 duplicate, and 15 salami-sliced publications. Most redundant articles originated from China (n=4), followed by Italy, Japan, and Germany (3 from each) and the United States and Denmark (2 each). Of the 18 redundant publications, 9 did not reference the related index article. Duplicate material is still being published, and salami-slicing is relatively common among publications on oral and maxillofacial surgery. Further research is required into the extent and impact of this finding. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at…

  12. An Analysis of Attitudes toward the Vietnam War Displayed in Children's and Young Adult Literature Published after 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoek, Nancy A.

    A study involved the creation of a 20-variable checklist for children's and young adult war literature, to be utilized as a data-recording instrument for 24 examples of literature. The checklist components were based upon a combination of cognitive and affective attributes assisting in the formulation of attitudes toward war displayed by…

  13. Quantitative comparison of microarray experiments with published leukemia related gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Ruckert, Christian; Kohlmann, Alexander; Bullinger, Lars; Thiede, Christian; Haferlach, Torsten; Dugas, Martin

    2009-12-15

    Multiple gene expression signatures derived from microarray experiments have been published in the field of leukemia research. A comparison of these signatures with results from new experiments is useful for verification as well as for interpretation of the results obtained. Currently, the percentage of overlapping genes is frequently used to compare published gene signatures against a signature derived from a new experiment. However, it has been shown that the percentage of overlapping genes is of limited use for comparing two experiments due to the variability of gene signatures caused by different array platforms or assay-specific influencing parameters. Here, we present a robust approach for a systematic and quantitative comparison of published gene expression signatures with an exemplary query dataset. A database storing 138 leukemia-related published gene signatures was designed. Each gene signature was manually annotated with terms according to a leukemia-specific taxonomy. Two analysis steps are implemented to compare a new microarray dataset with the results from previous experiments stored and curated in the database. First, the global test method is applied to assess gene signatures and to constitute a ranking among them. In a subsequent analysis step, the focus is shifted from single gene signatures to chromosomal aberrations or molecular mutations as modeled in the taxonomy. Potentially interesting disease characteristics are detected based on the ranking of gene signatures associated with these aberrations stored in the database. Two example analyses are presented. An implementation of the approach is freely available as web-based application. The presented approach helps researchers to systematically integrate the knowledge derived from numerous microarray experiments into the analysis of a new dataset. By means of example leukemia datasets we demonstrate that this approach detects related experiments as well as related molecular mutations and may

  14. Advancing knowledge in work-related rehabilitation - review of research published in the journal of WORK.

    PubMed

    Prodinger, Birgit; Magalhães, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Many studies published in the journal WORK in the recent decades have discussed work and employment trends. However, the dimensions of these contributions over time have not been reviewed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge development in regard to work-related rehabilitation in WORK over the last two decades. A scoping review was conducted using the following five stages: (i) identifying research question, (ii) identifying relevant studies, (iii) study selection, (iv) charting, summarizing, and collating the data, and (v) reporting the results. Studies were selected from the WORK ARTicle Database. Seventy-five relevant studies were identified. The findings reflect that WORK has published papers from across the world, with most of the studies from the United States, Sweden, Canada, and Hong Kong. The complexity and multi-factorial nature of work-related rehabilitation was reflected in the application of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method research approaches, as well as case studies. Study participants were characterized by work, and non-work related injuries, systematic diseases/chronic illness, fulfilled certain socio-demographic characteristic, and represented various stakeholders. Fewer studies drew on secondary resources. In the findings one re-occurring theme has been noted: 'maintaining/obtaining/returning to secure and stable employment/work'. Four key-reflections evolved from this scoping review that provide potential avenues for future research. These key-reflections include (i) the national, transnational and international dimension of the reviewed studies, (ii) the various societal levels informing work-related rehabilitation practices, (iii) the diversity of methodologies applied in current research, and (iv) the variability of terminology used within the reviewed studies. The journal WORK has published a variety of research over the last two decades and contributed significantly to our current understanding of

  15. Older Adult Participants in Music: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrough, Galen P.; Boswell, Jacquelyn

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research literature published between 1957 and 1990 regarding the musical involvement of the elderly. Divides studies into works dealing with (1) musical aptitude, (2) musical preferences, (3) music programs for older adults, and (4) the aging voice. Cites the enormous and growing quantity and quality of research on the subject. Identifies…

  16. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Philip M; Harris, Jeffrey; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol J; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This is the sixth in a series of monographs on research design and analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss several concepts related to the measurement of nutrition-related characteristics and outcomes, including validity, reliability, and diagnostic tests. The article reviews the methodologic issues related to capturing the various aspects of a given nutrition measure's reliability, including test-retest, inter-item, and interobserver or inter-rater reliability. Similarly, it covers content validity, indicators of absolute vs relative validity, and internal vs external validity. With respect to diagnostic assessment, the article summarizes the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. The hope is that dietetics practitioners will be able to both use high-quality measures of nutrition concepts in their research and recognize these measures in research completed by others. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of temporomandibular joint-related papers published between 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vaibhav; Sudhakar, K N V; Mallela, Kiran Kumar; Mohanty, Rajat

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a retrospective study and reviewed the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)-related papers published in a leading international journal, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , between January 2014 and December 2015. The study was conducted to ascertain and compare the trends of articles being published in the years 2014 and 2015. A total of 28 articles were reviewed, of which most of the full-length articles were on clinical management and outcomes and the role of radiology. The bulk of the studies were prospective, and less interest was shown in experimental research. A thorough review and analysis thus gives the impression that there is a great need for well-designed clinical studies on TMJ.

  18. Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part I: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Michael J.; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C.; Findling, Robert L.; Lopez, Frank A.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature investigating changes in emotional expression (EE) as a function of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD and to differentiate emotional effects related to ADHD pharmacotherapy from emotional effects related to ADHD as a disorder. Method: English language articles published from January 1, 1988, through…

  19. [Analysis on literatures about clinical treatment of low back pain with acupuncture and moxibustion published in the periodicals included by SCI in recent 5 years].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chui-gang

    2007-03-01

    To explore the development state of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in the world. Retrieve and analyze the literatures about clinically treating low back pain with acupuncture and moxibustion published at periodicals included by SCI in recent 5 years in Pubmed. Nineteen concerned literatures were retrieved. Authors of the literatures come from USA, Germany, Hong Kong of China, UK (including Northern Ireland) , Austria, Sweden and Italy. The literatures were published at Altern Ther Health Med, Am J Phys Med Rehabil, Anesth Analg, Arch Intern Med, Forsch Komplementärmed Klass Naturheilkd, Health Technol Assess, Rheumatology (Oxford), South Med J, Spine, Complment Ther Med, Pain. Three researches show that efficacy of acupuncture is uncertain. Other researches support the efficacy of acupuncture. The researches on treating low back pain with acupuncture and moxibustion are still mainly about efficacy of the acupuncture and moxibustion therapy. The acupuncture and moxibustion therapy is still in the process of gradually admitted by international medicine.

  20. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland: a narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth; Smide, Bibbi; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sigurdardottir, Arun K

    2016-06-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has contributed to diabetes research overall. The larger goal of our analyses was to produce a comprehensive picture of this research in order to guide future studies in the field. We conducted a narrative literature review by systematically searching Medline, Medline in process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. These searches were limited to studies published between 1979 and 2009 that had an abstract available in English or a Nordic language. Two researchers independently selected studies for analysis, leading to the inclusion of 164 relevant publications for analysis. In summary, Nordic nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised in networks in order to share knowledge and expertise across national groups and borders, (ii) more multidisciplinary collaborations in order to promote patient-centred care and (iii) further research directed towards improving the dissemination and implementation of research findings. Using complex intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Drug related problems with Antiparkinsonian agents: consumer Internet reports versus published data.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sabrina; Zöllner, York Francis; Schaefer, Marion

    2007-10-01

    There is currently a lack of detailed information concerning drug related problems in the outpatient treatment of Parkinson's disease. Problems associated with drug treatment communicated anonymously in Parkinson's disease online forums were therefore retrospectively searched and documented for 1 year. Based on postings concerning 12 drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, a total of 238 drug related problems were identified and categorised using the Problem Intervention Documentation (PI-Doc). Of these, 153 were adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions associated with the skin were relatively common, but central effects such as cognitive or psychiatric changes, effects on the sleep/waking system and other problems like headache and dizziness accounted for the highest percentage of adverse events. A comparison with data from scientific literature revealed a number of differences. This means that an analysis of online forums detected a number of drug related problems that were otherwise largely invisible. These were mainly associated with the qualitative aspects of treatment such as medication handling, dosage and individual problems concerning adverse events. In addition, the described method of identifying and classifying drug related problems in Internet forums may also be seen as a contribution to the international discussion about consumer reports and pharmacovigilance. The information about adverse drug reactions given by Internet users can be seen as a valuable adjunct to clinical trial data and as being very timely with regard to the event itself. Online forums may be considered as a suitable source of observational information to complement data from randomised clinical trials.

  2. Rehabilitation: 25 Years of Concepts, Principles, Perspectives. A Collection of Articles Published in "Rehabilitation Literature," 1959-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnier, Stephen J., Comp.; Petkovsek, Marian, Comp.

    Twenty-five articles from the bimonthly journal "Rehabilitation Literature" (1959-1984) are presented. The articles were chosen to represent key concepts, principles, and perspectives in rehabilitation. The following authors and titles are represented: "A Concept of Rehabilitation" (H. Talbot); "Rehabilitation: Prospect and Retrospect" (H.…

  3. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  4. Dental sciences related articles data published in a Basic Medical Sciences Journal from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-04-01

    This data aimed to audit the dental sciences related articles published in Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) from 2007 to 2015 over a 9 year period performed using web-based search. The data were analyzed for topic of dental sciences, type of article, international collaborations, source of funding, number of authors and authorship trends. Out of the total 18 data related to dental sciences, original articles (12), review articles (4) and short communications (2) contribute the major share. Regarding the relationship with dental sciences, the maximum number of data were related to oral pathology and microbiology (16) followed by oral medicine and radiology (7) and periodontics (7). Among the data related to dental sciences, oral cancer (3) and gingival and periodontal diseases (3) followed by dental plaque and caries (2) and orthodontic tooth movement (2) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of data related to dental sciences were received from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (4) and Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran (2).The present data were compared with previous bibliometric studies done related to dental sciences (Shamim et al., 2017a, 2017b).

  5. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 24 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) humorous children's literature and divergent thinking; (2) the development of children's ability to apprehend and distribute attention to important elements in…

  6. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) science fiction in elementary school science education; (2) the portrayal of black characters in children's literature; (3) UFOs and their correlates as a…

  7. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 26 titles deal with a variety of topics including the following: (1) multicultural representation in children's books, (2) moral education through literature, (3) the effect of death awareness on the protagonists of selected…

  8. A systematic assessment of Cochrane reviews and systematic reviews published in high-impact medical journals related to cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldkuhle, Marius; Narayan, Vikram M; Weigl, Aaron; Dahm, Philipp; Skoetz, Nicole

    2018-03-25

    To compare cancer-related systematic reviews (SRs) published in the Cochrane Database of SRs (CDSR) and high-impact journals, with respect to type, content, quality and citation rates. Methodological SR with assessment and comparison of SRs and meta-analyses. Two authors independently assessed methodological quality using an Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR)-based extraction form. Both authors independently screened search results, extracted content-relevant characteristics and retrieved citation numbers of the included reviews using the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science database. Cancer-related SRs were retrieved from the CDSR, as well as from the 10 journals which publish oncological SRs and had the highest impact factors, using a comprehensive search in both the CDSR and MEDLINE. We included all cancer-related SRs and meta-analyses published from January 2011 to May 2016. Methodological SRs were excluded. We included 346 applicable Cochrane reviews and 215 SRs from high-impact journals. Cochrane reviews consistently met more individual AMSTAR criteria, notably with regard to an a priori design (risk ratio (RR) 3.89; 95% CI 3.10 to 4.88), inclusion of the grey literature and trial registries (RR 3.52; 95% CI 2.84 to 4.37) in their searches, and the reporting of excluded studies (RR 8.80; 95% CI 6.06 to 12.78). Cochrane reviews were less likely to address questions of prognosis (RR 0.04; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.09), use individual patient data (RR 0.03; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.09) or be based on non-randomised controlled trials (RR 0.04; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.09). Citation rates of Cochrane reviews were notably lower than those for high-impact journals (Cochrane reviews: mean number of citations 6.52 (range 0-143); high-impact journal SRs: 74.45 (0-652)). When comparing cancer-related SRs published in the CDSR versus those published in high-impact medical journals, Cochrane reviews were consistently of higher methodological quality, but cited less

  9. Student Success for Men of Color in Community Colleges: A Review of Published Literature and Research, 1998-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of scholarship on men of color in postsecondary education has emerged since the late 1990s. Yet, only recently have scholars begun to pursue empirical insights about the status of men of color who attend community colleges. In an effort to inform future research, this article reviews the published scholarship on student success…

  10. Multicultural Literature (Bookalogues).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews 23 recently published works of multicultural literature (African-American, Asian and Asian-American, Native American, and Hispanic literature). Discusses some issues related to multicultural literature, and includes a 58-item list of other multicultural literature. (RS)

  11. Bibliometric analysis of poison center-related research published in peer-review journals.

    PubMed

    Forrester, M B

    2016-07-01

    Poison centers advance knowledge in the field of toxicology through publication in peer-review journals. This investigation describes the pattern of poison center-related publications. Cases were poison center-related research published in peer-review journals during 1995-2014. These were identified through searching the PubMed database, reviewing the tables of contents of selected toxicology journals, and reviewing abstracts of various national and international meetings. The following variables for each publication were identified: year of publication, journal, type of publication (meeting abstract vs. other, i.e. full article or letter to the editor), and the country(ies) of the poison center(s) included in the research. Of the 3147 total publications, 62.1% were meeting abstracts. There were 263 publications in 1995-1999, 536 in 2000-2004, 999 in 2005-2009, and 1349 in 2010-2014. The publications were in 234 different journals. The journals in which the highest number of research was published were Clinical Toxicology (69.7%), Journal of Medical Toxicology (2.2%), and Veterinary and Human Toxicology (2.1%). The research was reported from 62 different countries. The countries with the highest number of publications were the United States (67.9%), United Kingdom (6.5%), Germany (3.9%), France (2.5%), and Italy (2.4%). The number of publications increased greatly over the 20 years. Although the publications were in a large number of journals, a high proportion of the publications were in one journal. While the research came from a large number of countries, the preponderance came from the United States. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Restrictions impeding web-based courses: a survey of publishers' variation in authorising access to high quality on-line literature.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Michele; Heller, Richard F; Edwards, Richard; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Sandars, John

    2004-04-07

    Web-based delivery of educational programmes is becoming increasingly popular and is expected to expand, especially in medicine. The successful implementation of these programmes is reliant on their ability to provide access to web based materials, including high quality published work. Publishers' responses to requests to access health literature in the context of developing an electronic Master's degree course are described. Two different permission requests were submitted to publishers. The first was to store an electronic version of a journal article, to which we subscribe, on a secure password protected server. The second was to reproduce extracts of published material on password protected web pages and CD Rom. Eight of 16 publishers were willing to grant permission to store electronic versions of articles without levying charges additional to the subscription. Twenty of 35 publishers gave permission to reproduce extracts of published work at no fee. Publishers' responses were highly variable to the requests for access to published material. This may be influenced by vague terminology within the 'fair dealing' provision in the copyright legislation, which seems to leave it open to individual interpretation. Considerable resource costs were incurred by the exercise. Time expended included those incurred by us: research to identify informed representatives within the publishing organisation, request 'chase-ups' and alternative examples being sought if publishers were uncooperative; and the publisher when dealing with numerous permission requests. Financial costs were also incurred by both parties through additional staffing and paperwork generated by the permission process, the latter including those purely borne by educators due to the necessary provision of photocopy 'course packs' when no suitably alternative material could be found if publishers were uncooperative. Finally we discuss the resultant bias in material towards readily available electronic

  13. Impact of donor-specific HLA antibodies in transplantation, a review of the literature published in the last three years.

    PubMed

    Kaneku, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes some of the recent findings published on the role in organ transplantation of HLA antibodies, and--more important--donor-specific HLA antibodies. The negative impact of both, preformed and de novo DSA is now better recognized in recipients of kidney, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, islet cells and bone marrow transplants. An appropriate design of a schedule to monitor HLA antibodies may identify patients at higher risk for immunological events earlier and allow interventions to avoid later graft loss. The value of strategies like preemptive treatment of antibodies and the use of new agents like bortezomib and eculizumab are of interest and need further investigation.

  14. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  15. Inappropriate Fiddling with Statistical Analyses to Obtain a Desirable P-value: Tests to Detect its Presence in Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gadbury, Gary L.; Allison, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written regarding p-values below certain thresholds (most notably 0.05) denoting statistical significance and the tendency of such p-values to be more readily publishable in peer-reviewed journals. Intuition suggests that there may be a tendency to manipulate statistical analyses to push a “near significant p-value” to a level that is considered significant. This article presents a method for detecting the presence of such manipulation (herein called “fiddling”) in a distribution of p-values from independent studies. Simulations are used to illustrate the properties of the method. The results suggest that the method has low type I error and that power approaches acceptable levels as the number of p-values being studied approaches 1000. PMID:23056287

  16. Inappropriate fiddling with statistical analyses to obtain a desirable p-value: tests to detect its presence in published literature.

    PubMed

    Gadbury, Gary L; Allison, David B

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written regarding p-values below certain thresholds (most notably 0.05) denoting statistical significance and the tendency of such p-values to be more readily publishable in peer-reviewed journals. Intuition suggests that there may be a tendency to manipulate statistical analyses to push a "near significant p-value" to a level that is considered significant. This article presents a method for detecting the presence of such manipulation (herein called "fiddling") in a distribution of p-values from independent studies. Simulations are used to illustrate the properties of the method. The results suggest that the method has low type I error and that power approaches acceptable levels as the number of p-values being studied approaches 1000.

  17. Impact of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) on subjective and objective GERD indices: a systematic review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Mark R; Melvin, W Scott; Perry, Kyle A

    2013-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains a significant problem for the medical community. Many endoluminal treatments for GERD have been developed with little success. Currently, transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) attempts to recreate a surgical fundoplication through placement of full-thickness polypropylene H-fasteners. This, the most recent procedure to gain FDA approval, has shown some promise in the early data. However, questions of its safety profile, efficacy, and durability remain. The Cochrane Library and MEDLINE through PubMed were searched to identify published studies reporting on subjective and objective GERD indices after TIF. The search was limited to human studies published in English from 2006 up to March 2012. Data collected included GERD-HRQL and RSI scores, PPI discontinuation and patient satisfaction rates, pH study metrics, complications, and treatment failures. Statistical analysis was performed with weighted t tests. Titles and abstracts of 214 papers were initially reviewed. Fifteen studies were found to be eligible, reporting on over 550 procedures. Both GERD-HRQL scores (21.9 vs. 5.9, p < 0.0001) and RSI scores (24.5 vs. 5.4, p ≤ 0.0001) were significantly reduced after TIF. Overall patient satisfaction was 72 %. The overall rate of PPI discontinuation was 67 % across all studies, with a mean follow-up of 8.3 months. pH metrics were not consistently normalized. The major complication rate was 3.2 % and the failure rate was 7.2 % across all studies. TIF appears to provide symptomatic relief with reasonable levels of patient satisfaction at short-term follow-up. A well-designed prospective clinical trial is needed to assess the effectiveness and durability of TIF as well as to identify the patient population that will benefit from this procedure.

  18. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  19. Information for physicians and pharmacists about drugs that might cause dry mouth: a study of monographs and published literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline T; MacEntee, Michael I; Mintzes, Barbara; Perry, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Over three-quarters of the older population take medications that can potentially cause dry mouth. Physicians or pharmacists rarely inform patients about this adverse effect and its potentially severe damage to the teeth, mouth and general health. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify warnings in the literature about dry mouth associated with the most frequently prescribed pharmaceutical products in Canada; and (2) consider how this information might be obtained by physicians, pharmacists and patients. Monographs on the 72 most frequently prescribed medications during 2010 were retrieved from the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS, a standard drug information reference for physicians and pharmacists), the National Library of Medicine's 'DailyMed' database, directly from the manufacturers, and from a systematic search of biomedical journals. The CPS provided monographs for 43% of the medications, and requests to manufacturers produced the remaining monographs. Mentions of dry mouth were identified in 61% of the products (43% amongst CPS monographs; an additional 43% amongst manufacturers' monographs; 7% in the DailyMed database and 7% from biomedical journals); five medications had contradictory reports in different monographs. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of the most commonly prescribed medications can cause dry mouth, yet warnings about this adverse effect and its potentially serious consequences are not readily available to physicians, pharmacists, dentists or patients.

  20. Barriers to and enablers of diabetic retinopathy screening attendance: a systematic review of published and grey literature.

    PubMed

    Graham-Rowe, E; Lorencatto, F; Lawrenson, J G; Burr, J M; Grimshaw, J M; Ivers, N M; Presseau, J; Vale, L; Peto, T; Bunce, C; Francis, J J

    2018-05-23

    To identify and synthesize studies reporting modifiable barriers/enablers associated with retinopathy screening attendance in people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, and to identify those most likely to influence attendance. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and the 'grey literature' for quantitative and qualitative studies to February 2017. Data (i.e. participant quotations, interpretive summaries, survey results) reporting barriers/enablers were extracted and deductively coded into domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework; with domains representing categories of theoretical barriers/enablers proposed to mediate behaviour change. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted within domains to describe the role each domain plays in facilitating or hindering screening attendance. Domains that were more frequently coded and for which more themes were generated were judged more likely to influence attendance. Sixty-nine primary studies were included. We identified six theoretical domains ['environmental context and resources' (75% of included studies), 'social influences' (51%), 'knowledge' (50%), 'memory, attention, decision processes' (50%), 'beliefs about consequences' (38%) and 'emotions' (33%)] as the key mediators of diabetic retinopathy screening attendance. Examples of barriers populating these domains included inaccurate diabetic registers and confusion between routine eye care and retinopathy screening. Recommendations by healthcare professionals and community-level media coverage acted as enablers. Across a variety of contexts, we found common barriers to and enablers of retinopathy screening that could be targeted in interventions aiming to increase screening attendance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Bibliometric analysis of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal from India.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal. Journal of Cytology (JOC) is the official publication of Indian Academy of Cytologists. This study aimed to audit the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC from 2007 to 2015 over a 9-year period. Bibliometric analysis of issues of JOC from 2007 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral and maxillofacial cytology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Of the total 93 published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology, original articles (43) and case reports (33) contribute the major share. The highest number of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles was published in 2014 with 17 articles and the least published year was 2010 with three articles. Among the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC, diseases of salivary gland (26) followed by oral exfoliated cells (17), soft tissue tumors (7), round cell tumors (6) and spindle cell neoplasms (5) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology were received from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (5), and Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in India.

  2. Identifying Important Gaps in Randomized Controlled Trials of Adult Cardiac Arrest Treatments: A Systematic Review of the Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shashank S; Sukul, Devraj; Lazarus, John J; Polavarapu, Vivek; Chan, Paul S; Neumar, Robert W; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac arrest is a major public health concern worldwide. The extent and types of randomized controlled trials (RCT)-our most reliable source of clinical evidence-conducted in these high-risk patients over recent years are largely unknown. We performed a systematic review, identifying all RCTs published in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from 1995 to 2014 that focused on the acute treatment of nontraumatic cardiac arrest in adults. We then extracted data on the setting of study populations, types and timing of interventions studied, risk of bias, outcomes reported, and how these factors have changed over time. Over this 20-year period, 92 RCTs were published containing 64 309 patients (median, 225.5 per trial). Of these, 81 RCTs (88.0%) involved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, whereas 4 (4.3%) involved in-hospital cardiac arrest and 7 (7.6%) included both. Eighteen RCTs (19.6%) were performed in the United States, 68 (73.9%) were performed outside the United States, and 6 (6.5%) were performed in both settings. Thirty-eight RCTs (41.3%) evaluated drug therapy, 39 (42.4%) evaluated device therapy, and 15 (16.3%) evaluated protocol improvements. Seventy-four RCTs (80.4%) examined interventions during the cardiac arrest, 15 (16.3%) examined post cardiac arrest treatment, and 3 (3.3%) studied both. Overall, reporting of the risk of bias was limited. The most common outcome reported was return of spontaneous circulation: 86 (93.5%) with only 22 (23.9%) reporting survival beyond 6 months. Fifty-three RCTs (57.6%) reported global ordinal outcomes, whereas 15 (16.3%) reported quality-of-life. RCTs in the past 5 years were more likely to be focused on protocol improvements and postcardiac arrest care. Important gaps in RCTs of cardiac arrest treatments exist, especially those examining in-hospital cardiac arrest, protocol improvement, postcardiac arrest care, and long-term or quality-of-life outcomes. © 2016 American Heart Association

  3. Identifying Important Gaps in Randomized Controlled Trials of Adult Cardiac Arrest Treatments: A Systematic Review of the Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shashank S.; Sukul, Devraj; Lazarus, John J.; Polavarapu, Vivek; Chan, Paul S.; Neumar, Robert W.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrests are a major public health concern worldwide. The extent and types of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) – our most reliable source of clinical evidence – conducted in these high-risk patients over recent years are largely unknown. Methods and Results We performed a systematic review, identifying all RCTs published in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from 1995 to 2014 that focused on acute treatment of non-traumatic cardiac arrest in adults. We then extracted data on the setting of study populations, types and timing of interventions studied, risk of bias, outcomes reported and how these factors have changed over time. Over this twenty-year period, 92 RCTs were published containing 64,309 patients (median, 225.5 per trial). Of these, 81 RCTs (88.0%) involved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest whereas 4 (4.3%) involved in-hospital cardiac arrest and 7 (7.6%) included both. Eighteen RCTs (19.6%) were performed in the U.S., 68 (73.9%) were performed outside the U.S., and 6 (6.5%) were performed in both settings. Thirty-eight RCTs (41.3%) evaluated drug therapy, 39 (42.4%) evaluated device therapy, and 15 (16.3%) evaluated protocol improvements. Seventy-four RCTs (80.4%) examined interventions during the cardiac arrest, 15 (16.3%) examined post-cardiac arrest treatment, and 3 (3.3%) studied both. Overall, reporting of risk of bias was limited. The most common outcome reported was ROSC: 86 (93.5%) with only 22 (23.9%) reporting survival beyond 6 months. Fifty-three RCTs (57.6%) reported global ordinal outcomes whereas 15 (16.3%) reported quality-of-life. RCTs in the last 5 years were more likely to be focused on protocol improvement and post-cardiac arrest care. Conclusions Important gaps in RCTs of cardiac arrest treatments exist, especially those examining in-hospital cardiac arrest, protocol improvement, post-cardiac arrest care, and long-term or quality-of-life outcomes. PMID:27756794

  4. Mucor irregularis infection around the inner canthus cured by amphotericin B: a case report and review of published literatures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daoxian; Jiang, Xian; Wan, Huiying; Ran, Yuping; Hao, Dan; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis. A 47-year-old farmer was presented to our clinic with the history of progressive red plaque around the inner canthus following dacryocystectomy about a year earlier. Linear, aseptate hyphae were seen by direct KOH examination and in biopsy. Fungal culture revealed light yellow filamentous colonies that were identified as Mucor irregularis by nucleotide sequencing of rRNA gene. Amphotericin B and dexamethasone were used in gradually increasing dosage. The treatment lasted 43 days, and the patient received 760 mg total amphotericin B. The patient was discharged after 2 months of treatment. The plaque became smooth, and fungal culture was negative. There was no recurrence for half a year through telephone follow-ups. A review of published studies revealed 23 cases of Mucor irregularis infection. Most cases resulted following injuries or surgical complications. Farmers and manual laborers were most at risk with males outnumbering females among patients. Amphotericin B and its liposomal preparations remain most effective treatment choices.

  5. PURA syndrome: clinical delineation and genotype-phenotype study in 32 individuals with review of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Reijnders, Margot R F; Janowski, Robert; Alvi, Mohsan; Self, Jay E; van Essen, Ton J; Vreeburg, Maaike; Rouhl, Rob P W; Stevens, Servi J C; Stegmann, Alexander P A; Schieving, Jolanda; Pfundt, Rolph; van Dijk, Katinke; Smeets, Eric; Stumpel, Connie T R M; Bok, Levinus A; Cobben, Jan Maarten; Engelen, Marc; Mansour, Sahar; Whiteford, Margo; Chandler, Kate E; Douzgou, Sofia; Cooper, Nicola S; Tan, Ene-Choo; Foo, Roger; Lai, Angeline H M; Rankin, Julia; Green, Andrew; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Isohanni, Pirjo; Williams, Shelley; Ruhoy, Ilene; Carvalho, Karen S; Dowling, James J; Lev, Dorit L; Sterbova, Katalin; Lassuthova, Petra; Neupauerová, Jana; Waugh, Jeff L; Keros, Sotirios; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Smithson, Sarah F; Brunner, Han G; van Hoeckel, Ceciel; Anderson, Mel; Clowes, Virginia E; Siu, Victoria Mok; DDD study, The; Selber, Paulo; Leventer, Richard J; Nellaker, Christoffer; Niessing, Dierk; Hunt, David; Baralle, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Background De novo mutations in PURA have recently been described to cause PURA syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by severe intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, feeding difficulties and neonatal hypotonia. Objectives To delineate the clinical spectrum of PURA syndrome and study genotype-phenotype correlations. Methods Diagnostic or research-based exome or Sanger sequencing was performed in individuals with ID. We systematically collected clinical and mutation data on newly ascertained PURA syndrome individuals, evaluated data of previously reported individuals and performed a computational analysis of photographs. We classified mutations based on predicted effect using 3D in silico models of crystal structures of Drosophila-derived Pur-alpha homologues. Finally, we explored genotype-phenotype correlations by analysis of both recurrent mutations as well as mutation classes. Results We report mutations in PURA (purine-rich element binding protein A) in 32 individuals, the largest cohort described so far. Evaluation of clinical data, including 22 previously published cases, revealed that all have moderate to severe ID and neonatal-onset symptoms, including hypotonia (96%), respiratory problems (57%), feeding difficulties (77%), exaggerated startle response (44%), hypersomnolence (66%) and hypothermia (35%). Epilepsy (54%) and gastrointestinal (69%), ophthalmological (51%) and endocrine problems (42%) were observed frequently. Computational analysis of facial photographs showed subtle facial dysmorphism. No strong genotype-phenotype correlation was identified by subgrouping mutations into functional classes. Conclusion We delineate the clinical spectrum of PURA syndrome with the identification of 32 additional individuals. The identification of one individual through targeted Sanger sequencing points towards the clinical recognisability of the syndrome. Genotype-phenotype analysis showed no significant correlation between mutation classes and

  6. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions.

  7. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell AH; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Aim Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. Methods We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. Results We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. Conclusion The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions. PMID:29403283

  8. A Review of the Literature Related to Government Relations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfield, Randall; Miller, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This review of literature identifies the primary writings and research related to how higher education institutions operate government relations offices. These offices are defined by their mission and role of interfacing between institutional needs and officers and public officials. The review first reports the literature related to public…

  9. ACTN3 Genotype, Athletic Status, and Life Course Physical Capability: Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature and Findings from Nine Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Tamuno; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gunnell, David; Harris, Sarah E; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Moran, Colin N; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Ring, Susan M; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Smith, George Davey; Starr, John M; Kuh, Diana; Day, Ian NM

    2011-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genotype has been associated with athletic status and muscle phenotypes, although not consistently. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published literature on athletic status and investigate its associations with physical capability in several new population-based studies. Relevant data were extracted from studies in the literature, comparing genotype frequencies between controls and sprint/power and endurance athletes. For life course physical capability, data were used from two studies of adolescents and seven studies in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research program, involving individuals aged between 53 and 90+ years. We found evidence from the published literature to support the hypothesis that in Europeans the RR genotype is more common among sprint/power athletes compared with their controls. There is currently no evidence that the X allele is advantageous to endurance athleticism. We found no association between R577X and grip strength (P = 0.09, n = 7,672 in males; P = 0.90, n = 7,839 in females), standing balance, timed get up and go, or chair rises in our studies of physical capability. The ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power athletic status in Europeans, but does not appear to be associated with objective measures of physical capability in the general population. Hum Mutat 32:1–11, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21542061

  10. Bibliometric analysis of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal from India

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal. Journal of Cytology (JOC) is the official publication of Indian Academy of Cytologists. Objective: This study aimed to audit the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC from 2007 to 2015 over a 9-year period. Materials and Methods: Bibliometric analysis of issues of JOC from 2007 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral and maxillofacial cytology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Results: Of the total 93 published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology, original articles (43) and case reports (33) contribute the major share. The highest number of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles was published in 2014 with 17 articles and the least published year was 2010 with three articles. Among the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC, diseases of salivary gland (26) followed by oral exfoliated cells (17), soft tissue tumors (7), round cell tumors (6) and spindle cell neoplasms (5) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology were received from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (5), and Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh (5). Conclusion: This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in India. PMID:29731569

  11. [Sarcoidosis related pleural effusion: 6 case reports and literatures review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Lili

    2015-02-01

    To summarize the clinical features and the diagnosis-treatment points of sarcoidosis related pleural effusion. Six typical sarcoidosis related pleural effusion cases with pathological evidence were reviewed, and the clinical data of these cases were retrospectively analyzed and the related literatures were reviewed. The literature review was carried out respectively with "sarcoidosis", "pleural disease" and "pleural effusion" as the keywords in CNKI and PubMed database by January 2014. Six cases, including 1 male and 5 females, with sarcoidosis related pleural effusions were reported. 3 cases had bilateral effusions, 2 cases had left effusion and 1 case had right effusion. The pleural effusion routine test had a low specificity, which demonstrated that the fluid was exudate and consisted with large number of lymphocytes. 3 of these cases were diagnosed by medical thoracoscopy. Medical thoracoscopy revealed that pleural involvement was variable with multiple nodulespresent in some cases and subtle change in others. A total of 28 literatures and 92 cases with pleural involvement in sarcoidosis were retrieved from CNKI and PubMed database (time range: 2004.1-2014.1), including 59 cases of pleural effusion, 29 cases of pleural thickening, 3 cases of pneumothorax and 1 case of nodules in pleura. Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis was often misdiagnosed or mistreated as tuberculous pleurisy because the routine tests regarding pleural effusion usually had a low specificity. Medical thoracoscopy could provide clinicians with important clues to assist differentiation of the cause for non-conclusive pleural effusion in this situation.

  12. The fifth plot of the Carcinogenic Potency Database: results of animal bioassays published in the general literature through 1988 and by the National Toxicology Program through 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Garfinkel, G B; Rohrbach, L; Ames, B N

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the fifth plot of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) that first appeared in this journal in 1984 (1-5). We report here results of carcinogenesis bioassays published in the general literature between January 1987 and December 1988, and in technical reports of the National Toxicology Program between July 1987 and December 1989. This supplement includes results of 412 long-term, chronic experiments of 147 test compounds and reports the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 (carcinogenic potency) and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. We refer the reader to the 1984 publications (1,5,6) for a guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency, and a discussion of the sources of data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. The five plots of the database are to be used together, as results of individual experiments that were published earlier are not repeated. In all, the five plots include results of 4487 experiments on 1136 chemicals. Several analyses based on the CPDB that were published earlier are described briefly, and updated results based on all five plots are given for the following earlier analyses: the most potent TD50 value by species, reproducibility of bioassay results, positivity rates, and prediction between species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8354183

  13. Sortal anaphora resolution to enhance relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Rosemblat, Graciela; Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2016-04-14

    Entity coreference is common in biomedical literature and it can affect text understanding systems that rely on accurate identification of named entities, such as relation extraction and automatic summarization. Coreference resolution is a foundational yet challenging natural language processing task which, if performed successfully, is likely to enhance such systems significantly. In this paper, we propose a semantically oriented, rule-based method to resolve sortal anaphora, a specific type of coreference that forms the majority of coreference instances in biomedical literature. The method addresses all entity types and relies on linguistic components of SemRep, a broad-coverage biomedical relation extraction system. It has been incorporated into SemRep, extending its core semantic interpretation capability from sentence level to discourse level. We evaluated our sortal anaphora resolution method in several ways. The first evaluation specifically focused on sortal anaphora relations. Our methodology achieved a F1 score of 59.6 on the test portion of a manually annotated corpus of 320 Medline abstracts, a 4-fold improvement over the baseline method. Investigating the impact of sortal anaphora resolution on relation extraction, we found that the overall effect was positive, with 50 % of the changes involving uninformative relations being replaced by more specific and informative ones, while 35 % of the changes had no effect, and only 15 % were negative. We estimate that anaphora resolution results in changes in about 1.5 % of approximately 82 million semantic relations extracted from the entire PubMed. Our results demonstrate that a heavily semantic approach to sortal anaphora resolution is largely effective for biomedical literature. Our evaluation and error analysis highlight some areas for further improvements, such as coordination processing and intra-sentential antecedent selection.

  14. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  15. SELECTED ABSTRACTS OF ATOMIC ENERGY PROJECT UNCLASSIFIED REPORT LITERATURE IN THE FIELD OF RADIATION CHEMISTRY AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PUBLISHED LITERATURE--5TH ANNUAL SUPPLEMENT (PAPERS NOTED UP TO DECEMBER 1960)

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R.W. comp.

