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Sample records for published literature relating

  1. A comparative study on earthquake-related literature published in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Li, Youping; Wen, Jin; Du, Liang; Gao, Zhan; Li, Ling; Chen, Qunfei; Liu, Xuemei; Cai, Yujia; Ai, Changlin

    2009-11-01

    To provide references for production and dissemination of evidence in the fields of medical emergency management, treatment, and prevention of epidemics after May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake by systematically reviewing, analyzing, and comparing quake related papers in medical journals. We systematically searched MEDLINE and CBM (Chinese Biomedical Literature) databases (range: from inception to Sept. 2009). Quake related papers were imported into EndNote software, checked for duplication, and categorized by predefined standards. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 13.0. There were relatively fewer quake related articles globally before the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake, and the quantity of papers in MEDLINE was four times than that in CBM. In contrast, the quantity of Chinese quake articles increased rapidly after Wenchuan earthquake, peaking in Aug. 2008 at 6.9 times the average during the 50 years before the quake. The quake related papers in CBM appeared in 378 journals covering a diverse range of subject matter. Meanwhile, there was little change in the quantity of quake related articles in MEDLINE database. The effort of producing and disseminating Wenchuan earthquake related medical research has been effectively organized and conducted in a scientific and timely manner, producing the largest in number of quake related medical papers in human history. It has provided first-hand guidance for disaster medical relief around the globe. We should strengthen the systematic construction of disaster medicine, and make an effort to summarize and disseminate evidence in the fields of rehabilitation, system reestablishment, and prevention of epidemics. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  2. An appraisal of the published literature on the safety and toxicity of food-related nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Card, Jeffrey W; Jonaitis, Tomas S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Magnuson, Bernadene A

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is poised to impact the food and food-related industries through improvements in areas as diverse as production, packaging, shelf life, and bioavailability of food and beverage components. An evaluation was undertaken to characterize the published literature pertaining to the safety of oral exposure to food-related nanomaterials and to identify research needs in this area. Thirty publications were identified in which a toxicological endpoint was assessed following in vivo (oral) or in vitro exposure to food-related nanomaterials. These publications were evaluated for overall quality using a two-step method that determined the reliability of the study design and the extent of nanomaterial characterization within each study. Of the 21 in vivo studies evaluated, 20 used mice or rats, 15 were lacking in some critical component of study design (e.g., oral gavage dose volume was not reported), none was longer than 90 days in duration, and only seven reported more than five physicochemical parameters for the nanomaterial(s) being evaluated. Of the nine in vitro studies evaluated, seven focused on cytotoxicity, two evaluated genotoxicity, only five reported more than five physicochemical parameters for the nanomaterial(s) being evaluated, and none discussed the potential interference by the nanomaterial(s) of the experimental assays that were employed. The results of this evaluation indicate that there is currently insufficient reliable data to allow clear assessment of the safety of oral exposure to food-related nanomaterials. Significant investment must be made to generate studies of sufficient quality and duration and that report comprehensive nanomaterial characterization such that results can be judged reliable and interpretable. Failure to do so will result in the perpetuation of the publication of studies that are inadequate for use in risk characterization.

  3. Critical appraisal of published literature.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.

  4. Critical appraisal of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  5. [Analysis of relation between the development of study and literatures about benign positional paroxysmal vertigo published international and domestic].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jianping; Sun, Xiaohui; Dai, Song; Sang, Yuehong