    1961-05-01

    References (2538) are given to U. S. and foreign reports and published literature published from 1957 through 1961. The references contain information on theory, interpretations, water and aqueous inorganic systems, organic compounds (including polymerization reactions and organic coolants), gaseous systems (excluding organic compounds), solid systems (excluding organic compounds), biochemistry and radiobiology (excluding animal studies, including irradiation of foodstuffs, bacteria, and insects), and miscellaneous (including colloids, corrosion, industrial applications of radiation, irradiation equipment, and general reviews and reports). The report references are arranged alphabetically/serially by report reference number, and the open literature rcferences alphabetically by first named author. Separate author andmore » subject indexes are included. (P.C.H.)« less

  16. 24-hour pattern of falls in hospitalized and long-term care institutionalized elderly persons: A systematic review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Manfredini, Roberto; Smolensky, Michael H; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2015-05-01

    Falls are common among the elderly > 65 years of age and can result in both serious trauma and costly medical care. The epidemiology of falls in the elderly typically focuses on identifying contributory exogenous environmental and endogenous age-related physical, cognitive and other health status factors; however, one potentially important variable seldom considered is time of fall. We sought to determine if falls in hospitalized/institutionalized elderly persons exhibit 24 h and other temporal patterns, since knowledge of such could be useful in their prevention. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to critically appraise and synthesize the methods and findings of previous reports addressing clock-time, day-of-week and month-of-year fall patterns of institutionalized elderly cohorts. Medline, SCOPUS, Ovid SP and Web of Knowledge were systematic assessed, entering search terms of "accidental fall", "circadian rhythm", "biological clocks", "circadian clocks", "activity cycles", "periodicity", and with databases accepting an age limiter, "age of 65(+) years". Methodological quality was assessed by STROBE and CONSORT checklists, respectively, in observational and clinical studies. Publications were reviewed if meeting inclusion criteria of: (i) being an empirical study, (ii) adopting circadian and/or other period rhythmicity as a fall risk, and (iii) focusing on hospitalized/institutionalized falls in those ≥ 65 years of age; plus exclusion criteria of: (i) cohort < 65 years of age and (ii) reports as dissertations or editorials. The search retrieved 170 publications; however, only nine met all inclusion/exclusion criteria. Typically, past studies disregarded the temporal aspects of fall incidents; the few that did varied in quality, institutional setting, and patient type, i.e. medical diagnoses. Overall, findings suggest a single or double-peak 24 h pattern of fall incidence, with time of greatest incidence seemingly associated

  17. DETECTION AND REPORTING OF RANAVIRUS IN AMPHIBIANS: EVALUATION OF THE ROLES OF THE WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH AND THE PUBLISHED LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Black, Yvonne; Meredith, Anna; Price, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    Pathogens of wildlife can have direct impacts on human and livestock health as well as on biodiversity, as causative factors in population declines and extinctions. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) seeks to facilitate rapid sharing of information about animal diseases to enable up-to-date risk assessments of translocations of animals and animal products. The OIE also produces manuals of recommended methods to standardize diagnostic testing. Ranaviruses are important amphibian pathogens that may have spread through international trade, and infections became notifiable to OIE in 2009. We surveyed and reviewed published literature for data on sampling, diagnostic testing, and reporting of ranavirus during 2009-14. We also investigated attitudes and awareness of the OIE and its recommendations for best practice. We found that sampling effort is uneven and concentrated in the northern hemisphere. We also identified citizen science projects that have the potential to improve the quantity and quality of data on the incidence of ranavirus infection and the circumstances surrounding disease outbreaks. We found reporting of infection to be inconsistent: reporting was split between the published literature (where it was subject to a 2-yr lag) and the OIE with little overlap, results of negative diagnostic tests were underreported, and scientific researchers lacked awareness of the role of the OIE. Approaches to diagnostic screening were poorly harmonized and heavily reliant on molecular methods. These flaws in the mechanisms of ranavirus detection and reporting hamper the construction of a comprehensive disease information database.

  18. Sixth plot of the carcinogenic potency database: results of animal bioassays published in the General Literature 1989 to 1990 and by the National Toxicology Program 1990 to 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Garfinkel, G B; Ames, B N; Rohrbach, L; Stern, B R; Chow, K

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents two types of information from the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): (a) the sixth chronological plot of analyses of long-term carcinogenesis bioassays, and (b) an index to chemicals in all six plots, including a summary compendium of positivity and potency for each chemical (Appendix 14). The five earlier plots of the CPDB have appeared in this journal, beginning in 1984 (1-5). Including the plot in this paper, the CPDB reports results of 5002 experiments on 1230 chemicals. This paper includes bioassay results published in the general literature between January 1989 and December 1990, and in Technical Reports of the National Toxicology Program between January 1990 and June 1993. Analyses are included on 17 chemicals tested in nonhuman primates by the Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, National Cancer Institute. This plot presents results of 531 long-term, chronic experiments of 182 test compounds and includes the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 (carcinogenic potency) and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. We refer the reader to the 1984 publications (1,6,7) for a detailed guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency, and a discussion of the sources of data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. The six plots of the CPDB are to be used together since results of individual experiments that were published earlier are not repeated. Appendix 14 is designed to facilitate access to results on all chemicals. References to the published papers that are the source of

  19. Acceptability of Health Care-Related Risks: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Bruno; Roberts, Tamara; Nitaro, Léa; Quenon, Jean-Luc; Michel, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Risk management aims at reducing risks associated with hospital care to an acceptable level, both in their frequency and their impact on health. The social acceptability of risk on the part of the general population and of the health-care professionals, faced with regular information about adverse events, is undoubtedly evolving rapidly.In contrast to risk acceptability, the concept of risk perception is of limited interest to risk managers because it does not inform on the behaviors and actions resulting from these perceptions. The aim of this work was to define the concept of social acceptability of risk through an in-depth examination of a wide-ranging and multidisciplinary literature. A 1990-2010 English and French literature review was carried out in medical, epidemiological, and human and social sciences online databases, gray literature, and books. Of the 5931 references retrieved, 203 met the inclusion criteria. We identified contributions from 5 major research fields: economic, sociocognitive, psychometric, sociological/anthropological, and interactionist. When assessing risks, individuals use a variety of psychological and social processes that include their perception not only of a given risk but also of their own personal and social resources. This global perception has a direct impact on the responses and actual behavior of individuals and groups, enabling them to cope with the risk and/or manage it. Social acceptability includes perceptions related to risks and the stated intentions of individual behavior. This concept may therefore be relevant for defining local and national patient safety priorities.

  20. Annotating Relations in Scientific Articles (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-31

    that are part of a relation need be anno - 4604 tated at all. Given the wide range of possible disagreements (in contrast with, for example, part of...thus it should be straight-forward to compare the quality of a system versus the quality of a human anno - tator and this is a very useful measure. 5...these procedures and planning to create additional ones to offset 4606 the problem of Specification creep, harmonizing the anno - tation to be

  1. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain in Cancer Patients: Pooled Estimates From a Systematic Review of Published Literature and Results From a Survey Conducted in 50 Italian Palliative Care Centers.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Anna; Deandrea, Silvia; Greco, Maria Teresa; Corli, Oscar; Negri, Eva; Pizzuto, Massimo; Ruggeri, Fabrizio

    2016-06-01

    Because of the increasing body of literature on neuropathic cancer pain (NCP), an accurate estimate of its prevalence requires recurring updates. To provide this estimate using information from a systematic review and a survey. Using MEDLINE, Embase, and a previous review, we searched for studies published up to 2014 reporting data on NCP prevalence in adult cancer populations. Pooled prevalence rates from observational prospective studies were computed. The association between NCP prevalence and possible predictors was investigated for oncology and palliative settings. Prevalence rates were extracted from a questionnaire answered by 137 physicians working in 50 Italian centers of palliative care. Estimates from studies conducted in palliative settings and from the experts were analyzed separately and eventually pooled with an informative Bayesian random-effect model. Twenty-nine observational studies were identified. The overall pooled prevalence was 31.2%, with high heterogeneity; similar figures were observed when oncology and palliative settings were individually considered. A slightly higher prevalence of NCP was detected for hospice/inpatients as compared to outpatients, in both settings. The mean NCP prevalence reported by the survey experts was 44.2%; the pooled Bayesian estimate for the palliative setting corresponded to 43.0% (95% CI: 40.0-46.0). The subgroup with the lowest heterogeneity and where the literature and experts' estimates were closest is hospice/inpatients, with a pooled Bayesian prevalence rate of 34.9% (95% CI: 29.9-41.0). The systematic review and the survey suggest that more than one in three patients with cancer pain also experiences NCP. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Summarization and analysis on the acupuncture-related articles published in science citation index (SCI) periodicals in 2005].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Wu, Li-Ping; Guo, Yi

    2007-04-01

    To retrieve, summarize and analyze journals and articles related to acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005, so as to understand the international dynamics about acupuncture researches. The articles about treatment and mechanisms of acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005 were found out and searched for by acupuncture information retrieval online and databank. Most of the 72 SCI periodicals retrieved are from the west, with 147 articles of acupuncture published, and Lancet has the highest impact factors of 23. 407. The kinds of the journals and articles publishing acupuncture researches are increasing, with varied types, rich and varied contents, and increasing the design level. However, the results of the studies are vastly different due to differences of experimental methods, objects and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of acupuncture studies is extremely urgent.

  3. An Analysis of the Recruitment and Participation of African American Men in Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Research: A Review of the Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Ledric D; Hawkins, Jaclynn Marie; Bonner, Timethia

    2017-01-02

    Research studies have shown that African American men have experienced higher rates of serious complications of type 2 diabetes, due in part to poor disease management. Although type 2 diabetes research among minority populations is consistently advancing, there still remains a scarcity of African American male representation within these studies. It is unclear if this scarcity stems from lack of interest among men, location of recruitment, or ways in which these men are motivated to participate in research studies. As a result, an analysis of recruitment methods and locations of literature that includes African American men with type 2 diabetes is needed. The purpose of this review of the literature is threefold: (a) determine the number of published empirical studies specific to type 2 diabetes self-management that included African Americans in the sample, (b) to evaluate the percentage of men that were represented in the study sample as compared to how many women, and (c) identify the method of recruitment of each study.

  4. Interventions to Prevent Child Marriage Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Lee-Rife, Susan; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Child marriage, defined as marriage before the age of 18 years, is a human rights violation that can have lasting adverse educational and economic impacts. The objective of this review was to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decease child marriage in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was used, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Eleven high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Six found positive results in decreasing the proportion married or increasing age at marriage, one had both positive and negative findings, and four had no statistical impact on the proportion married or age at marriage. There is wide range of high-quality, impactful interventions included in this review which can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to eradicate marriage, a current target of the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the cultural factors that promote child marriage, the diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the cultural context of the target population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in dentists and orthodontists: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sakzewski, Lisa; Naser-ud-Din, Shazia

    2014-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD's) are on the rise worldwide. These disorders have numerous repercussions, from serious ill-health effects at the individual level to decreased workplace efficiency and productivity affecting not only quality of life but the economy. This review aims to provide an overview of WMSD's in the dental profession, more specifically, among general dental practitioners and specialist orthodontists. Literature was hand searched from Pubmed with greater emphasis on contemporary literature as the professionals demands have evolved over the years. While there have been numerous papers published relating to the prevalence of ergonomic problems among general dentists, orthodontists have received little investigation. This review highlights the need for research into the risk factors of WMSD's in the dental profession (both general dentistry and orthodontics), as this would provide a more direct approach for prevention which is essential as professionals work for longer years in practice.

  6. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, K; Canham-Chervak, M; Gazal-Carvalho, C; Jones, B; Baker, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the published evidence on interventions to prevent softball related injuries among adults, and to encourage more epidemiologic research as a foundation for future softball injury prevention efforts. Methods: The authors reviewed literature identified from six electronic databases for studies on softball related injuries. The search was limited to studies written in the English language, published between 1970 and 2002, and involving adult populations. Research was excluded that evaluated baseball ("hard ball") related injuries or was aimed at injury treatment. Identified studies were categorized by study design. Intervention/prevention papers were evaluated further and described in detail. Results: The search strategy identified 39 studies specifically related to softball. Most studies were case reports/case series (n = 13) or descriptive studies (n = 11); only four were analytic or intervention/prevention studies. Studies collected data in a variety of ways, often without denominator data to permit calculation of injury rates. Studies also did not differentiate between slow or fast pitch softball activities and most did not mention the type of softball that was used. Conclusions: Surprisingly few studies exist on interventions to reduce injuries during softball, one of the most popular recreational sports in the US. Of the existing literature, much attention has been on sliding related injuries, which comprise only a segment of softball injuries. Basic epidemiologic studies describing the nature, severity, and risk factors for softball injuries in a variety of populations are needed, followed by additional intervention evaluation studies aimed at modifiable risk factors. PMID:16203835

  7. Desktop Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Milt

    1986-01-01

    Defines desktop publishing, describes microcomputer developments and software tools that make it possible, and discusses its use as an instructional tool to improve writing skills. Reasons why students' work should be published, examples of what to publish, and types of software and hardware to facilitate publishing are reviewed. (MBR)

  8. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as…

  10. Concepts and definitions for "supportive care," "best supportive care," "palliative care," and "hospice care" in the published literature, dictionaries, and textbooks.

    PubMed

    Hui, David; De La Cruz, Maxine; Mori, Masanori; Parsons, Henrique A; Kwon, Jung Hye; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Kim, Sun Hyun; Dev, Rony; Hutchins, Ronald; Liem, Christiana; Kang, Duck-Hee; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    Commonly used terms such as "supportive care," "best supportive care," "palliative care," and "hospice care" were rarely and inconsistently defined in the palliative oncology literature. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to further identify concepts and definitions for these terms. We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and CINAHL for published peer-reviewed articles from 1948 to 2011 that conceptualized, defined, or examined these terms. Two researchers independently reviewed each citation for inclusion and then extracted the concepts/definitions when available. Dictionaries/textbooks were also searched. Nine of 32 "SC/BSC," 25 of 182 "PC," and 12 of 42 "HC" articles focused on providing a conceptual framework/definition. Common concepts for all three terms were symptom control and quality-of-life for patients with life-limiting illness. "SC" focused more on patients on active treatment compared to other categories (9/9 vs. 8/37) and less often involved interdisciplinary care (4/9 vs. 31/37). In contrast, "HC" focused more on volunteers (6/12 vs. 6/34), bereavement care (9/12 vs. 7/34), and community care (9/12 vs. 6/34). Both "PC" and "SC/BSC" were applicable earlier in the disease trajectory (16/34 vs. 0/9). We found 13, 24, and 17 different definitions for "SC/BSC," "PC," and "HC," respectively. "SC/BSC" was the most variably defined, ranging from symptom management during cancer therapy to survivorship care. Dictionaries/textbooks showed similar findings. We identified defining concepts for "SC/BSC," "PC," and "HC" and developed a preliminary conceptual framework unifying these terms along the continuum of care to help build consensus toward standardized definitions.

  11. Publishers' Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EPL Management Team

    2008-12-01

    We would like to thank all our contributors, subscribers, reviewers, and readers for their interest in EPL during 2008. You each play an invaluable role in the promotion, prestige, development and success of the journal and therefore your continued support is greatly appreciated. The Directors' vision for EPL to become a leading home for global physics letters, to offer rapid publication of ground-breaking physics results from the international community, and to provide the broadest coverage of physics research, is beginning to take shape as increased submissions, reduced acceptance rates, raised scientific quality, rapid publication, and greater visibility amongst the community are achieved. The latest published articles will continue to be freely available for 30 days from their on-line publication. Those articles highlighted by the Co-Editors in 2008 will remain free-to-all for the entire of 2009. We invite you to visit the website regularly (http://www.epljournal.org) to stay up-to-date with the journal's latest developments and to read the most recent articles. Our most recent opportunity publicized on the EPL website and in the CERN SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) messages is below: Open Access Opportunity for Authors of Experimental and Theoretical HEP Articles EPL is delighted to offer open access free of charge to all authors submitting experimental and theoretical letters in PACS codes 10 and 20. This offer will remain open until the SCOAP3 agreement at CERN takes effect. Authors submitting any article to EPL will continue to be offered the opportunity to make their published letter open access for a one-off payment. However, with effect from 1 November 2008, any author who submits work related to subject areas within PACS 10 and 20 will benefit from open access at no charge, meaning their published article will be available free to all readers, forever. ``Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields'' and

  12. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    PubMed

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Why are medical and health-related studies not being published? A systematic review of reasons given by investigators.

    PubMed

    Song, Fujian; Loke, Yoon; Hooper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    About half of medical and health-related studies are not published. We conducted a systematic review of reports on reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies in peer-reviewed journals. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (until 13/09/2013), and references of identified articles were searched to identify reports of surveys that provided data on reasons given by investigators for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission and reasons for non-publication was calculated using the number of unpublished studies as the denominator. Because of heterogeneity across studies, quantitative pooling was not conducted. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted. We included 54 survey reports. Data from 38 included reports were available to estimate proportions of at least one reason given for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission among unpublished studies ranged from 55% to 100%, with a median of 85%. The reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies included: lack of time or low priority (median 33%), studies being incomplete (median 15%), study not for publication (median 14%), manuscript in preparation or under review (median 12%), unimportant or negative result (median 12%), poor study quality or design (median 11%), fear of rejection (median 12%), rejection by journals (median 6%), author or co-author problems (median 10%), and sponsor or funder problems (median 9%). In general, the frequency of reasons given for non-publication was not associated with the source of unpublished studies, study design, or time when a survey was conducted. Non-submission of studies for publication remains the main cause of non-publication of studies. Measures to reduce non-publication of studies and alternative models of research dissemination need to be developed to address the main reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies, such as lack of time or low priority and fear of being rejected by

  14. Why Are Medical and Health-Related Studies Not Being Published? A Systematic Review of Reasons Given by Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fujian; Loke, Yoon; Hooper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective About half of medical and health-related studies are not published. We conducted a systematic review of reports on reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies in peer-reviewed journals. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (until 13/09/2013), and references of identified articles were searched to identify reports of surveys that provided data on reasons given by investigators for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission and reasons for non-publication was calculated using the number of unpublished studies as the denominator. Because of heterogeneity across studies, quantitative pooling was not conducted. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted. Results We included 54 survey reports. Data from 38 included reports were available to estimate proportions of at least one reason given for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission among unpublished studies ranged from 55% to 100%, with a median of 85%. The reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies included: lack of time or low priority (median 33%), studies being incomplete (median 15%), study not for publication (median 14%), manuscript in preparation or under review (median 12%), unimportant or negative result (median 12%), poor study quality or design (median 11%), fear of rejection (median 12%), rejection by journals (median 6%), author or co-author problems (median 10%), and sponsor or funder problems (median 9%). In general, the frequency of reasons given for non-publication was not associated with the source of unpublished studies, study design, or time when a survey was conducted. Conclusions Non-submission of studies for publication remains the main cause of non-publication of studies. Measures to reduce non-publication of studies and alternative models of research dissemination need to be developed to address the main reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies, such as lack of time or low

  15. A thirteen year audit of manuscripts related to medical education published in leading medical journals of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Waqas, Ahmed; Zia, Ahmed Marjan

    2016-04-01

    To audit the number and type of published articles related to medical education in leading Pakistani biomedical journals. The audit covered the period from January 2001 to December 2013. Journals either indexed in Medline or having an impact factor were selected. The audit was done in two phases. First, articles related to medical education were screened by reading the titles. Then abstracts were studied and articles were placed into several pre-defined categories based on article type and research topic. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. A total of 118 relevant articles were published. Of them, 60(51%) articles were published in the Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 42(35.6%) in the Journal of College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, 4(3.4%) in Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, and 12(10.2%) in the Journal of Ayub Medical College. Articles related to curriculum development were 33(28.0 %), teaching 28(23.7%), assessment 29(24.6%), faculty training 5(4.2%), continuous medical education 4(3.4%), ethics 3(2.5%), and others 16(13.6%). There is a need to increase the quality of health profession education research, documentation and audit of the global contribution of Pakistani medical educationists.

  16. Is the large simple trial design used for comparative, post-approval safety research? A review of a clinical trials registry and the published literature.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Robert F; Lem, Joanna A; Gatto, Nicolle M; Eng, Sybil M

    2011-10-01

    Post-approval, observational drug safety studies face well known difficulties in controlling for confounding, particularly confounding by indication for drug use. A study design that addresses confounding by indication is the large simple trial (LST). LSTs are characterized by large sample sizes, often in the thousands; broad entry criteria consistent with the approved medication label; randomization based on equipoise, i.e. neither physician nor patient believes that one treatment option is superior; minimal, streamlined data collection requirements; objectively-measured endpoints (e.g. death, hospitalization); and follow-up that minimizes interventions or interference with normal clinical practice. In theory then, the LST is a preferred study design for drug and vaccine safety research because it controls for biases inherent to observational research while still providing results that are generalizable to 'real-world' use. To evaluate whether LSTs are used for comparative safety evaluation and if the design is, in fact, advantageous compared with other designs, we conducted a review of the published literature (1949 through 31 December 2010) and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry (2000 through 31 December 2010). Thirteen ongoing or completed safety LSTs were identified. The design has rarely been used in comparative drug safety research, which is due to the operational, financial and scientific hurdles of implementing the design. The studies that have been completed addressed important clinical questions and, in some cases, led to re-evaluation of medical practice. We conclude the design has demonstrated utility for comparative safety research of medicines and vaccines if the necessary scientific and operational conditions for its use are met.

  17. Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): Results ofanimal bioassays published in the general literature through 1997 and bythe National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Lois Swirsky; Manley, Neela B.; Slone, Thomas H.

    2005-04-08

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a systematic and unifying resource that standardizes the results of chronic, long-term animal cancer tests which have been conducted since the 1950s. The analyses include sufficient information on each experiment to permit research into many areas of carcinogenesis. Both qualitative and quantitative information is reported on positive and negative experiments that meet a set of inclusion criteria. A measure of carcinogenic potency, TD50 (daily dose rate in mg/kg body weight/day to induce tumors in half of test animals that would have remained tumor-free at zero dose), is estimated for each tissue-tumor combination reported. Thismore » article is the ninth publication of a chronological plot of the CPDB; it presents results on 560 experiments of 188 chemicals in mice, rats, and hamsters from 185 publications in the general literature updated through 1997, and from 15 Reports of the National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998. The test agents cover a wide variety of uses and chemical classes. The CPDB Web Site(http://potency.berkeley.edu/) presents the combined database of all published plots in a variety of formats as well as summary tables by chemical and by target organ, supplemental materials on dosing and survival, a detailed guide to using the plot formats, and documentation of methods and publications. The overall CPDB, including the results in this article, presents easily accessible results of 6153 experiments on 1485 chemicals from 1426 papers and 429 NCI/NTP (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology program) Technical Reports. A tab-separated format of the full CPDB for reading the data into spreadsheets or database applications is available on the Web Site.« less

  18. Why Publish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    In humanities, there does not seem to be any good reason to privilege the academic journal over other venues. If the goal of humanities publishing is to spread new ideas, then it seems that creating a popular Internet blog would be the better choice. However, the goal of humanities publishing is not just to spread new ideas, but to spread "good"…

  19. Mining of relations between proteins over biomedical scientific literature using a deep-linguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Schneider, Gerold; Kaljurand, Kaarel; Hess, Michael; Andronis, Christos; Konstandi, Ourania; Persidis, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    The amount of new discoveries (as published in the scientific literature) in the biomedical area is growing at an exponential rate. This growth makes it very difficult to filter the most relevant results, and thus the extraction of the core information becomes very expensive. Therefore, there is a growing interest in text processing approaches that can deliver selected information from scientific publications, which can limit the amount of human intervention normally needed to gather those results. This paper presents and evaluates an approach aimed at automating the process of extracting functional relations (e.g. interactions between genes and proteins) from scientific literature in the biomedical domain. The approach, using a novel dependency-based parser, is based on a complete syntactic analysis of the corpus. We have implemented a state-of-the-art text mining system for biomedical literature, based on a deep-linguistic, full-parsing approach. The results are validated on two different corpora: the manually annotated genomics information access (GENIA) corpus and the automatically annotated arabidopsis thaliana circadian rhythms (ATCR) corpus. We show how a deep-linguistic approach (contrary to common belief) can be used in a real world text mining application, offering high-precision relation extraction, while at the same time retaining a sufficient recall.

  20. A Systematic Review and Taxonomy of Published Quality Criteria Related to the Evaluation of User-Facing eHealth Programs.

    PubMed

    Baumel, Amit; Birnbaum, Michael L; Sucala, Madalina

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify and classify key criteria concepts related to the evaluation of user-facing eHealth programs. In line with the PRISMA statement methodology, computer searches of relevant databases were conducted for studies published between January 1, 2000 and March 1, 2016 that contained explicit quality criteria related to mHealth and eHealth products. Reference lists of included articles, review articles, and grey literature (e.g., books, websites) were searched for additional sources. A team of nine experts led by the first author was gathered to support the classification of these criteria. Identified criteria were extracted, grouped and organized using an inductive thematic analysis. Eighty-four sources - emanating from 26 different courtiers - were included in this review. The team extracted 454 criteria that were grouped into 11 quality domains, 58 criteria concepts and 134 concepts' sub-groups. Quality domains were: Usability, Visual Design, User Engagement, Content, Behavior Change/Persuasive Design, Influence of Social Presence, Therapeutic Alliance, Classification, Credibility/Accountability, and Privacy/Security. Findings suggest that authors around the globe agree on key criteria concepts when evaluating user-facing eHealth products. The high proportion of new published criteria in the second half of this review time-frame (2008-2016), and more specifically, the high proportion of criteria relating to persuasive design, therapeutic alliance and privacy/security within this time-frame, points to the advancements made in recent years within this field.

  1. "Getting the Point" of Literature: Relations between Processing and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Candice; Goldman, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of literary experts and novices indicate that experts engage in interpretive processes to "get the point" during their reading of literary texts but novices do not. In two studies the reading and interpretive processes of literary novices (undergraduates with no formal training in literature study) were elicited through…

  2. Teaching Poetry in Elementary Grades: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Theresa N.

    In order to assess current ideas, reveal their shortcomings, and suggest steps for future investigation, this review of the literature on teaching poetry discusses definitions of poetry, references on teaching poetry, teaching methods, poetic forms, experimental research, and the benefits of poetry. The paper concludes that the lack of empirical…

  3. Neurological manifestations of autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease: a comparison of the published literature with the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS).

    PubMed

    Tang, Mengxuan; Ryman, Davis C; McDade, Eric; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Buckles, Virginia D; Cairns, Nigel J; Fagan, Anne M; Goate, Alison; Marcus, Daniel S; Xiong, Chengjie; Allegri, Ricardo F; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P; Danek, Adrian; Farlow, Martin R; Fox, Nick C; Ghetti, Bernardino; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Laske, Christopher; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Mayeux, Richard P; Ringman, John M; Rossor, Martin N; Salloway, Stephen P; Schofield, Peter R; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J

    2016-12-01

    Autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is a rare disorder with non-amnestic neurological symptoms in some clinical presentations. We aimed to compile and compare data from symptomatic participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS) with those reported in the literature to estimate the prevalences of non-amnestic neurological symptoms in participants with ADAD. We prospectively collected data from the DIAN-OBS database, which recruited participants from study centres in the USA, Europe, and Australia, between Feb 29, 2008, and July 1, 2014. We also did a systematic review of publications to extract individual-level clinical data for symptomatic participants with ADAD. We used data for age of onset (from first report of cognitive decline), disease course from onset to death, and the presence of 13 neurological findings that have been reported in association with ADAD. Using multivariable linear regression, we investigated the prevalences of various non-amnestic neurological symptoms and the contributions of age of onset and specific mutation type on symptoms. The DIAN-OBS dataset included 107 individuals with detailed clinical data (forming the DIAN-OBS cohort). Our systematic review yielded 188 publications reporting on 1228 symptomatic individuals, with detailed neurological examination descriptions available for 753 individuals (forming the published data cohort). The most prevalent non-amnestic cognitive manifestations in participants in the DIAN-OBS cohort were those typical of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, including visual agnosia (55·1%, 95% CI 45·7-64·6), aphasia (57·9%, 48·6-67·3), and behavioural changes (61·7%, 51·5-70·0). Non-amnestic cognitive manifestations were less prevalent in the published data cohort (eg, visual agnosia [5·6%, 3·9-7·2], aphasia [23·0%, 20·0-26·0], and behavioural changes [31·7%, 28·4-35·1]). Prevalence of non-cognitive neurological manifestations in

  4. Meeting the challenge for effective antimicrobial stewardship programs in regional, rural and remote hospitals - what can we learn from the published literature?

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jaclyn; Kong, David Cm; Schulz, Thomas R; Thursky, Karin A; Buising, Kirsty L

    2018-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been recognised as an urgent health priority, both nationally and internationally. Australian hospitals are required to have an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program, yet the necessary resources may not be available in regional, rural or remote hospitals. This review will describe models for AMS programs that have been introduced in regional, rural or remote hospitals internationally and showcase achievements and key considerations that may guide Australian hospitals in establishing or sustaining AMS programs in the regional, rural or remote hospital setting. A narrative review was undertaken based on literature retrieved from searches in Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and the grey literature. 'Cited' and 'cited by' searches were undertaken to identify additional articles. Articles were included if they described an AMS program in the regional, rural or remote hospital setting (defined as a bed size less than 300 and located in a non-metropolitan setting). Eighteen articles were selected for inclusion. The AMS initiatives described were categorised into models designed to address two different challenges relating to AMS program delivery in regional, rural and remote hospitals. This included models to enable regional, rural and remote hospital staff to manage AMS programs in the absence of on-site infectious diseases (ID) trained experts. Non-ID doctor-led, pharmacist-led and externally led initiatives were identified. Lack of pharmacist resources was recognised as a core barrier to the further development of a pharmacist-led model. The second challenge was access to timely off-site expert ID clinical advice when required. Examples where this had been overcome included models utilising visiting ID specialists, telehealth and hospital network structures. Formalisation of such arrangements is important to clarify the accountabilities of all parties and enhance the quality of the service. Information technology was identified

  5. Mind the Gap! A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Variation in Published Cost-Effectiveness Estimates within and between Countries

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christian E. H.; Lord, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Published cost-effectiveness estimates can vary considerably, both within and between countries. Despite extensive discussion, little is known empirically about factors relating to these variations. Objectives. To use multilevel statistical modeling to integrate cost-effectiveness estimates from published economic evaluations to investigate potential causes of variation. Methods. Cost-effectiveness studies of statins for cardiovascular disease prevention were identified by systematic review. Estimates of incremental costs and effects were extracted from reported base case, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses, with estimates grouped in studies and in countries. Three bivariate models were developed: a cross-classified model to accommodate data from multinational studies, a hierarchical model with multinational data allocated to a single category at country level, and a hierarchical model excluding multinational data. Covariates at different levels were drawn from a long list of factors suggested in the literature. Results. We found 67 studies reporting 2094 cost-effectiveness estimates relating to 23 countries (6 studies reporting for more than 1 country). Data and study-level covariates included patient characteristics, intervention and comparator cost, and some study methods (e.g., discount rates and time horizon). After adjusting for these factors, the proportion of variation attributable to countries was negligible in the cross-classified model but moderate in the hierarchical models (14%−19% of total variance). Country-level variables that improved the fit of the hierarchical models included measures of income and health care finance, health care resources, and population risks. Conclusions. Our analysis suggested that variability in published cost-effectiveness estimates is related more to differences in study methods than to differences in national context. Multinational studies were associated with much lower country-level variation than single

  6. Mind the Gap! A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Variation in Published Cost-Effectiveness Estimates within and between Countries.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Christian E H; Lord, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Published cost-effectiveness estimates can vary considerably, both within and between countries. Despite extensive discussion, little is known empirically about factors relating to these variations. To use multilevel statistical modeling to integrate cost-effectiveness estimates from published economic evaluations to investigate potential causes of variation. Cost-effectiveness studies of statins for cardiovascular disease prevention were identified by systematic review. Estimates of incremental costs and effects were extracted from reported base case, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses, with estimates grouped in studies and in countries. Three bivariate models were developed: a cross-classified model to accommodate data from multinational studies, a hierarchical model with multinational data allocated to a single category at country level, and a hierarchical model excluding multinational data. Covariates at different levels were drawn from a long list of factors suggested in the literature. We found 67 studies reporting 2094 cost-effectiveness estimates relating to 23 countries (6 studies reporting for more than 1 country). Data and study-level covariates included patient characteristics, intervention and comparator cost, and some study methods (e.g., discount rates and time horizon). After adjusting for these factors, the proportion of variation attributable to countries was negligible in the cross-classified model but moderate in the hierarchical models (14%-19% of total variance). Country-level variables that improved the fit of the hierarchical models included measures of income and health care finance, health care resources, and population risks. Our analysis suggested that variability in published cost-effectiveness estimates is related more to differences in study methods than to differences in national context. Multinational studies were associated with much lower country-level variation than single-country studies. These findings are for a single clinical

  7. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Methods Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. Results A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Conclusions Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations. PMID:22966953

  8. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    PubMed

    Lenters, Virissa; Basinas, Ioannis; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Boffetta, Paolo; Checkoway, Harvey; Coggon, David; Portengen, Lützen; Sim, Malcolm; Wouters, Inge M; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2010-04-01

    To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. Risk estimates were extracted from studies published before 2009 that met predefined quality criteria, including 8 cohort, 1 case-cohort, and 2 case-control studies of cotton textile industry workers, and 15 cohort and 2 case-control studies of agricultural workers. Summary risk estimates were calculated using random effects meta-analyses. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses. The summary risk of lung cancer was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57-0.90) for textile workers and 0.62 (0.52-0.75) for agricultural workers. The relative risk of lung cancer was below 1.0 for most subgroups defined according to sex, study design, outcome, smoking adjustment, and geographic area. Two studies provided quantitative estimates of endotoxin exposure and both studies tended to support a dose-dependent protective effect of endotoxins on lung cancer risk. Despite several limitations, this meta-analysis based on high-quality studies adds weight to the hypothesis that occupational exposure to endotoxin in cotton textile production and agriculture is protective against lung cancer.

  9. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet: systematic review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M; Tuorila, H; Bertenshaw, E J; de Graaf, C; Mela, D J

    2018-03-01

    There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet. Systematic searches were conducted to identify all studies testing relations of variation in exposure to sweetness through foods and beverages with subsequent variation in the generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweetened foods or beverages, in humans aged >6 mo. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 7 population cohort studies involving 2320 children and 14 controlled trials involving 1113 individuals. These studies were heterogeneous in study design, population, exposure, and outcomes measured, and few were explicitly designed to address our research question. The findings from these were inconsistent. We found equivocal evidence from population cohort studies. The evidence from controlled studies suggests that a higher sweet taste exposure tends to lead to reduced preferences for sweetness in the shorter term, but very limited effects were found in the longer term. A small and heterogeneous body of research currently has considered the impact of varying exposure to sweet taste on subsequent generalized sweet taste preferences, and this evidence is equivocal regarding the presence and possible direction of a relation. Future work should focus on adequately powered studies with well-characterized exposures of sufficient duration. This review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016051840, 24 November 2016.

  10. Dear Publisher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelton, Mary K.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses issues that concern the relationship between publishers and librarians, including differences between libraries and bookstores; necessary information for advertisements; out-of-stock designations and their effect on budgets; the role of distributors and vendors; direct mail for book promotions; unsolicited review copies; communications…

  11. Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  12. Relation between randomized controlled trials published in leading general medical journals and the global burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Rochon, Paula A.; Mashari, Azad; Cohen, Ariel; Misra, Anjali; Laxer, Dara; Streiner, David L.; Dergal, Julie M.; Clark, Jocalyn P.; Gold, Jennifer; Binns, Malcolm A.

    2004-01-01

    Background More than two-thirds of the world's population live in low-income countries, where health priorities are different from those of people living in more affluent parts of the world. We evaluated the relation between the global burden of disease and conditions or diseases studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in general medical journals. Methods A MEDLINE search identified 373 RCTs that had been published in 6 international peer-reviewed general medical journals in 1999. Manual review excluded non-RCTs, brief reports and trials in which the unit of randomization was not the patient; 286 RCTs remained eligible for analysis. We identified the RCTs that studied any of the 40 leading causes of the global burden of disease. Five of these conditions were considered unsuitable for study with an RCT design and were excluded from subsequent analysis. To provide a practical perspective, we asked 12 experts working with international health organizations to rate the relevance to global health of the articles that studied any of the top 10 causes of the global burden of disease, as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and mortality, using a 5-point Likert scale. Results Among the 286 RCTs in our sample, 124 (43.4%) addressed 1 of the 35 leading causes of the global burden of disease. Of these, ischemic heart disease, HIV/AIDS and cerebrovascular disease were the most commonly studied conditions. Ninety articles (31.5%) studied 1 of the top 10 causes of the global burden of disease. The mean rating (and standard deviation) for international health relevance assigned by experts was 2.6 (1.5) out of 5. Only 14 (16%) of the 90 trials received a rating of 4 or greater, indicating high relevance to international health. Almost half of the 40 leading causes of the global burden of disease were not studied by any trial. Interpretation Many conditions or diseases common internationally are underrepresented in RCTs published in leading general

  13. Advancing the science of health research capacity strengthening in low-income and middle-income countries: a scoping review of the published literature, 2000–2016

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Laura; Gregorius, Stefanie; Pulford, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Substantial development assistance and research funding are invested in health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, yet the effectiveness, impact and value for money of these investments are not well understood. A major constraint to evidence-informed HRCS intervention has been the disparate nature of the research effort to date. This review aims to map and critically analyse the existing HRCS effort to better understand the level, type, cohesion and conceptual sophistication of the current evidence base. The overall goal of this article is to advance the development of a unified, implementation-focused HRCS science. Methods We used a scoping review methodology to identify peer-reviewed HRCS literature within the following databases: PubMed, Global Health and Scopus. HRCS publications available in English between the period 2000 and 2016 were included. 1195 articles were retrieved of which 172 met the final inclusion criteria. A priori thematic analysis of all included articles was completed. Content analysis of identified HRCS definitions was conducted. Results The number of HRCS publications increased exponentially between 2000 and 2016. Most publications during this period were perspective, opinion or commentary pieces; however, original research publications were the primary publication type since 2013. Twenty-five different definitions of research capacity strengthening were identified, of which three aligned with current HRCS guidelines. Conclusions The review findings indicate that an HRCS research field with a focus on implementation science is emerging, although the conceptual and empirical bases are not yet sufficiently advanced to effectively inform HRCS programme planning. Consolidating an HRCS implementation science therefore presents as a viable option that may accelerate the development of a useful evidence base to inform HRCS programme planning. Identifying an agreed operational

  14. Relational mechanisms and psychological outcomes in couples affected by breast cancer: a systematic narrative analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Gill; Menzies, Sandra; Flynn, Pamela; Adams, Sally; Haseen, Farhana; Thomas, Ian; Scanlon, Karen; Reed, Liz; Forbat, Liz

    2013-09-01

    Relationships are a significant dimension of illness experience. At the couple level, partners will respond to illness as an interpersonal unit rather than individuals in isolation. Research adopting a relational perspective have focused on communication, relational coping and relationship functioning and satisfaction. To our knowledge, there is no published systematic review of literature that reports associations between a couple's relationship and psychological outcomes of patients and partners affected by breast cancer. To review studies that examine the impact of relational mechanisms on psychological outcomes in couples affected by breast cancer and thereby improve understanding of the connections between patient, disease and family. A systematic search for literature was conducted, which was followed by a thematic analysis of study findings and a narrative synthesis. Sixteen papers were included. Papers were published relatively recently between 1988 and 2010. Three relational components were identified: (i) couple coping, (ii) relationship functioning and satisfaction, (iii) communication. While the literature indicates associations between relational and psychological variables, with such a small evidence base, the use of different terminology and different theoretical frameworks makes it almost impossible to draw definitive conclusions about which relational component holds greatest potential for effecting change on psychological well-being. While there remain many opportunities for contributing to the theoretical and empirical work in this field, there is sufficient evidence to propose a relational approach to supporting people affected by cancer.

  15. Who is research serving? A systematic realist review of circumpolar environment-related Indigenous health literature

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Background Addressing factors leading to health disparities in the Circumpolar North require approaches that consider and address the social determinants of health including on-going colonization. Today, colonization and related policies and processes, continue to manifest in the marginalization of Indigenous knowledge, particularly its use in research; however, Indigenous populations have moved from being research subjects to leaders and consumers of environmental health research. Given the tensions that exist between how health research is conducted, how the results are mobilized, and who has control and access to the results, we examine how peer-reviewed environment-related Indigenous health research in the Circumpolar North is serving the needs of Indigenous communities, governments, and organizations. Methods A modified systematic-realist literature review was conducted. Three databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published from 2000 to 2015. Articles were included if the research focused on the intersection of the environment and health in Northern Canada and/or Alaska. A total of 960 unique records were screened for relevance, and 210 articles were analysed. Results Of these relevant articles, 19% discussed how Indigenous peoples were engaged in the research. There was a significant increase in reporting participatory, community-based methods over time; the proportion of articles reporting community-engagement varied by research topic; quantitative research articles were significantly less likely to report community-engaged methods; and most articles did not clearly report how the results were shared with the community. Conclusion The results raise a number of questions for the field of Circumpolar environment-related Indigenous health research, including whether or how authors of peer-reviewed literature should (or should not) be obliged to describe how research is serving Northern Indigenous communities. The results are intended to stimulate

  16. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer: meta-analyses of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Loftus, Christine T; Zu, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Despite evidence from experimental studies indicating that the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), is not carcinogenic, several epidemiology studies have evaluated links between 2,4-D and cancer. Some suggest that 2,4-D is associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the weight of epidemiology evidence for these cancers. We identified articles from PubMed, Scopus, and TOXLINE databases and reference lists of review articles. We evaluated study quality and calculated summary risk estimates using random effects models. We conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses when possible. We identified nine NHL, three gastric cancer, and two prostate cancer studies for inclusion in our meta-analyses. We found that 2,4-D was not associated with NHL (relative risk [RR] = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77-1.22, I(2) = 28.8%, Pheterogeneity = .19), and this result was generally robust to subgroup and sensitivity analyses. 2,4-D was not associated with gastric (RR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.62-2.10, I(2) = 54.9%, Pheterogeneity = .11) or prostate cancer (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 0.37-4.69, I(2) 87.0%, Pheterogeneity = .01). The epidemiology evidence does not support an association between 2,4-D and NHL, gastric cancer, or prostate cancer risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Etiology of depression comorbidity in combat-related PTSD: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Highfill-McRoy, Robyn M

    2014-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is often diagnosed with other mental health problems, particularly depression. Although PTSD comorbidity has been associated with more severe and chronic symptomology, relationships among commonly co-occurring disorders are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to review the literature regarding the development of depression comorbid with combat-related PTSD among military personnel. We summarize results of commonly tested hypotheses about the etiology of PTSD and depression comorbidity, including (1) causal hypotheses, (2) common factor hypotheses, and (3) potential confounds. Evidence suggests that PTSD may be a causal risk factor for subsequent depression; however, associations are likely complex, involving bidirectional causality, common risk factors, and common vulnerabilities. The unique nature of PTSD-depression comorbidity in the context of military deployment and combat exposure is emphasized. Implications of our results for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents theirmore » technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.« less

  19. Why Aren't E-Books Gaining More Ground in Academic Libraries? E-Book Use and Perceptions: A Review of Published Literature and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Robert

    2010-01-01

    E-books have yet to assume a significant place in academic library collections. This article focuses on extracting common themes from the literature that might help the reader better understand why e-books have not yet become the cornerstone of the academic library. Patrons do not use e-books because they find the experience of using e-books…

  20. Relation between Time Perspective and Delay Discounting: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Ursina; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relation between delay discounting and future time perspective by reviewing how these concepts have been measured and quantified in order to assess their conceptual similarities. The extent to which the different measures are empirically related is reviewed by describing studies that have assessed both constructs…

  1. Publisher's Announcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashan, Yasmin

    2008-01-01

    Important changes for 2008 As a result of reviewing several aspects of our content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008. These changes are described below: Article numbering Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Papers in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance, from this issue: Z Y Chen et al 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 015001 Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. A new look and feel We have also taken the opportunity to refresh the design of the journal cover, in order to modernise the typography and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. We hope you like the new cover. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at ppcf@iop.org.

  2. Publisher's Announcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scriven, Neil

    2003-12-01

    We are delighted to announce that the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General for 2004 will be Professor Carl M Bender of Washington University, St. Louis. Carl will, with the help of his world class editorial board, maintain standards of scientific rigour whilst ensuring that research published is of the highest importance. Carl attained his first degree in physics at Cornell University before studying for his PhD at Harvard. He later worked at The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and at MIT before assuming his current position at Washington University, St Louis. He has been a visiting professor at Technion, Haifa, and Imperial College, London and a scientific consultant for Los Alamos National Laboratory. His main expertise is in using classical applied mathematics to solve a broad range of problems in high-energy theoretical physics and mathematical physics. Since the publication of his book Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, written with Steven Orszag, he has been regarded as an expert on the subject of asymptotic analysis and perturbative methods. `Carl publishes his own internationally-important research in the journal and has been an invaluable, energetic member of the Editorial Board for some time' said Professor Ed Corrigan, Carl's predecessor as Editor, `he will be an excellent Editor-in-Chief'. Our grateful thanks and best wishes go to Professor Corrigan who has done a magnificent job for the journal during his five-year tenure.

  3. Trends in funding, internationalization, and types of study for original articles published in five implant-related journals between 2005 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Shyamsunder, Nodesh; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Knoernschild, Kent L; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the trends in funding, geographic origin, and study types of original articles in the dental implant literature and to investigate the relationships among these factors. Articles published in Clinical Oral Implants Research, The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Implant Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Implantology from 2005 to 2009 were reviewed. Nonoriginal articles were excluded. For each article included, extramural funding source, geographic origin, and study type were recorded. Descriptive and analytic analyses (α = .05), including a logistic regression analysis, and chi-square test were used where appropriate. Of a total of 2,085 articles published, 1,503 met the inclusion criteria. The most common source of funding was from industry (32.4%). The proportion of studies that reported funding increased significantly over time. Europe represented the highest percentage (55.8%) of published articles. Most of the articles reported on clinical studies (49.9%), followed by animal studies (25.9%). Articles from Asia and South America and animal and in vitro studies were significantly more likely to be funded. Almost half of the original dental implant articles were funded. The trend toward internationalization of authorship was evident. A strong association was observed between funding and geographic origin and between funding and study type. Most studies in North America and Europe were clinical studies and supported by industry, whereas a greater proportion of studies in Asia and South America were in vitro or animal studies funded through government resources.

  4. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes

  5. Sex Differences in Trauma-Related Psychopathology: a Critical Review of Neuroimaging Literature (2014-2017).

    PubMed

    Helpman, Liat; Zhu, Xi; Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Lazarov, Amit; Monk, Catherine; Neria, Yuval

    2017-11-08

    Sex differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of trauma-related psychopathology have long been documented. Multiple underlying mechanisms have been examined, both psychosocial and biological. Among the most promising biological mechanisms are neural substrates of trauma-related psychopathology that have been uncovered in recent years. Neuroimaging studies of sex-related heterogeneity published over the past 3 years (2014-2017) demonstrate an interaction between sex and type, timing, and load of trauma exposure. These studies suggest that, for males, early trauma exposure may involve a loss of gray matter in the limbic system, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and hippocampus, and an over-activity and increased connectivity of salience hubs, and particularly dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). For females, however, early trauma exposure may involve overactive and possibly an enlarged amygdala, as well as decreased connectivity of salience hubs such as the dACC. Underlying mechanisms may include interaction with several endocrine systems and result in differential neural response to naturally occurring and added endocrine ligands, as well as sex-specific genetic and epigenetic risk and resilience factors. This complex interaction between multiple biological systems may be associated with sex-specific behavioral patterns, in turn associated with trauma-related psychopathology. While substantial number of published studies present preliminary evidence for neural mechanisms of sex-specific posttraumatic responses, there is a paucity of research directly designed to examine sex as a biological factor in trauma-related psychopathology. Specific foci for future studies aiming to bridge current gaps in the literature are discussed.

  6. Publisher: professional or profiteer?

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, W A

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the general economics of journal and monograph publishing. The costs related to acquisition, production, marketing, and distribution of journals and monographs are analyzed by considering "typical" cost elements borne by all scientific and medical publishers. PMID:7362922

  7. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  8. Deep learning of mutation-gene-drug relations from the literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyubum; Kim, Byounggun; Choi, Yonghwa; Kim, Sunkyu; Shin, Wonho; Lee, Sunwon; Park, Sungjoon; Kim, Seongsoon; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2018-01-25

    Molecular biomarkers that can predict drug efficacy in cancer patients are crucial components for the advancement of precision medicine. However, identifying these molecular biomarkers remains a laborious and challenging task. Next-generation sequencing of patients and preclinical models have increasingly led to the identification of novel gene-mutation-drug relations, and these results have been reported and published in the scientific literature. Here, we present two new computational methods that utilize all the PubMed articles as domain specific background knowledge to assist in the extraction and curation of gene-mutation-drug relations from the literature. The first method uses the Biomedical Entity Search Tool (BEST) scoring results as some of the features to train the machine learning classifiers. The second method uses not only the BEST scoring results, but also word vectors in a deep convolutional neural network model that are constructed from and trained on numerous documents such as PubMed abstracts and Google News articles. Using the features obtained from both the BEST search engine scores and word vectors, we extract mutation-gene and mutation-drug relations from the literature using machine learning classifiers such as random forest and deep convolutional neural networks. Our methods achieved better results compared with the state-of-the-art methods. We used our proposed features in a simple machine learning model, and obtained F1-scores of 0.96 and 0.82 for mutation-gene and mutation-drug relation classification, respectively. We also developed a deep learning classification model using convolutional neural networks, BEST scores, and the word embeddings that are pre-trained on PubMed or Google News data. Using deep learning, the classification accuracy improved, and F1-scores of 0.96 and 0.86 were obtained for the mutation-gene and mutation-drug relations, respectively. We believe that our computational methods described in this research could be

  9. Literature and the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katahira, Jenifer

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  10. Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Denton E.; And Others

    This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…

  11. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Luka A.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel. PMID:28263989

  12. Topiramate in the treatment of substance related disorders: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shinn, Ann K.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To critically review the literature on topiramate in the treatment of substance related disorders. Data Sources A PubMed search of human studies published in English through January 2009. Study Selection 26 articles were identified and reviewed; these studies examined topiramate in disorders related to alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines. Data Extraction Study design, sample size, topiramate dose and duration, and study outcomes were reviewed. Data Synthesis There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Two trials show trends for topiramate’s superiority over oral naltrexone in alcohol dependence, while one trial suggests topiramate is inferior to disulfiram. Despite suggestive animal models, evidence for topiramate in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans is slim. Studies of topiramate in nicotine dependence show mixed results. Human laboratory studies that used acute topiramate dosing show that topiramate actually enhances the pleasurable effects of both nicotine and methamphetamine. Evidence for topiramate in the treatment of cocaine dependence is promising, but limited by small sample size. The data on opioids, benzodiazepines, and ecstasy are sparse. Conclusion Topiramate is efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but side effects may limit widespread use. While topiramate’s unique pharmacodynamic profile offers a promising theoretical rationale for use across multiple substance related disorders, heterogeneity both across and within these disorders limits topiramate’s broad applicability in treating substance related disorders. Recommendations for future research include exploration of genetic variants for more targeted pharmacotherapies. PMID:20361908

  13. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision.

    PubMed

    Lamurias, Andre; Clarke, Luka A; Couto, Francisco M

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel.

  14. Nurse-led ranibizumab intravitreal injections in wet age-related macular degeneration: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Emma

    2017-04-12

    Aim The aim of this literature review was to explore the development of the role of specialist ophthalmic nurses in delivering ranibizumab intravitreal injections to patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to evaluate their contribution to reducing capacity pressures in medical retina services, while maintaining safe and effective standards of care. Method A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify relevant articles published between January 2000 and June 2015. A search of electronic databases was undertaken, and selected relevant journals were searched manually. A free text and subject heading search strategy was conducted, in which the abstracts of publications identified for review were assessed for relevance. Inclusion criteria were: nurses delivering ranibizumab intravitreal treatment; studies performed in the UK and other countries; and patients with AMD, diabetic macular oedema or central retinal vein occlusion receiving nurse-led ranibizumab (Lucentis) intravitreal treatment. Findings Five studies were identified from the literature search, which audited a total of 31,303 injections delivered by nurse practitioners between January 2007 and November 2013. The visual outcomes and the rate of complications from intravitreal injections delivered by trained ophthalmic nurse practitioners were comparable to intravitreal injections delivered by ophthalmologists. Four of the five studies reported increased patient satisfaction, patients consenting to nurse-delivered intravitreal injections, favourable pain experience, and absence of complaints. Conclusion Practice innovation is an example of a quality, innovation, productivity and prevention process. Role expansion, in which specialist ophthalmic nurses deliver intravitreal injections, has been shown to be economical, safe and effective. It enables timely delivery of the service, thereby preventing irreversible blindness for individuals with wet AMD.

  15. Conceptualising School-Community Relations in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods: Mapping the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kirstin; Dyson, Alan; Gallannaugh, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background: The field of school-community relations is well established in the scholarly literature. However, its largely descriptive and fragmented nature has served to disguise its conceptual complexity. To date, the sets of assumptions about school-community relations which underpin the literature, and the opportunities, tensions and…

  16. Geometry-Related Children's Literature Improves the Geometry Achievement and Attitudes of Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Erica M.; Morris, Wendy L.; Fennell, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Use of mathematics-related literature can engage students' interest and increase their understanding of mathematical concepts. A quasi-experimental study of two second-grade classrooms assessed whether daily inclusion of geometry-related literature in the classroom improved attitudes toward geometry and achievement in geometry. Consistent with the…

  17. Significant weight loss following clozapine use, how is it possible? A case report and review of published cases and literature relevant to the subject.

    PubMed

    Tungaraza, Tongeji E

    2016-10-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that clozapine is more efficacious than other antipsychotics in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a number of side effects including weight gain. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain has been linked with a number of untoward events including psychological factors such as stigma and low self-esteem, and physical factors such as metabolic syndromes and untimely death. The mechanism underlying antipsychotic (including clozapine)-induced weight gain is not clearly understood, although it is said to involve several brain areas, several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and genetic factors. To some individuals however, clozapine use is associated with significant weight loss (13.5-50% of body weight). The observed weight loss in these groups of patients has not been attributed to any underlying diagnosable physical disorders. There have been a handful cases published with this phenomenon, which seems to be contrary to what is expected when clozapine is prescribed. From the currently published cases three groups emerge - those who lost weight simply by taking clozapine, those who lost weight due to improved mental state, engaging in diet and increased exercise, and those for whom weight loss was a sign of a poor response to clozapine. A case of JX who has a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is presented. JX lost over 26% of her body weight when she was prescribed clozapine. A detailed review of other published cases is undertaken. The underlying mechanisms involving weight loss are discussed and the implications to clinicians are highlighted. Coordinated studies to examine these groups of patients may provide some insight, not only in the mechanism of clozapine-induced weight loss, but also in the better management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia involving clozapine use.

  18. Acupuncture and related techniques during perioperative period: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Acar, H Volkan

    2016-12-01

    Acupuncture has been used in the Far East for more than 2000 years. Since the early 1970s, this technique has been gaining popularity among Western medical community. A number of studies suggest that its mechanism of effect can be explained in biomedical terms. In this context, a number of transmitters and modulators including beta-endorphin, serotonin, substance P, interleukins, and calcitonin gene-related peptide are released. For that reason, acupuncture can be used in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Studies showed that acupuncture may have beneficial effect in perioperative period. It relieves preoperative anxiety, decreases postoperative analgesic requirements, and decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this review article, we examine perioperative use of acupuncture for a variety of conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology – which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention. PMID:21522213

  20. Relating patenting and peer-review publications: an extended perspective on the vascular health and risk management literature.

    PubMed

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2011-01-01

    This investigation identifies patent applications published under the international Patent Convention Treaty between July 2010 and January 2011 in three significant fields of vascular risk management (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms) and investigates whether the inventors have also published peer reviewed papers directly describing their claimed invention. Out of only 48 patent documents that specifically addressed at least one of the above-mentioned fields, 15 had immediate companion papers of which 13 were published earlier than the corresponding patent applications; the majority of these papers were published by noncorporate patentees. Although the majority of patent applications (30 documents) had at least one corporate assignee, 18 came from academic environments. As expected, medical devices dominated in the aneurysm segment while pharmacology dominated hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although information related to hypertension, atherosclerosis, or aneurysms that was claimed in international patent applications reached the public quicker through the corresponding peer review document if one was published, more than two-thirds of the patent applications had no such companion paper in a scientific journal. The patent literature, which is freely available online as full text, offers information to scientists and developers in the fields of vascular risk management that is not available from the peer reviewed literature.

  1. [Family practices related to breast-feeding maintenance: literature review and meta-synthesis].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Alder Mourão; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone

    2013-08-01

    To identify and summarize family practices related to the maintenance of breast-feeding. We conducted a literature review and meta-synthesis of the findings of selected articles. Fourteen articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish between 1989 and 2009 were selected. The synthesis revealed five categories concerning family practices related to the maintenance of breast-feeding: 1) emotional support, which involves welcoming the mother and the baby, valuing and encouraging breast-feeding, and emphasizing the value of breast-feeding; 2) instrumental support, which covers attending prenatal consultations and home visits, participating in baby care, and providing help in everyday tasks beyond the first few weeks postpartum; 3) informational support, which involves stating the wish to be involved in breast-feeding and encouraging the mother, but not forcing her to share experiences; 4) presence support, which involves being close to the mother and taking the time to listen to her; and 5) self-support, which involves maintaining positive expectations about breast-feeding. The results show that practices defined as support contribute to the maintenance of breast-feeding for longer periods. These findings underscore the need for expansion of the care provided to women, children, and families to include issues related to interpersonal interactions.

  2. Perspectives on Adolescent Sexual Relations With Older Persons: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna

    2018-01-01

    Relations between minors under the age of consent and older persons are legally prohibited in many countries. However, the nature of these relationships, their impact on the lives of minors involved, and how they should be dealt by law enforcement and welfare systems are highly controversial. The differences between the way these relations are perceived by the minors involved and the public are also unclear. This literature review examines them as perceived by youths or young adults who had experienced sexual relations with a person at least 2 years older during their adolescence as well as by students and other adult members of the public. A systematic search of 977 studies initially identified as relevant yielded 16 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. Most (13) research samples were located in the United States, and the remainder were in the United Kingdom (2) and Australia (1). All were published in English. Four main themes emerged from the analysis of these studies: adolescent motives for sexual relations with older persons (two studies); characteristics of sexual relations between adolescents and older persons (6); contextual factors affecting the way such relations are perceived, including the partners' ages and genders (11); and perspectives on the legal framing of such relations (6). The studies' findings are discussed and implications for future research, policy, and practice are suggested, highlighting the complexity and ambiguity of the phenomenon and calling on intervention programs to focus on strengthening the family unit and social network of these youth and for policies to address teen sexuality as defined both normatively and legally.

  3. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunhee; Kim, Heejung; Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-03-03

    Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers' needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of "health-related Internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose(s)," "Web-based resource(s)," and "online resources," combined with informal caregiver (or "parents") of "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower educated minorities. Most studies had methodological challenges resulting from

  4. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  5. Publication Bias in Antipsychotic Trials: An Analysis of Efficacy Comparing the Published Literature to the US Food and Drug Administration Database

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Erick H.; Knoepflmacher, Daniel; Shapley, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background Publication bias compromises the validity of evidence-based medicine, yet a growing body of research shows that this problem is widespread. Efficacy data from drug regulatory agencies, e.g., the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), can serve as a benchmark or control against which data in journal articles can be checked. Thus one may determine whether publication bias is present and quantify the extent to which it inflates apparent drug efficacy. Methods and Findings FDA Drug Approval Packages for eight second-generation antipsychotics—aripiprazole, iloperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, risperidone long-acting injection (risperidone LAI), and ziprasidone—were used to identify a cohort of 24 FDA-registered premarketing trials. The results of these trials according to the FDA were compared with the results conveyed in corresponding journal articles. The relationship between study outcome and publication status was examined, and effect sizes derived from the two data sources were compared. Among the 24 FDA-registered trials, four (17%) were unpublished. Of these, three failed to show that the study drug had a statistical advantage over placebo, and one showed the study drug was statistically inferior to the active comparator. Among the 20 published trials, the five that were not positive, according to the FDA, showed some evidence of outcome reporting bias. However, the association between trial outcome and publication status did not reach statistical significance. Further, the apparent increase in the effect size point estimate due to publication bias was modest (8%) and not statistically significant. On the other hand, the effect size for unpublished trials (0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.39) was less than half that for the published trials (0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.54), a difference that was significant. Conclusions The magnitude of publication bias found for antipsychotics was less than that found

  6. A method of searching for related literature on protein structure analysis by considering a user's intention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, with advances in techniques for protein structure analysis, the knowledge about protein structure and function has been published in a vast number of articles. A method to search for specific publications from such a large pool of articles is needed. In this paper, we propose a method to search for related articles on protein structure analysis by using an article itself as a query. Results Each article is represented as a set of concepts in the proposed method. Then, by using similarities among concepts formulated from databases such as Gene Ontology, similarities between articles are evaluated. In this framework, the desired search results vary depending on the user's search intention because a variety of information is included in a single article. Therefore, the proposed method provides not only one input article (primary article) but also additional articles related to it as an input query to determine the search intention of the user, based on the relationship between two query articles. In other words, based on the concepts contained in the input article and additional articles, we actualize a relevant literature search that considers user intention by varying the degree of attention given to each concept and modifying the concept hierarchy graph. Conclusions We performed an experiment to retrieve relevant papers from articles on protein structure analysis registered in the Protein Data Bank by using three query datasets. The experimental results yielded search results with better accuracy than when user intention was not considered, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25952498

  7. Medicolegal Death Scene Investigations After Natural Disaster- and Weather-Related Events: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Luciana A.; Fromknecht, Catharine Q.; Redman, Sarah Davis; Brady, Joanne E.; Hodge, Sarah E.; Noe, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The number of disaster-related deaths recorded by vital statistics departments often differs from that reported by other agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-National Weather Service storm database and the American Red Cross. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched an effort to improve disaster-related death scene investigation reporting practices to make data more comparable across jurisdictions, improve accuracy of reporting disaster-related deaths, and enhance identification of risk and protective factors. We conducted a literature review to examine how death scene data are collected and how such data are used to determine disaster relatedness. Methods Two analysts conducted a parallel search using Google and Google Scholar. We reviewed published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished documents including relevant forms, protocols, and worksheets from coroners, medical examiners, and death scene investigators. Results We identified 177 documents: 32 published peer-reviewed articles and 145 other documents (grey literature). Published articles suggested no consistent approach for attributing deaths to a disaster. Researchers generally depended on death certificates to identify disaster-related deaths; several studies also drew on supplemental sources, including medical examiner, coroner, and active surveillance reports. Conclusions These results highlight the critical importance of consistent, accurate data collection during a death investigation. Review of the grey literature found variation in use of death scene data collection tools, indicating the potential for widespread inconsistency in data captured for routine reporting and public health surveillance. Findings from this review will be used to develop guidelines and tools for capturing disaster-related death investigation data. PMID:28845205

  8. Is 'self-medication' a useful term to retrieve related publications in the literature? A systematic exploration of related terms.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Ava; Sarayani, Amir; Ashouri, Asieh; Sherafatmand, Mona; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2015-01-01

    Self-Medication (SM), i.e. using medications to treat oneself, is a major concern for health researchers and policy makers. The terms "self medication" or "self-medication" (SM terms) have been used to explain various concepts while several terms have also been employed to define this practice. Hence, retrieving relevant publications would require exhaustive literature screening. So, we assessed the current situation of SM terms in the literature to improve the relevancy of search outcomes. In this Systematic exploration, SM terms were searched in the 6 following databases and publisher's portals till April 2012: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar, ScienceDirect, and Wiley. A simple search query was used to include only publications with SM terms. We used Relative-Risk (RR) to estimate the probability of SM terms use in related compared to unrelated publications. Sensitivity and specificity of SM terms as keywords in search query were also calculated. Relevant terms to SM practice were extracted and their Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR+/-) were calculated to assess their effect on the probability of search outcomes relevancy in addition to previous search queries. We also evaluated the content of unrelated publications. All mentioned steps were performed in title (TI) and title or abstract (TIAB) of publications. 1999 related and 1917 unrelated publications were found. SM terms RR was 4.5 in TI and 2.1 in TIAB. SM terms sensitivity and specificity respectively were 55.4% and 87.7% in TI and 84.0% and 59.5% in TIAB. "OTC" and "Over-The-Counter Medication", with LR+ 16.78 and 16.30 respectively, provided the most conclusive increase in the probability of the relevancy of publications. The most common unrelated SM themes were self-medication hypothesis, drug abuse and Zoopharmacognosy. Due to relatively low specificity or sensitivity of SM terms, relevant terms should be employed in search queries and clear definitions of SM applications should

  9. Use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictors for dentistry in patients with cardiopathies. Review of the literature published in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Serrera Figallo, María A; Velázquez Cayón, Rocío T; Torres Lagares, Daniel; Corcuera Flores, Jose R; Machuca Portillo, Guillermo

    2012-04-01

    The use of local anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents in dentistry is thoroughly justified and is widely extended, but we cannot ignore the fact that anesthetic infiltration poses risk of complications throughout the dental treatment period. The objective of the present review is to document the reported effects the use of the local anesthetics most widely employed in dentistry, with or without association to vasoconstrictor agents may have in patients with any sort of cardiopathy. We have searched for randomized clinical trials on the assessment of the cardiovascular effects of local anesthetics used in dentistry, without limits as regards age or sex, conducted in patients with any type of cardiopathy which were published during the last decade and were index-linked in Cochrane, Embase and Medline. We have found six randomized clinical trials index-linked in Medline and Cochrane in the past ten years. These trials compare different types of anesthetics: lidocaine 2%, mepivacaine 2%, prilocaine 2% , associated or not to different vasoconstrictor concentrations such as adrenaline or felypressin. The cardiopathies affecting the patients included in the different trials range from hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrythmias, chronic coronary disease to heart transplantation. The use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents is justified in the case of patients with cardiopathies (once we get over the period in which any type of dental manipulation is contraindicated) and in controlled hypertensive patients. In any case, we must be very careful with the choice and execution of the anesthetic technique, being it possible to use a dose between 1.8 and 3.6 ml, on a general basis. Further studies are necessary to establish the effects of these drugs on severe hypertensive patients or in patients with other more advanced cardiopathies. Key words:Vasoconstrictor agents, epinephrine/adverse effects, local anesthetics, dental restoration, oral

  10. Use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictors for dentistry in patients with cardiopathies. Review of the literature published in the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Serrera Figallo, María A.; Velázquez Cayón, Rocío T.; Corcuera Flores, Jose R.; Machuca Portillo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of local anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents in dentistry is thoroughly justified and is widely extended, but we cannot ignore the fact that anesthetic infiltration poses risk of complications throughout the dental treatment period. The objective of the present review is to document the reported effects the use of the local anesthetics most widely employed in dentistry, with or without association to vasoconstrictor agents may have in patients with any sort of cardiopathy. Study Design: We have searched for randomized clinical trials on the assessment of the cardiovascular effects of local anesthetics used in dentistry, without limits as regards age or sex, conducted in patients with any type of cardiopathy which were published during the last decade and were index-linked in Cochrane, Embase and Medline. Results: We have found six randomized clinical trials index-linked in Medline and Cochrane in the past ten years. These trials compare different types of anesthetics: lidocaine 2%, mepivacaine 2%, prilocaine 2% , associated or not to different vasoconstrictor concentrations such as adrenaline or felypressin. The cardiopathies affecting the patients included in the different trials range from hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrythmias, chronic coronary disease to heart transplantation. Conclusions: The use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents is justified in the case of patients with cardiopathies (once we get over the period in which any type of dental manipulation is contraindicated) and in controlled hypertensive patients. In any case, we must be very careful with the choice and execution of the anesthetic technique, being it possible to use a dose between 1.8 and 3.6 ml, on a general basis. Further studies are necessary to establish the effects of these drugs on severe hypertensive patients or in patients with other more advanced cardiopathies. Key words:Vasoconstrictor agents, epinephrine/adverse effects

  11. False gold: Safely navigating open access publishing to avoid predatory publishers and journals.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Polacsek, Meg

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss predatory open access publishing in the context of nursing and midwifery and develop a set of guidelines that serve as a framework to help clinicians, educators and researchers avoid predatory publishers. Open access publishing is increasingly common across all academic disciplines. However, this publishing model is vulnerable to exploitation by predatory publishers, posing a threat to nursing and midwifery scholarship and practice. Guidelines are needed to help researchers recognize predatory journals and publishers and understand the negative consequences of publishing in them. Discussion paper. A literature search of BioMed Central, CINAHL, MEDLINE with Full Text and PubMed for terms related to predatory publishing, published in the period 2007-2017. Lack of awareness of the risks and pressure to publish in international journals, may result in nursing and midwifery researchers publishing their work in dubious open access journals. Caution should be taken prior to writing and submitting a paper, to avoid predatory publishers. The advantage of open access publishing is that it provides readers with access to peer-reviewed research as soon as it is published online. However, predatory publishers use deceptive methods to exploit open access publishing for their own profit. Clear guidelines are needed to help researchers navigate safely open access publishing. A deeper understanding of the risks of predatory publishing is needed. Clear guidelines should be followed by nursing and midwifery researchers seeking to publish their work in open access journals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms. A state-of-the-art report with special reference to literature published in Chinese journals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuiping

    2003-01-01

    As one of the consequences of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by heavy metals in some parts of China. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites. The research results on the effects of heavy metals on plants and resistant mechanisms are compiled from Chinese publications from scientific journals and university journals, mostly published during the last decade. Effects of heavy metals on plants result in growth inhibition, structure damage, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities as well as of the function of plants. The effects and bioavailability of heavy metals depend on many factors, such as environmental conditions, pH, species of element, organic substances of the media and fertilization, plant species. But, there are also studies on plant resistance mechanisms to protect plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals such as combining heavy metals by proteins and expressing of detoxifying enzyme and nucleic acid, these mechanisms are integrated to protect the plants against injury by heavy metals. There are two aspects on the interaction of plants and heavy metals. On one hand, heavy metals show negative effects on plants. On the other hand, plants have their own resistance mechanisms against toxic effects and for detoxifying heavy metal pollution. To study the effects of heavy metals on plants and mechanisms of resistance, one must select crop cultivars and/or plants for removing heavy metals from soil and water. More highly resistant plants can be selected especially for a remediation of the pollution site. The molecular mechanisms of resistance of plants to heavy metals should be studied further to develop the actual resistance of these plants to heavy metals. Understanding the bioavailability of heavy metals is advantageous for plant cultivation and phytoremediation

  13. The cost-effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review of the characteristics and methodological quality of published literature.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katherine; Jones, Natasha; Newton, Julia; Foster, Charlie; Judge, Andrew; Jackson, Kate; Arden, Nigel K; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael

    2017-10-19

    This descriptive review aimed to assess the characteristics and methodological quality of economic evaluations of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs according to updated economic guidelines for healthcare interventions. Recommendations will be made to inform future research addressing the impact of a physical exercise component on cost-effectiveness. Electronic databases were searched for economic evaluations of exercise-based CR programs published in English between 2000 and 2014. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement was used to review the methodological quality of included economic evaluations. Fifteen economic evaluations met the review inclusion criteria. Assessed study characteristics exhibited wide variability, particularly in their economic perspective, time horizon, setting, comparators and included costs, with significant heterogeneity in exercise dose across interventions. Ten evaluations were based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) spanning 6-24 months but often with weak or inconclusive results; two were modelling studies; and the final three utilised longer time horizons of 3.5-5 years from which findings suggest that long-term exercise-based CR results in lower costs, reduced hospitalisations and a longer cumulative patient lifetime. None of the 15 articles met all the CHEERS quality criteria, with the majority either fully or partially meeting a selection of the assessed variables. Evidence exists supporting the cost-effectiveness of exercise-based CR for cardiovascular disease patients. However, variability in CR program delivery and weak consistency between study perspective and design limits study comparability and therefore the accumulation of evidence in support of a particular exercise regime. The generalisability of study findings was limited due to the exclusion of patients with comorbidities as would typically be found in a real-world setting. The use of longer time-horizons would be

  14. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Yen, Laurann; W, Paul Mathews

    2012-12-03

    The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands of self-management, particularly for

  15. Topiramate in the treatment of substance-related disorders: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Ann K; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2010-05-01

    To critically review the literature on topiramate in the treatment of substance-related disorders. A PubMed search of human studies published in English through January 2009 was conducted using the following search terms: topiramate and substance abuse, topiramate and substance dependence, topiramate and withdrawal, topiramate and alcohol, topiramate and nicotine, topiramate and cocaine, topiramate and opiates, and topiramate and benzodiazepines. 26 articles were identified and reviewed; these studies examined topiramate in disorders related to alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, Ecstasy, and benzodiazepines. Study design, sample size, topiramate dose and duration, and study outcomes were reviewed. There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Two trials show trends for topiramate's superiority over oral naltrexone in alcohol dependence, while 1 trial suggests topiramate is inferior to disulfiram. Despite suggestive animal models, evidence for topiramate in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans is slim. Studies of topiramate in nicotine dependence show mixed results. Human laboratory studies that used acute topiramate dosing show that topiramate actually enhances the pleasurable effects of both nicotine and methamphetamine. Evidence for topiramate in the treatment of cocaine dependence is promising, but limited by small sample size. The data on opioids, benzodiazepines, and Ecstasy are sparse. Topiramate is efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but side effects may limit widespread use. While topiramate's unique pharmacodynamic profile offers a promising theoretical rationale for use across multiple substance-related disorders, heterogeneity both across and within these disorders limits topiramate's broad applicability in treating substance-related disorders. Recommendations for future research include exploration of genetic variants for more targeted pharmacotherapies.