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common vestibular disorder that causes vertigo. Study of BPPV has dramatically rapid progress in recent years. We analyze the BPPV growth We searched the international data quantity year by year in database of PubMed, ScienceDirect and WILEY before 2014 respectively, then we searched the domestic data quantity year by year in database of CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data before 2015 by selecting "Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo" as the keywords. Then we carried out regression analysis with the gathered results in above databases to determine data growth regularity and main factors that affect future development of BPPV. Also, we analyzes published BPPV papers in domestic and international journals. PubMed database contains 808 literatures, ScienceDirect contains 177 database and WILEY contains 46 literatures, All together we collected 1 038 international articles. CNKI contains 440 literatures, VIP contains 580 literatures and WanFang data contains 449 literatures. All together we collected 1 469 domestic literatures. It shows the rising trend of the literature accumulation amount of BPPV. The scattered point diagram of BPPV shows an exponential growing trend, which was growing slowly in the early time but rapidly in recent years. It shows that the development of BPPV has three stages from international arical: exploration period (before 1985), breakthrough period (1986-1998). The deepening stage (after 1998), Chinese literature also has three stages from domestic BPPV precess. Blank period (before the year of 1982), the enlightenment period (1982-2004), the deepening stage (after the year of 2004). In the pregress of BPPV, many outsantding sccholars played an important role in domestic scitifction of researching, which has produced a certain influence in the worldwide.

  6. A Quantitative Analysis of Published Skull Base Endoscopy Literature.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Ponce, Francisco A; Little, Andrew S; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Skull base endoscopy allows for minimal access approaches to the sinonasal contents and cranial base. Advances in endoscopic technique and applications have been published rapidly in recent decades. Setting We utilized an Internet-based scholarly database (Web of Science, Thomson Reuters) to query broad-based phrases regarding skull base endoscopy literature. Participants All skull base endoscopy publications. Main Outcome Measures Standard bibliometrics outcomes. Results We identified 4,082 relevant skull base endoscopy English-language articles published between 1973 and 2014. The 50 top-cited publications (n = 51, due to articles with equal citation counts) ranged in citation count from 397 to 88. Most of the articles were clinical case series or technique descriptions. Most (96% [49/51])were published in journals specific to either neurosurgery or otolaryngology. Conclusions A relatively small number of institutions and individuals have published a large amount of the literature. Most of the publications consisted of case series and technical advances, with a lack of randomized trials.

  7. A Quantitative Analysis of Published Skull Base Endoscopy Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hardesty, Douglas A.; Ponce, Francisco A.; Little, Andrew S.; Nakaji, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Skull base endoscopy allows for minimal access approaches to the sinonasal contents and cranial base. Advances in endoscopic technique and applications have been published rapidly in recent decades. Setting We utilized an Internet-based scholarly database (Web of Science, Thomson Reuters) to query broad-based phrases regarding skull base endoscopy literature. Participants All skull base endoscopy publications. Main Outcome Measures Standard bibliometrics outcomes. Results We identified 4,082 relevant skull base endoscopy English-language articles published between 1973 and 2014. The 50 top-cited publications (n = 51, due to articles with equal citation counts) ranged in citation count from 397 to 88. Most of the articles were clinical case series or technique descriptions. Most (96% [49/51])were published in journals specific to either neurosurgery or otolaryngology. Conclusions A relatively small number of institutions and individuals have published a large amount of the literature. Most of the publications consisted of case series and technical advances, with a lack of randomized trials. PMID:26949585

  8. Noteworthy Literature Published in 2016 for Thoracic Organ Transplantation Anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Kathirvel; Nazarnia, Soheyla

    2017-03-01

    This article is first in the series to review the published literature on perioperative issues in patients undergoing thoracic solid organ transplantations. We present recent literature from 2016 on preoperative considerations, organ preservation, intraoperative anesthesia management, surgical techniques, postoperative complications, and the impact of perioperative management on short- and long-term outcomes that are pertinent to thoracic transplantation anesthesiologists.

  9. Noteworthy Literature Published in 2016 for Abdominal Organ Transplantation Anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tetsuro; Zerillo, Jeron

    2017-03-01

    More than 3000 peer-reviewed publications on the topic of liver transplantation were published in 2016. The goal of this article is to provide a concise review of pertinent literature for anesthesiologists who participate in liver transplantation. The authors selected and presented 33 articles published in 2016 on the topics of MELD policy; cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal issues; coagulation and transfusion; anesthetic agents; hemodynamic monitors; acute liver failure; and donor issues.