  16. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

  17. Identifying Liver Cancer and Its Relations with Diseases, Drugs, and Genes: A Literature-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min

    2016-01-01

    In biomedicine, scientific literature is a valuable source for knowledge discovery. Mining knowledge from textual data has become an ever important task as the volume of scientific literature is growing unprecedentedly. In this paper, we propose a framework for examining a certain disease based on existing information provided by scientific literature. Disease-related entities that include diseases, drugs, and genes are systematically extracted and analyzed using a three-level network-based approach. A paper-entity network and an entity co-occurrence network (macro-level) are explored and used to construct six entity specific networks (meso-level). Important diseases, drugs, and genes as well as salient entity relations (micro-level) are identified from these networks. Results obtained from the literature-based literature mining can serve to assist clinical applications. PMID:27195695

  18. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  19. Influence of mHealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Gagliardi, Laina

    2013-10-16

    Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women's empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women's interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study's characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple's health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women's decision-making, social status, and access to health resources. However

  20. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Unmasking or Worsening AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Anna; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Dina, Julia; Kazemi, Apolline; Verdon, Renaud; Mortier, Emmanuel; de La Blanchardière, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV-infected patients has declined in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era although a growing number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (PML-IRIS) have been published during the same period. Therapeutic management of PML-IRIS is not consensual and mainly relies on corticosteroids. Our main aim was, in addition to provide a thoughtful analysis of published PML-IRIS cases, to assess the benefit of corticosteroids in the management of PML-IRIS, focusing on confirmed cases. We performed a literature review of the 46 confirmed cases of PML-IRIS cases occurring in HIV-infected patients from 1998 to September 2016 (21 unmasking and 25 paradoxical PML-IRIS). AIDS-related PML-IRIS patients were mostly men (sex ratio 4/1) with a median age of 40.5 years (range 12-66). Median CD4 T cell count before cART and at PML-IRIS onset was 45/μl (0-301) and 101/μl (20-610), respectively. After cART initiation, PML-IRIS occurred within a median timescale of 38 days (18-120). Clinical signs were motor deficits (69%), speech disorders (36%), cognitive disorders (33%), cerebellar ataxia (28%), and visual disturbances (23%). Brain MRI revealed hyperintense areas on T2-weighted sequences and FLAIR images (76%) and suggestive contrast enhancement (87%). PCR for John Cunningham virus (JCV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive in only 84% of cases; however, when performed, brain biopsy confirmed diagnosis of PML in 90% of cases and demonstrated histological signs of IRIS in 95% of cases. Clinical worsening related to PML-IRIS and leading to death was observed in 28% of cases. Corticosteroids were prescribed in 63% of cases and maraviroc in one case. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate significant benefit from steroid treatment, despite spectacular improvement in certain cases. Diagnosis of PML-IRIS should be considered in HIV

  1. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Unmasking or Worsening AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Anna; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Dina, Julia; Kazemi, Apolline; Verdon, Renaud; Mortier, Emmanuel; de La Blanchardière, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV-infected patients has declined in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era although a growing number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (PML-IRIS) have been published during the same period. Therapeutic management of PML-IRIS is not consensual and mainly relies on corticosteroids. Our main aim was, in addition to provide a thoughtful analysis of published PML-IRIS cases, to assess the benefit of corticosteroids in the management of PML-IRIS, focusing on confirmed cases. We performed a literature review of the 46 confirmed cases of PML-IRIS cases occurring in HIV-infected patients from 1998 to September 2016 (21 unmasking and 25 paradoxical PML-IRIS). AIDS-related PML-IRIS patients were mostly men (sex ratio 4/1) with a median age of 40.5 years (range 12–66). Median CD4 T cell count before cART and at PML-IRIS onset was 45/μl (0–301) and 101/μl (20–610), respectively. After cART initiation, PML-IRIS occurred within a median timescale of 38 days (18–120). Clinical signs were motor deficits (69%), speech disorders (36%), cognitive disorders (33%), cerebellar ataxia (28%), and visual disturbances (23%). Brain MRI revealed hyperintense areas on T2-weighted sequences and FLAIR images (76%) and suggestive contrast enhancement (87%). PCR for John Cunningham virus (JCV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive in only 84% of cases; however, when performed, brain biopsy confirmed diagnosis of PML in 90% of cases and demonstrated histological signs of IRIS in 95% of cases. Clinical worsening related to PML-IRIS and leading to death was observed in 28% of cases. Corticosteroids were prescribed in 63% of cases and maraviroc in one case. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate significant benefit from steroid treatment, despite spectacular improvement in certain cases. Diagnosis of PML-IRIS should be considered in HIV

  2. Google Scholar versus PubMed in locating primary literature to answer drug-related questions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Maisha Kelly; Lauderdale, Stacy A; Kendrach, Michael G; Woolley, Thomas W

    2009-03-01

    Google Scholar linked more visitors to biomedical journal Web sites than did PubMed after the database's initial release; however, its usefulness in locating primary literature articles is unknown. To assess in both databases the availability of primary literature target articles; total number of citations; availability of free, full-text journal articles; and number of primary literature target articles retrieved by year within the first 100 citations of the search results. Drug information question reviews published in The Annals of Pharmacotherapy Drug Information Rounds column served as targets to determine the retrieval ability of Google Scholar and PubMed searches. Reviews printed in this column from January 2006 to June 2007 were eligible for study inclusion. Articles were chosen if at least 2 key words of the printed article were included in the PubMed Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) database, and these terms were searched in both databases. Twenty-two of 33 (67%) eligible Drug Information Rounds articles met the inclusion criteria. The median number of primary literature articles used in each of these articles was 6.5 (IQR 4.8, 8.3; mean +/- SD 8 +/- 5.4). No significant differences were found for the mean number of target primary literature articles located within the first 100 citations in Google Scholar and PubMed searches (5.1 +/- 3.9 vs 5.3 +/- 3.3; p = 0.868). Google Scholar searches located more total results than PubMed (2211.6 +/- 3999.5 vs 44.2 +/- 47.4; p = 0.019). The availability of free, full-text journal articles per Drug Information Rounds article was similar between the databases (1.8 +/- 1.7 vs 2.3 +/- 1.7; p = 0.325). More primary literature articles published prior to 2000 were located with Google Scholar searches compared with PubMed (62.8% vs 34.9%; p = 0.017); however, no statistically significant differences between the databases were observed for articles published after 2000 (66.4 vs 77.1; p = 0.074). No significant differences

  3. Literature-based discovery of diabetes- and ROS-related targets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known mediators of cellular damage in multiple diseases including diabetic complications. Despite its importance, no comprehensive database is currently available for the genes associated with ROS. Methods We present ROS- and diabetes-related targets (genes/proteins) collected from the biomedical literature through a text mining technology. A web-based literature mining tool, SciMiner, was applied to 1,154 biomedical papers indexed with diabetes and ROS by PubMed to identify relevant targets. Over-represented targets in the ROS-diabetes literature were obtained through comparisons against randomly selected literature. The expression levels of nine genes, selected from the top ranked ROS-diabetes set, were measured in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of diabetic and non-diabetic DBA/2J mice in order to evaluate the biological relevance of literature-derived targets in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Results SciMiner identified 1,026 ROS- and diabetes-related targets from the 1,154 biomedical papers (http://jdrf.neurology.med.umich.edu/ROSDiabetes/). Fifty-three targets were significantly over-represented in the ROS-diabetes literature compared to randomly selected literature. These over-represented targets included well-known members of the oxidative stress response including catalase, the NADPH oxidase family, and the superoxide dismutase family of proteins. Eight of the nine selected genes exhibited significant differential expression between diabetic and non-diabetic mice. For six genes, the direction of expression change in diabetes paralleled enhanced oxidative stress in the DRG. Conclusions Literature mining compiled ROS-diabetes related targets from the biomedical literature and led us to evaluate the biological relevance of selected targets in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:20979611

  4. Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity Related to Product: A Meta-Analysis of the Studies Published between 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Saul Neves; Rus, Claudia Lenuta; Lens, Willy; Imaginário, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Although the relationship between motivation (especially intrinsic motivation) and creativity (especially as a product), no meta-analyses have been conducted on the relationship between these 2 concepts. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity related to product (i.e., creative outcomes) through…

  5. Rest and Return to Activity After Sport-Related Concussion: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Lewis, Joy H.; Whelihan, Kate; Bacon, Cailee E. Welch

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature regarding rest and return to activity after sport-related concussion. Data Sources: The search was conducted in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Educational Resources Information Center, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed using terms related to concussion, mild traumatic brain injury, physical and cognitive rest, and return to activity. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were published in English; were original research; and evaluated the use of, compliance with, or effectiveness of physical or cognitive rest or provided empirical evidence supporting the graded return-to-activity progression. Data Extraction: The study design, patient or participant sample, interventions used, outcome measures, main results, and conclusions were extracted, as appropriate, from each article. Data Synthesis: Articles were categorized into groups based on their ability to address one of the primary clinical questions of interest: use of rest, rest effectiveness, compliance with recommendations, or outcome after graded return-to-activity progression. A qualitative synthesis of the results was provided, along with summary tables. Conclusions: Our main findings suggest that rest is underused by health care providers, recommendations for rest are broad and not specific to individual patients, an initial period of moderate physical and cognitive rest (eg, limited physical activity and light mental activity) may improve outcomes during the acute postinjury phase, significant variability in the use of assessment tools and compliance with recommended return-to-activity guidelines exists, and additional research is needed to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of graded return-to-activity progressions. Furthermore, there is a significant need to translate knowledge of best practices in concussion management to primary care providers. PMID:28387547

  6. Coping with cancer-related cognitive dysfunction: a scoping review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sleight, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) impacts memory, attention, concentration, language, multi-tasking, and organizational skills and decreases participation and quality of life for cancer survivors. The objectives of this article are: (1) to outline the neuroscience of CRCD, its risk factors, and its effect on participation; and (2) to identify and summarize the literature on rehabilitation interventions and coping techniques for CRCD in cancer survivors. A scoping review of articles cited in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and CINAHL was performed. To be included, articles must have been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal between 1996 and 2014, written in English, and included a quantitative or qualitative non-pharmacological study of interventions and/or coping strategies for adult cancer survivors experiencing CRCD. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria for final review. Six studies tested the efficacy of rehabilitation treatments on CRCD. Three involved cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), while three tested neuropsychological and/or cognitive training interventions. Four qualitative studies investigated coping strategies used by survivors with CRCD. CBT-based treatments and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most commonly-reported coping strategy is utilization of assistive technology and memory aids. Further research is needed about efficacious rehabilitation techniques for this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) may impact up to 50% of cancer survivors. CRCD can significantly decrease participation and quality of life during survivorship. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most common coping strategy reported by cancer survivors with CRCD is the use of assistive technology and memory aids.

  7. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2017-01-01

    Background The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Results Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417–12,739 µg/m3). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. Conclusion The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of

  8. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM 2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m 3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m 3 ). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO 2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM 10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  9. Issues in Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues related to electronic publishing. Topics include writing; reading; production, distribution, and commerce; copyright and ownership of intellectual property; archival storage; technical obsolescence; control of content; equality of access; and cultural changes. (Author/LRW)

  10. Women, Anger Expression, Relational and Health Consequences: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Kristin L.

    Women's anger expression style has been the focus of several recent studies and has been demonstrated to have deleterious effects on emotional and physical health. The purpose of this study was to review the empirical literature for women's anger expression style and related health and relational consequences. The study reviewed emotion induction,…

  11. Toward a technology of derived stimulus relations: an analysis of articles published in the journal of applied behavior analysis, 1992-2009.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Every article on stimulus equivalence or derived stimulus relations published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis was evaluated in terms of characteristics that are relevant to the development of applied technologies: the type of participants, settings, procedure (automated vs. tabletop), stimuli, and stimulus sensory modality; types of relations targeted and emergent skills demonstrated by participants; and presence versus absence of evaluation of generalization and maintenance. In most respects, published reports suggested the possibility of applied technologies but left the difficult work of technology development to future investigations, suggestions for which are provided.

  12. Using Semantic Association to Extend and Infer Literature-Oriented Relativity Between Terms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Jie; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Yongzhuang; Chu, Yanshuo; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Relative terms often appear together in the literature. Methods have been presented for weighting relativity of pairwise terms by their co-occurring literature and inferring new relationship. Terms in the literature are also in the directed acyclic graph of ontologies, such as Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology. Therefore, semantic association between terms may help for establishing relativities between terms in literature. However, current methods do not use these associations. In this paper, an adjusted R-scaled score (ARSS) based on information content (ARSSIC) method is introduced to infer new relationship between terms. First, set inclusion relationship between terms of ontology was exploited to extend relationships between these terms and literature. Next, the ARSS method was presented to measure relativity between terms across ontologies according to these extensional relationships. Then, the ARSSIC method using ratios of information shared of term's ancestors was designed to infer new relationship between terms across ontologies. The result of the experiment shows that ARSS identified more pairs of statistically significant terms based on corresponding gene sets than other methods. And the high average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.9293) shows that ARSSIC achieved a high true positive rate and a low false positive rate. Data is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/ARSSIC/.

  13. Toward a Technology of Derived Stimulus Relations: An Analysis of Articles Published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," 1992-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Every article on stimulus equivalence or derived stimulus relations published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" was evaluated in terms of characteristics that are relevant to the development of applied technologies: the type of participants, settings, procedure automated vs. tabletop), stimuli, and stimulus sensory modality; types of…

  14. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshoremore » area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize

  15. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  16. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  17. On the Margins of Discourse: The Relation of Literature to Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara Herrnstein

    This centrally focused collection of articles and lectures examines literary interpretation and the relation of literature to language. The first of the book's three parts introduces the distinction between natural discourse and fictive discourse (verbal structures that function as representatives of natural utterances). It also deals with the…

  18. Relational Reasoning and Its Manifestations in the Educational Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within otherwise unconnected information, is regarded as central to human learning and cognition and as particularly critical for those functioning in today's information age. However, the literature on this foundational ability is currently housed within a range of domains of…

  19. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  20. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension--a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Emilie; Gustafsson, Klas; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-09-12

    Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations.

  1. Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    James, Christopher W; Steinhaus, Mary C; Szabo, Susan; Dressier, Robert M

    2004-03-01

    Tenofovir is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Several cases of renal failure associated with tenofovir therapy recently have been reported. A 54-year-old man with HIV experienced decreasing renal function and Fanconi's syndrome secondary to tenofovir therapy. His condition gradually improved after discontinuation of the drug. The available medical literature for reported cases of tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity indicates that this complication is apparently rare. However, our case report and literature review underscore the importance of monitoring renal function when treating patients with any nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

  2. Norms and attitudes related to alcohol usage and driving : a review of the relevant literature. Volume 1 : a review of the literature

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-09-01

    This project provides information on norms and attitudes related to alcohol use and driving. This volume contains a review and analysis of the literature pertaining to attitude formation and change, attitudes towards alcohol use/abuse, attitudes asso...

  3. Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): results of animal bioassays published in the general literature in 1993 to 1994 and by the National Toxicology Program in 1995 to 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Rohrbach, L

    1999-01-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a systematic and unifying analysis of results of chronic, long-term cancer tests. This paper presents a supplemental plot of the CPDB, including 513 experiments on 157 test compounds published in the general literature in 1993 and 1994 and in Technical Reports of the National Toxicology Program in 1995 and 1996. The plot standardizes the experimental results (whether positive or negative for carcinogenicity), including qualitative data on strain, sex, route of compound administration, target organ, histopathology, and author's opinion and reference to the published paper, as well as quantitative data on carcinogenic potency, statistical significance, tumor incidence, dose-response curve shape, length of experiment, duration of dosing, and dose rate. A numerical description of carcinogenic potency, the TD(subscript)50(/subscript), is estimated for each set of tumor incidence data reported. When added to the data published earlier, the CPDB now includes results of 5,620 experiments on 1,372 chemicals that have been reported in 1,250 published papers and 414 National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program Technical Reports. The plot presented here includes detailed analyses of 25 chemicals tested in monkeys for up to 32 years by the National Cancer Institute. Half the rodent carcinogens that were tested in monkeys were not carcinogenic, despite usually strong evidence of carcinogenicity in rodents and/or humans. Our analysis of possible explanatory factors indicates that this result is due in part to the fact that the monkey studies lacked power to detect an effect compared to standard rodent bioassays. Factors that contributed to the lack of power are the small number of animals on test; a stop-exposure protocol for model rodent carcinogens; in a few cases, toxic doses that resulted in stoppage of dosing or termination of the experiment; and in a few cases, low doses administered to monkeys or early termination of the

  4. The relationship between resident burnout and safety-related and acceptability-related quality of healthcare: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Trojanowski, Lucy; Rea, Margaret

    2017-11-09

    There has been increasing interest in examining the relationship between physician wellbeing and quality of patient care. However, few reviews have specifically focused on resident burnout and quality of patient care. The purpose of this systematic literature review of the current scientific literature is to address the question, "How does resident burnout affect the quality of healthcare related to the dimensions of acceptability and safety?" This systematic literature review uses a multi-step screening process of publicly available peer-reviewed studies from five electronic databases: (1) Medline Current, (2) Medline In-process, (3) PsycINFO, (4) Embase, and (5) Web of Science. The electronic literature search resulted in the identification of 4638 unique citations. Of these, 10 articles were included in the review. Studies were assessed for risk of bias. Of the 10 studies that met the inclusion criteria, eight were conducted in the US, one in The Netherlands, and one in Mexico. Eight of the 10 studies focused on patient safety. The results of these included studies suggest there is moderate evidence that burnout is associated with patient safety (i.e., resident self-perceived medical errors and sub-optimal care). There is less evidence that specific dimensions of burnout are related to acceptability (i.e., quality of care, communication with patients). The results of this systematic literature review suggest a relationship between patient safety and burnout. These results potentially have important implications for the medical training milieu because residents are still in training and at the same time are asked to teach students. The results also indicate a need for more evidence-based interventions that support continued research examining quality of care measures, especially as they relate to acceptability.

  5. Recently published protein sequences. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.; Holmquist, R.

    1972-01-01

    Some polypeptide sequences that have been published in the 1972 scientific literature are listed. Only selected sequences are included. The compilation has two objectives. Current information between periods when more comprehensive compilations are published is to be assembled and the use of data that do not include arrangements of unsequenced peptides for 'maximum homology' is to be encouraged.

  6. Trends of 'urolithiasis: interventions, simulation, and laser technology' over the last 16 years (2000-2015) as published in the literature (PubMed): a systematic review from European section of Uro-technology (ESUT).

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Amelia; Proietti, Silvia; Geraghty, Rob; Skolarikos, Andreas; Papatsoris, Athanasios; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2017-11-01

    To look at the bibliometric publication trends on 'Urolithiasis' and aspects of treatment and training associated with it over a period of 16 years from 2000 to 2015. To this end, we conducted this study to look at the publication trends associated with urolithiasis, including the use of simulation, laser technology, and all types of interventions for it. We performed a systematic review of the literature using PubMed over the last 16 years, from January 2000 to December 2015 for all published papers on 'Urolithiasis'. While there were no language restrictions, English language articles and all non-English language papers with published English abstracts were also included. Case reports, animal and laboratory studies, and those studies that did not have a published abstract were excluded from our analysis. We also analyzed the data in two time periods, period-1 (2000-2007) and period-2 (2008-2015). During the last 16 years, a total of 5343 papers were published on 'Urolithiasis', including 4787 in English language and 556 in non-English language. This included papers on URS (n = 1200), PCNL (n = 1715), SWL (n = 887), open stone surgery (n = 87), laparoscopic stone surgery (n = 209), pyelolithotomy (n = 35), simulation in Endourology (n = 82), and use of laser for stone surgery (n = 406). When comparing the two time periods, during period 2, the change was +171% (p = 0.007), +279% (p < 0.001), and -17% (p = 0.2) for URS, PCNL, and SWL, respectively. While there was a rise in laparoscopic surgery (+116%), it decreased for open stone surgery (-11%) and pyelolithotomy (-47%). A total of 82 papers have been published on simulation for stone surgery including 48 papers for URS (67% rise in period-2, p = 0.007), and 34 papers for PCNL (480% rise in period-2, p < 0.001). A rising trend for the use of laser was also seen in period 2 (increase of 126%, p < 0.02, from 124 papers to 281 papers). Published papers on intervention for Urolithiasis

  7. Infrequent Reservoir-Related Complications of Urologic Prosthetics: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tao; Terlecki, Ryan; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2015-12-01

    Complications related to inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) and artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) reservoirs are rare, potentially life threatening, and poorly described in the literature. As more devices are implanted, the incidence of reservoir-related complications may increase, and it will be important to recognize the relevant signs and symptoms. We present a case series of reservoir-related complications presenting to our institution for treatment. We also reviewed all accounts of reservoir-related complications within the urologic literature. Three cases of reservoir-related complications are presented. Case 1 involves erosion of an intact AUS reservoir into the cecum of a patient with a history of myelomeningocele and bladder augmentation. Case 2 involves an IPP reservoir causing vascular compression, resulting in open exploration and repositioning of the reservoir. Case 3 involves intraperitoneal migration of a retained IPP reservoir to a subhepatic area, which was then removed laparoscopically. Literature review yielded descriptions of eight cases of intestinal complications, five cases of vascular complications, but zero reports of migration to a subhepatic area. Other notable complications include 20 reported cases of reservoir erosion into the bladder and inguinal herniation of the reservoir. Complications involving urologic prosthesis reservoirs, although rare, can have serious implications for patients. A high index of suspicion and familiarity with treatment options is required in order to allow timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients with prior major abdominal surgeries seem to be more prone to intestinal complications of reservoirs and warrant special concern. Cui T, Terlecki R, and Mirzazadeh M. Infrequent reservoir-related complications of urologic prosthetics: A case series and literature review. Sex Med 2015;3:334-338.

  8. Infrequent Reservoir‐Related Complications of Urologic Prosthetics: A Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Ryan; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aim Complications related to inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) and artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) reservoirs are rare, potentially life threatening, and poorly described in the literature. As more devices are implanted, the incidence of reservoir‐related complications may increase, and it will be important to recognize the relevant signs and symptoms. Methods and Main Outcome Measures We present a case series of reservoir‐related complications presenting to our institution for treatment. We also reviewed all accounts of reservoir‐related complications within the urologic literature Results Three cases of reservoir‐related complications are presented. Case 1 involves erosion of an intact AUS reservoir into the cecum of a patient with a history of myelomeningocele and bladder augmentation. Case 2 involves an IPP reservoir causing vascular compression, resulting in open exploration and repositioning of the reservoir. Case 3 involves intraperitoneal migration of a retained IPP reservoir to a subhepatic area, which was then removed laparoscopically. Literature review yielded descriptions of eight cases of intestinal complications, five cases of vascular complications, but zero reports of migration to a subhepatic area. Other notable complications include 20 reported cases of reservoir erosion into the bladder and inguinal herniation of the reservoir. Conclusion Complications involving urologic prosthesis reservoirs, although rare, can have serious implications for patients. A high index of suspicion and familiarity with treatment options is required in order to allow timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients with prior major abdominal surgeries seem to be more prone to intestinal complications of reservoirs and warrant special concern. Cui T, Terlecki R, and Mirzazadeh M. Infrequent reservoir‐related complications of urologic prosthetics: A case series and literature review. Sex Med 2015;3:334–338. PMID:26797069

  9. Work outcomes of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the return-to-work outcomes of sickness absences related to mental disorders that increase costs borne by employers. We address two questions: (1) Based on the existing literature, from the employer's perspective, what are the relevant economic return-to-work outcomes for sickness absences related to mental disorders? and (2) From the employer's economic perspective, are there gaps in knowledge about the relevant return-to-work outcomes for sickness absences related to mental disorders? Setting The included studies used administrative data from either an employer, insurer or occupational healthcare provider. Participants Studies included working adults between 18 and 65 years old who had a sickness absence related to a mental disorder. Primary and secondary outcome measures The studies considered two general return-to-work outcome categories: (1) outcomes focusing on return-to-work and (2) outcomes focusing on sickness absence recurrence. Results A total of 3820 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies were identified whose quality ranged from good to excellent. Half of the identified studies came from one country. The studies considered two characteristics of sickness absence: (1) whether and how long it took for a worker to return-to-work and (2) sickness absence recurrence. None of the studies examined return-to-work outcomes related to work reintegration. Conclusions The existing literature suggests that along with the incidence of sickness absence related to mental disorders, the length of sickness absence episodes and sickness absence recurrence (ie, number and time between) should be areas of concern. However, there also seems to be gaps in the literature regarding the work reintegration process and its associated costs. PMID:25023133

  10. Factors related to difficulties with employment in patients with multiple sclerosis: a review of 2002-2011 literature.

    PubMed

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Leonardi, Matilde; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Antozzi, Carlo; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Mantegazza, Renato; Raggi, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    We assess the knowledge available on the difficulties experienced by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in work-related activities. A literature review was carried out using the keywords 'multiple sclerosis' and 'employment' or 'work' through PubMed and EMBASE. Papers reporting patient-derived data on difficulties at work as primary or secondary outcome measures and published in the period 2002-December 2011 were searched. A total of 26 papers were selected, for a total of 32 507 patients (mean age 46.2 years; 42.1% with relapsing-remitting MS). Most papers reported observational studies or cross-sectional surveys focused on health-related quality of life and MS costs. Symptoms more frequently addressed are fatigue, mobility and cognitive impairments. Limited research has been carried out on the working environment. We found a relatively small number of papers published in the last 10 years on the difficulties that patients with MS can experience at work, and this kind of information always appeared as a secondary outcome. In general, it is possible to affirm that MS has a strong impact on patients' employment status, as the mean unemployment rate was 59%. Research on factors promoting maintenance of remunerative employment is required.

  11. Power Relations in Creating and Distributing Official Knowledge in Children's Literature: "Historical Picture of Taiwan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lin-Miao

    2014-01-01

    With a specific focus on power relations in creating and distributing knowledge in society, this study examines the government-published children's series "Historical Picture of Taiwan" produced in Taiwan in the Martial Law era (1949-1987) to uncover ideological assumptions and persuasions permeating both linguistic and visual…

  12. The Complex Relations between the Academy and Industry: Views from the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa S.

    2001-01-01

    This report on university-industry relations and their effects on higher education is based on three recently published books: Slaughter and Leslie's "Academic Capitalism"; Etzkowitz, Webster, and Healey's "Capitalizing Knowledge"; and Tudiver's "Universities for Sale." It reviews the implications of fundamental changes in the nature of…

  13. New Media Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Ian

    The media industry is the fastest growing business in the world today; additional leisure time, coupled with increasingly global distribution, has created large international markets for information and entertainment. The United Kingdom is relatively strong in the three main areas concerned with new media publishing: information technology,…

  14. Predictors of quality of life for chronic stroke survivors in relation to cultural differences: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongrong; Langhammer, Birgitta

    2017-09-26

    Stroke survivors might perceive their quality of life (QoL) as being affected even years after onset. The purpose of this review was to go through the literature to identify factors related to QoL for persons with stroke in China and Western countries for possible similarities and differences in their respective cultural views. A narrative literature review was conducted on the papers identified by searching PubMed, EBSCO/CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data that published up to November 2016. Factors predicting QoL after stroke were extracted, and comparisons were made between Chinese and Western studies respecting cultural aspects. A total of 43 articles were included in this review, with 31 conducted in Western countries and 12 in China. Predictors of QoL included Demographic factors: age, gender, marital status, education level, socioeconomic status; Clinically related factors: severity of stroke, physical function, depression/anxiety, cognitive impairment, incontinence and other comorbidities; Environmental factors: residential status, social support, social participation; and Individual factors: coping strategies and self-perception. Being married and resident at home might be associated with the perception of QoL differently between Chinese and Western survivors. Most predictors of QoL in stroke survivors were the same in China and the Western countries. However, their QoL might be predicted differently regarding to the individualistic and collectivistic cultural differences. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives: literature review.

    PubMed

    Paul, Fiona; Rattray, Janice

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review undertaken to identify the short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives. Patients in intensive care can experience physical and psychological consequences, and their relatives may also experience such effects. Although it is recognized that relatives have specific needs, it is not clear whether these needs are always met and whether further support is required, particularly after intensive care. The following databases were searched for the period 1950-2007: Medline, British Nursing Index and Archive, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMB Reviews--Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials. Search terms focused on adult relatives of critically ill adult patients during and after intensive care. Recurrent topics were categorized to structure the review, i.e. 'relatives needs', 'meeting relatives' needs', 'interventions', 'satisfaction', 'psychological outcomes' and 'coping'. Studies have mainly identified relatives' immediate needs using the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. There are few studies of interventions to meet relatives' needs and the short- and long-term effects of critical illness on relatives. Despite widespread use of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, factors such as local or cultural differences may influence relatives' needs. Relatives may also have unidentified needs, and these needs should be explored. Limited research has been carried out into interventions to meet relatives' needs and the effects of critical illness on their well-being, yet some relatives may experience negative psychological consequences far beyond the acute phase of the illness.

  16. Factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life - A scoping literature review.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tiina; Eklöf, Niina; Salminen, Leena

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this scoping literature review was to identify the factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life. The literature search was carried out in autumn 2017 in PubMed and CINAHL databases. The studies selected for this review (n = 17) were analyzed thematically with inductive content analysis. Four subthemes that were combined into two main factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life were found. The main factors found were 1) educational factors and 2) personal factors. Educational factors consisted of professional competence and clinical practice, while personal factors consisted of nursing students' background and feelings. Some nursing students tend to feel insecure about entering working life as a newly graduated nurse. This literature review also supports the importance of clinical practice periods in nursing education and for readiness for working life. Nurse education needs to ensure clinical practice periods which support nursing students' professional growth. Further research is needed on how the factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life correlate with each other. Particularly, the association between competence, readiness and positive feelings towards graduation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Critical Review of the Empirical Literature on the Relation between Anxiety and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Laura E.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Hayward, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The current paper critically reviews the empirical literature focused on the association between puberty and anxiety. A detailed review of more than 45 empirical articles is provided. There is some evidence that among girls, but not boys, a more advanced pubertal status (controlling for age) is associated with higher reported anxiety symptoms. Also among girls, earlier pubertal timing is linked to higher anxiety scores. It is unclear whether early puberty may lead to increased anxiety or if high anxiety influences pubertal timing. With respect to hormones, there were relatively few significant associations for girls, although this literature is very small. Among boys, several studies reported positive associations between both gonadal and adrenal hormones and anxiety. The direction of effect for these finding is also unstudied. The primary limitation of the hormone-anxiety literature pertains to the absence of pubertal measures in samples of youth in which hormones are measured. The paper concludes with a comprehensive examination of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the literature and recommendations for future work. PMID:19019513

  18. The prevalence of occupational health-related problems in dentistry: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Rajeshree; Naidoo, Saloshni; Wyk, Jacqueline van

    2018-03-27

    The study was conducted to report on the scope and prevalence of occupational health related-problems experienced by dentists, dental therapists, and oral hygienists in their practice of dentistry. Professional practice and dental training have many risk factors, and the dental team should be able to recognize these factors to protect themselves. The prevalence of conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, stress, percutaneous injuries, ears, and eyes are of concern. The dental team should also not forget hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV as risks in practice. Dental practitioners should protect themselves by self-recognizing risk factors and by maintaining proper working conditions. The study targeted all empirical research, case studies, and systematic literature reviews written in English. All articles selected were subjected to a data analysis process. Data were captured on an Excel spreadsheet and reported in a comprehensive table. The literature addressing occupational health among dental practitioners included mainly cross-sectional studies and review papers (2001-2016). Forty-nine studies were included in the review. Musculoskeletal disorders remain the most researched occupational health-related problems in dentistry. Eye protection compliance was low among practitioners. Percutaneous injuries especially among young dentists and students were still a concern. Occupational health-related problems are still prevalent in current dentistry practice, despite changes in equipment and surgery design. The reported prevalence of occupational related-health problems and other findings of investigative studies highlight the need for continuous professional education and a need to improve clinical practice aspects of dentistry curricula.

  19. Cement-related injuries: review of a series, the National Burn Repository, and the prevailing literature.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joseph Y; Kowal-Vern, Areta; Latenser, Barbara A; Lewis, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of cement-related injuries encompasses contact dermatitis, abrasions, ulcerations, chemical burns, and burns from explosions during the manufacturing process. The purpose of this study was to compile cement-related conditions seen in two burn units (1999-2005), literature case reports and series (1950-2006) and the (1989-2001) National Burn Repository (NBR). There were 3597 admissions in two Midwestern burn units, of which 12 cases (0.8%) were cement burns. They occurred in men, aged 15 to 64 years with a burn range of 0.25 to 10% TBSA, exposure time of 1 to 6 hours, treatment delay of 1 day to 2 weeks, hospitalization (2-14 days). Literature review of 109 cases indicated that cement-related injuries were predominantly seen in men, aged 26 to 45 years; with a cement-exposure time of 1.5 to 4 hours, treatment delay (1 day to 5 weeks), hospitalization (10-33 days), and healing time (2-7 weeks). There were 52,219 burn admissions in the NBR, of which 44 (0.08%) were cement-related burns; 95% were men with a mean age of 41 years, 6% TBSA cement burn and an 8-day hospital stay. The demographic characteristics of the burn units and NBR cases were similar to those in the literature. This preventable injury occurred primarily in the working age male patient and was associated with long healing times. Public awareness and enhanced manufacturer package warnings and education may decrease future cement-related injuries.

  20. [Nursing and industry relations: literature review and conflicts of interest survey].

    PubMed

    Nordhausen, Thomas; Lins, Sabine; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Köpke, Sascha; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Langer, Gero; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Advanced competencies and tasks of nurses go along with an increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers in nurses as a marketing target. To identify nurses' attitudes, perceptions and behavior regarding industry and marketing strategies. 1) Systematic literature search in Medline via PubMed and CINAHL for international studies on nurses' conflict of interests towards pharmaceutical companies; 2) analysis of a survey with PhD students from two Nursing Science doctoral programs. The review including 16 publications published between 1999 and 2014 and the survey among 82 PhD students revealed comparable results. The majority of nurses already had contact with pharmaceutical companies. Nurses are often uncritical in their attitudes, and suggestibility is claimed to be low. The majority of nurses were not - or at least not sufficiently - provided with conflict of interest training, neither as part of their vocational training nor their continuing education. Conflict of interest seems to be an important topic for nurses. Increasing relevance in the future underpins the need for making nurses more sensitive towards this issue, especially through professional training programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. HOW EFFECTIVELY DOES MEDICAL CARE ACHIEVE ITS PURPOSES? EVALUATION OF PEER-REVIEWED LITERATURE IN OPHTHALMOLOGY RELATED TO WELLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, George L.; Monteiro de Barros, Daniela S.; Gheith, Moataz; Siam, Ghada Ali; Nagarsheth, Mehul

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To get an idea of whether the issue of what makes people healthier is studied in ophthalmology by determining the proportion of articles dealing with that subject. Methods Prospective review of all articles published in 3 consecutive issues of 7 peer-reviewed ophthalmology journals, using a grading system in which A signified an article that clearly dealt with a subject expected to have an impact on health or quality of life, or that considered health or quality of life itself directly; B indicated an article similar to A, but not directly concerned with the issue of health; C signified an article similar to B but more distantly related to health or quality of life; and D was the grade given when there was no relationship at all to health or quality of life. Grading was done independently by 3 graders. A literature review on the subject was also performed. Results Thirty-three articles received a grade of A, 229 of B, 740 of C, and 81 of D. There were more articles that had no relationship at all to health or quality of life than there were articles dealing directly with those issues. Conclusions On the basis of a review of the literature and of over 1000 articles, ophthalmologists do not appear to give much priority to issues of quality of life or health. How validly these conclusions can be generalized to general clinicians is not known. PMID:18427612

  2. Rates and features of methamphetamine-related presentations to emergency departments: An integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rikki; Woods, Cindy; Usher, Kim

    2018-07-01

    To review the clinical impact methamphetamine has on emergency departments by assessing the available research on the rates and features of methamphetamine-related presentations. Globally, methamphetamine availability, distribution and use have rapidly increased. As a result, the number of methamphetamine-related presentations to emergency departments has also increased. In this context, it is timely to review the rate and features of methamphetamine-related presentations to understand the impact of methamphetamine on emergency departments and facilitate the allocation of services, staff and resources. An integrative literature review. This study presents an integrated literature review, following the systematic review process as outlined in the PRISMA flow chart. Several databases were searched using a combination of search terms. Articles were measured against inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the final ten articles were subjected to quality appraisal and outcomes reported. Methamphetamine accounted for 2.3% or less of all emergency departments presentations. The majority of methamphetamine users presenting to emergency departments were males, with a mean age 31-37. Methamphetamine-related presentations to emergency departments were more likely to present with trauma, psychosis, and be placed on 24-hr psychiatric hold. Methamphetamine-related presentations were more likely to present with agitation, aggression and homicidal behaviour and present to emergency departments out of hours and accompanied by police compared with other emergency departments substance-related presentations. Several important themes were highlighted in this review that has an impact on emergency departments services, resources and staff. Understanding the rate and patterns of methamphetamine-related presentations can help to provide evidence for policy development and staff education in emergency departments. Methamphetamine-related presenters are more aggressive and agitated and more

  3. A Review of the Literature on Remote Monitoring Technology in Incentive-Based Interventions for Health-Related Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Kurti, Allison N; Davis, Danielle R; Redner, Ryan; Jarvis, Brantley P; Zvorsky, Ivori; Keith, Diana R; Bolivar, Hypatia A; White, Thomas J; Rippberger, Peter; Markesich, Catherine; Atwood, Gary; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-06-01

    Use of technology (e.g., Internet, cell phones) to allow remote implementation of incentives interventions for health-related behavior change is growing. To our knowledge, there has yet to be a systematic review of this literature reported. The present report provides a systematic review of the controlled studies where technology was used to remotely implement financial incentive interventions targeting substance use and other health behaviors published between 2004 and 2015. For inclusion in the review, studies had to use technology to remotely accomplish one of the following two aims alone or in combination: (a) monitor the target behavior, or (b) deliver incentives for achieving the target goal. Studies also had to examine financial incentives (e.g., cash, vouchers) for health-related behavior change, be published in peer-reviewed journals, and include a research design that allowed evaluation of the efficacy of the incentive intervention relative to another condition (e.g., non-contingent incentives, treatment as usual). Of the 39 reports that met inclusion criteria, 18 targeted substance use, 10 targeted medication adherence or home-based health monitoring, and 11 targeted diet, exercise, or weight loss. All 39 (100%) studies used technology to facilitate remote monitoring of the target behavior, and 26 (66.7%) studies also incorporated technology in the remote delivery of incentives. Statistically significant intervention effects were reported in 71% of studies reviewed. Overall, the results offer substantial support for the efficacy of remotely implemented incentive interventions for health-related behavior change, which have the potential to increase the cost-effectiveness and reach of this treatment approach.

  4. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational, and Residential Use Exposure Pathways to House Dust Pesticide Concentrations: Meta-Regression of Published Data

    PubMed Central

    Deziel, Nicole C.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Graubard, Barry I.; Jones, Rena R.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Chen, Honglei; Lubin, Jay H.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. Objective: To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. Methods: From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995 to 2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics [e.g., geometric means (GM)]. We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). Results: For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (interquartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from seven studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 3.3; 15 statistics, five studies] in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more recently or frequently versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for the pest treatment was 1–19% and ≥ 20%, respectively (88 statistics, five studies). Conclusion: Our quantification of the relative contributions of pesticide exposure pathways in agricultural populations could improve exposure assessments in epidemiologic studies. The meta-regression models can be updated when additional data become available. Citation: Deziel NC, Beane Freeman LE, Graubard BI, Jones RR, Hoppin JA, Thomas K, Hines CJ, Blair A, Sandler DP, Chen H, Lubin

  5. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational, and Residential Use Exposure Pathways to House Dust Pesticide Concentrations: Meta-Regression of Published Data.

    PubMed

    Deziel, Nicole C; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Graubard, Barry I; Jones, Rena R; Hoppin, Jane A; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Chen, Honglei; Lubin, Jay H; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C R; Friesen, Melissa C

    2017-03-01

    Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995 to 2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics [e.g., geometric means (GM)]. We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (interquartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from seven studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 3.3; 15 statistics, five studies] in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more recently or frequently versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for the pest treatment was 1-19% and ≥ 20%, respectively (88 statistics, five studies). Our quantification of the relative contributions of pesticide exposure pathways in agricultural populations could improve exposure assessments in epidemiologic studies. The meta-regression models can be updated when additional data become available. Citation: Deziel NC, Beane Freeman LE, Graubard BI, Jones RR, Hoppin JA, Thomas K, Hines CJ, Blair A, Sandler DP, Chen H, Lubin JH, Andreotti G, Alavanja MC, Friesen MC. 2017

  6. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools. The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. Methods General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. Results We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. Conclusion The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality

  7. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough.

    PubMed

    Boeker, Martin; Vach, Werner; Motschall, Edith

    2013-10-26

    Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools.The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality indicator of Google Scholar confined to

  8. Predictors of alcohol-related negative consequences in adolescents: A systematic review of the literature and implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Publishing and Revising Content

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  10. Gender trends in authorship of spine-related academic literature-a 39-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Sing, David C; Jain, Deeptee; Ouyang, David

    2017-11-01

    Despite recent advances in gender equity in medicine, the representation of women in orthopedic and neurosurgery remains particularly low. Furthermore, compared with their male colleagues, female faculty members are less likely to publish research, limiting opportunities in the academic promotion process. Understanding disparities in research productivity provides insight into the "gender gap" in the spine surgeon workforce. This study aims to determine the representation and longevity of female physician-investigators among the authors of five spine-related research journals from 1978 to 2016. This is a retrospective bibliometric review. The authors of original research articles from five prominent spine-related journals (European Spine Journal, The Spine Journal, Spine, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine) were extracted from PubMed. For authors with a complete first name listed, gender was determined by matching first name using an online database containing 216,286 distinct names across 79 countries and 89 languages. The proportion of female first and senior authors was determined during the time periods 1978 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, 2005 to 2009, and 2010 to 2016. The authors who had their first paper published between 2000 and 2009 were included in additional analyses for publication count and longevity (whether additional articles were published 5 years after first publication). Student t test, chi-square analysis, and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used to determine significance between groups. From 1978 to 2016, 28,882 original research articles were published in the five spine-related journals. A total of 24,334 abstracts (90.9%) had first names listed, identifying 120,723 authors, in total of which 100,286 were successfully matched to a gender. A total of 33,480 unique authors were identified (female authors: 31.8%). Female representation increased for first and senior authors from 6.5% and 4

  11. Quality Assessment of Published Articles in Iranian Journals Related to Economic Evaluation in Health Care Programs Based on Drummond's Checklist: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Rezapour, Aziz; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Mirmasoudi, Kosha; Talebianpour, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    Health economic evaluation research plays an important role in selecting cost-effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of published articles in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs based on Drummond's checklist in terms of numbers, features, and quality. In the present review study, published articles (Persian and English) in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs were searched using electronic databases. In addition, the methodological quality of articles' structure was analyzed by Drummond's standard checklist. Based on the inclusion criteria, the search of databases resulted in 27 articles that fully covered economic evaluation in health care programs. A review of articles in accordance with Drummond's criteria showed that the majority of studies had flaws. The most common methodological weakness in the articles was in terms of cost calculation and valuation. Considering such methodological faults in these studies, it is anticipated that these studies would not provide an appropriate feedback to policy makers to allocate health care resources correctly and select suitable cost-effective interventions. Therefore, researchers are required to comply with the standard guidelines in order to better execute and report on economic evaluation studies.

  12. Quality Assessment of Published Articles in Iranian Journals Related to Economic Evaluation in Health Care Programs Based on Drummond’s Checklist: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Mirmasoudi, Kosha; Talebianpour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Health economic evaluation research plays an important role in selecting cost-effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of published articles in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs based on Drummond’s checklist in terms of numbers, features, and quality. In the present review study, published articles (Persian and English) in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs were searched using electronic databases. In addition, the methodological quality of articles’ structure was analyzed by Drummond’s standard checklist. Based on the inclusion criteria, the search of databases resulted in 27 articles that fully covered economic evaluation in health care programs. A review of articles in accordance with Drummond’s criteria showed that the majority of studies had flaws. The most common methodological weakness in the articles was in terms of cost calculation and valuation. Considering such methodological faults in these studies, it is anticipated that these studies would not provide an appropriate feedback to policy makers to allocate health care resources correctly and select suitable cost-effective interventions. Therefore, researchers are required to comply with the standard guidelines in order to better execute and report on economic evaluation studies. PMID:29234174

  13. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    PubMed Central

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  14. Confronting inequities: A scoping review of the literature on pharmacist practice and health-related disparities.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Lisa M; Rosenthal, Meagen; Sharpe, Jane Pearson; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    An expanding body of literature is exploring the presence and impact of health and health care disparities among marginalized populations. This research challenges policy makers, health professionals, and scholars to examine how unjust and avoidable inequities are created at the societal, institutional, and individual level, and explore strategies for mitigating challenges. Recognizing the significance of this broader conversation, this scoping review provides an overview of pharmacy-specific research attentive to health-related disparities. Following Arksey and O'Malley's framework, a rigorous screening process yielded 93 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature articles, each analyzed for core themes. Lending critical insight to how pharmacy practice researchers are conceptualizing and measuring health inequities, this review highlights three paths of inquiry evident across this literature, including research focused on what pharmacists know about marginalized groups, how pharmacists perceive these groups, and how they provide services. Striving to drive research and practice forward, this review details research gaps and opportunities, including a need to expand the scope of research and integrate knowledge. As pharmacists endeavor to provide equitable and impactful patient care, it is essential to understand challenges, and build strong evidence for meaningful action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1) convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2) detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3) refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4) annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch. PMID:20682041

  16. Drug-related death following release from prison: a brief review of the literature with recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Leach, D; Oliver, P

    2011-12-01

    Mortality from drug-related death is a significant contributor to the loss of life of young people in the UK. Despite attention, the high death rate from this cause continues to persist. One of the most frequently cited factors involved in drug-related death (DRD) is release from prison. This review aims to examine the published literature with a view to quantifying the risk associated with recent prison release and identifying risk factors and prevention strategies. Most deaths following release from prison are caused by overdose, usually from opioid use. The risk of death is greatest within the first week of release but, when compared with the general population, continues to be elevated for several weeks. Relative risk estimates suggest that those released from prison are up to 40 times more likely to die than similar individuals from the general population. Other than gender and an association with poor mental health, there is little in the way of robust risk factors for post-release death that could be identified from the literature. In-prison pharmacological maintenance treatment with methadone and buprenorphine has been shown to reduce the rate of heroin use, in the period immediately following release, in a small number of randomised controlled trials. It is widely recognised that continuity of care, of any form, is critical in avoiding DRDs. For problem drug users, packages of education, including information on the associated risks, treatments, and recognition of DRD after release from prison, are seen as a basic minimum requirement of the prison services. However, special protocols may be required for those drug-using prisoners who have a possibility of being released at short notice.

  17. LGscore: A method to identify disease-related genes using biological literature and Google data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    Since the genome project in 1990s, a number of studies associated with genes have been conducted and researchers have confirmed that genes are involved in disease. For this reason, the identification of the relationships between diseases and genes is important in biology. We propose a method called LGscore, which identifies disease-related genes using Google data and literature data. To implement this method, first, we construct a disease-related gene network using text-mining results. We then extract gene-gene interactions based on co-occurrences in abstract data obtained from PubMed, and calculate the weights of edges in the gene network by means of Z-scoring. The weights contain two values: the frequency and the Google search results. The frequency value is extracted from literature data, and the Google search result is obtained using Google. We assign a score to each gene through a network analysis. We assume that genes with a large number of links and numerous Google search results and frequency values are more likely to be involved in disease. For validation, we investigated the top 20 inferred genes for five different diseases using answer sets. The answer sets comprised six databases that contain information on disease-gene relationships. We identified a significant number of disease-related genes as well as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Our method was up to 40% more accurate than existing methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV-related stigma within communities of gay men: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Peter J; Brady, Michael; Carter, Michael; Fernandes, Ricardo; Lamore, Lance; Meulbroek, Michael; Ohayon, Michel; Platteau, Tom; Rehberg, Peter; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Thompson, Marc

    2012-01-01

    While stigma associated with HIV infection is well recognised, there is limited information on the impact of HIV-related stigma between men who have sex with men and within communities of gay men. The consequences of HIV-related stigma can be personal and community-wide, including impacts on mood and emotional well-being, prevention, testing behaviour, and mental and general health. This review of the literature reports a growing division between HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men, and a fragmentation of gay communities based along lines of perceived or actual HIV status. The literature includes multiple references to HIV stigma and discrimination between gay men, men who have sex with men, and among and between many gay communities. This HIV stigma takes diverse forms and can incorporate aspects of social exclusion, ageism, discrimination based on physical appearance and health status, rejection and violence. By compiling the available information on this understudied form of HIV-related discrimination, we hope to better understand and target research and countermeasures aimed at reducing its impact at multiple levels.

  19. Neurocognitive functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and unaffected relatives: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Stephanie A; Kassem, Layla; Brotman, Melissa A; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J

    2016-10-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are present in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and their unaffected (nonbipolar) relatives, but it is not clear which domains are most often impaired and the extent of the impairment resulting from shared genetic factors. In this literature review, we address these issues and identify specific neurocognitive tasks most sensitive to cognitive deficits in patients and unaffected relatives. We conducted a systematic review in Web of Science, PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO databases. Fifty-one articles assessing cognitive functioning in BD patients (23 studies) and unaffected relatives (28 studies) were examined. Patients and, less so, relatives show impairments in attention, processing speed, verbal learning/memory, and verbal fluency. Studies were more likely to find impairment in patients than relatives, suggesting that some neurocognitive deficits may be a result of the illness itself and/or its treatment. However, small sample sizes, differences among relatives studied (e.g., relatedness, diagnostic status, age), and differences in assessment instruments may contribute to inconsistencies in reported neurocognitive performance among relatives. Additional studies addressing these issues are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurocognitive functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and unaffected relatives: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Stephanie A.; Kassem, Layla; Brotman, Melissa A.; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive deficits are present in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and their unaffected (nonbipolar) relatives, but it is not clear which domains are most often impaired and the extent of the impairment resulting from shared genetic factors. In this literature review, we address these issues and identify specific neurocognitive tasks most sensitive to cognitive deficits in patients and unaffected relatives. Method We conducted a systematic review in Web of Science, PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO databases. Results Fifty-one articles assessing cognitive functioning in BD patients (23 studies) and unaffected relatives (28 studies) were examined. Patients and, less so, relatives show impairments in attention, processing speed, verbal learning/memory, and verbal fluency. Conclusion Studies were more likely to find impairment in patients than relatives, suggesting that some neurocognitive deficits may be a result of the illness itself and/or its treatment. However, small sample sizes, differences among relatives studied (e.g., relatedness, diagnostic status, age), and differences in assessment instruments may contribute to inconsistencies in reported neurocognitive performance among relatives. Additional studies addressing these issues are needed. PMID:27502749

  1. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. Results We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice

  2. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature.

    PubMed

    Žitnik, Slavko; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice of transforming

  3. Health-related quality-of-life of children with speech and language difficulties: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Rachel; Desha, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2012-02-01

    A review of the literature has been undertaken to examine health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents with speech and language difficulties (SaLD), with a particular focus on evidence regarding the domains of HRQoL most affected by SaLD. Twelve electronic databases were searched for articles on this topic published from 1966 to January 2011. Seven studies suitable for inclusion were identified. These papers were reviewed in relation to their participants, sample size, study design, and outcome measures, which differed considerably across studies. From the studies reviewed, there is emerging evidence that HRQoL can be compromised for children and adolescents with SaLD relative to their peers, and some consensus that the social domain of HRQoL is most impacted. Overall, the review highlights a paucity of research in this area and recommendations are made as to how research may advance. Most importantly, studies examining the effect of child and family factors in mediating or moderating the relationship between SaLD and HRQoL are required. This knowledge will support the identification of children with SaLD at risk of poorer HRQoL outcomes and inform intervention strategies through the identification of relevant risk and protective factors.

  4. Health-related quality of life of youth with inflammatory bowel disease: a comparison with published data using the PedsQL 4.0 generic core scales.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Hommel, Kevin A; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2010-06-01

    This study compared youth and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to published comparison group data and examined concordance between youth and parent-proxy reports of HRQoL. One hundred thirty-six youth and parent-proxy reports on the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were compared to published data from chronically ill, acutely ill, and healthy comparison groups using independent samples t-tests. Reporter agreement was examined using paired samples t-tests and intraclass correlations (ICCs). Youth with IBD reported lower psychosocial functioning than the healthy comparison group, higher physical and social functioning than the chronically ill group, and lower school functioning than all published comparison groups. Parent-proxy reports of youth HRQoL were higher than the chronically ill group, but lower than the healthy group on all scales except psychosocial functioning. Youth with active IBD reported lower physical health domain scores than youth with inactive disease. Concordance between youth and parent-proxy reports was moderate, with the lowest agreement in school and social functioning. Youth with IBD and their parents rate HRQoL as lower than healthy youth but do not perceive the impact of IBD to be as limiting as in other chronic conditions. Youth report suggests that IBD may be particularly detrimental to HRQoL in the school functioning domain. Moderate agreement between parent and youth reports substantiates continued use of multiple informants in studies of pediatric HRQoL.

  5. The 100 Most-Cited Human Cleft Lip and Palate-Related Articles Published in Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine Journals.

    PubMed

    Christou, Panagiotis; Antonarakis, Gregory S

    2015-07-01

    To identify the 100 most-cited articles pertaining to human cleft lip and palate research published in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine journals and to identify their principal bibliometric characteristics. Web-based bibliometric analysis. The Web of Science was searched to identify the 100 most-cited clinical articles related to cleft lip and/or palate. Information was extracted with regard to total number of citations, number of authors, affiliations, year, and journal of publication, Medical Subject Headings, type of study, specific area of study. Trends in citations were assessed. The 100 most-cited articles identified received between 437 and 58 citations. The oldest was published in 1954 and the most recent in 2008. The number of authors ranged from 1 to 12, with an average of three authors per article. Most of the first authors were affiliated with institutions in the United States, with the most prolific institution being the University of Iowa. More than 70% of the studies appeared in The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. There was a significant negative correlation between average citations per year and time since publication (P < .001); whereas, a significant positive correlation was observed between average citations per year and number of total citations (P < .001). The 100 most-cited articles in human cleft lip and palate research published in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine journals are listed and characterized. This can be used as a potential knowledge base for specialists in training or to produce relevant knowledge defining the direction of future research.

  6. The prevalence of occupational health-related problems in dentistry: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Saloshni; van Wyk, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to report on the scope and prevalence of occupational health related-problems experienced by dentists, dental therapists, and oral hygienists in their practice of dentistry. Background: Professional practice and dental training have many risk factors, and the dental team should be able to recognize these factors to protect themselves. The prevalence of conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, stress, percutaneous injuries, ears, and eyes are of concern. The dental team should also not forget hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV as risks in practice. Dental practitioners should protect themselves by self-recognizing risk factors and by maintaining proper working conditions. Methods: The study targeted all empirical research, case studies, and systematic literature reviews written in English. All articles selected were subjected to a data analysis process. Data were captured on an Excel spreadsheet and reported in a comprehensive table. Results: The literature addressing occupational health among dental practitioners included mainly cross-sectional studies and review papers (2001-2016). Forty-nine studies were included in the review. Musculoskeletal disorders remain the most researched occupational health-related problems in dentistry. Eye protection compliance was low among practitioners. Percutaneous injuries especially among young dentists and students were still a concern. Conclusion: Occupational health-related problems are still prevalent in current dentistry practice, despite changes in equipment and surgery design. The reported prevalence of occupational related-health problems and other findings of investigative studies highlight the need for continuous professional education and a need to improve clinical practice aspects of dentistry curricula. PMID:29213011

  7. Pregnancy-related acute aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine; Gros, Bernard

    2017-05-01

    A well-established association exists between acute aortic dissection and pregnancy, particularly in women with Marfan syndrome. However, there is debate regarding appropriate management guidelines. In particular, there are differing opinions regarding when prophylactic aortic root repair should be recommended as well as the efficacy of beta blockers in this clinical scenario. The current study evaluated 10 years of published literature (2005-2015) in the PubMed/Medline database. Fifty articles, describing 72 cases of women who presented with aortic dissection in the antepartum or postpartum period were identified. Comparisons on demographic variables and clinical outcomes between cases of women with Marfan syndrome (n = 36) and without Marfan syndrome (n = 36) were conducted. There were no significant differences in demographics (age, gravidity, parity) between the Marfan and non-Marfan cases. Marfan patients presented with antepartum dissections significantly earlier in pregnancy than those without Marfan syndrome (P = .002). However, there were no significant difference between the 2 groups in maternal mortality, fetal mortality, or obstetric outcomes (mode of delivery and gestational age at delivery). Eight cases described events in Marfan women with an aortic root diameter ≤40 mm. Six events occurred in Marfan women who were managed with beta blockers. Current guidelines rely on aortic root diameter for stratification of Marfan women into risk categories, but we identified several cases that would be missed by these guidelines. Specifically, the existing literature suggest that women with Marfan syndrome should take precautions throughout pregnancy, rather than the third trimester. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Critical Review of Search Strategies Used in Recent Systematic Reviews Published in Selected Prosthodontic and Implant-Related Journals: Are Systematic Reviews Actually Systematic?

    PubMed

    Layton, Danielle

    The aim of this study was to outline how search strategies can be systematic, to examine how the searches in recent systematic reviews in prosthodontic and implant-related journals were structured, and to determine whether the search strategies used in those articles were systematic. A total of 103 articles published as systematic reviews and indexed in Medline between January 2013 and May 2016 were identified from eight prosthodontic and implant journals and reviewed. The search strategies were considered systematic when they met the following criteria: (1) more than one electronic database was searched, (2) more than one searcher was clearly involved, (3) both text words and indexing terms were clearly included in the search strategy, (4) a hand search of selected journals or reference lists was undertaken, (5) gray research was specifically sought, and (6) the articles were published in English and at least one other language. The data were tallied and qualitatively assessed. The majority of articles reported on implants (54%), followed by tooth-supported fixed prosthodontics (13%). A total of 23 different electronic resources were consulted, including Medline (by 100% of articles), the Cochrane Library (52%), and Embase (37%). The majority consulted more than one electronic resource (71%), clearly included more than one searcher (73%), and employed a hand search of either selected journals or reference lists (86%). Less than half used both text words and indexing terms to identify articles (42%), while 15% actively sought gray research. Articles published in languages other than English were considered in 63 reviews, but only 14 had no language restrictions. Of the 103 articles, 5 completed search strategies that met all 6 criteria, and a further 12 met 5 criteria. Two articles did not fulfill any of the criteria. More than 95% of recent prosthodontic and implant review articles published in the selected journals failed to use search strategies that were

  9. Approaches by School Counselors To Enhance the Self-Concept of High School Students: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterling, Kathleen G.

    This paper reviews the relevant literature on approaches by school counselors to enhance the self-concept of high school students. Seventeen journal articles and five microfiche articles published over a period of five years, between 1991 and 1996, were examined. These reviewed sources were identified through an ERIC search. In an attempt to…

  10. Relation between Alice Software and Programming Learning: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Joana M.; Miranda, Guilhermina L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the literature, including a meta-analysis, about the effectiveness of the use of Alice software in programming learning when compared to the use of a conventional programming language. Our research included studies published between the years 2000 and 2014 in the main databases. We gathered…

  11. Family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perceived CVD risk, and health-related behavior: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 82 million Americans have one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for 32.8% of all deaths in the United States. Although the evidence for the familial aggregation of CVD is strong, the relationship between family history (FH) of CVD, perceived risk for CVD and their relationship to health-related behavior is poorly understood. Objective The objective of this article is to review and summarize the published research on the relationship between a FH of CVD, an individual’s perceived risk, and health-related behavior in order to make recommendations for clinical practice and future research. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO to identify articles that examined the relationship between a FH of CVD, perceived CVD risk, and health-promoting behaviors. A total of 263 unique articles were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-eight were excluded, resulting in a total of 25 articles included in the paper. Results There was a positive relationship between a reported FH of CVD and perceived risk. However, the relationship between a FH of CVD and health-related behavior change and perceived risk and behavior change was inconsistent. Conclusions A person’s awareness of their FH of CVD or their own risk for CVD is not a sufficient predictor of changes in their health-related behavior. Future studies are needed to better explain the processes by which perceived CVD risk or FH of CVD can be used to affect health-related behavior changes. It appears that both FH and perceived personal risk for CVD are necessary but not sufficient conditions to change health-related behavior in high-risk populations. Future studies should also test interventions that help individuals with a FH of CVD attribute increased personal risk to themselves for developing CVD, while providing lifestyle management options to minimize their risk. PMID:23321782

  12. PPInterFinder—a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein–protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder—a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. Database URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/ PMID:23325628

  13. Social Support and HIV-related Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Global Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  14. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/

  15. Hospital nurses' information retrieval behaviours in relation to evidence based nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Alving, Berit Elisabeth; Christensen, Janne Buck; Thrysøe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of the information retrieval behaviour of clinical nurses, in terms of the use of databases and other information resources and their frequency of use. Systematic searches carried out in five databases and handsearching were used to identify the studies from 2010 to 2016, with a populations, exposures and outcomes (PEO) search strategy, focusing on the question: In which databases or other information resources do hospital nurses search for evidence based information, and how often? Of 5272 titles retrieved based on the search strategy, only nine studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. The studies are from the United States, Canada, Taiwan and Nigeria. The results show that hospital nurses' primary choice of source for evidence based information is Google and peers, while bibliographic databases such as PubMed are secondary choices. Data on frequency are only included in four of the studies, and data are heterogenous. The reasons for choosing Google and peers are primarily lack of time; lack of information; lack of retrieval skills; or lack of training in database searching. Only a few studies are published on clinical nurses' retrieval behaviours, and more studies are needed from Europe and Australia. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  16. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    PubMed

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  17. Four novel cases of periaxin-related neuropathy and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, C; Milani, M; Morbin, M; Cesani, M; Lauria, G; Scaioli, V; Piccolo, G; Fabrizi, G M; Cavallaro, T; Taroni, F; Pareyson, D

    2010-11-16

    To report 4 cases of autosomal recessive hereditary neuropathy associated with novel mutations in the periaxin gene (PRX) with a review of the literature. Periaxin protein is required for the maintenance of peripheral nerve myelin. Patients with PRX mutations have early-onset autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4F) or Déjèrine-Sottas neuropathy (DSN). Only 12 different mutations have been described thus far. Case reports and literature review. Four patients from 3 unrelated families (2 siblings and 2 unrelated patients) were affected by an early-onset, slowly progressive demyelinating neuropathy with relevant sensory involvement. All carried novel frameshift or nonsense mutations in the PRX gene. The 2 siblings were compound heterozygotes for 2 PRX null mutations (p.Q547X and p.K808SfsX2), the third patient harbored a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.E682X), and the last patient had a homozygous 2-nt insertion predicting a premature protein truncation (p.S259PfsX55). Electrophysiologic analysis showed a severe slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs, between 3 and 15.3 m/s) with undetectable sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs). Sural nerve biopsy, performed in 2 patients, demonstrated a severe demyelinating neuropathy and onion bulb formations. Interestingly, we observed some variability of disease severity within the same family. These cases and review of the literature indicate that PRX-related neuropathies have early onset but overall slow progression. Typical features are prominent sensory involvement, often with sensory ataxia; a moderate-to-dramatic reduction of MNCVs and almost invariable absence of SNAPs; and pathologic demyelination with classic onion bulbs, and less commonly myelin folding and basal lamina onion bulbs.

  18. Getting Your Textbook Published.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Armond J.

    1982-01-01

    Points to remember in getting a textbook published are examined: book idea, publisher's sales representatives, letter of inquiry, qualifications for authorship, author information form, idea proposal, reviews, marketing and sales, publishing agreement, author royalties, and copyright assignment. (CT)

  19. Relations between task delegation and job satisfaction in general practice: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Riisgaard, Helle; Nexøe, Jørgen; Le, Jette V; Søndergaard, Jens; Ledderer, Loni

    2016-11-30

    It has for years been discussed whether practice staff should be involved in patient care in general practice to a higher extent. The research concerning task delegation within general practice is generally increasing, but the literature focusing on its influence on general practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction appears to be sparse even though job satisfaction is acknowledged as an important factor associated with both patient satisfaction and medical quality of care. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was 1) to review the current research on the relation between task delegation and general practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction and, additionally, 2) to review the evidence of possible explanations for this relation. A systematic literature review. We searched the four databases PubMed, Cinahl, Embase, and Scopus systematically. The immediate relevance of the retrieved articles was evaluated by title and abstract by the first author, and papers that seemed to meet the aim of the review were then fully read by first author and last author independently judging the eligibility of content. We included four studies in the review. They explored views and attitudes of the staff, encompassing nurses as well as practice managers. Only one of the included studies also explored general practitioners' views and attitudes, hence making it impossible to establish any syntheses on this relation. According to the studies, the staff's overall attitude towards task delegation was positive and led to increased job satisfaction, probably because task delegation comprised a high degree of work autonomy. The few studies included in our review suggest that task delegation within general practice may be seen by the staff as an overall positive issue contributing to their job satisfaction, primarily due to perceived autonomy in the work. However, because of the small sample size comprising only qualitative studies, and due to the heterogeneity of these studies

  20. [Economic factors related to the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Palma, Marco; Hernández, Ildefonso; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Gil-González, Diana; Ruiz, María T; Medina, Manuel

    2009-08-01

    To systematize all the information published on the status of and progress made toward the Health-related Millennium Development Goals (HMDGs), as well as to understand associations with certain economic factors and the potential for success. A search was conducted for all scientific articles covering the Millennium Development Goals in general, published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2006, in the electronic databases of the EBSCO, CSA Illumina, Thomson Gale, SwetsWise, and BIREME. All original articles in English or Spanish that evaluated HMDG status, progress, and determinants were selected. The analysis evaluated the distribution of determinants of HMDG status or progress, the HMDGs referred to, the study type, the relationship between economic indicators and health, the study location, and the status and potential for attaining the HMDGs. The quality of the articles was also rated. Of the 304 original articles found, 114 (37.5%) covered one or more HMDGs. The most frequently addressed goals were those concerning infant and maternal mortality. Of the 39 articles that evaluated HMDGs and their association with economic variables, 13 dealt with economic factors related to equity, policy, or globalization. Economic and policy factors were most frequently associated with HMDG status or progress. There is a definitive trend toward measuring HMDG status and progress according to economic factors that reflect the population's condition. There is an information gap regarding government spending, international commerce, international aid, and global economic policy. The potential for achieving HMDGs in poor countries is low.

  1. [Work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Mikołajewska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Studies of some chronic conditions and some health risk factors in physiotherapists suggest that work-related stress and burn- out may have a significant but underestimated impact on their health status and productivity. This paper presents the author's attempt to review current knowledge of work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists. This review was aimed at explor- ing the relationship between causes, consequences and ways of prevention of work-related stress and burnout in this occupa- tional group. Searching PubMed, PEDro and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition was conducted in July 2014, with no starting date limitation and with specified keywords. The literature on work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists has investigated their relationship with a large number of causes, consequences, and ways of prevention. Based on the research re- viewed, the conclusion can be drawn that further strategies to increase awareness among the management staff and health profes- sionals about the importance of prevention and stress management are required to decrease the prevalence of aforementioned pathologies. It was stressed that the majority of components of these strategies still require to be confirmed by future studies.

  2. Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain

  3. Reducing work related psychological ill health and sickness absence: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Michie, S; Williams, S

    2003-01-01

    A literature review revealed the following: key work factors associated with psychological ill health and sickness absence in staff were long hours worked, work overload and pressure, and the effects of these on personal lives; lack of control over work; lack of participation in decision making; poor social support; and unclear management and work role. There was some evidence that sickness absence was associated with poor management style. Successful interventions that improved psychological health and levels of sickness absence used training and organisational approaches to increase participation in decision making and problem solving, increase support and feedback, and improve communication. It is concluded that many of the work related variables associated with high levels of psychological ill health are potentially amenable to change. This is shown in intervention studies that have successfully improved psychological health and reduced sickness absence. PMID:12499449

  4. Social and Interpersonal Factors Relating to Adolescent Suicidality: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Merchant, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature concerning social and interpersonal variables as risk factors for adolescent suicidality (suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, death by suicide. It also describes major social constructs in theories of suicide and the extent to which studies support their importance to adolescent suicidality. PsychINFO and PubMed searches were conducted for empirical studies focused on family and friend support, social isolation, peer victimization, physical/sexual abuse, or emotional neglect as these relate to adolescent suicidality. Empirical findings converge in documenting the importance of multiple social and interpersonal factors to adolescent suicidality. Research support for the social constructs in several major theories of suicide is summarized and research challenges are discussed. PMID:18576200

  5. Pregnancy-related Acute Kidney Injury and a Review of the Literature in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-mei; Bao, Hong-da; Jiang, Zhen-zhen; Huang, Ya-juan; Wang, Nian-song

    2015-01-01

    To determine the incidence, causes and prognosis of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PR-AKI) in Chinese women. From July 2004 to February 2013, 18,589 women of Han ethnicity who attended the Obstetrics and Nephrology Department of our tertiary hospital were investigated, and individuals meeting the PR-AKI criteria were included in the analysis. The WanFang, Chinese Science Journal, Chinese Knowledge, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases were searched, and literature describing PR-AKI diagnoses with Chinese women as study subjects and a sample size of ≥5 were included. The incidence of PR-AKI was 0.1183% (22/18,589). Hemorrhagic shock (31.8%) and pre-eclampsia (severe, 18.2%) were the two most common causes of PR-AKI. Twelve women recovered completely, six women displayed persistent proteinuria and four women had an increased serum creatinine level at discharge. There were no cases of death. Twenty women demonstrated adverse pregnancy outcomes (90.9%), including eight cases of stillbirth (36.4%). In our literature review, 29 of 4,076 articles were included, and the incidence of PR-AKI in China was found to range from 0.02% to 1.84%. Pregnancy hypertension (49.2%) and postpartum hemorrhage (13.8%) were found to be the most common causes of PR-AKI in China. The prognosis improved in 81.9% of the patients, the renal function deteriorated in 4.5% of the patients and 13.6% of the patients died. The rate of stillbirth was 27.0%. The maternal condition after active treatment was good, whereas the pregnancy outcomes were generally poor. Although the incidence of PR-AKI was relatively low, this finding is noteworthy. Further studies are thus warranted to improve maternal-fetal outcomes.

  6. [Visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) role on imported malaria: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Immordino, Palmira

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, increased numbers of travel to tropical destinations in combination with the enormous influx of immigrants have led to an increased number of imported malaria cases in developed countries. There is a group of immigrants regularly resident in malaria free areas, which travel to malaria endemic countries to visit their friends and relatives (VFRs). VFRs represent a high-risk group of contracting malaria. Publications presenting original data on malaria in VFRs were selected for a literature review. We considered all data regarding prevalence of malaria in VFRs compared to the other groups of travelers, length of trip, group characteristics such as age, sex, country visited, and adherence to pre-travel recommendations, in particular, the compliance on the use of chemoprophylaxis, where such information was available. Studies related to malaria importation in VFRs in children and pregnant women were also included. Review of the literature revealed significant variations in the proportion of VFRs among imported malaria cases which may be due to differences in immigrant populations across the reporting countries. However, in studies focused on those at higher risk such as children and pregnant women, the prevalence of imported malaria was significantly higher compared to other types of travelers. Adherence to adequate preventive measures was low in VFRs. Significant reasons for not seeking pre-travel advice were economic and cultural issues, fear of the side effects due to chemoprophylaxis, and misconception about life-long immunity against malaria, and consequently, a low awareness about malaria risk. In order to implement preventive strategies focused on this high-risk group, prospective studies, which better define determinants of the risk of malaria in VFRs, are needed.

  7. A review of the literature on the effects of low doses of alcohol on driving-related skills

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding the effects of alcohol on driving-related skills was conducted. The review covered 112 articles dated from 1981 to 1997. Results were indexed by blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and behavioral area and...

  8. Prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in young soldiers; a review of the literature and current practice in the Dutch Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Wes O; Helmhout, P H; Beutler, A

    2017-04-01

    Overuse injuries of the leg are a common problem for young soldiers. This article reviews the literature concerning the prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in military settings and presents the latest developments in proposed mechanisms and treatments. Current practice and treatment protocols from the Dutch Armed Forces are reviewed, with an emphasis on the most prevalent conditions of medial tibial stress syndrome and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. The conclusion is that exercise related leg pain in the military is an occupational problem that deserves further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Factors Affecting Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Undergoing Curative Treatment for Cancer: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Momani, Tha'er G; Hathaway, Donna K; Mandrell, Belinda N

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important measure to evaluate a child's reported treatment experience. Although there are numerous studies of HRQoL in children undergoing curative cancer treatment, there is limited literature on factors that influence this. To review published studies that describe the HRQoL and associated factors in children undergoing curative cancer treatment. Full-text publications in English from January 2005 to March 2013 were searched in PubMed, PsychINFO, and CINAHL for children ≤18 years of age undergoing curative cancer treatment. HRQoL-associated factors were categorized as cancer diagnosis, treatment, child, family, and community. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used generic and cancer-specific instruments were PedsQL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) Generic and PedsQL Cancer, respectively. Cancer diagnosis and treatment were the most frequently identified variables; fewer studies measured family and community domains. Gender, treatment intensity, type of cancer treatments, time in treatment, and cancer diagnosis were correlated with HRQoL. Our study highlights the need to develop interventions based on diagnosis and treatment regimen to improve the HRQoL in children undergoing curative cancer treatment. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  10. A literature review on self-care of chronic illness: definition, assessment and related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Davide; Masotto, Matteo; Dall'Ora, Chiara; Salvini, Lorena; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Chronic illnesses care represents a challenging issue for people well-being and future health systems' sustainability. Promotion of self-care is considered a key point for chronically ill patients' care. The aim of this literature was to explore: how self-care of chronic illness has been theoretically defined; how self-care can be assessed in clinical and research settings; what associations exist between self-care and health outcomes of chronically ill patients. A wide range of definitions and terminologies related to self-care of chronic illness has been found in the literature. Although some common elements useful to explain the concept of self-care have been identified, the physical, cognitive, emotional and social processes underlying self-care remain controversial and poorly defined. Valid and reliable disease-specific assessment tools have been developed and used in a growing number of studies; however, the lack of utilization of standardized instruments in clinical practice has been referred by many authors. Significant correlations between self-care of chronic illness and outcome measures e.g. general health status, quality of life and healthcare costs, are reported by a limited number of studies. Supporting patient self-care is recognized as a crucial factor in chronic illness care. A deeper analysis of variables and processes influencing self-care could help for a full description of the phenomenon. A systematic evaluation of self-care in health professionals' everyday clinical practice is strongly recommended. The development of general non-disease-specific assessment tools could facilitate the evaluation of complex patients, especially those with multiple co-morbidities. Although self-care has been recognized as a vital intermediate outcome, further large-scale studies clarifying the association between self-care and patients' and health systems' outcomes are needed.

  11. The biology of cancer-related fatigue: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Saligan, Leorey N; Olson, Karin; Filler, Kristin; Larkin, David; Cramp, Fiona; Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Sriram, Yennu; Escalante, Carmen P; del Giglio, Auro; Kober, Kord M; Kamath, Jayesh; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the etiology of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is critical to identify targets to develop therapies to reduce CRF burden. The goal of this systematic review was to expand on the initial work by the National Cancer Institute CRF Working Group to understand the state of the science related to the biology of CRF and, specifically, to evaluate studies that examined the relationships between biomarkers and CRF and to develop an etiologic model of CRF to guide researchers on pathways to explore or therapeutic targets to investigate. This review was completed by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Fatigue Study Group-Biomarker Working Group. The initial search used three terms (biomarkers, fatigue, cancer), which yielded 11,129 articles. After removing duplicates, 9145 articles remained. Titles were assessed for the keywords "cancer" and "fatigue" resulting in 3811 articles. Articles published before 2010 and those with samples <50 were excluded, leaving 75 articles for full-text review. Of the 75 articles, 28 were further excluded for not investigating the associations of biomarkers and CRF. Of the 47 articles reviewed, 25 were cross-sectional and 22 were longitudinal studies. More than half (about 70 %) were published recently (2010-2013). Almost half (45 %) enrolled breast cancer participants. The majority of studies assessed fatigue using self-report questionnaires, and only two studies used clinical parameters to measure fatigue. The findings from this review suggest that CRF is linked to immune/inflammatory, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and genetic biomarkers. We also identified gaps in knowledge and made recommendations for future research.

  12. The economic consequences of noncompliance in cardiovascular disease and related conditions: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Muszbek, N; Brixner, D; Benedict, A; Keskinaslan, A; Khan, Z M

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To review studies on the cost consequences of compliance and/or persistence in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related conditions (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and heart failure) published since 1995, and to evaluate the effects of noncompliance on healthcare expenditure and the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions. Methods English language papers published between January 1995 and February 2007 that examined compliance/persistence with medication for CVD or related conditions, provided an economic evaluation of pharmacological interventions or cost analysis, and quantified the cost consequences of noncompliance, were identified through database searches. The cost consequences of noncompliance were compared across studies descriptively. Results Of the 23 studies identified, 10 focused on hypertension, seven on diabetes, one on dyslipidaemia, one on coronary heart disease, one on heart failure and three covered multiple diseases. In studies assessing drug costs only, increased compliance/persistence led to increased drug costs. However, increased compliance/persistence increased the effectiveness of treatment, leading to a decrease in medical events and non-drug costs. This offset the higher drug costs, leading to savings in overall treatment costs. In studies evaluating the effect of compliance/persistence on the cost-effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, increased compliance/persistence appeared to reduce cost-effectiveness ratios, but the extent of this effect was not quantified. Conclusions Noncompliance with cardiovascular and antidiabetic medication is a significant problem. Increased compliance/persistence leads to increased drug costs, but these are offset by reduced non-drug costs, leading to overall cost savings. The effect of noncompliance on the cost-effectiveness of pharmacological interventions is inconclusive and further research is needed to resolve the issue. PMID:18199282

  13. Nickel-related adverse reactions in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anderson Chun On; Nicholson, Patrick; Pereira, Vitor Mendes

    2018-04-20

    Nickel is the most common metal allergen and predominantly affects women. It is also the ubiquitous component in the alloys used to manufacture intracranial devices for aneurysm treatments, including aneurysm clips, self-expanding stents, flow-diverting stents and endosaccular occlusion devices. Adverse events related to nickel-allergy after deployment of such devices are uncommon but can be severe, resulting in dilemmas in the choice of treatment strategies and devices in managing nickel-sensitive patients with intracranial aneurysms. A literature search in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify studies reporting on nickel-related adverse events in cerebral aneurysm treatment. The material of the culprit devices, clinical presentation, histological feature and treatment were reviewed. The clinical consideration and management options for nickel allergy patients were discussed. Nickel is a major component of the cobalt-alloy used in aneurysm clips, and of nitinol which is commonly used in flow-diverters and intracranial stents. There were 9 papers reporting 10 unique cases of nickel-related adverse events after aneurysm treatment. Half of the cases occurred after aneurysm clipping and the remaining 5 was attributed to endovascular devices. Two presented with dermatological and 8 with neurological manifestations including cerebral edema and cerebritis. Neurological complication related to nickel in cerebral aneurysm treatments is rare but remains a concern due to the high prevalence of nickel allergy in the population. Surgeons and interventionists should consider the metal-allergy history and its potential clinical significance in managing nickel-allergic patients with aneurysms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heath beliefs of UK South Asians related to lifestyle diseases: a review of qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther; Kinra, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals.

  15. Organizing pneumonia related to electronic cigarette use: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Saud; Khateeb, Faisal; Akhtar, Jamal; Khan, Zubair; Lal, Amos; Kholodovych, Veronika; Hammersley, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e cigarettes) are battery operated devices that produce aerosol by heating a solution typically made up of nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin and flavouring agents. The use of e cigarettes has risen dramatically in recent years especially among adolescents and young adults. These devices have been marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco smoking by their manufactures despite lack of adequate safety data. We present a case of 40-year-old female patient who developed significant pulmonary toxicity secondary to e cigarette use and searched existing literature relevant to the case. To our knowledge this is the second reported case of organizing pneumonia and tenth reported case of pulmonary toxicity related to e cigarette use. Our patient presented with symptoms of worsening dyspnoea and intermittent chest pain for past 1 month. She reported increased use of e cigarettes during this time period to help her quit smoking. Patient developed acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. She was diagnosed with organizing pneumonia on open lung biopsy and was successfully treated with steroids along with abstinence from e cigarette use. As the current data on health effects of e cigarettes is limited, case reports can serve important piece of information in this regard. The use of e cigarettes has increased exponentially in recent years and continue to rise; therefore, physicians should be aware of adverse effects and toxicity related to its use. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Health-related quality of life questionnaires in lung cancer trials: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Treatment goals are the relief of symptoms and the increase of overall survival. With the rising number of treatment alternatives, the need for comparable assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) parameters grows. The aim of this paper was to identify and describe measurement instruments applied in lung cancer patients under drug therapy. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review at the beginning of 2011 using the electronic database Pubmed. Results A total of 43 studies were included in the review. About 17 different measurement instruments were identified, including 5 generic, 5 cancer-specific, 4 lung cancer-specific and 3 symptom-specific questionnaires. In 29 studies at least 2 instruments were used. In most cases these were cancer and lung cancer-specific ones. The most frequently used instruments are the EORTC QLQ-C30 and its lung cancer modules LC13 or LC17. Only 5 studies combined (lung) cancer-specific questionnaires with generic instruments. Conclusions The EORTC-C30 and EORTC-LC13 are the most frequently used health-related quality of life measurement instruments in pharmacological lung cancer trials. PMID:23680096

  17. Heath Beliefs of UK South Asians Related to Lifestyle Diseases: A Review of Qualitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. Methods. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. Results. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. Conclusions. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals. PMID:23476751

  18. Health-related quality of life of young women with breast cancer. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yfantis, Aris; Intas, George; Tolia, Maria; Nikolaou, Michail; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Lymperi, Maria; Kyrgias, George; Zografos, George; Kontos, Michalis

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) of young women with breast cancer. For the purposes of this article, we reviewed the literature via the electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. Key words used were breast cancer, young women, health related quality of life, and quality of life. Young women reported fatigue, pain in the breast and hand problems with lymphedema as the most frequent physical effects of treatment. Other physical problems were the not periodic and painful menses, vaginal dryness and loss of libido. Many young women had depressive symptoms such as depressed mood, helplessness, hopelessness, sleep loss, psychomotor retardation and disorders of appetite. There were often concerns about the health monitoring and self-image, while they were anxious if they will have a baby in the future or if they can nurture the existing ones. Many problems arose in the career of young women. They faced discrimination in the labor supply and/or layoff because they were considered unable to do their job effectively. In addition, they reported isolation problems and feeling different from other women of similar age. Young women consider that their healthrelated QoL is worse compared with older women. Young women worry about their future, with particular reference to their role as mothers and especially to children-bearing. The free screening and non-exclusion of young women is particularly important for breast cancer prevention and women's well-being.