  10. New developments in publishing related to authorship.

    PubMed

    Donev, Doncho

    2014-01-01

    To present the inappropriate types of authorship and practice, and the most recent developments related to basic principles and criteria to a fair system for allocating authorship in scientific publications. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. Working in multidisciplinary teams is a common feature of modern research processes. The most sensitive question is how to decide on who to acknowledge as author of a multi-authored publication. The pertinence of this question is growing with the increasing importance of individual scientists' publication records for professional status and career. However, discussions about authorship allocation might lead to serious conflicts and disputes among coworkers which could even endanger cooperation and successful completion of a research project. It seems that discussion and education about ethical standards and practical guidelines for fairly allocating authorship are insufficient and the question of ethical practices related to authorship in multi-authored publications remains generally unresolved. It is necessary to work for raising awareness about the importance and need for education about principles of scientific communication and fair allocation of authorship, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education in the scientific community, especially young researchers and students, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud, including pathology of authorship.

  11. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines

  12. Predatory Publishing: An Emerging Threat to the Medical Literature.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Weinstein, Debra F

    2017-02-01

    The quality of medical literature is increasingly threatened by irresponsible publishing, leading to rising retraction rates, irreproducible results, and a flood of inconsequential publications that distract readers from more meaningful scholarship. "Predatory publishers" offer rapid publication with loose peer review, exploiting a system in which faculty seek longer bibliographies to achieve academic promotion. In this Commentary, the authors highlight some of the evidence that this problem exists and suggest actions to address it. Recommendations for protecting the medical literature include preventing predatory journals from being indexed by the National Library of Medicine; encouraging academic promotions committees to ensure that they prioritize value over volume of publications and that faculty understand that priority; excluding publications from predatory journals on curricula vitae and requiring that retractions are included; developing sanctions for repeated retractions or duplicate publications; and convening an expert panel to better elucidate this problem and determine strategies to combat it.

  13. [Analysis of literature citations in original articles published in Spanish and international nursing journals and journals in 2 closely related disciplines].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Flores-López, María José; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    To compare Spanish nursing journals with 2 English-language standard journals, as well as Spanish journals in closely related disciplines, to identify possible quantitative and qualitative shortcomings in scientific documentation. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study of the references contained in 796 articles from 6 Spanish journals from 3 health disciplines (2000-2002) and 2 English-language nursing journals (2000-2001). The number of references, type of publication cited, and language of the document cited were compared in individual journals, and in journals grouped by discipline and according to language. Spanish-language nursing journals had the lowest mean number of references per article (X- = 16.20) when compared with psychology journals (X- = 31.24), medical journals (X- = 31.39) and international nursing journals (X- = 37.11). Among Spanish journals, citation of English-language publications was most frequent in medical journals (X- = 26.28) and least frequent in nursing journals (X- = 6.04). In contrast, citation of Spanish documents was most frequent in nursing journals (X- = 9.79) and least frequent in medical journals (X- = 4.43). Although scientific publication of Spanish nursing has improved, it is not comparable to publication of closely related disciplines and international nursing. The low citation of English documents clearly reveals the risk of scientific insularity.

  14. Using meta-regression models to systematically evaluate data in the published literature: relative contributions of agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use exposure pathways to house dust pesticide concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Data reported in the published literature have been used qualitatively to aid exposure assessment activities in epidemiologic studies. Analyzing these data in computational models presents statistical challenges because these data are often reported as summary statist...

  15. Helicopter EMS transport outcomes literature: annotated review of articles published 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephen H

    2007-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of debate. As is the case with other scientific endeavors, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with a 2004 review that covered the literature published between 2000 and 2003. The current review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature from 2004 through 2006.