  19. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Young, J.R.; Lu, An

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of themore » major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.« less

  20. Camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries: a report of three cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zidan, F M; Hefny, A F; Mousa, H; Torab, F C; Hassan, I

    2013-09-01

    Human pancreatico-duodenal injuries caused by camels are extremely rare. We report three patients who sustained camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and review the literature on this topic. A 32-year camel caregiver was kicked by a camel which then stepped on his abdomen trying to kill him. The patient's abdomen was soft and lax. CT scan of the abdomen showed free retroperitoneal air. Laparotomy revealed a complete tear of the anterior wall of the second part of duodenum which was primarily repaired. A 40-year camel caregiver was directly kicked into his abdomen by a camel. He developed traumatic pancreatitis which was treated conservatively. A 31-year-old male fell down on his abdomen while riding a camel. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness and guarding. Abdominal CT Scan showed complete transection of the neck of the pancreas which was confirmed by laparotomy. The patient had distal pancreatectomy with preservation of the spleen. All patients were discharged home in good condition. These cases demonstrate the misleading presentation of the camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and their unique mechanism of injury.

  1. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of…

  2. What proportion of international travellers acquire a travel-related illness? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Kristina M; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Ryan, Edward T; Chen, Lin H; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    As international travel increases, travellers may be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases not endemic in their home countries. Many journal articles and reference books related to travel medicine cite that between 22-64% of international travellers become ill during or after travel; however, this information is minimal, outdated and limited by poor generalizability. We aim to provide a current and more accurate estimate of the proportion of international travellers who acquire a travel-related illness. We identified studies via PubMed or travel medicine experts, published between January 1, 1976-December 31, 2016 that included the number of international travellers acquiring a travel-related illness. We excluded studies that focused on a single disease or did not determine a rate based on the total number of travellers. We abstracted information on traveller demographics, trip specifics, study enrollment and follow-up and number of ill travellers and their illnesses. Of 743 studies, nine met the inclusion criteria. The data sources were from North America (four studies) and Europe (five studies). Most travellers were tourists, the most frequent destination regions were Asia and Africa, and the median trip duration ranged from 8-21 days. Six studies enrolled participants at the travellers' pre-travel consultation. All studies collected data through either extraction from the medical record, weekly diaries, or pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Data collection timeframes varied by study. Between 6-87% of travellers became ill across all studies. Four studies provided the best estimate: between 43-79% of travellers who frequently visited developing nations (e.g. India, Tanzania, and Kenya) became ill; travellers most frequently reported diarrhoea. This is the most comprehensive assessment available on the proportion of international travellers that develop a travel-related illness. Additional cohort studies would provide needed data to more precisely

  3. Publishing a Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohring, Ralph J.

    1979-01-01

    A case study describing the process involved in publishing a personally developed simulation game including finding a publisher, obtaining a copyright, negotiating the contract, controlling front-end costs, marketing the product, and receiving feedback from users. (CMV)

  4. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies published before October 2010. Fifty studies were included and assessed on methodological quality. Twenty-eight studies reported significantly favorable health outcomes following communication-related BCTs. In these studies, 'behavioral counseling' was most frequently used (15 times), followed by motivational interviewing (eight times), education and advice (both seven times). Physicians and nurses seem equally capable of providing face-to-face communication-related BCTs in primary care. Behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice all seem effective communication-related BCTs. However, BCTs were also found in less successful studies. Furthermore, based on existing literature, one primary care profession does not seem better equipped than the other to provide face-to-face communication-related BCTs. There is evidence that behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice can be used as effective communication-related BCTs by physicians and nurses. However, further research is needed to examine the underlying working mechanisms of communication-related BCTs, and whether they meet the requirements of patients and primary care providers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable

  6. Desktop Publishing Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Rose Mary

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the types of computer hardware and software necessary to set up a desktop publishing system, both for use in educational administration and for instructional purposes. Classroom applications of desktop publishing are presented. The author also provides guidelines for preparing to teach desktop publishing. (CH)

  7. Publishing: The Creative Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohne, Harald; Van Ierssel, Harry

    This book offers guidelines to emerging and would-be publishers, whether they plan to enter publishing as a career, a sideline, or a diversion. It stresses the business aspects of publishing and emphasizes the major housekeeping functions encountered in the business, except methods of sales and distribution. Contents include "The Mechanics of…

  8. Academic Nightmares: Predatory Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuland, Sonya E.; Rogers, Kem A.

    2017-01-01

    Academic researchers who seek to publish their work are confronted daily with a barrage of e-mails from aggressive marketing campaigns that solicit them to publish their research with a specialized, often newly launched, journal. Known as predatory journals, they often promise high editorial and publishing standards, yet their exploitive business…

  9. Work-related problems in multiple sclerosis: a literature review on its associates and determinants.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Covelli, Venusia; Schiavolin, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde; Willems, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    To explore which variables are associated to or determinants of work-related difficulties or unemployment in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Papers published between 1993 and February 2015 were included. Quality was judged as poor, acceptable, good or excellent. Determinants were extracted from prospective and retrospective data, associated variables from cross-sectional data; variables were grouped by similarity. Evidence was judged as strong if there were at least two good studies reporting the same results; limited if there was only one good and some acceptable studies. Forty-two papers were selected, for a total of 31,192 patients (75% females). Work-related difficulties were referred as unemployment, lower amount of worked hours or job cessation. Strong evidence of impact over work-related difficulties was found for a core set of variables, i.e., expanded disability status scale, MS duration, patients' age, fatigue and walking problems. Little evidence exists on the impact of contextual factors. Most of the variables identified as associated to or determinants of work-related difficulties can be treated through rehabilitative interventions. It is important that future research addresses not only unemployment issues in MS, but also the amount and severity of problems affecting work-related tasks relying on specific assessment instruments. Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects young persons of working age and limitation in work activities is part of MS-related disability, but they are not consistently addressed in MS research: EDSS, MS duration, patients' age, fatigue, walking problems, cognitive and neuropsychological impairments were the factors most commonly found as associated to or determinant of difficulties with work. Evidence exists that rehabilitation interventions are effective for fatigue, cognitive impairment, mobility and walking difficulties. However, research did not address the impact of rehabilitation programmes on vocational outcomes

  10. A Review of the Literature Related to the Change Process Schools Undergo to Sustain PLCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Christopher M.; Thessin, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review examines the existing literature on the role of the principal in the change process to create a context for change to both develop professional learning communities (PLCs) and sustain a context of continuous improvement over time. The Brown and Anfara (2003) framework was used as a theoretical lens to analyze the literature…

  11. Long-term treatment-related morbidity in differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William AE; Edafe, Ovie; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P

    2017-01-01

    Background Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) occurs in relatively young patients and is associated with a good prognosis and long survival. The management of this disease involves thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy, and long-term thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy (THST). The long-term effects of the treatment and the interaction between subclinical hyperthyroidism and long-term hypoparathyroidism are poorly understood. This review sought to examine the available evidence. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the search terms “Thyroid Neoplasms” AND (“Thyroxine” OR “Hypocalcemia” OR “Thyrotropin”). Original English language articles published in the last 30 years studying the morbidity from thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression and hypoparathyroidism following a surgery for DTC were retrieved and reviewed by 2 authors. Results Of the 3,000 results, 66 papers including 4,517 patients were selected for the present study. Studies reported on a range of skeletal (included in 34 studies, 1,647 patients), cardiovascular (17 studies, 957 patients), psychological (10 studies, 663 patients), and other outcomes (10 studies, 1,348 patients). Nine of 26 studies on patients who underwent THST showed a reduction in bone density, and 13 of 23 studies showed an increase in bone turnover markers. Skeletal effects were more marked in postmenopausal women. There was no evidence of increased fracture risk, and only little data were available on hypoparathyroidism. Four of five studies showed an increased left ventricular mass index on echocardiography, and one study showed a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF). There was little difference in basic physiological parameters and limited literature regarding symptoms or significant events. Six studies showed associations between long-term TSH suppression and impaired quality of life. Impaired glucose metabolism and prothrombotic states were also found in DTC patients. Conclusion

  12. The sensitivity of laboratory tests assessing driving related skills to dose-related impairment of alcohol: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Residential solar energy users: a review of empirical research and related literature

    SciTech Connect

    Unseld, C.T.; Crews, R.

    1979-12-01

    This report reviews 15 empirical studies of residential solar energy users and related literature on residential solar energy use. The purpose of the review is to summarize and analyze the experiences of residential solar users for helping formulate policies concerning the accelerated commercialization of solar technologies. Four of the studies employed case histories or focus group techniques. The 11 questionnaire studies represented interviews with over 1,600 owners of solar systems. The demographic characteristics of samples are listed and compared; research findings and conclusions are presented. Findings on user satisfaction and system performance, possible reasons for evidence of lacking correlation betweenmore » them, and implications for consumer protection and future research are discussed. General findings are: (1) systematic research on the experiences of solar users is lacking - much research remains to be done; (2) the reported overall experiences of users has been very positive; (3) user reports indicate that system performance is generally good but there is some evidence that user reports are not accurate measures of actual performance; (4) a need exists for adequate consumer protection; (5) design or installation problems are evidenced in significant numbers of early solar installations; and (6) these problems evidently are resolvable. An annotated bibliography describes 10 other studies in progress.« less

  14. Data Sharing & Publishing at Nature Publishing Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDecar, J. C.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.; Hufton, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the research community has come to recognize that upon-request data sharing has important limitations1,2. The Nature-titled journals feel that researchers have a duty to share data without undue qualifications, in a manner that allows others to replicate and build upon their published findings. Historically, the Nature journals have been strong supporters of data deposition in communities with existing data mandates, and have required data sharing upon request in all other cases. To help address some of the limitations of upon-request data sharing, the Nature titles have strengthened their existing data policies and forged a new partnership with Scientific Data, to promote wider data sharing in discoverable, citeable and reusable forms, and to ensure that scientists get appropriate credit for sharing3. Scientific Data is a new peer-reviewed journal for descriptions of research datasets, which works with a wide of range of public data repositories4. Articles at Scientific Data may either expand on research publications at other journals or may be used to publish new datasets. The Nature Publishing Group has also signed the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles5, and Scientific Data is our first journal to include formal data citations. We are currently in the process of adding data citation support to our various journals. 1 Wicherts, J. M., Borsboom, D., Kats, J. & Molenaar, D. The poor availability of psychological research data for reanalysis. Am. Psychol. 61, 726-728, doi:10.1037/0003-066x.61.7.726 (2006). 2 Vines, T. H. et al. Mandated data archiving greatly improves access to research data. FASEB J. 27, 1304-1308, doi:10.1096/fj.12-218164 (2013). 3 Data-access practices strengthened. Nature 515, 312, doi:10.1038/515312a (2014). 4 More bang for your byte. Sci. Data 1, 140010, doi:10.1038/sdata.2014.10 (2014). 5 Data Citation Synthesis Group: Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles. (FORCE11, San Diego, CA, 2014).

  15. Health-related interventions among night shift workers: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Pahwa, Manisha; Demers, Paul A; Gotay, Carolyn C

    2014-11-01

    Associations between shift work and chronic disease have been observed, but relatively little is known about how to mitigate these adverse health effects. This critical review aimed to (i) synthesize interventions that have been implemented among shift workers to reduce the chronic health effects of shift work and (ii) provide an overall evaluation of study quality. MeSH terms and keywords were created and used to conduct a rigorous search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE for studies published on or before 13 August 2012. Study quality was assessed using a checklist adapted from Downs & Black. Of the 5053 articles retrieved, 44 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Over 2354 male and female rotating and permanent night shift workers were included, mostly from the manufacturing, healthcare, and public safety industries. Studies were grouped into four intervention types: (i) shift schedule; (ii) controlled light exposure; (iii) behavioral; and, (iv) pharmacological. Results generally support the benefits of fast-forward rotating shifts; simultaneous use of timed bright light and light-blocking glasses; and physical activity, healthy diet, and health promotion. Mixed results were observed for hypnotics. Study quality varied and numerous deficiencies were identified. Except for hypnotics, several types of interventions reviewed had positive overall effects on chronic disease outcomes. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies with respect to study sample, interventions, and outcomes. There is a need for further high-quality, workplace-based prevention research conducted among shift workers.

  16. Submacular hemorrhage in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: A synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stanescu-Segall, Dinu; Balta, Florian; Jackson, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Large submacular hemorrhage, an uncommon manifestation of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, may also occur with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Submacular hemorrhage damages photoreceptors owing to iron toxicity, fibrin meshwork contraction, and reduced nutrient flux, with subsequent macular scarring. Clinical and experimental studies support prompt treatment, as tissue damage can occur within 24 hours. Without treatment the natural history is poor, with a mean final visual acuity (VA) of 20/1600. Reported treatments include retinal pigment epithelial patch, macular translocation, pneumatic displacement, intravitreal or subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, and combinations thereof. In the absence of comparative studies, we combined eligible studies to assess the VA change before and after each treatment option. The greatest improvement occurred after combined pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, with VA improving from 20/1000 to 20/400. The best final VA occurred using combined intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator, gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, with VA improving from 20/200 to 20/100. Both treatments had an acceptable safety profile, but most studies were small, and larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine both safety and efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Results of literature search on dielectric properties and electron interaction phenomena related to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, J. A.; Burke, E. A.; Frederickson, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the literature search was to determine the required material properties and electron interaction parameters needed for modeling charge buildup and breakdown in insulators. A brief overview of the results of the literature search is given. A partial list of the references covered is included in a bibliography. Although inorganic insulators were also considered in the search, coverage is limited to the organics, primarily Kapton and Teflon.

  18. Literature Mining of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Human Pathogens for Database Annotation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control...submission and for literature mining result display with automatically tagged abstracts. I. Literature data sets for machine learning algorithm training...mass spectrometry) proteomics data from Burkholderia strains. • Task1 ( M13 -15): Preliminary analysis of the Burkholderia proteomic space

  19. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, S.; Pederson, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.
DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files.
STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.


Keywords: adolescence; smoking initiation; psychosocial factors PMID:10093176

  20. The Relational Impact of Multiple Sclerosis: An Integrative Review of the Literature Using a Cognitive Analytic Framework.

    PubMed

    Blundell Jones, Joanna; Walsh, Sue; Isaac, Claire

    2017-12-01

    This integrative literature review uses cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) theory to examine the impact of a chronic illness, multiple sclerosis (MS), on relationships and mental health. Electronic searches were conducted in six medical and social science databases. Thirty-eight articles met inclusion criteria, and also satisfied quality criteria. Articles revealed that MS-related demands change care needs and alter relationships. Using a CAT framework, the MS literature was analysed, and five key patterns of relating to oneself and to others were identified. A diagrammatic formulation is proposed that interconnects these patterns with wellbeing and suggests potential "exits" to improve mental health, for example, assisting families to minimise overprotection. Application of CAT analysis to the literature clarifies relational processes that may affect mental health among individuals with MS, which hopefully will inform how services assist in reducing unhelpful patterns and improve coping. Further investigation of the identified patterns is needed.

  1. Desktop Publishing for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert; Mitchum, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the fundamentals of desktop publishing for counselors, including hardware and software systems and peripherals. Notes by using desktop publishing, counselors can produce their own high-quality documents without the expense of commercial printers. Concludes computers present a way of streamlining the communications of a counseling…

  2. Lights, Camera, Publishing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Nina C.

    2008-01-01

    Are university presses ready for their close-up? In a nod to Hollywood, a growing number of trade publishers are producing book trailers to promote new titles. But do video teasers have a role in university-press publishing? What about longer formats? Based on an entirely unscientific poll of publicists at 25 university presses, the answer appears…

  3. Harvard's Young Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuger, Abigail

    1976-01-01

    The Undergraduate Press at Harvard is the first publishing house in the U.S. to be organized and staffed completely by college undergraduates. Its purpose is to introduce college students to the world of publishing, and it plans to issue three volumes a year. (LBH)

  4. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  5. Publishing and Journalism Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Alfred; And Others

    1977-01-01

    If you like to work with words and notational symbols--or with describing, selecting, managing, and distributing the words and music of other people--then journalism or publishing as a whole may be your bailiwick. Describes the positions of music editor, music publisher, magazine/book editor, music critic, and freelance music writer. (Editor/RK)

  6. Writing and Publishing Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William F., Ed.

    Intended to provide guidance in academic publishing to faculty members, especially younger faculty members, this handbook is a compilation of four previously published essays by different authors. Following a preface and an introduction, the four essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "One Writer's Secrets" (Donald M. Murray); (2)…

  7. Transition to electronic publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowning, Sam

    Previous communications have described some of the many changes that will occur in the next few months as AGU makes the transition to fully electronic publishing. With the advent of the new AGU electronic publishing system, manuscripts will be submitted, edited, reviewed, and published in electronic formats. This piece discusses how the electronic journals will differ from the print journals. Electronic publishing will require some adjustments to the ways we currently think about journals from our perspective of standard print versions. Visiting the Web site of AGU's Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G-Cubed) is a great way to get familiar with the look and feel of electronic publishing. However, protocols, especially for citations of articles, are still evolving. Some of the biggest changes for users of AGU publications may be the lack of page numbers, the use of a unique identifier (DOI),and changes in citation style.

  8. [SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome: a case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhimei; Fang, Fang; Ding, Changhong; Wu, Husheng; Lyu, Junlan; Wu, Yun

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS) in one patient, and review the latest clinical research reports. Clinical, laboratory and genetic data of one case of SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic MDS diagnosed by department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital in November, 2013 were reported, and through taking "SUCLA2" as key words to search at CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed and the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) professional to date, the clinical characteristics of 24 reported cases of SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic MDS in international literature in combination with our case were analyzed. (1) The patient was 5 years and 9 months old, born as a term small for gestational age infant whose birth weight was 2 400 g, and presented since birth with severe muscular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, psychomotor retardation and hearing impairment. Until now, he still showed severe developmental retardation, together with muscular atrophy, thoracocyllosis and scoliosis, and facial features. The patient is the first born from consanguineous healthy parents, whose relationship is cousins. Laboratory tests showed urinary excretion of mild methylmalonic acid (MMA), elevated plasma lactate concentration, and increased C3-carnitine and C4-dicarboxylic-carnitine in plasma carnitine ester profiling. MRI showed brain atrophy-like and bilateral T2 hyperintensities in bilateral caudate nuclei and putamen. By Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), we identified a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.970G > A) in the SUCLA2 in a highly conserved amino acid residue. (2) The total number was only 25 with a male to female ratio of 14: 11, and age of onset of 23 was 0-4 months. The most common clinical features in patients with SUCLA2 mutation were permanent hypotonia, muscle atrophy, psychomotor retardation and scoliosis or kyphosis. Frequent signs included hearing impairment, hyperkinesia

  9. Health-related quality of life and psychosocial implications in testicular cancer survivors. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, F; Rossetti, S; Cavaliere, C; Iovane, G; Taibi, R; D'Aniello, C; Imbimbo, C; Facchini, S; Abate, V; Barberio, D; Facchini, G

    2018-02-01

    In this review, we focused our attention on Quality of Life (QoL) of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs), in general and in the most relevant areas. Several key findings have been highlighted in our review. PubMed, MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were consulted to find published studies, from 1980 to May 2017, that met our inclusion criteria. The majority of studies investigated older adult TCSs, while few studies on adolescent and young adult patients were available. Many studies indicate that health-related QoL (HRQoL) is similar among the TCSs and the general population. Even if QoL deteriorates so clear at the time of diagnosis and throughout treatment, afterward returns to normal levels, as defined by the matched controls. However, there are numerous chronic conditions consequent to diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer that plague survivors and affect QoL, like Raynaud-like phenomena, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, anxiety, sexual, fertility and body image problems. Even if these problems can have no effects on the measures of global QoL, they have an impact on the quality of life. Differences between TCSs with and without a partner bring to different outcomes in the adjustments to cancer. It is necessary to identify TCSs with higher risks of poorer QoL outcomes, to focus interventions on the areas with the greatest impairments. Further researches should consider the effects of testicular cancer on the impaired areas, collecting more data to better identify survivor's needs and consequent interventions, with a special focus on adolescent and young adult TCSs. Other works are requested on therapies, preventive and ameliorative, to reduce chronic side effects of testicular cancer treatment.

  10. Physical Activity and Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Myra B; Le, Jerome; Mitchell, Paul; Gopinath, Bamini; Cerin, Ester; Saksens, Nicole T M; Schick, Tina; Hoyng, Carel B; Guymer, Robyn H; Finger, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    To better understand the association, in a white population, of physical activity and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-the main cause of irreversible severe vision loss in developed countries-given the suggestion that a healthy lifestyle may assist in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for studies up to May 2015. Reference lists of published articles were hand searched and study authors were contacted to provide additional data. Those in the lowest category of activity in each study were compared with all other participants to assess the association between physical activity and both early and late AMD using random-effects meta-analysis. Nine studies (subject age range 30-97 years) were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity was found to have a protective association with both early AMD (8 studies, n = 38 112, odds ratio (OR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.98) and late AMD (7 studies, n = 28 854, OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.72). Physical activity is associated with lower odds of early and late AMD in white populations. These findings have important implications, reinforcing the public health message of staying active throughout life. However, further longitudinal studies are required to confirm and further characterize a protective effect of physical activity on the onset and/or progression of AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Videogame-Related Illness and Injury: A Review of the Literature and Predictions for Pokémon GO!

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Ali; Lombardi, Kevin; Kuhl, Evan; O'Connell, Francis

    2017-02-01

    Reports of videogame-related illness and injury soon emerged in the literature with the inception of videogame systems and subsequent development of novel gaming platforms and technologies. In an effort to better detail the impacts of these phenomena and provide recommendations for injury prevention as it relates to Pokémon Go and the larger world of augmented reality games, we conducted an extensive systems-based review of past trends in videogame-related illness and injury from the literature. A literature review using PubMed, Medline, and PsycInfo databases with search terms "Pokémon GO," "videogame injuries," "augmented reality injuries," and "Nintendo Injury" was performed. The search was limited to the English language, and the Boolean were used to combine the search terms. The literature search yielded 359 peer-reviewed articles, 44 of which met the study criteria and included in the review. Seventeen additional popular press reports detailing injuries related to Pokémon Go were also incorporated. Videogame-related injuries and illness include both physical trauma as well as psychological and behavioral disorder with unique patterns of injury and illness linked to specific gaming platforms. As videogames become increasingly advanced and immersive, they expose players to unique and often more serious injury and illness. Augmented reality games, such as Pokémon GO, are the next step in the evolution of this trend and likely portend a future in which many pathologic processes may become increasingly common.

  12. Dust and soiling issues and impacts relating to solar energy systems: Literature review update for 2012–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Suellen C. S.; Diniz, Antonia Sonia A. C.; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    The purpose of this review survey is to provide a literature compilation, updating materials reported in several review papers on solar-device soiling and mitigation approaches published over the past 5 years. The focus is on the period 2013-2015, but an updated listing is also provided for the year 2012 for completeness. This literature review also provides the first update for a periodic, single collation report on such publications proposed in this journal two years ago. This review presents a listing of the publications, their publication source, and some brief tabulated information to help guide the reader into the focus ofmore » each of the works.« less

  13. Desktop Publishing in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisler, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the components, costs, and capabilities of several desktop publishing systems, and examines their possible impact on work patterns within organizations. The text and graphics of the article were created using various microcomputer software packages. (CLB)

  14. The Library as Publisher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Roy

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to for-profit library publishing of reprints, original manuscripts, and smaller items. Discussed are creation of a publications panel to manage finances and preparation, determining prices of items, and drawing up author contracts. (SW)

  15. Academic nightmares: Predatory publishing.

    PubMed

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A

    2017-07-01

    Academic researchers who seek to publish their work are confronted daily with a barrage of e-mails from aggressive marketing campaigns that solicit them to publish their research with a specialized, often newly launched, journal. Known as predatory journals, they often promise high editorial and publishing standards, yet their exploitive business models, poor quality control, and minimal overall transparency victimize those researchers with limited academic experience and pave the way for low-quality articles that threaten the foundation of evidence-based research. Understanding how to identify these predatory journals requires thorough due diligence on the part of the submitting authors, and a commitment by reputable publishers, institutions, and researchers to publicly identify these predators and eliminate them as a threat to the careers of young scientists seeking to disseminate their work in scholarly journals. Anat Sci Educ 10: 392-394. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Constituents of Music and Visual-Art Related Pleasure - A Critical Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver's internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure

  17. Quality of life in age-related macular degeneration: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jan; Bradley, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background The Age-related Macular Degeneration Alliance International commissioned a review of the literature on quality of life (QoL) in macular degeneration (MD) with a view to increasing awareness of MD, reducing its impact and improving services for people with MD worldwide. Method A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases, conference proceedings and key journal hand search checks. The resulting 'White Paper' was posted on the AMD Alliance website and is reproduced here. Review MD is a chronic, largely untreatable eye condition which leads to loss of central vision needed for tasks such as reading, watching TV, driving, recognising faces. It is the most common cause of blindness in the Western world. Shock of diagnosis, coupled with lack of information and support are a common experience. Incidence of depression is twice that found in the community-dwelling elderly, fuelled by functional decline and loss of leisure activities. Some people feel suicidal. MD threatens independence, especially when comorbidity exacerbates functional limitations. Rehabilitation, including low vision aid (LVA) provision and training, peer support and education, can improve functional and psychological outcomes but many people do not receive services likely to benefit them. Medical treatments, suitable for only a small minority of people with MD, can improve vision but most limit progress of MD, at least for a time, rather than cure. The White Paper considers difficulties associated with inappropriate use of health status measures and misinterpretation of utility values as QoL measures: evidence suggests they have poor validity in MD. Conclusion There is considerable evidence for the major damage done to QoL by MD which is underestimated by health status and utility measures. Medical treatments are limited to a small proportion of people. However, much can be done to improve QoL by early diagnosis of MD with good communication of prognosis and continuing support

  18. Constituents of Music and Visual-Art Related Pleasure – A Critical Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver’s internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure

  19. A Course in Desktop Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerick, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Promotional Publications," a required course for public relations majors, which teaches the basics of desktop publishing. Outlines how the course covers the preparation of publications used as communication tools in public relations, advertising, and organizations, with an emphasis upon design, layout, and technology. (MM)

  20. Relation between the Global Burden of Disease and Randomized Clinical Trials Conducted in Latin America Published in the Five Leading Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Perel, Pablo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ortiz, Zulma; Casas, Juan Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1990 non communicable diseases and injuries account for the majority of death and disability-adjusted life years in Latin America. We analyzed the relationship between the global burden of disease and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) conducted in Latin America that were published in the five leading medical journals. Methodology/Principal Findings We included all RCTs in humans, exclusively conducted in Latin American countries, and published in any of the following journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We described the trials and reported the number of RCTs according to the main categories of the global burden of disease. Sixty-six RCTs were identified. Communicable diseases accounted for 38 (57%) reports. Maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions accounted for 19 (29%) trials. Non-communicable diseases represent 48% of the global burden of disease but only 14% of reported trials. No trial addressed injuries despite its 18% contribution to the burden of disease in 2000. Conclusions/Significance A poor correlation between the burden of disease and RCTs publications was found. Non communicable diseases and injuries account for up to two thirds of the burden of disease in Latin America but these topics are seldom addressed in published RCTs in the selected sample of journals. Funding bodies of health research and editors should be aware of the increasing burden of non communicable diseases and injuries occurring in Latin America to ensure that this growing epidemic is not neglected in the research agenda and not affected by publication bias. PMID:18301772

  1. Relation between the global burden of disease and randomized clinical trials conducted in Latin America published in the five leading medical journals.

    PubMed

    Perel, Pablo; Miranda, J Jaime; Ortiz, Zulma; Casas, Juan Pablo

    2008-02-27

    Since 1990 non communicable diseases and injuries account for the majority of death and disability-adjusted life years in Latin America. We analyzed the relationship between the global burden of disease and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) conducted in Latin America that were published in the five leading medical journals. We included all RCTS in humans, exclusively conducted in Latin American countries, and published in any of the following journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We described the trials and reported the number of RCTs according to the main categories of the global burden of disease. Sixty-six RCTs were identified. Communicable diseases accounted for 38 (57%) reports. Maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions accounted for 19 (29%) trials. Non-communicable diseases represent 48% of the global burden of disease but only 14% of reported trials. No trial addressed injuries despite its 18% contribution to the burden of disease in 2000. A poor correlation between the burden of disease and RCTs publications was found. Non communicable diseases and injuries account for up to two thirds of the burden of disease in Latin America but these topics are seldom addressed in published RCTs in the selected sample of journals. Funding bodies of health research and editors should be aware of the increasing burden of non communicable diseases and injuries occurring in Latin America to ensure that this growing epidemic is not neglected in the research agenda and not affected by publication bias.

  2. Review of Related Literature and Research: History of Merit Pay, Differentiated Staffing, and Incentive Pay Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernsey, Marsha A.

    This paper reviews selected literature pertaining to merit pay, differentiated staffing, and incentive pay programs. The first section reviews the history of these alternatives to the single salary schedule, beginning with an account of two experimental merit pay plans in the early 20th century. During the 1920s, merit pay plans gave way to the…

  3. Environmental criteria for human comfort. A study of the related literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    The data presented has for the most part been extracted from existing in-house and memoranda reports. The variables considered are motion, noise, temperature and pressure. The report is broken down into chapters for each of the environmental variables and criteria proposed based on the existing literature.

  4. The Effect of the Single-Parent Family on Academic Achievement. A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Patrice

    This is a literature review on the effect of the single-parent family on the academic achievement of children from such households. It is argued that, historically, society has discriminated against children from single-parent families, especially those of divorced parents. Research is cited which shows that: (1) children from one-parent…

  5. Opinions of Literature Teachers Related to Academic Training, In-Service Training and Organizational Socialization Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Arslan Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    One of the utmost important functions of Turkish Education system is to teach Turkish Language at pre-schools, elementary schools, junior high schools and higher education institutions effectively. In this respect, at high schools which comprise the secondary schools, it is clear that Turkish Language and Literature teachers have paramount roles.…

  6. Overview of Literature Related to the Study and Practice of Academic Fund Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; And Others

    This paper examines the study and practice of academic fund raising, reviewing the major trends in both the scholarly and professional literature and summarizing recent research on the topic. It considers the history of academic fund raising, institutional advancement, and the psychology of giving, discussing research that looks at the social and…

  7. A Review of the Recent Literature Relating to the Training of Medical Students in Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Mark J.

    1985-01-01

    A review of literature on attitudes toward alcoholism, measurement of increased knowledge about alcoholism, the status of training in alcoholism, descriptions of alcoholism training programs, and methodological approaches to assessing such programs is presented. The focus of training, it is argued, should be on experiential/clinical approaches.…

  8. Conjunctival tumor caused by Epstein-Barr virus-related infectious mononucleosis: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Vaivanijkul, Juntarut; Boonsiri, Kreopun

    2017-04-01

    The conjunctival tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus related infectious mononucleosis is a rare ocular manifestation. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We reported this rare condition that presented in a 5-year-old boy.

  9. [Is late-onset schizophrenia related to neurodegenerative processes? A review of literature].

    PubMed

    Lagodka, A; Robert, P

    2009-09-01

    Since 1943 when, for the first time, M. Bleuler used the term late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) to refer to diagnostic groups gathering some clinical features of schizophrenia, but with onset after the age of 40, opinions on this entity are divided. The main question is whether LOS and schizophrenia, with onset in early adulthood (early-onset schizophrenia EOS), have the same etiopathogeny. This discussion became more complex with the introduction, in 2000, of a new entity, the "very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis" (VLOSP), which took the place of "late paraphrenia" and grouped together schizophrenia, delusional disorders and paranoid psychosis with age of onset after 60 years. Neuropathological processes underlying these entities have not beed determined. In particular, neurodegenerative processes could be explored. A literature review between 1 January 1995 and 30 April 2008, based on a research on PubMed with the terms "late-onset schizophrenia", "paraphrenia", "late paraphrenia", "VLOSP", and "late psychosis", takes stock of the various studies and hypotheses which have investigated the link between LOS/VLOSP and neurodegenerative processes. Clinical approach: there is no greater family history of dementia disorders in LOS/VLOSP than in the general population. Neuropsychological pattern between LOS and Alzheimer's disease (AD) seems different, with more impairment in delayed recall in AD, and in short-term memory in LOS. Some longitudinal studies, however, have argued that a part of patients with LOS would develop dementia at 10 years. These patients would have a later onset of disorders (> 60 years). Anatomopathological approach: anatomopathological studies show that LOS is not consecutive to AD, and might be related to a restricted limbic tauopathy. Neuroimaging approach: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) morphological neuroimaging studies show little differences between LOS and EOS. The thalamus volume was significantly smaller, and cortical atrophy was

  10. Biomedicine's Electronic Publishing Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Barry P.

    2000-01-01

    Biomedical publishing stands at a crossroads. The traditional print, peer-reviewed, subscription journal has served science well but is now being called into question. Because of spiraling print journal costs and the worldwide acceptance of the Internet as a valid publication medium, there is a compelling opportunity to re-examine our current paradigm and future options. This report illustrates the conflicts and restrictions inherent in the current publishing model and examines how the single act of permitting authors to retain copyright of their scholarly manuscripts may preserve the quality-control function of the current journal system while allowing PubMed Central, the Internet archiving system recently proposed by the director of the National Institutes of Health, to simplify and liberate access to the world's biomedical literature. PMID:10833158

  11. Differential Diagnoses of Food-Related Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: A Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Kress, Inge Ulrike; Paslakis, Georgios; Erim, Yesim

    2018-03-01

    The present review investigates the prevalence and medical causes of food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in eating disorder (ED) patients and recommends a diagnostic algorithm based on the current literature. A literature search was conducted, which included publications from January 2000 until January 2017 Results: Over 90% of ED patients suffer from food-related symptoms. There is no evidence for a higher prevalence of immunological or structural gastrointestinal disorders in ED patients compared to the healthy population. Most food-related symptoms in ED patients are likely to be functional. Diagnostic work-up of food-related symptoms in ED patients needs to be based on clinical history. Only if timing and quality of symptoms point towards a disorder independent from the ED is a comprehensive diagnostic work-up necessary.

  12. Where to publish

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jyoit; Smart, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    “If you want to make an impact among your colleagues, look especially at the journals that they’re reading and publishing in” Dr H Goldman, Chief Editor of Polar Research Writing medical articles is highly competitive. Many hours are expended conducting research, and even more hours writing and rewriting the manuscript. Furthermore, countless hours are spent chasing references and performing complex statistics. However, when it comes to understanding the target audience, are authors guilty of not investing as much effort to get maximum impact from the fruits of their labour? The issue of where to send your manuscript has never been more critical. Most clinicians receive daily invitations via email to submit work to journals that sound legitimate and valid. But are they? Although many journals are reputable, many others are not. This stems partly from the sharp decline in paper journals and the parallel exponential rise in digital journals. With intense pressure to publish, it is hard not to be seduced by online journal marketing ploys. For instance, one researcher used www.randomtextgenerator.com to make up an article and submitted it to 37 open access journals over a period of 2 weeks.1 At least 17 accepted his work and agreed to publish his article once a $500 ‘processing fee’ had been paid. Investing time and effort in ‘where to publish’ is time well spent. It is an exercise in understanding the target audience that will benefit most from the publication. Doing this at an early stage in the publishing process saves valuable time and resources. More importantly, this increases the chances of acceptance. So what are the tips for checking journal legitimacy and avoiding the trap of predatory journals? >Check the journal website and look through a recent issue.>Is the journal indexed? Check journal databases like PubMed Central® or the Web of Science®. Is there a link on the journal web pages to the spoof www.medline.com?>Check the name of the editor

  13. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  14. Literature Mining of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Human Pathogens for Database Annotation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Salmonella , and Shigella. In most cases the host is human, but may also include other mammal species. 2. Negative literature set of PH-PPIs. Of...cis.udel.edu The objective of Gallus Reactome is to provide a curated set of metabolic and signaling pathways for the chicken . To assist annotators...interested in papers that document pathways in the chicken , abstracts are classified according to the species that were the source of the experimental

  15. Pages from the Desktop: Desktop Publishing Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1994-01-01

    Discusses changes that have made desktop publishing appealing and reasonably priced. Hardware, software, and printer options for getting started and moving on, typeface developments, and the key characteristics of desktop publishing are described. The author's notes on 33 articles from the personal computing literature from January-March 1994 are…

  16. Desktop Publishing in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Wendy; Layman, J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the state of desktop publishing (DTP) in education today and describes the weaknesses of the systems available for use in the classroom. Highlights include document design and layout; text composition; graphics; word processing capabilities; a comparison of commercial and educational DTP packages; and skills required for DTP. (four…

  17. Parents, Publishers and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, William

    The relationship between educational textbook publishers and parents has, in the past, been restricted to parents glancing at their children's textbooks. Now, however, as a result of a general increase of interest in education, the schools' need for parental help in the learning process, and the increased instructional focus of the media (such as…

  18. Web Publishing Schedule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.

  19. Publisher Correction: Predicting unpredictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.

    2018-06-01

    In this News & Views article originally published, the wrong graph was used for panel b of Fig. 1, and the numbers on the y axes of panels a and c were incorrect; the original and corrected Fig. 1 is shown below. This has now been corrected in all versions of the News & Views.

  20. Scholars | Digital Representation | Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the current state of digital publishing means that writers can now do more and say more in more ways than ever before in human history. As modes, methods, media and mechanisms of expression mutate into newer and newer digital forms, writers find themselves at a moment when they can create, critique collaborate, and comment according…

  1. Publishers, Participants All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2011-01-01

    Students need opportunities throughout the curriculum to follow their passions and publish quality work for global audiences to interact with. Social media afford the opportunity for students to contribute to the world in meaningful ways, do real work for real audiences for real purposes, find great teachers and collaborators from around the…

  2. What determines health-related quality of life among people living with HIV: an updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Degroote, Sophie; Vogelaers, Dirk; Vandijck, Dominique M

    2014-01-01

    As infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has evolved to a chronic disease, perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is becoming a prominent and important patient-reported outcome measure in HIV care. Literature discusses different factors influencing HRQoL in this population, however, currently no consensus exists about the main determinants. In this review a clear, up-to-date overview of the determinants influencing HRQOL among people living with HIV is provided. All studies published before July 2013 that identified determinants of HRQoL among people living with HIV in high-income countries, were considered in this narrative review. PubMed, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library were consulted using the keywords 'determinants', 'quality of life', 'HIV' and 'AIDS'. To be included, studies should have reported overall health and/or physical/mental health scores on a validated instrument and performed multivariable regression analyses to identify determinants that independently influence perceived HRQoL. In total, 49 studies were included for further analysis and they used a variety of HRQoL instruments: Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 or variants, Medical Outcomes Study-HIV, HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study measure, Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire, HIV targeted quality of life instrument, Functional Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, HIV Overview of Problems Evaluation System, EuroQol, Fanning Quality of Life scale, Health Index and PROQOL-HIV. In this review, the discussed determinants were thematically divided into socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and behavioural factors. Employment, immunological status, presence of symptoms, depression, social support and adherence to antiretroviral therapy were most frequently and consistently reported to be associated with HRQoL among people living with HIV. HRQoL among people living with HIV is influenced by several determinants. These

  3. Prepare to publish.

    PubMed

    Price, P M

    2000-01-01

    "I couldn't possibly write an article." "I don't have anything worthwhile to write about." "I am not qualified to write for publication." Do any of these statements sound familiar? This article is intended to dispel these beliefs. You can write an article. You care for the most complex patients in the health care system so you do have something worthwhile to write about. Beside correct spelling and grammar there are no special skills, certificates or diplomas required for publishing. You are qualified to write for publication. The purpose of this article is to take the mystique out of the publication process. Each step of publishing an article will be explained, from idea formation to framing your first article. Practical examples and recommendations will be presented. The essential components of the APA format necessary for Dynamics: The Official Journal of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses will be outlined and resources to assist you will be provided.

  4. Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  5. Participation in HIV cure-related research: a scoping review of the proxy literature and implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Karine; Ramirez, Catalina; Handibode, Jessica; Taylor, Jeffrey; Skinner, Asheley; Greene, Sandra; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-10-01

    To identify the main types of HIV cure-related strategies and examine possible risks (and benefits) associated with participating in HIV cure-related research studies. We undertook a scoping review to first map out the landscape of HIV cure-related research and then examined the risks and potential benefits associated with participating in HIV cure research. Given the early stage of many HIV cure-related studies, we used proxy literatures from non-cure HIV research and cancer research in order to anticipate possible motivators and deterrents of participation in HIV cure-related studies. We discussed four main categories of HIV cure-related research: (1) early antiretroviral treatment (ART); (2) latency-reversing agents (LRAs); (3) therapeutic vaccinations and immune-based therapies (IBT); and (4) stem-cell transplantation and gene therapy. At this juncture, these categories of HIV cure-related research have substantial individual risks and negligible individual and clinical benefits. Non-cure HIV research (including HIV prevention and treatment) and cancer research have empirical similarities (and differences) to HIV cure research and may provide an opportunity to anticipate ethical and logistical challenges associated with HIV cure-related research participation and decision-making. Learning from the cancer field, a strong foundation of patient-participant and clinician-researcher trust will need to be established to facilitate recruitment of participants into HIV cure-related studies. Further empirical social science and ethics research will be necessary to inform clinical HIV cure-related research. The study of participation in HIV cure-related research can gain insights from proxy fields by incorporating study elements to clearly explain motivators and deterrents to participation and to inform the implementation of HIV cure-related studies. Study-specific contexts from the reviewed literature further demonstrate the importance of various types of research to

  6. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  7. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  8. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  9. Outcomes related to nutrition screening in community living older adults: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hamirudin, Aliza Haslinda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition screening is an initial procedure in which the risk of malnutrition is identified. The aims of this review were to identify malnutrition risk from nutrition screening studies that have used validated nutrition screening tools in community living older adults; and to identify types of nutrition interventions, pathways of care and patient outcomes following screening. A systematic literature search was performed for the period from January 1994 until December 2013 using SCOPUS, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PubMed and COCHRANE databases as well as a manual search. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined for the literature searches and the methodology followed the PRISMA guidelines. Fifty-four articles were eligible to be included in the review and malnutrition risk varied from 0% to 83%. This large range was influenced by the different tools used and heterogeneity of study samples. Most of the studies were cross sectional and without a subsequent nutrition intervention component. Types of nutrition intervention that were identified included dietetics care, nutrition education, and referral to Meals on Wheels services and community services. These interventions helped to improve the' nutritional status of older adults. Timely nutrition screening of older adults living in the community, if followed up with appropriate intervention and monitoring improves the nutritional status of older adults. This indicates that nutrition intervention should be considered a priority following nutrition screening for malnourished and at risk older adults. Further evaluation of outcomes of nutrition screening and associated interventions, using structured pathways of care, is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    On 1 January 2004 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General (J. Phys. A). I am flattered at the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Ed Corrigan, has worked tirelessly for the last five years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements. Before accepting the position of Editor-in-Chief, I visited the office of J. Phys. A to examine the organization and to assess its strengths and weaknesses. This office is located at the Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) headquarters in Bristol. J. Phys. A has been expanding rapidly and now publishes at the rate of nearly 1000 articles (or about 14,000 pages) per year. The entire operation of the journal is conducted in a very small space---about 15 square metres! Working in this space are six highly intelligent, talented, hard working, and dedicated people: Neil Scriven, Publisher; Mike Williams, Publishing Editor; Rose Gray and Sarah Nadin, Publishing Administrators; Laura Smith and Steve Richards, Production Editors. In this small space every day about eight submitted manuscripts are downloaded from the computer or received in the post. These papers are then processed and catalogued, referees are selected, and the papers are sent out for evaluation. In this small space the referees' reports are received, publication decisions are made, and accepted articles are then published quickly by IOPP. The whole operation is amazingly efficient. Indeed, one of the great strengths of J. Phys. A is the speed at which papers are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and an editorial decision is under sixty days. (Many distinguished journals take three to five times this amount of time.) This speed of publication is an extremely strong enticement for

  11. RETRACTION: Publishers' Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    post="(Executive Editor">Graeme Watt,

    2010-06-01

    Withdrawal of the paper "Was the fine-structure constant variable over cosmological time?" by L. D. Thong, N. M. Giao, N. T. Hung and T. V. Hung (EPL, 87 (2009) 69002) This paper has been formally withdrawn on ethical grounds because the article contains extensive and repeated instances of plagiarism. EPL treats all identified evidence of plagiarism in the published articles most seriously. Such unethical behaviour will not be tolerated under any circumstance. It is unfortunate that this misconduct was not detected before going to press. My thanks to Editor colleagues from other journals for bringing this fact to my attention.

  12. Literature review on relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ionizing radiation in the past 5 years (in Japanese)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanooka, H.; Orii, H.

    1971-09-01

    The RBE of therapy using ionizing radiations other than x rays, gamma - rays, and electrons in various materials and under various radiation conditions is discussed. Literature concerning the RBE of various ionizing radiations published between 1966 and 1971 was selected from the following ten journals: Radiation Research, international Journal of Radiation Biology, Journal of Radiation Research, Japanese Journal of Oenetics, Nippon Acta Radiologica, American Journal of Roentgenology, British Journal of Radiology, and Acta Radiologica. This review includes a comprehensive survey of the usefulness of fast neutrons and the conclusions from the symposiums. In addition, a series of reports ofmore » experimental data concerning the excellent therapeutic effects of the 14 MeV neutron are reviewed. It is also noted that the progress of studies on the RBE in the cells of higher organisms has been achieved. In addition, the utilization of linear accelerators with high LET can positively increase the therapeutic effectiveness. (JA)« less

  13. [Evaluation of the risk related to repetitive work activities: testing of several methods proposed in the literature].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Facioli, M; Bazzini, G

    2001-01-01

    Pathologies due to the repetitive activity of the upper limbs constitutes a growing part of the work-related musculo-skeletal disorders. At the moment, there are no universally accepted and validated methods for the description and assessment of the work-related risks. Yet, the criteria fundamentally characterizing the exposure are rather clear and even. This study reports a practical example of the application of some recent risk assessment methods proposed in the literature, combining objective and subjective measures obtained on the field, with the traditional activity analysis.

  14. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Editorial developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    We are delighted to announce that from January 2009, Professor Murray T Batchelor of the Australian National University, Canberra will be the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Murray Batchelor has been Editor of the Mathematical Physics section of the journal since 2007. Prior to this, he served as a Board Member and an Advisory Panel member for the journal. His primary area of research is the statistical mechanics of exactly solved models. He holds a joint appointment in mathematics and physics and has held visiting positions at the Universities of Leiden, Amsterdam, Oxford and Tokyo. We very much look forward to working with Murray to continue to improve the journal's quality and interest to the readership. We would like to thank our outgoing Editor-in-Chief, Professor Carl M Bender. Carl has done a magnificent job as Editor-in-Chief and has worked tirelessly to improve the journal over the last five years. Carl has been instrumental in designing and implementing strategies that have enhanced the quality of papers published and service provided by Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Notably, under his tenure, we have introduced the Fast Track Communications (FTC) section to the journal. This section provides a venue for outstanding short papers that report new and timely developments in mathematical and theoretical physics and offers accelerated publication and high visibility for our authors. During the last five years, we have raised the quality threshold for acceptance in the journal and now reject over 60% of submissions. As a result, papers published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical are amongst the best in the field. We have also maintained and improved on our excellent receipt-to-first-decision times, which now average less than 50 days for papers. We have recently announced another innovation; the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. These prizes will honour excellent papers

  15. [Primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults in Mexico: national characteristics and the relation to international literature].

    PubMed

    Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations.

  16. Complications Related to Pectus Carinatum Correction: Lessons Learned from 15 Years' Experience. Management and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Del Frari, Barbara; Sigl, Stephan; Schwabegger, Anton H

    2016-08-01

    Various methods of corrective thoracoplasty for pectus carinatum deformity have been described, but to date no studies describe a review of complications and how to manage them. Complications are dependent not only on the technique used and the patient's age, but also on the experience of the treating surgeon. The authors present their 15 years' experience with surgical correction of pectus carinatum and the complications that have occurred. A literature review regarding complications with pectus carinatum surgery is performed. A retrospective review of 95 patients (mean age, 19 years) was performed. One hundred four surgical procedures for repair of pectus carinatum were performed from July of 2000 to July of 2015 using a modified Ravitch technique, bioabsorbable material, postoperative bracing, and in some cases a diced rib cartilage graft technique. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. The mean patient follow-up was 13.6 months (range, 4 months to 9.75 years). Intraoperative complications were pleura lesion and laceration of the internal mammary vein. Postoperative complications were recurrent mild protrusion, persistent protrusion of one or two costal cartilages, minor wound healing delay, skin ulcer, hypertrophic scar, transient intercostal dysesthesia, marginal pneumothorax, seroma, meningitis, and epidural hematoma. In our reported series of pectus carinatum repair, increasing experience and progressively less extensive techniques have resulted in fewer complications, low morbidity, and early return to activity. Complications were observed in the early period of application, predominantly because of a lack of experience, and usually subsided with increasing numbers of patients and frequency of surgery. Therapeutic, IV.

  17. Why publish with AGU?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graedel, T. E.

    The most visible activity of the American Geophysical Union is its publication of scientific journals. There are eight of these: Journal of Geophysical Research—Space Physics (JGR I), Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth (JGR II), Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans and Atmospheres (JGR III), Radio Science (RS), Water Resources Research (WRR), Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics (RGSP), and the newest, Tectonics.AGU's journals have established solid reputations for scientific excellence over the years. Reputation is not sufficient to sustain a high quality journal, however, since other factors enter into an author's decision on where to publish his or her work. In this article the characteristics of AGU's journals are compared with those of its competitors, with the aim of furnishing guidance to prospective authors and a better understanding of the value of the products to purchasers.

  18. Premorbid and illness-related social difficulties in eating disorders: an overview of the literature and treatment developments.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Valentina; Tchanturia, Kate; Treasure, Janet

    2018-01-17

    Social difficulties in eating disorders can manifest as predisposing traits and premorbid difficulties, and/or as consequences of the illness. Objective The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for social problems in people with eating disorders and to consider the literature on treatments that target these features. Method A narrative review of the literature was conducted. Results People with eating disorders often manifest traits, such as shyness, increased tendency to submissiveness and social comparison, and problems with peer relationships before illness onset. Further social difficulties occur as the illness develops, including impaired social cognition and increased threat sensitivity. All relationships with family, peers and therapists are compromised by these effects. Thus, social difficulties are both risk and maintaining factors of eating disorders and are suitable targets for interventions. Several forms of generic treatments (e.g. interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive analytic therapy, focal psychodynamic therapy) have an interpersonal focus and show some efficacy. Guided self-management based on the cognitive interpersonal model of the illness and directed to both individuals and support persons have been found to improve outcomes for all parties. Adjunctive treatments that focus on specific social difficulties, such as Cognitive Remediation and Emotion Skills Training and Cognitive Bias Modification have been shown to have promise. Conclusion More work is needed to establish whether these approaches can improve on the rather disappointing outcomes that are attained by currently used treatments for eating disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. An Overview of Literature Topics Related to Current Concepts, Methods, Tools, and Applications for Cumulative Risk Assessment (2007–2016)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Mary A.; Brewer, L. Elizabeth; Martin, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. The first context is the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search and discusses a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications. PMID:28387705

  20. An Overview of Literature Topics Related to Current Concepts, Methods, Tools, and Applications for Cumulative Risk Assessment (2007-2016).

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary A; Brewer, L Elizabeth; Martin, Lawrence

    2017-04-07

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. The first context is the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search and discusses a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications.

  1. The experience of providing end-of-life care to a relative with advanced dementia: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Shelley C

    2013-04-01

    The number of people with dementia is growing at an alarming rate. An abundance of research over the past two decades has examined the complex aspects of caring for a relative with dementia. However, far less research has been conducted specific to the experiences of family caregivers providing end-of-life care, which is perplexing, as dementia is a terminal illness. This article presents what is known and highlights the gaps in the literature relevant to the experiences of family caregivers of persons with dementia at the end of life. A thorough search of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PubMed databases from 1960 to 2011 was conducted. Ten studies were identified that specifically addressed the experience of family caregivers providing end-of-life care to a relative with advanced dementia. Common themes of these studies included: 1) the experience of grief, 2) guilt and burden with decision making, 3) how symptoms of depression may or may not be resolved with death of the care receiver, 4) how caregivers respond to the end-stage of dementia, and 5) expressed needs of family caregivers. It is evident from this literature review that much remains to be done to conceptualize the experience of end-of-life caregiving in dementia.

  2. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  3. PLAN2L: a web tool for integrated text mining and literature-based bioentity relation extraction.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rodriguez-Penagos, Carlos; Tendulkar, Ashish; Valencia, Alfonso

    2009-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in using literature mining techniques to complement information extracted from annotation databases or generated by bioinformatics applications. Here we present PLAN2L, a web-based online search system that integrates text mining and information extraction techniques to access systematically information useful for analyzing genetic, cellular and molecular aspects of the plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Our system facilitates a more efficient retrieval of information relevant to heterogeneous biological topics, from implications in biological relationships at the level of protein interactions and gene regulation, to sub-cellular locations of gene products and associations to cellular and developmental processes, i.e. cell cycle, flowering, root, leaf and seed development. Beyond single entities, also predefined pairs of entities can be provided as queries for which literature-derived relations together with textual evidences are returned. PLAN2L does not require registration and is freely accessible at http://zope.bioinfo.cnio.es/plan2l.

  4. Effects of noise from non-traffic-related ambient sources on sleep: review of the literature of 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Omlin, Sarah; Bauer, Georg F; Brink, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the literature about the effects of specific non-traffic-related ambient noise sources on sleep that appeared in the last two decades. Although everybody is faced with noise of non-traffic and non-industry origin (e.g. sounds made by neighbors, talk, laughter, music, slamming doors, structural equipment, ventilation, heat pumps, noise from animals, barking dogs, outdoor events etc.), little scientific knowledge exists about its effects on sleep. The findings of the present extensive literature search and review are as follows: Only a small number of surveys, laboratory and field studies about mainly neighborhood, leisure and animal noise have been carried out. Most of them indicate that ambient noise has some effect on human sleep. However, a quantitative meta-analysis and comparison is not possible due to the small number of studies available and at times large differences in quality.

  5. Sleep bruxism and related risk factors in adults: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to assess the relationship between risk factors and sleep bruxism (SB) in adults (age ≥18 years). A systematic search of the following databases was carried out: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs and SciELO. Nine out of the 4583 initially identified articles were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the nine analyzed articles, associations between SB and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR=6.6, CI=1.4-30.9) was found in one randomized clinical trial (RCT). Four cross-sectional studies suggested history of SB during childhood (OR=8.1 CI=5.4-12-2), age (OR=3.1, CI=2.3-4.1) and chronic migraine (OR=3.8, C.I=1.8-7.8) as determinant factors for the development of SB. In one case-control study, patients with genetic polymorphisms were more likely to present SB (OR=4.3, CI=1.6-11.3). Smoking (OR=2.8, CI=2.2-3.5) and alcohol intake (OR=1.9, CI=1.2-2.8) showed moderate association in two case-control studies. History of SB during childhood, gastro-esophageal reflux disease and genetic polymorphisms seem to be important risk factors associated to SB in adults. Dry mouth on awakening seems to be a protective factor. Association does not infer with causality. Even if the evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant, further studies are requested to better understand the biological mechanisms behind the described associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  7. Associations of maternal stress with children’s weight-related behaviors: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Sydney G.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Belcher, Britni R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Margolin, Gayla; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2017-01-01

    Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake and physical activity) among U.S. children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children’s obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behavior (i.e., healthy diet (n=3), unhealthy diet (n=6), physical activity (n=7), sedentary behavior (n=9)). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children’s healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children’s lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. PMID:28296057

  8. Associations of maternal stress with children's weight-related behaviours: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, S G; Maher, J P; Belcher, B R; Leventhal, A M; Margolin, G; Shonkoff, E T; Dunton, G F

    2017-05-01

    Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviours (e.g. dietary intake and physical activity) among US children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children's obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behaviour (i.e. healthy diet [n = 3], unhealthy diet [n = 6], physical activity [n = 7] and sedentary behaviour [n = 9]). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children's healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children's lower physical activity and higher sedentary behaviour. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high-resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Disasters related to droughts and public health - a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Alpino, Tais Ariza; de Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, the history of droughts has been marked by constant social and health tragedies, with estimates of up to 3 million deaths from the early 19th century until the late 20th century. There is a record of nearly 32,000 events related to the above and more than 96 million people were affected between 1991 and 2010. Although droughts have historically brought disasters to Brazil, which was noted in the scientific expeditions of Arthur Neiva and Belisario Penna that documented these droughts, there have not been many studies on them. The objective of this paper is to present a revision of the scientific articles related to droughts and public health. The following databases were used: PubMed, the Preparation and Response to Disasters Portal from BVS and the Capes Periodical Portal. The descriptors drought and health were used to search titles and summaries of articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Among the repercussions related to health that were discovered: malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, mental health problems, issues relating to water and air quality and commitments made concerning access to health services. As there is a trend for more intense droughts and a scarcity of water until 2030, there is an urgent need for more research and studies in these areas.

  10. No Gene Is an Island: Analogical Relations between Science and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Frank L.

    Arguing that scientific facts and insights can be used analogically to clarify literary analysis at specific moments, this paper presents a number of such facts and their analogical relationship to several literary passages. The examples cited relate the first and second laws of thermodynamics to scenes from "King Lear," rigid bodies in motion to…

  11. Pedagogical Ethics: A Review of the Literature for Public Relations and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…

  12. Government Publications as Bibliographic References in the Periodical Literature of International Relations: A Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Margaret S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that used citation analysis to identify the government publications cited in international relations journals for 1964, 1974, and 1984. U.S. government, foreign government, and international organization publications and documents are compared by citation rate; implications for collection development in libraries are discussed;…

  13. Threshold Concepts in Higher Education: A Synthesis of the Literature Relating to Measurement of Threshold Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicola-Richmond, Kelli; Pépin, Geneviève; Larkin, Helen; Taylor, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    In relation to teaching and learning approaches that improve student learning outcomes, threshold concepts have generated substantial interest in higher education. They have been described as "portals" that lead to a transformed way of understanding or thinking, enabling learners to progress, and have been enthusiastically adopted to…

  14. Consumer-led health-related online sources and their impact on consumers: An integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Elina; Rantakokko, Piia; Suhonen, Marjo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the review was to describe consumer-led health-related online sources and their impact on consumers. The review was carried out as an integrative literature review. Quantisation and qualitative content analysis were used as the analysis method. The most common method used by the included studies was qualitative content analysis. This review identified the consumer-led health-related online sources used between 2009 and 2016 as health-related online communities, health-related social networking sites and health-related rating websites. These sources had an impact on peer support; empowerment; health literacy; physical, mental and emotional wellbeing; illness management; and relationships between healthcare organisations and consumers. The knowledge of the existence of the health-related online sources provides healthcare organisations with an opportunity to listen to their consumers' 'voice'. The sources make healthcare consumers more competent actors in relation to healthcare, and the knowledge of them is a valuable resource for healthcare organisations. Additionally, these health-related online sources might create an opportunity to reduce the need for drifting among the healthcare services. Healthcare policymakers and organisations could benefit from having a strategy of increasing their health-related online sources.

  15. Questioning the efficacy of 'gold' open access to published articles.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    To question the efficacy of 'gold' open access to published articles. Open access is unrestricted access to academic, theoretical and research literature that is scholarly and peer-reviewed. Two models of open access exist: 'gold' and 'green'. Gold open access provides everyone with access to articles during all stages of publication, with processing charges paid by the author(s). Green open access involves placing an already published article into a repository to provide unrestricted access, with processing charges incurred by the publisher. This is a discussion paper. An exploration of the relative benefits and drawbacks of the 'gold' and 'green' open access systems. Green open access is a more economic and efficient means of granting open access to scholarly literature but a large number of researchers select gold open access journals as their first choices for manuscript submissions. This paper questions the efficacy of gold open access models and presents an examination of green open access models to encourage nurse researchers to consider this approach. In the current academic environment, with increased pressures to publish and low funding success rates, it is difficult to understand why gold open access still exists. Green open access enhances the visibility of an academic's work, as increased downloads of articles tend to lead to increased citations. Green open access is the cheaper option, as well as the most beneficial choice, for universities that want to provide unrestricted access to all literature at minimal risk.

  16. Interpersonal Relations Among Hispanics in the United States: A Content Analysis of the Social Science Literature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    indicates associative thinking, is the Hispanictradition of emphasis on,arts and letters. Humanistic pursuits have long been awarded high status; in the...Latin American culture in peneral stresses the humanistic rather than the scientific, the esthetic rather than the -24- material, and the idealistic...tended to have a humanistic view of the world where social values were put above scientific values. Personalism is also much discussed in relation to

  17. Monitoring style of coping with cancer related threats: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roussi, Pagona; Miller, Suzanne M

    2014-10-01

    Building on the Cognitive-Social Health Information-Processing model, this paper provides a theoretically guided review of monitoring (i.e., attend to and amplify) cancer-related threats. Specifically, the goals of the review are to examine whether individuals high on monitoring are characterized by specific cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to cancer-related health threats than individuals low on monitoring and the implications of these cognitive-affective responses for patient-centered outcomes, including patient-physician communication, decision-making and the development of interventions to promote adherence and adjustment. A total of 74 reports were found, based on 63 studies, 13 of which were intervention studies. The results suggest that although individuals high on monitoring are more knowledgeable about health threats, they are less satisfied with the information provided. Further, they tend to be characterized by greater perceived risk, more negative beliefs, and greater value of health-related information and experience more negative affective outcomes. Finally, individuals high on monitoring tend to be more demanding of the health providers in terms of desire for more information and emotional support, are more assertive during decision-making discussions, and subsequently experience more decisional regret. Psychoeducational interventions improve outcomes when the level and type of information provided is consistent with the individual's monitoring style and the demands of the specific health threat. Implications for patient-centered outcomes, in terms of tailoring of interventions, patient-provider communication, and decision-making, are discussed.

  18. Monitoring Style of Coping with Cancer Related Threats: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on the Cognitive-Social Health Information-Processing model, this paper provides a theoretically guided review of monitoring (i.e., attend to and amplify) cancer-related threats. Specifically, the goals of the review are to examine whether individuals high on monitoring are characterized by specific cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to cancer-related health threats than individuals low on monitoring and the implications of these cognitive-affective responses for patient-centered outcomes, including patient-physician communication, decision-making and the development of interventions to promote adherence and adjustment. A total of 74 reports were found, based on 63 studies, 13 of which were intervention studies. The results suggest that although individuals high on monitoring are more knowledgeable about health threats, they are less satisfied with the information provided. Further, they tend to be characterized by greater perceived risk, more negative beliefs, and greater value of health-related information and experience more negative affective outcomes. Finally, individuals high on monitoring tend to be more demanding of the health providers in terms of desire for more information and emotional support, are more assertive during decision-making discussions, and subsequently experience more decisional regret. Psychoeducational interventions improve outcomes when the level and type of information provided is consistent with the individual's monitoring style and the demands of the specific health threat. Implications for patient-centered outcomes, in terms of tailoring of interventions, patient-provider communication, and decision-making, are discussed. PMID:24488543

  19. A systematic literature review of the use and effectiveness of the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment for research and rehabilitation as it relates to the wounded warrior.

    PubMed

    Collins, John-David; Markham, Amanda; Service, Kathrine; Reini, Seth; Wolf, Erik; Sessoms, Pinata

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. military treatment and research facilities employ a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) [Motek Medical BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands] for research and rehabilitation of complex injuries exhibited by Wounded Warriors. There has been little scientific evidence of the effectiveness of this type of system for rehabilitation. A systematic review of the literature was completed to determine what type of work has been performed on the CAREN and report findings of clinical significance. Specific terms were searched on electronic databases to include journal articles, abstracts, and peer-reviewed conference proceedings related to the CAREN. Twenty-six publications were elicited that met our criteria. These were divided by their primary focus: rehabilitation, clinical research, and technical reports. Results from published articles have determined that the system is a capable tool for both assessment and rehabilitation, but little has currently been published, particularly on patient populations. More research needs to be performed to evaluate its effectiveness as a rehabilitation tool compared to other rehabilitation methods. It is expected that a system, such as the CAREN, will challenge patients multifactorially (e.g. physically and cognitively) and provide biofeedback while decreasing rehabilitation time and increasing effectiveness of treatment.

  20. Tobacco and alcohol-related interventions for people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kerr, S; Lawrence, M; Darbyshire, C; Middleton, A R; Fitzsimmons, L

    2013-05-01

    spanned a period of three weeks to one academic year. The studies highlighted a number of important issues linked to the appropriateness of interventions for this client group (e.g., use of pictures, quizzes, role play, incentives); however, in the majority of cases the interventions appeared to lack a theoretical framework (e.g., behaviour change theory). The appropriateness of the outcome measures for use with this client group was not tested. One study discussed feasibility (teachers delivering lessons on alcohol and tobacco) and only one was informative in terms of effectiveness, i.e., increasing knowledge of the health and social dangers of smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This review is the first to systematically collate evidence on tobacco and alcohol-related interventions for people with ID. While there is currently little evidence to guide practice, the review delivers clear insights for the development of interventions and presents a strong case for more robust research methods. In particular there is a need to test the effectiveness of interventions in large-scale, well-designed trials and to ensure that outcome measures are developed/tailored appropriately for this client group. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Modelling emergency decisions: recognition-primed decision making. The literature in relation to an ophthalmic critical incident.

    PubMed

    Bond, Susan; Cooper, Simon

    2006-08-01

    To review and reflect on the literature on recognition-primed decision (RPD) making and influences on emergency decisions with particular reference to an ophthalmic critical incident involving the sub-arachnoid spread of local anaesthesia following the peribulbar injection. This paper critics the literature on recognition-primed decision making, with particular reference to emergency situations. It illustrates the findings by focussing on an ophthalmic critical incident. Systematic literature review with critical incident reflection. Medline, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases were searched for papers on recognition-primed decision making (1996-2004) followed by the 'snowball method'. Studies were selected in accordance with preset criteria. A total of 12 papers were included identifying the recognition-primed decision making as a good theoretical description of acute emergency decisions. In addition, cognitive resources, situational awareness, stress, team support and task complexity were identified as influences on the decision process. Recognition-primed decision-making theory describes the decision processes of experts in time-bound emergency situations and is the foundation for a model of emergency decision making (Fig. 2). Decision theory and models, in this case related to emergency situations, inform practice and enhance clinical effectiveness. The critical incident described highlights the need for nurses to have a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of anaesthetic techniques as well as an ability to manage and resuscitate patients autonomously. In addition, it illustrates how the critical incidents should influence the audit cycle with improvements in patient safety.

  2. Rate-Related Left Bundle Branch Block and Cardiac Memory in a Patient with Bradycardia: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Seibolt, Luke; Maestas, Camila; Lazkani, Mohamad; Fatima, Umaima; Loli, Akil; Chesser, Michael

    2018-06-19

    Rate-related left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a well-studied phenomenon. Cardiac memory is another physiologic phenomenon in which T-wave abnormalities occur in the absence of ischemia. The association between these two phenomena has been described in several case reports. A literature review was performed through OVID and Pubmed, where at total of 93 cases of rate- related LBBB were identified. Cases were reviewed and data were collected on rates of appearance and disappearance as well as the presence or absence of cardiac memory. There is some overlap in the rate at which LBBB appear. Cardiac memory is associated with rate-related LBBB in several cases but its true prevalence is unknown. Cardiac memory is a phenomenon that is well described in the literature but is often under-recognized in clinical practice. As a consequence of overlooking this phenomenon and not including cardiac memory in the differential when T-wave abnormalities are observed, patients may be subjected to unnecessary invasive diagnostic testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethical issues in publishing in predatory journals.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Lorraine E; Winker, Margaret A

    2017-06-15

    Predatory journals, or journals that charge an article processing charge (APC) to authors, yet do not have the hallmarks of legitimate scholarly journals such as peer review and editing, Editorial Boards, editorial offices, and other editorial standards, pose a number of new ethical issues in journal publishing. This paper discusses ethical issues around predatory journals and publishing in them. These issues include misrepresentation; lack of editorial and publishing standards and practices; academic deception; research and funding wasted; lack of archived content; and undermining confidence in research literature. It is important that the scholarly community, including authors, institutions, editors, and publishers, support the legitimate scholarly research enterprise, and avoid supporting predatory journals by not publishing in them, serving as their editors or on the Editorial Boards, or permitting faculty to knowingly publish in them without consequences.

  4. Exhaust system-related burns affecting children: a UK perspective and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Vermaak, P.V.; Deall, C.E.; McArdle, C.; Burge, T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burns caused by exhaust systems in children may be associated with considerable morbidity. Current epidemiological data varies, but no data are available for the UK population. We aim to identify the pattern of exhaust-related burns affecting children who presented to a regional centre for paediatric burn care in the UK. Patients who sustained burns related to exhaust mechanisms between May 2005 and August 2012 were identified via the departmental database. Data collected included patient demographics, burn injury information, management and outcomes. Thirty-nine patients sustained 43 burns from contact with exhaust mechanisms, and the majority were less than 5 years of age. 77% of the patients were male. Burns affected critical areas such as the hands and feet in 26% of cases. Most burns involved a total body surface area of ≤1% and were partial thickness in depth. Thirty-three percent of patients required operative intervention. Time to heal was less than 3 weeks in 69% of cases and 3 patients healed with hypertrophic scarring. The majority of burns were small in size and partial thickness in depth. Most were treated conservatively and healed with low complication rates. More than 1 in 5 injuries involved critical burn areas, highlighting the potential for considerable morbidity. The age profile in our study contrasted with other results worldwide. Our study highlights the need for vigilant supervision of children around motorcycles. We recommend the wearing of protective long trousers when riding motorcycles and the fitting of external shields to motorcycle exhaust pipes. PMID:28149228

  5. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  6. Transfusion-related immunomodulation: review of the literature and implications for pediatric critical illness.

    PubMed

    Muszynski, Jennifer A; Spinella, Philip C; Cholette, Jill M; Acker, Jason P; Hall, Mark W; Juffermans, Nicole P; Kelly, Daniel P; Blumberg, Neil; Nicol, Kathleen; Liedel, Jennifer; Doctor, Allan; Remy, Kenneth E; Tucci, Marisa; Lacroix, Jacques; Norris, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is difficult to define and likely represents a complicated set of physiologic responses to transfusion, including both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Similarly, the immunologic response to critical illness in both adults and children is highly complex and is characterized by both acute inflammation and acquired immune suppression. How transfusion may contribute to or perpetuate these phenotypes in the ICU is poorly understood, despite the fact that transfusion is common in critically ill patients. Both hyperinflammation and severe immune suppression are associated with poor outcomes from critical illness, underscoring the need to understand potential immunologic consequences of blood product transfusion. In this review we outline the dynamic immunologic response to critical illness, provide clinical evidence in support of immunomodulatory effects of blood product transfusion, review preclinical and translational studies to date of TRIM, and provide insight into future research directions. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-1-related amyloidosis 2 case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunlei; Zuo, Ke; Lu, Yinghui; Liang, Shaoshan; Huang, Xianghua; Zeng, Caihong; Zhang, Jiong; An, Yu; Wang, Jinquan

    2017-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1)-related amyloidosis is characterized by the deposition of ApoA-1 in various organs and can be either hereditary or nonhereditary. It is rare and easily misdiagnosed. Renal involvement is common in hereditary ApoA-1 amyloidosis, but rare in the nonhereditary form. We reported two cases with ApoA-1 amyloidosis, a 64-year-old man suffering from nephrotic syndrome and a 40-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome and splenomegaly. Renal biopsies revealed glomerular, interstitial and vascular amyloid deposits and positive phospholipase A2 receptor staining in the glomerular capillary loop in case 1, and mesangial amyloid deposits in case 2. After immunostaining failed to determine the specific amyloid protein, proteomic analysis of amyloid deposits by mass spectrometry was performed and demonstrated the ApoA-1 origin of the amyloid. Genetic testing revealed no mutation of the APOA1 gene in case 1 but a heterozygous mutation, Trp74Arg, in case 2. Case 1 was thus diagnosed as nonhereditary ApoA-1 associated renal amyloidosis with membranous nephropathy, and case 2 as hereditary ApoA-1 amyloidosis with multiorgan injuries (kidney and spleen) and a positive family history. Case 1 was treated with glucocorticoid combined with cyclosporine. Case 2 was treated with calcitriol and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Two cases were followed up for 5 months and 2 years, respectively; and case 1 was found to have attenuated proteinuria while case 2 had an elevation of cholestasis indices along with renal insufficiency. Proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry of the amyloid deposits combined with genetic analysis can provide accurate diagnosis of ApoA-1 amyloidosis. Besides, these 2 cases expand our knowledge of ApoA-1-related renal amyloidosis.

  8. [IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Fang, W L; Wang, H J; Lu, Y W; Feng, R E; Bu, X N; Fang, Q H

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical data of a patient with IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue and review the literature so as to improve the understanding level of the disorder. Methods: To analyze the clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, imaging, histopathology, treatment and prognosis of a patient with IgG(4)-related disease trachea and paratracheal soft tissue involved, who was admitted to the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital. The relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: A 18-year-old female was admitted with chief complaint of cough, dyspnea, and neck mass. Neck CT suggested that tracheal stenosis was caused by surrounded soft tissue. Paratracheal mass biopsy showed dense collagen fibers with infiltration of many lymphocytes and plasma cells. Immunohistochemical stain found that IgG(4)-positive plasma cells were >50/high power field (HPF) and a ratio of IgG(4)/IgG positive cells was over 40% .The level of serum IgG(4) was significantly increased (2 930 mg/L). She was diagnosed as IgG(4)-related disease. The patient was treated with 80 mg intravenous methylprednisolone per day for three days, then prednisone 40 mg daily oral. Her dyspnea was significantly relieved.One month later, CT scan showed that the cervical tracheal stenosis was significantly improved. We identified 20 cases of IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue from databases, in which only 1 case was similar as this patient. The other 19 cases were of extratracheal involvement. Elevated serum IgG(4) was detected in 11/12 patients. Most patients were treated with glucocorticoid, some combined with immunosuppressive agents and rituximab. The clinical outcome was good. Conclusion: IgG(4)-related disease involving the trachea and paratracheal soft tissue is a rare condition. Serum IgG(4) level and histopathology should be considered for diagnosis. Glucocorticoid is

  9. [Medication-related oculogyric crises: a description of four cases and a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Darling, A; Poo, P; Perez-Duenas, B; Campistol, J

    2013-02-01

    Oculogyric crises are considered to be a form of focal dystonia and can be observed as reactions to pharmaceuticals. The signs and symptoms may be confused with epileptic crises. To describe the clinical features and progress of patients with pharmaceutical-related oculogyric crises and to carry out a review of the topic. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of four patients evaluated in the neurology service due to oculogyric crises. The patients had been diagnosed with an associated conduct disorder requiring treatment with antipsychotic drugs. The episodes of oculogyric crises did not correlate with the findings in the electroencephalogram. They responded well to the reduction in dosage or to withdrawal of the apparent causing agent. The clinical picture does not present only in patients treated with antipsychotics but is also linked with other pharmaceuticals that are frequently used in daily paediatric practice. When oculogyric crises are the reason for visiting, differential diagnoses must be taken into account in order to avoid unnecessary studies and to carry out an appropriate therapeutic management.

  10. Sunitinib-related fulminant hepatic failure: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Eric W; Rockey, Michelle L; Rashkin, Mitchell C

    2008-08-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an infrequent but life-threatening complication. Sunitinib is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. However, results from preapproval clinical trials suggest an equivocal hepatic risk profile for sunitinib. We describe a 75-year-old woman with renal cell carcinoma who was admitted to the intensive care unit after experiencing fulminant hepatic failure during sunitinib therapy. The patient's hepatic and renal chemistries had been within normal limits throughout four previous cycles of sunitinib therapy spanning 9 months. After the fifth cycle, she complained of a 3-day history of severe diarrhea and dehydration. Her abnormal laboratory test results included the following: total bilirubin level 5.9 mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase level 3872 U/L, alanine aminotransferase level 3332 U/L, ammonia level 897 microg/dl, and an international normalized ratio of 4.8. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible relationship between sunitinib and hepatotoxicity. Supportive care including aggressive intravenous hydration and reversal of coagulopathy was successful. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 7 without apparent longstanding sequelae. Clinicians should be aware of this possible adverse effect of sunitinib, and continued pharmacovigilance is imperative to accurately quantify the possible risk of sunitinib-related hepatotoxicity.