  16. Reasons related to non-vaccination and under-vaccination of children in low and middle income countries: findings from a systematic review of the published literature, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Jeanette J; Watkins, Margaret; Ryman, Tove K; Sandhu, Paramjit; Bo, Anne; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2011-10-26

    Despite increases in routine vaccination coverage during the past three decades, the percent of children completing the recommended vaccination schedule remains below expected targets in many low and middle income countries. In 2008, the World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization requested more information on the reasons that children were under-vaccinated (receiving at least one but not all recommended vaccinations) or not vaccinated in order to develop effective strategies and interventions to reach these children. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published from 1999 to 2009 was conducted to aggregate information on reasons and factors related to the under-vaccination and non-vaccination of children. A standardized form was used to abstract information from relevant articles identified from eight different medical, behavioural and social science literature databases. Among 202 relevant articles, we abstracted 838 reasons associated with under-vaccination; 379 (45%) were related to immunization systems, 220 (26%) to family characteristics, 181 (22%) to parental attitudes and knowledge, and 58 (7%) to limitations in immunization-related communication and information. Of the 19 reasons abstracted from 11 identified articles describing the non-vaccinated child, 6 (32%) were related to immunization systems, 8 (42%) to parental attitudes and knowledge, 4 (21%) to family characteristics, and 1 (5%) to communication and information. Multiple reasons for under-vaccination and non-vaccination were identified, indicating that a multi-faceted approach is needed to reach under-vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Immunization system issues can be addressed through improving outreach services, vaccine supply, and health worker training; however, under-vaccination and non-vaccination linked to parental attitudes and knowledge are more difficult to address and likely require local interventions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Noteworthy Literature Published in 2016 for Abdominal Organ Transplant Anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Zerillo, Jeron; Kim, Sang; Hill, Bryan; DeMaria, Samuel; Sakai, Tetsuro

    2017-03-01

    More than 400 peer-reviewed publications on the topic of pancreas transplantation, more than 400 on intestine transplantation, and more than 3000 on renal transplantation were published in 2016. This review will highlight the most pertinent literature for anesthesiologists caring for patients undergoing non-liver abdominal organ transplantation. This review is the second part in an annual series to review relevant contributions in the field of abdominal organ transplantation focusing on pancreas, intestine, and renal transplantation. We explore a myriad of topics, including outcomes determined by center size, novel assessment of intestine graft function, the effect of Zika virus on the transplant population, appropriate fluid management for renal transplantation, cardiovascular risk assessment in the transplant population, and several topics pertinent to optimizing patient and graft survival.

  18. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

  19. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brandon S; Pogue, Korby A; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011.

  20. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew W; Allison, David B

    2014-01-01

    cost, crowdsourcing has potential to evaluate published literature in a cost-effective, quick, and reliable manner using existing, easily accessible resources.

  1. 'Spin' in published biomedical literature: A methodological systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kellia; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    In the scientific literature, spin refers to reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers so that results are viewed in a more favourable light. The presence of spin in biomedical research can negatively impact the development of further studies, clinical practice, and health policies. This systematic review aims to explore the nature and prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and hand searched reference lists for all reports that included the measurement of spin in the biomedical literature for at least 1 outcome. Two independent coders extracted data on the characteristics of reports and their included studies and all spin-related outcomes. Results were grouped inductively into themes by spin-related outcome and are presented as a narrative synthesis. We used meta-analyses to analyse the association of spin with industry sponsorship of research. We included 35 reports, which investigated spin in clinical trials, observational studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The nature of spin varied according to study design. The highest (but also greatest) variability in the prevalence of spin was present in trials. Some of the common practices used to spin results included detracting from statistically nonsignificant results and inappropriately using causal language. Source of funding was hypothesised by a few authors to be a factor associated with spin; however, results were inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the included papers. Further research is needed to assess the impact of spin on readers' decision-making. Editors and peer reviewers should be familiar with the prevalence and manifestations of spin in their area of research in order to ensure accurate interpretation and dissemination of research.

  2. Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF): A systematic review and analysis of the POPF-related mortality rate in 60,739 patients retrieved from the English literature published between 1990 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is one of the most technically demanding operations challenging surgeons, and a postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) can complicate an otherwise uneventful postoperative (PO) course. This review examined the methods and procedures used to prevent postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). A comprehensive systematic search of the literature was performed using PubMed (Medline), Embase, Web of science, and the Cochrane databases for studies published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2015. English language articles involving at least 100 patients undergoing PDs carried out in centers performing at least 10 PDs/y were screened for data regarding the Grade of any POPFs according to the definition of the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) and the overall rate of PO mortality related to POPF. We reviewed 7119 references through the major databases, and an additional 841 studies were identified by cross-checking the bibliographies of the full-text articles retrieved. After excluding 7379 out of 7960 studies, because they did not meet the eligibility criteria, the full texts of 581 articles were examined; 96 studies were excluded at this point, because they concerned partially or totally duplicate data that had already been reported. The remaining 485 articles were screened carefully for POPF-related mortality and POPF Grades as defined by the ISGPF. Of the 485 articles, 208 reported the POPF-related PO mortality rate and 162 the Grades (A, B, and C) of POPFs in 60,739 and 54,232 patients, respectively. The POPF-related mortality rates after pancreatojejunostomy and pancreatogastrostomy were similar but were less (0.5% vs. 1%; P = .014) when an externally draining, trans-anastomotic stent was placed intraoperatively. The incidence of the different Grades of POPF Grade was quite variable, but Grade C POPFs were associated with a PO mortality rate of 25.7% (range 0-100%). The POPF-related

  3. Publishing Sami Literature--From Christian Translations to Sami Publishing Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltto, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Publishing in the Sami languages has always been difficult. The Sami are currently spread across four countries, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. There are nine different Sami languages, some of them with only a few speakers. The Sami publishing industry is entirely dependent on government funding as it does not have its own funds nor is there…

  4. Publishing Sami Literature--From Christian Translations to Sami Publishing Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltto, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Publishing in the Sami languages has always been difficult. The Sami are currently spread across four countries, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. There are nine different Sami languages, some of them with only a few speakers. The Sami publishing industry is entirely dependent on government funding as it does not have its own funds nor is there…

  5. ESL Learners: Process Writing and Publishing Good Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudden, Jane F.; Nedeff, Anita R.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an examination of books written by children who are English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. Compares the books with criteria for meritorious literature. Discusses implications of the results relevant to process-writing instruction with second-language learners. Indicates an unexpected adherence to criteria for literary genres.…

  6. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  7. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  8. Matrix Summaries Improve Research Reports: Secondary Analyses Using Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Correlation matrices and standard deviations are the building blocks of many of the commonly conducted analyses in published research, and AERA and APA reporting standards recommend their inclusion when reporting research results. The authors argue that the inclusion of correlation/covariance matrices, standard deviations, and means can enhance…

  9. Retinoblastoma: Recent trends A mini review based on published literature

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Vikas; Gupta, Aditi; Gopal, Lingam

    2011-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy in children. Recently, there have been significant advances made in the molecular pathology and the management of the disease. Last decade has witnessed better understanding of the genetics of RB, the discovery of new tumor markers expressed by the RB tumors, the identification of high-risk histopathological factors following enucleation, and newer methods of treatment including periocular chemotherapy and superselective intraarterial chemotherapy. All these advances have translated in improved survival rates for the affected children, improved rates of eye salvage, and improved visual outcomes. This article briefly reviews these advances. Method of Literature Search: Literature on the Medline database was searched using the PubMed interface. The search strategy included MeSH and natural language terms using the keywords mentioned. Reference lists in retrieved articles and textbooks were also searched for relevant references. PMID:22279397