  11. Stressors relating to patient psychological health following stoma surgery: an integrated literature review.

    PubMed

    Ang, Seng Giap Marcus; Chen, Hui-Chen; Siah, Rosalind Jiat Chiew; He, Hong-Gu; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2013-11-01

    To summarize empirical evidence relating to stressors that may affect patients' psychosocial health following colostomy or ileostomy surgery during hospitalization and after discharge. An extensive search was performed on the CINAHL®, Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science electronic databases. Eight articles were included with three qualitative and five quantitative research designs. Most studies were conducted in Western nations with one other in Taiwan. Following colostomy or ileostomy surgery, common stressors reported by patients during hospitalization included stoma formation, diagnosis of cancer, and preparation for self-care. After discharge, stressors that patients experienced encompassed adapting to body changes, altered sexuality, and impact on social life and activities. This review suggests that patients with stomas experience various stressors during hospitalization and after discharge. Additional research is needed for better understanding of patient postoperative experiences to facilitate the provision of appropriate nursing interventions to the stressors. To help patients deal with stressors following stoma surgery, nurses may provide pre- and postoperative education regarding the treatment and recovery process and encourage patient self-care. Following discharge, nurses may provide long-term ongoing counseling and support, build social networks among patients with stomas, and implement home visit programs. Stoma surgery negatively affects patients' physical, psychological, social, and sexual health. Postoperative education programs in clinical settings mostly focus on physical health and underemphasize psychological issues. More pre- and postoperative education programs are needed to help patients cope with stoma stressors.

  12. Ndufs4 related Leigh syndrome: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ortigoza-Escobar, Juan Darío; Oyarzabal, Alfonso; Montero, Raquel; Artuch, Rafael; Jou, Cristina; Jiménez, Cecilia; Gort, Laura; Briones, Paz; Muchart, Jordi; López-Gallardo, Ester; Emperador, Sonia; Pesini, Eduardo Ruiz; Montoya, Julio; Pérez, Belén; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén

    2016-05-01

    The genetic causes of Leigh syndrome are heterogeneous, with a poor correlation between the phenotype and genotype. Here, we present a patient with an NDUFS4 mutation to expand the clinical and biochemical spectrum of the disease. A combined defect in the CoQ, PDH and RCC activities in our patient was due to an inappropriate assembly of the RCC complex I (CI), which was confirmed using Blue-Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis. Targeted exome sequencing analysis allowed for the genetic diagnosis of this patient. We reviewed 198 patients with 24 different genetic defects causing RCC I deficiency and compared them to 22 NDUFS4 patients. We concluded that NDUFS4-related Leigh syndrome is invariably linked to an early onset severe phenotype that results in early death. Some data, including the clinical phenotype, neuroimaging and biochemical findings, can guide the genetic study in patients with RCC I deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 370.2 - Published materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Published materials. 370.2 Section 370.2 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 370.2 Published materials. Rules and regulations of APHIS relating to its regulatory responsibilities are continuously published in the Federal Register, and...

  14. 9 CFR 390.2 - Published materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Published materials. 390.2 Section 390... § 390.2 Published materials. FSIS rules and regulations relating to its regulatory responsibilities and administrative procedures are published and made available to the public in the Federal Register and codified in...

  15. Trade Publishing: A Report from the Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the current condition of trade publishing and its future prospects based on interviews with editors, publishers, agents, and others. Discusses academic libraries and the future of trade publishing, including questions relating to electronic books, intellectual property, and social and economic benefits of sharing information…

  16. [Burden of relatives and their expectations towards psychiatric institutions. A review of the literature and own results].

    PubMed

    Schmid, R; Spiessl, H; Vukovich, A; Cording, C

    2003-03-01

    This article aimed to provide an overview regarding the burden of relatives of mentally ill patients and their expectations towards psychiatric institutions. The literature was selected from Medline covering the years 1996 - 2002. 342 articles were reviewed, 145 of which were described in this review. The burden of relatives are manifold and can be classified into the following categories: time spent on caring, financial difficulties, occupational restrictions, detrimental effects on relatives own physical and psychological well-being, reduction in leisure activities, negative effects on social relationships, experiences of discrimination and refusal, deficiencies in information about illness, feelings of not being taken seriously, insufficient service support, long distance to mental health service, emotional burdens of caregivers and difficulties with the patients behaviour. The expectations of the relatives mainly refer to the categories "relationship between staff and relatives", "information about illness" and "establishing of institutions required". The various burdens of relatives and their expectations towards psychiatric services point to necessary improvements of mental health services in the sense of a consumer-oriented psychiatric care.

  17. HIV Among Indigenous peoples: A Review of the Literature on HIV-Related Behaviour Since the Beginning of the Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Aspin, Clive; Gadsden, Thomas; Reading, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    From the early days of the HIV epidemic, Indigenous peoples were identified as a population group that experiences social and economic determinants-including colonialism and racism-that increase exposure to HIV. There are now substantial disparities in HIV rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in some countries. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the evidence on HIV-related behaviors and determinants in four countries-Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States-in which Indigenous peoples share important features of colonization and marginalization. We identified 107 articles over more than 20 years. The review highlights the determinants of HIV-related behaviors including domestic violence, stigma and discrimination, and injecting drug use. Many of the factors associated with HIV risk also contribute to mistrust of health services, which in turn contributes to poor HIV and health outcomes among Indigenous peoples.

  18. [The analysis of the articles related to toxicological (forensic) chemistry published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" in 2004-2013. Part 1. The structure and quality of the publications].

    PubMed

    Orlova, A M

    2015-01-01

    The elements of the scientometric survey were applied for the analysis of the character, structure, and subject-matter of the articles related to toxicological (forensic) chemistry that had been published in the journal during the period from 2004 to 2013. The data on the number of publications and their authors are presented. The emphasis is laid on the merits and demerits of the papers submitted for publications.

  19. A systematic review of the literature of the three related disease entities cheilitis granulomatosa, orofacial granulomatosis and Melkersson - Rosenthal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wehl, Goetz; Rauchenzauner, Markus

    2018-05-14

    Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and comprises the triad: orofacial edema, recurrent facial paralysis and lingua plicata. In the current literature confusing heterogeneity exists, mixing together the historically grown terms cheilitis granulomatosa or granulomatous cheilitis, Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome and the umbrella term orofacial granulomatosis (OFG). We provide a systematic review comprising all three disease entities of orofacial granulomatosis using the computerized database "Pubmed Medline" entering the key words "orofacial granulomatosis" (141 references), "Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome" (207 references), "granulomatous cheilitis" or "cheilitis granulomatosa" (102 references) back to 1956. Full text journals and case studies were included, and data synthesis was performed individually. Etiology remains unclear for all three disease entities. Etiological relatedness to chronic inflammatory bowel disease is under discussion and effectiveness was found for different treatments, e.g. local triamcinolone injections, antibiotics, surgical interventions, TNF alpha blockers or exclusive enteral nutrition. No randomized controlled trial concerning the therapy of orofacial granulomatosis was found. As a consequence, therapeutic conclusions are drawn mainly from small case series, thus limiting the evidence of therapeutic interventions. OFG with the sub-entities MRS and cheilitis granulomatosa is an etiological obscure disease process with various possible therapeutic interventions potentially alleviating the disease course but to broaden treatment knowledge further study in randomized controlled trials are needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Individual-Level Factors in Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Review of the Literature on the Relation of Individual-Level Health Behavior Constructs and Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Bennett, Alyssa; Zaiter, Marie; Marshall, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Compliance with colorectal cancer screening recommendations requires considerable conscious effort on the part of the individual patient, making an individual's decisions about engagement in screening an important contributor to compliance or noncompliance. The objective of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of individual-level behavior theories and their associated constructs in accounting for engagement in colorectal cancer screening behavior. We reviewed the literature examining constructs from formal models of individual-level health behavior as factors associated with compliance with screening for colorectal cancer. All published studies examining one or more constructs from the health belief model, theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, or social cognitive theory and their relation to screening behavior or behavioral intentions were included in the analysis. By and large, results of studies supported the theory-based predictions for the influence of constructs on cancer screening behavior. However, the evidence base for many of these relations, especially for models other than the health belief model, is quite limited. Suggestions are made for future research on individual-level determinants of colorectal cancer screening. PMID:21954045

  1. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Gorin, Sergey V; Koroleva, Anna M; Kitas, George D

    2016-09-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions.

  2. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions. PMID:27510376

  3. Gender differences in computer-mediated communication: a systematic literature review of online health-related support groups.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Malik, Sumaira H; Coulson, Neil S

    2009-04-01

    Previous research has contended that the unique characteristics of the Internet might remove some of the gender differences that exist in face-to-face healthcare. The aims of the present study were to systematically review studies that have examined gender differences in communication within online health communities. A literature search was conducted to identify studies addressing gender differences in messages posted to online health-related support groups. Out of the 1186 articles identified, twelve were retrieved for review. Half of the studies examined gender differences by comparing male and female cancer discussion boards. The literature review revealed that some gender differences were observed in these studies. However, for studies that analysed mixed-gender communities, gender differences were less evident. Results seemed to reveal gender differences in communications in single-sex online health support groups, and similarities in communication patterns in mixed-sex online health support groups. However, findings should be treated with caution due to the diversity in studies and methodological issues highlighted in the present review. There is a need for health care professionals to take into account a range of situational and contextual factors that may affect how men and women use online health support groups. However, more robust research is needed before concrete guidelines can be developed to help health care professionals develop effective online support interventions.

  4. Sleep deprivation in resident physicians, work hour limitations, and related outcomes: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mansukhani, Meghna P; Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Surani, Salim; Varon, Joseph; Ramar, Kannan

    2012-07-01

    Extended work hours, interrupted sleep, and shift work are integral parts of medical training among all specialties. The need for 24-hour patient care coverage and economic factors have resulted in prolonged work hours for resident physicians. This has traditionally been thought to enhance medical educational experience. These long and erratic work hours lead to acute and chronic sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality, resulting in numerous adverse consequences. Impairments may occur in several domains, including attention, cognition, motor skills, and mood. Resident performance, professionalism, safety, and well-being are affected by sleep deprivation, causing potentially adverse implications for patient care. Studies have shown adverse health consequences, motor vehicle accidents, increased alcohol and medication use, and serious medical errors to occur in association with both sleep deprivation and shift work. Resident work hour limitations have been mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in response to patient safety concerns. Studies evaluating the impact of these regulations on resident physicians have generated conflicting reports on patient outcomes, demonstrating only a modest increase in sleep duration for resident physicians, along with negative perceptions regarding their education. This literature review summarizes research on the effects of sleep deprivation and shift work, and examines current literature on the impact of recent work hour limitations on resident physicians and patient-related outcomes.

  5. Sneddon syndrome: rare disease or under diagnosed clinical entity? Review of the literature related to a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Orac, Amalia; Artenie, Anca; Toader, Mihaela Paula; Harnagea, Raluca; Dinu-Mitrofan, Diana; Grigorovici, Mirela; Ungureanu, G

    2014-01-01

    Sneddon syndrome is defined by the association of livedo racemosa and recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic lesions. The annual incidence is 4/1,000,000. This syndrome particularly affects young women, some reports suggesting a family predisposition. It is a chronic, progressive, arterio-occlusive disease of unknown etiology that involves small and medium-sized arteries. It is usually associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. We report the case of a female patient with Sneddon syndrome with significant family history, personal history of stroke, epilepsy, migraine, cardiovascular involvement, three miscarriages, cognitive decline, noncompliant to therapy, in the absence of antiphospholipid antibodies. This paper aims to analyze the main characteristic features and management of Sneddon syndrome by conducting a literature review related to a clinical case.

  6. Age-related gender differences in reporting ictal fear: analysis of case histories and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Valentina; Gardella, Elena; Tassi, Laura; Canger, Raffaele; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Piazzini, Ada; Turner, Katherine; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2007-12-01

    To determine if there are age or gender-related differences in reporting fear as a symptom of epileptic seizure, all clinical charts of patients evaluated at the "C. Munari - Epilepsy Surgery Center" of Milan from 1990 to June 2005 were analyzed, looking for patients with ictal fear. Among the 2,530 clinical charts examined (1,330 male and 1,200 female), 265 patients were found with ictal fear (100 men, 165 women). The gender difference in reporting ictal fear was not so marked in the pediatric age group (98 girls, 74 boys), whereas in adult patients the difference was significant (158 women, 83 men). Interestingly, more men than women (14:3) had ictal fear during childhood that disappeared during adulthood. The literature review confirmed that ictal fear is significantly more common in women, though there is no gender difference in the pediatric age group.

  7. Tattoo ink-related cutaneous pseudolymphoma: a rare but significant complication. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Andrea; Parodi, Pier Camillo; Brioschi, Marco; Marchesi, Matteo; Bruni, Barbara; Cangi, Maria Giulia; Vaienti, Luca

    2014-04-01

    The demand for decorative tattoos is steadily growing worldwide, and in the US it is estimated that up to 24% of adults has one or more tattoos. Subsequently, the number of tattoo-related complications is increasing. Among these, lymphoproliferative disorders play a minor but important role. The aim of this article is to arouse the awareness of plastic surgeons and dermatologists about this rare but serious complication and to stimulate stricter clinical control of their tattooed patients. We report a new case of tattoo-related cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL) and perform a review of the last 30 years of literature on the topic in PubMed. Apart from this new case, only 18 cases of CPL have been reported in PubMed so far. In contrast to the classic knowledge, the T cell was the predominant phenotype in 68% of cases. Red is confirmed to be the most involved ink. Topical and intralesional steroids, laser therapy, and surgery were used for treatment of CPL. Even if CPL is a very rare and benign complication, we should not forget that in rare cases pseudolymphoma may evolve into a true lymphoma. Diagnosis is still difficult and is based on anamnestic, clinical, and histopathological data. From the review of the literature, the T cell predominance suggests a reclassification of tattoo-induced CPL and there is not a gold standard treatment yet. Finally, once a pseudolymphoma is diagnosed, there must be a long follow-up because of the possibility to transform into a malignancy. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Systematic literature review of health-related quality of life among aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vincent W; Blaylock, Barbara; Epstein, Josh; Purdum, Anna

    2018-05-18

    Studies have shown that a proportion of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with standard chemotherapy will have long-term life expectancy comparable to those in the age-adjusted general population. This systematic literature review summarizes current literature regarding health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of long-term (≥2 years) survivors of aggressive NHL. Electronic databases (without restriction on years) and abstracts from four major oncology and HRQoL conferences from 2014 to 2017 were searched. Studies were included if HRQoL or health utility was assessed at least 2 years after NHL diagnosis. Studies focusing on central nervous system lymphoma, or indolent NHL, were excluded. Results were categorized relative to baseline (improvement, deterioration or no change) and compared to the general population (better, comparable or worse). Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies included ≥1 HRQoL instrument, and two measured health utilities using EQ-5D. Half of the studies showed improvement (5/10) and half no change (5/10) in overall HRQoL. Compared to the general population, overall HRQoL was more comparable when assessed at ≥3 years from baseline (3/3 better or comparable) versus assessment at <3 years (2/3 better or comparable). Six studies reported on the physical HRQoL domain with improvement in 4/6 studies and no change in 2/6 studies. HRQoL of NHL survivors may improve from baseline and becomes more comparable to general population HRQoL with longer survival. Overall HRQoL improvement is driven mostly by improvements in the physical domain.

  9. The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  10. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age and its relation to health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is a part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The aim was to assess the health effects of different levels of protein intake in infancy and childhood in a Nordic setting. The initial literature search resulted in 435 abstracts, and 219 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 37 quality-assessed papers (4A, 30B, and 3C). A complementary search found four additional papers (all graded B). The evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-inconclusive. Higher protein intake in infancy and early childhood is convincingly associated with increased growth and higher body mass index in childhood. The first 2 years of life is likely most sensitive to high protein intake. Protein intake between 15 E% and 20 E% in early childhood has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight later in life, but the exact level of protein intake above which there is an increased risk for being overweight later in life is yet to be established. Increased intake of animal protein in childhood is probably related to earlier puberty. There was limited-suggestive evidence that intake of animal protein, especially from dairy, has a stronger association with growth than vegetable protein. The evidence was limited-suggestive for a positive association between total protein intake and bone mineral content and/or other bone variables in childhood and adolescence. Regarding other outcomes, there were too few published studies to enable any conclusions. In conclusion, the intake of protein among children in the Nordic countries is high and may contribute to increased risk of later obesity. The upper level of a healthy intake is yet to be firmly established. In the meantime, we suggest a mean intake of 15 E% as an upper limit of recommended intake at 12 months, as a higher intake may contribute to increased risk for later obesity. PMID:23717219

  11. BOOK PUBLISHING IN COMMUNIST CHINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIU, ALAN P.

    A GENERAL STUDY WAS MADE OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK PUBLISHING INDUSTRY IN COMMUNIST CHINA. FIRST THE PAPER REVIEWS BRIEFLY THE PRIVATE INDUSTRY OF PUBLISHING IN PRE-COMMUNIST CHINA. NEXT THE COMMUNIST NATIONALIZATION OF THE PUBLISHING ENTERPRISE IS DESCRIBED. THEN THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE PUBLISHING OF THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES OF…

  12. Establishing a Book Publishing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciofalo, Andrew

    Addressing the need to prepare college graduates for careers in book publishing, this report examines the necessity and structure of a book publishing curriculum at the undergraduate level at Loyola College in Maryland. A 1977 bulletin by the American Association of Publishers (AAP) cited a lack of awareness of publishing as a possible career, and…

  13. Salivary Chemical Factors in Relation with Oral Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is of malignant tumors, which causes cancerous complications. DNA damage, mainly because of products of oxidative stress like reactive oxygen species, is a frequent mutagenic that triggers carcinoma. Smoking increases the probability of cancer incidence. Saliva is the first biological medium to interact with external compounds, especially smoking substances. The present study overviews the salivary level of some remarkable compounds in relation with smoking and squamous cell carcinoma. To collect data, English literature was searched in databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. The keywords used for search were as follows: ‘Carcinoma, Squamous Cell’, ‘Smoking’, ‘Saliva’, and ‘Biomarkers‘. The inclusion criteria were the presence of salivary chemical factors in relation with oral cancer and influence by smoking. Out of 239 found articles, only 56 were selected. Our results demonstrated the potential role of salivary biochemistry to predict and/or treat complications with cancer in both smoker and non-smoker individuals. Changes in concentrations of salivary chemicals including antioxidants, total antioxidant, glutathione and uric acid, epithelial growth factor, cytokine biomarkers, superoxide dismutase activity, and transcriptome were related to squamous cell carcinoma and could be used as potential biomarkers for cancer prognosis; moreover, enhancement of antioxidant level might be a potential treatment. PMID:29201965

  14. Salivary Chemical Factors in Relation with Oral Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers: a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh

    2017-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is of malignant tumors, which causes cancerous complications. DNA damage, mainly because of products of oxidative stress like reactive oxygen species, is a frequent mutagenic that triggers carcinoma. Smoking increases the probability of cancer incidence. Saliva is the first biological medium to interact with external compounds, especially smoking substances. The present study overviews the salivary level of some remarkable compounds in relation with smoking and squamous cell carcinoma. To collect data, English literature was searched in databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. The keywords used for search were as follows: 'Carcinoma, Squamous Cell', 'Smoking', 'Saliva', and 'Biomarkers'. The inclusion criteria were the presence of salivary chemical factors in relation with oral cancer and influence by smoking. Out of 239 found articles, only 56 were selected. Our results demonstrated the potential role of salivary biochemistry to predict and/or treat complications with cancer in both smoker and non-smoker individuals. Changes in concentrations of salivary chemicals including antioxidants, total antioxidant, glutathione and uric acid, epithelial growth factor, cytokine biomarkers, superoxide dismutase activity, and transcriptome were related to squamous cell carcinoma and could be used as potential biomarkers for cancer prognosis; moreover, enhancement of antioxidant level might be a potential treatment.

  15. Norms and attitudes related to alcohol usage and driving : a review of the literature. Volume 2, A meta-analysis of primary prevention studies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-09-01

    This project provides information on norms and attitudes related to alcohol use and driving. This volume contains a review and analysis of the literature pertaining to attitude formation and change, attitudes towards alcohol use/abuse, attitudes asso...

  16. Information interventions for recovery following vehicle-related trauma to persons of working age: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Clay, Fiona J; Collie, Alex; McClure, Roderick J

    2012-06-01

    Given the burden associated with vehicle-related trauma, there is interest in time and cost effective methods of providing information to assist recovery. This systematic review aims to address the question: "Do targeted early information interventions improve outcomes following vehicle--related injuries for persons of working age?" Ovid Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published between 1990-April 2011. Included studies were randomized or pseudo--randomized controlled trials of information interventions delivered to working age persons following vehicle-related injuries. Two reviewers independently selected and appraised the studies. Sixteen publications (13 primary studies) met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for bias. Hetero-geneity in terms of the information interventions and measured outcomes was encountered. In 4 of the included studies, the intervention was positively associated with at least one outcome reported. Methodological issues limited the conclusions that could be drawn. Following vehicle-related trauma, people often experience difficulties in ongoing functioning. The current evidence neither supports nor fails to support the effectiveness of information interventions in promoting injury recovery. There is a need for larger more methodologically and conceptually rigorous randomized controlled trials that better consider the type and timing of the intervention.

  17. The impact of HIV-related stigma on the lives of HIV-positive women: an integrated literature review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Szu-Szu; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    To critically explore how Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma impacts on the lives of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women through an integrative review of the literature. Throughout history Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection has been associated with sex trade, injecting drug use and other deviant behaviours within society. These historical associations can lead to the generation of negative perceptions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women. As such, women who contract Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection can be susceptible to societal stigma. An integrative literature review. To identify the publications on the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma among women, a search was performed using the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstract covering the period from 2000-2014. The following key words were included in the search: 'women', 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus', and 'stigma'. Twenty-six articles were retrieved and reviewed. From the results, four key themes merged in relation to the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women's lives: the individual, relationships, work and the community. Despite great advances in the management and treatment of those who are Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive, it appears the lives of many women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus remain greatly affected by their Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection with gender-specific stigma and stereotypes. Having a holistic understanding of this impact offers the potential for those responsible for the funding and draws the attention of researchers and policy makers on promoting medical services specifically for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women, minimising social stigmatisation towards this client group, and optimising their health outcomes. In an attempt to amplify Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women

  18. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, Fuusje M; Mistiaen, Patriek; Devillé, Walter Ljm; Francke, Anneke L

    2012-09-18

    Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey) and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands). The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are often quite influential in end-of-life decisions, such

  19. The Economics of Publishing and the Publishing of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Manna, Manfredi

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between economics and scientific journal publishing. Topics include journal pricing in economics; market power exerted by the dominant commercial publisher in economics journal publishing; academic experiments to improve scholarly communication in economics; policies of the United Kingdom Competition Commission; and…

  20. Challenges, coping strategies, and recommendations related to the HIV services field in the HAART era: a systematic literature review of qualitative studies from the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Miller, Katye R; Galos, Dylan; Love, Randi; Poole, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n=846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n=26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout.

  1. Nintendo Wii related Achilles tendon rupture: first reported case and literature review of motion sensing video game injuries.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit

    2014-05-14

    Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. A review and critical analysis of the scientific literature related to 100% fruit juice and human health.

    PubMed

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2015-01-01

    The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. A Review and Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature Related to 100% Fruit Juice and Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2015-01-01

    The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. PMID:25593142

  4. [The analysis of the subject-matter and the structure of scientific articles related to forensic biology published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" in 1960-2010].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A; Shigeev, S V; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the analysis of the subject-matter and the structure of scientific articles related to forensic biology published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" over the period from 1960 till 2010. The sceintometric analysis made it possible to distinguish the main avenues along which forensic biology developed during its most productive period. The results of this analytical study have provided in the summarized form the entire spectrum of the main trends in the forensic biology throughout the half-century period.

  5. [Immune-related pneumonitis caused by programmed death-1 inhibitor Pembrolizumab: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y L; Zhao, J; Jia, R; Wang, H Y; Zheng, J; Bai, C Q; Wang, M Z; Xu, J M

    2017-10-12

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors, clinical manifestations, radiological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of immune-related pneumonitis caused by programmed death-1(PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors. Methods: The clinical data of immune-related pneumonitis caused by PD-1 inhibitor Pembrolizumab in a patient with advanced esophageal carcinoma admitted to the 307(th) Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army was retrospectively analyzed and the related literatures were reviewed. We searched Medline database using the keywords"PD-1 inhibitor","PD-L1 inhibitor","Pembrolizumab","Nivolumab","Atezolizumab"combined with"Pneumonitis"by Mar 31, 2017. Results: The patient was a 60-year-old male presented with progression disease after surgery, local radiation and couples of chemotherapy for his esophageal carcinoma. Then pembrolizumab, a kind of PD-l inhibitors, was given intravenously every 3 weeks with the average dosage 3 mg per kg. After six cycles of pembrolizumab, the patient began to have fever, cough and dyspnea, which aggravated gradually. Chest CT showed diffuse ground glass opacity, exudation and consolidation in both lungs and little pleural effusion in the right side. Cellular interstitial pneumonitis was confirmed by pathological examination. The patient's symptoms were alleviated after enough steroids and chest CT showed pulmonary infiltration was also absorbed. But the pneumonitis reoccurred twice after stopping or tapering steroids quickly and could also be controlled by using steroids again. Now the patient was still given steroids treatment and the primary esophageal cancer remained stable. 14 articles were retrieved and 88 cases of immune-related pneumonitis caused by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were reported. Among these 89 cases with immune-related pneumonitis, both male and female could attack and the median age was 67 years old. Most cases were grade 1 or 2. The common clinical manifestations were dyspnea, cough, fever and other immune-related

  6. Visual Scanning Training For Older Drivers: A Literature Review

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-04-01

    This literature review focuses on older drivers' visual scanning ability and on evaluations of training in visual scanning skills for older adults, updating a previous review of studies published from 1997 to 2008 describing age-related functional ch...

  7. Are work organization interventions effective in preventing or reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stock, Susan R; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Vézina, Nicole; Vézina, Michel; Gilbert, Louis; Turcot, Alice; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Sinden, Kathryn; Denis, Marie-Agnès; Delga, Céline; Beaucage, Clément

    2018-03-01

    Objectives We sought to determine whether interventions that target work organization or the psychosocial work environment are effective in preventing or reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) compared to usual work. Methods We systematically reviewed the 2000-2015 English- and French-language scientific literature, including studies evaluating the effectiveness of an organizational or psychosocial work intervention on incidence, prevalence or intensity of work-related musculoskeletal pain or disorders in the neck, shoulders, upper limbs and/or back or of work absence due to such problems, among non-sick-listed workers. We excluded rehabilitation and individual-level behavioral interventions and studies with >50% attrition. We analyzed medium- and high-quality studies and synthesized the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development & Evaluation (GRADE) approach. An analysis of key workplace intervention elements supplemented the interpretation of results. Results We identified 884 articles; 28 met selection criteria, yielding 2 high-quality, 10 medium-quality and 16 low-quality studies. There was moderate evidence that supplementary breaks, compared to conventional break schedules, are effective in reducing symptom intensity in various body regions. Evidence was low-to-very-low quality for other interventions, primarily due to risk of bias related to study design, high attrition rates, co-interventions, and insensitive indicators. Most interventions lacked key intervention elements, such as work activity analysis and ergonomist guidance during implementation, but the relation of these elements to intervention effectiveness or ineffectiveness remains to be demonstrated. Conclusions Targeting work-rest cycles may reduce WMSD. Better quality studies are needed to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of other work organizational or psychosocial interventions to prevent or reduce WMSD.

  8. Oral sex and human papilloma virus-related head and neck squamous cell cancer: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankit; Malik, Akshat; Garg, Apurva; Mair, Manish; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all around the world. Just like tobacco and alcohol, Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is now recognized to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of HNSCCs. Unprotected sexual behaviours with the HPV carrier plays an important role in transmission of this virus. The global incidence of head and neck cancers is declining, but the incidence of HPV related head and neck cancers is rapidly increasing over the last few decades. However, most institutions do not mandate documentation of sexual history or counselling of patients regarding sexual practices like they do for tobacco and alcohol addictions in HNSCC patients. The aim of this review of literature is to analyse if there is a strong evidence to correlate oral sex with HPV related HNSCC and counsel the patient's regarding sexual behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Publishing in the Next Few Years: A Commercial Publisher's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Harry J. J.

    Over the past 15 years, internet technology changed the ways of publishing tremendously. It is truly revolutionary that both fresh and historic science publications are so much easier to search and find. This revolution has not been completed and all parties involved in science publishing are continuously adjusting their activities to the new rules and opportunities. From a commercial publisher's perspective, I will extrapolate what happens today to predict what happens in the next few years with journal subscriptions, book publishing, marketing, production and other steps in the publishing process.

  10. Publishing in English-language journals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anne J; Tschudin, Verena

    2007-05-01

    The need for academics to get their work published can be fraught with problems, especially if they have to publish in the English language and within western culture, both of which may be unfamiliar to them. Before considering a submission, authors need to satisfy the rigors of their studies: suitability of the subject matter for a particular journal; concepts, literature and instruments; and if the English is adequate. These are issues of responsibility of authors to readers and, on the part of editors and reviewers, to authors and through them to students and readers of the submitted texts. This short article elaborates on these themes by detailing specific items of importance.

  11. Choosing the Right Desktop Publisher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiser, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the many different desktop publishing packages available today. Lists the steps to desktop publishing. Suggests which package to use with specific hardware available. Compares several packages for IBM, Mac, and Apple II based systems. (MVL)

  12. The effectiveness of return-to-work interventions that incorporate work-focused problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Joosen, Margot C W

    2015-06-15

    This paper reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to return-to-work (RTW) interventions that incorporate work-related problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders. It addresses the question: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of these RTW interventions? Using a multiphase screening process, this systematic literature review was based on publically available peer-reviewed studies. Five electronic databases were searched: (1) Medline Current, (2) Medline In-process, (3) PsycINFO, (4) Econlit and (5) Web of Science. The focus was on RTW interventions for workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. RTW intervention included work-focused problem-solving skills. RTW rates and length of sickness absences. There were 4709 unique citations identified. Of these, eight articles representing a total of six studies were included in the review. In terms of bias avoidance, two of the six studies were rated as excellent, two as good and two as weak. Five studies were from the Netherlands; one was from Norway. There was variability among the studies with regard to RTW findings. Two of three studies reported significant differences in RTW rates between the intervention and control groups. One of six studies observed a significant difference in sickness absence duration between intervention and control groups. There is limited evidence that combinations of interventions that include work-related problem-solving skills are effective in RTW outcomes. The evidence could be strengthened if future studies included more detailed examinations of intervention adherence and changes in problem-solving skills. Future studies should also examine the long-term effects of problem-solving skills on sickness absence recurrence and work productivity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  13. Is ‘Self-Medication’ a Useful Term to Retrieve Related Publications in the Literature? A Systematic Exploration of Related Terms

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Ava; Sarayani, Amir; Ashouri, Asieh; Sherafatmand, Mona; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-Medication (SM), i.e. using medications to treat oneself, is a major concern for health researchers and policy makers. The terms “self medication” or “self-medication” (SM terms) have been used to explain various concepts while several terms have also been employed to define this practice. Hence, retrieving relevant publications would require exhaustive literature screening. So, we assessed the current situation of SM terms in the literature to improve the relevancy of search outcomes. Methods In this Systematic exploration, SM terms were searched in the 6 following databases and publisher’s portals till April 2012: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar, ScienceDirect, and Wiley. A simple search query was used to include only publications with SM terms. We used Relative-Risk (RR) to estimate the probability of SM terms use in related compared to unrelated publications. Sensitivity and specificity of SM terms as keywords in search query were also calculated. Relevant terms to SM practice were extracted and their Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR+/-) were calculated to assess their effect on the probability of search outcomes relevancy in addition to previous search queries. We also evaluated the content of unrelated publications. All mentioned steps were performed in title (TI) and title or abstract (TIAB) of publications. Results 1999 related and 1917 unrelated publications were found. SM terms RR was 4.5 in TI and 2.1 in TIAB. SM terms sensitivity and specificity respectively were 55.4% and 87.7% in TI and 84.0% and 59.5% in TIAB. “OTC” and “Over-The-Counter Medication”, with LR+ 16.78 and 16.30 respectively, provided the most conclusive increase in the probability of the relevancy of publications. The most common unrelated SM themes were self-medication hypothesis, drug abuse and Zoopharmacognosy. Conclusions Due to relatively low specificity or sensitivity of SM terms, relevant terms should be employed in

  14. New Technologies in Academic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Robert; Lefrere, Paul

    1981-01-01

    The Open University has become one of the biggest publishing houses in Great Britain. Its course units are produced in a system closely modeled on that of commercial publishers. New technologies in publishing have important educational implications. They can produce up-to-date materials for high level, small population courses. (Author/MLW)

  15. EPIC: Electronic Publishing is Cheaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regier, Willis G.

    Advocates of inexpensive publishing confront a widespread complaint that there is already an overproduction of scholarship that electronic publishing will make worse. The costs of electronic publishing correlate to a clutch of choices: speeds of access, breadth and depth of content, visibility, flexibility, durability, dependability, definition of…

  16. Endoscopic appearance of AIDS-related gastrointestinal lymphoma with c-MYC rearrangements: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shohei; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Mine, Sohtaro; Igari, Toru; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Sugihara, Jun; Honda, Haruhito; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-08-07

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) remains the main cause of AIDS-related deaths in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recently, rearrangement of MYC is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI)-ARL with MYC rearrangements and coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection presenting with various endoscopic findings. A 38-year-old homosexual man who presented with anemia and was diagnosed with an human immunodeficiency virus infection for the first time. GI endoscopy revealed multiple dish-like lesions, ulcerations, bloody spots, nodular masses with active bleeding in the stomach, erythematous flat lesions in the duodenum, and multiple nodular masses in the colon and rectum. Magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging showed a honeycomb-like pattern without irregular microvessels in the dish-like lesions of the stomach. Biopsy specimens from the stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma concomitant with EBV infection that was detected by high tissue EBV-polymerase chain reaction levels and Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a fusion between the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and c-MYC genes, but not between the IgH and BCL2 loci. After 1-mo of treatment with HAART and R-CHOP, endoscopic appearance improved remarkably, and the histological features of the biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of lymphoma. However, he died from multiple organ failure on the 139(th) day after diagnosis. The cause of his poor outcome may be related to MYC rearrangement. The GI tract involvement in ARL is rarely reported, and its endoscopic findings are various and may be different from those in non-AIDS GI lymphoma; thus, we also conducted a literature review of GI-ARL cases.

  17. Endoscopic appearance of AIDS-related gastrointestinal lymphoma with c-MYC rearrangements: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shohei; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Mine, Sohtaro; Igari, Toru; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Sugihara, Jun; Honda, Haruhito; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) remains the main cause of AIDS-related deaths in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recently, rearrangement of MYC is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI)-ARL with MYC rearrangements and coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection presenting with various endoscopic findings. A 38-year-old homosexual man who presented with anemia and was diagnosed with an human immunodeficiency virus infection for the first time. GI endoscopy revealed multiple dish-like lesions, ulcerations, bloody spots, nodular masses with active bleeding in the stomach, erythematous flat lesions in the duodenum, and multiple nodular masses in the colon and rectum. Magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging showed a honeycomb-like pattern without irregular microvessels in the dish-like lesions of the stomach. Biopsy specimens from the stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma concomitant with EBV infection that was detected by high tissue EBV-polymerase chain reaction levels and Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a fusion between the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and c-MYC genes, but not between the IgH and BCL2 loci. After 1-mo of treatment with HAART and R-CHOP, endoscopic appearance improved remarkably, and the histological features of the biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of lymphoma. However, he died from multiple organ failure on the 139th day after diagnosis. The cause of his poor outcome may be related to MYC rearrangement. The GI tract involvement in ARL is rarely reported, and its endoscopic findings are various and may be different from those in non-AIDS GI lymphoma; thus, we also conducted a literature review of GI-ARL cases. PMID:23922484

  18. Machine Learning-Based Classification of 38 Years of Spine-Related Literature Into 100 Research Topics.

    PubMed

    Sing, David C; Metz, Lionel N; Dudli, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective review. To identify the top 100 spine research topics. Recent advances in "machine learning," or computers learning without explicit instructions, have yielded broad technological advances. Topic modeling algorithms can be applied to large volumes of text to discover quantifiable themes and trends. Abstracts were extracted from the National Library of Medicine PubMed database from five prominent peer-reviewed spine journals (European Spine Journal [ESJ], The Spine Journal [SpineJ], Spine, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques [JSDT], Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine [JNS]). Each abstract was entered into a latent Dirichlet allocation model specified to discover 100 topics, resulting in each abstract being assigned a probability of belonging in a topic. Topics were named using the five most frequently appearing terms within that topic. Significance of increasing ("hot") or decreasing ("cold") topic popularity over time was evaluated with simple linear regression. From 1978 to 2015, 25,805 spine-related research articles were extracted and classified into 100 topics. Top two most published topics included "clinical, surgeons, guidelines, information, care" (n = 496 articles) and "pain, back, low, treatment, chronic" (424). Top two hot trends included "disc, cervical, replacement, level, arthroplasty" (+0.05%/yr, P < 0.001), and "minimally, invasive, approach, technique" (+0.05%/yr, P < 0.001). By journal, the most published topics were ESJ-"operative, surgery, postoperative, underwent, preoperative"; SpineJ-"clinical, surgeons, guidelines, information, care"; Spine-"pain, back, low, treatment, chronic"; JNS- "tumor, lesions, rare, present, diagnosis"; JSDT-"cervical, anterior, plate, fusion, ACDF." Topics discovered through latent Dirichlet allocation modeling represent unbiased meaningful themes relevant to spine care. Topic dynamics can provide historical context and direction for future research for aspiring investigators and trainees

  19. The Publishing Professional: Composition's "Tyrannizing Image."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Peter

    This paper attempts to explain the relationship between publication and professionalism in the culture of the American research university. To act, order, and believe in relation to the dominant image in contemporary composition studies is to understand published, professional discourse as the sacred well of the culture. The published discourse of…

  20. An Overview of American Publishing for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facente, Gary

    1986-01-01

    A financial survey of the American publishing scene (estimated net book sales, expenses for publishing and marketing professional books) is followed by descriptions of the editorial and marketing processes. Practices relating to contracts, imprints, distribution arrangements, and remainders are described noting changes in contemporary publishing…