  10. A scoping review of 10 years of published literature on community-based rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, Shaun; Nixon, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of peer-reviewed literature on community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in low- and middle-income countries published in English from 2003 to 2012. This scoping review involved a systematic search of electronic databases using specific keyword/subject heading combinations. Journal articles were included if they were published in English, used "CBR" as related to rehabilitation with persons with disabilities and not limited to high-income countries (HICs). Data were charted according to both pre-determined and emergent categories. A subset of articles was charted by two reviewers to ensure reliability of variables. A total of 114 articles were included. Fifty-two articles presented empirical research and 49 were published in one of two journals. The articles represented CBR activity in 26 specific countries, although only two of these were in Europe and only one was in the Americas. Authors were predominantly affiliated at universities and in HICs. This scoping review identified and characterized a large pool of literature on CBR, facilitating its incorporation into research and practice. Future research should examine the engagement of persons with disabilities in creating CBR literature, and analysis of literature in languages other than English. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) has been promoted as a rehabilitation strategy of choice in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but it has been critiqued for lack of an evidence base. A large number (114) of peer-reviewed articles were published on CBR between 2003 and 2012. Just under half of these articles (45%) presented empirical research, indicating that the evidence base for CBR is growing but will benefit from continued, rigorous inquiry. Furthermore, researchers from LMICs appear to be largely under-represented in published CBR research, flagging the need to support LMIC partners to share their CBR research in peer-reviewed journals.

  11. Noteworthy Literature Published in 2016 for the Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologist.

    PubMed

    Varelmann, Dirk J; Muehlschlegel, J Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Clinical research and outcome studies dominated the publication spectrum for the cardiothoracic anesthesiologist in 2016. Echocardiography is an important tool in the armamentarium of the cardiothoracic anesthesiologist. Technology is advancing at a fast pace: A new method to quantify the regurgitant volume in mitral regurgitation has been described in an experimental model and been validated in humans. Interesting studies on key elements of our daily practice have been published: Does tranexamic acid decrease the transfusion requirements after cardiac surgery? Are patients with a postoperative cognitive deficit at risk for dementia 7.5 years after surgery? What is the best strategy for post-cardiac surgery atrial fibrillation? What is the mechanism of preconditioning with remifentanil? Large multicenter looked at the treatment strategies for moderate and severe ischemic mitral regurgitation and benefits of transcatheter aortic valve replacement versus the surgical approach. These studies may give us ideas on how to tailor treatment to optimize the patients' outcome and to minimize the associated risks.

  12. Tracking the epidemiology of human genes in the literature: the HuGE Published Literature database.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bruce K; Clyne, Melinda; Walsh, Matthew; Gomez, Onnalee; Yu, Wei; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2006-07-01

    Completion of the human genome sequence has inspired a new wave of epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of gene variants and their associations with diseases in human populations. In 2001, the Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Network launched the HuGE Published Literature database (HuGE Pub Lit), a searchable, online knowledge base of published, population-based epidemiologic studies of human genes. The database contains links to PubMed articles and can be searched by gene, disease, interacting factor, type of study design or analysis, or any combination of terms in these categories. The search output contains a link to each identified article, along with a table summarizing key features of the reported study. As of September 6, 2005, some 17,665 articles were indexed in the database. Most described gene-disease associations (86%); fewer evaluated gene-gene or gene-environment interactions (17%), the prevalence of gene variants (10%), or genetic tests (3%). Although not comprehensive, this database is a unique tool for epidemiologic researchers and others concerned with the role of genetic variation in population health. Here, the authors provide an overview of the database and its characteristics and uses.

  13. Aspirin and clopidogrel response variability: review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Angela D; Dokainish, Hisham; Lakkis, Nasser

    2008-01-01

    Antiplatelet resistance has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain recurrent cardiovascular events in patients who have coronary artery disease and who are undergoing dual antiplatelet therapy. A comprehensive search on PubMed was conducted for literature that was printed in the English language between January 1996 and November 2007 on aspirin and clopidogrel resistance. Significant traits for aspirin hyporesponsiveness were female sex, older age, and lower levels of hemoglobin. Diabetes mellitus and elevated body mass index showed trends toward a higher incidence of resistance in some aspirin trials but did not reach statistical significance. Clopidogrel studies suggested that patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus are more likely to manifest inadequate response to the medication. Although 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors were initially suspected to decrease response to clopidogrel, later studies refuted this possibility. Patients with a suboptimal response to aspirin or clopidogrel seem to be at increased risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Large clinical trials with standardized laboratory methods and well-defined protocols are needed to determine whether common features exist in patients with suspected hyporesponsiveness to antiplatelet therapy, and to validate the clinical relevance of response variability. A concise nonarbitrary definition of physiologic "resistance" is needed, and investigators should identify patients as having a variable response to antiplatelet therapy.

  14. Publishing Not Perishing: How Research Students Transition from Novice to Knowledgeable Using Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Grignon, Julien; Steven, Rochelle; Guitart, Daniela; Byrne, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Current understandings suggest that three aspects of writing practice underpin the research student publication process: knowledge creation, text production and identity formation. Publishing a literature review is the first opportunity most students have to publish. This article compares the pedagogical benefits of different literature review…

  15. Publishing Not Perishing: How Research Students Transition from Novice to Knowledgeable Using Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Grignon, Julien; Steven, Rochelle; Guitart, Daniela; Byrne, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Current understandings suggest that three aspects of writing practice underpin the research student publication process: knowledge creation, text production and identity formation. Publishing a literature review is the first opportunity most students have to publish. This article compares the pedagogical benefits of different literature review…

  16. [Analysis of acupuncture literatures published in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2010].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yan; Li, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Acupuncture-related literatures published in foreign medical journal in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2010 were retrieved, summarized and analyzed. The result shows that the recognition of acupuncture clinic abroad was still in the initial period. Most of the researches were still remained in the section of clinical efficacy verification. There was comparatively less studies on its working mechanism. Traditional treatments according to differentiation of syndromes were still deficient in clinical researches. There were big differences on research results, however, most of the result equated therapeutic effect of acupuncture with placeboes. And it was lack of unified and standard estimation system on the effect of acupuncture.

  17. The health of the Roma people: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Hajioff, S.; McKee, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The Roma people originated in northern India and have been known in Europe for nearly a thousand years. For much of that time they have been the subjects of discrimination and oppression, culminating in the extermination of half a million Roma in the Nazi death camps. While it is widely believed that the health of Roma people is often poorer than the majority population, these inequalities remain largely unresearched.
METHODS—Published literature on the health of the Roma people was identified using Medline. Opinion pieces were excluded, as were papers relating to anthropometry and to genetic markers. The resultant papers were analysed by country of study and by disease type or care group.
RESULTS—Some 70% of papers identified related to just three countries; Spain and the Czech and Slovak Republics. Much literature concentrates upon communicable disease or reproductive health. The limited evidence suggests increased morbidity from non-communicable disease, but there is little published on this topic. Evidence on health care, though fragmentary, suggests poorer access to health services and uptake of preventative care.
DISCUSSION—Published research on the health needs of the Roma population is sparse. The topics that have received attention suggest a focus on concepts of contagion or social Darwinism, indicating a greater concern with the health needs of the majority populations with which they live. There is a need for both further research into the health of Roma people; with particular emphasis on non-communicable disease; and also for interventions that improve Roma health. Such research must, however, be handled with sensitivity, recognising the social and political context of the society concerned.


Keywords: gypsies; inequalities; ethnicity; social exclusion PMID:11027202

  18. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur.

  19. A Review of the Published Research Literature on Arts and the Handicapped, 1971-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Linda D.; Gambach, James

    The document presents findings of a search of research literature in the area of arts and the handicapped published between 1971 and 1981. The literature search addresses the various art forms of visual art, drama, music, and dance/movement as well as the major handicapping conditions: mental retardation, hearing impairments, speech handicaps,…

  20. NETS[middle dot]A Scholarship: A Review of Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Bathon, Justin; Flora, Kevin L.; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, no systematic analysis of the current body of literature has aimed to understand the extent to which school technology leadership is being investigated. This review of the literature presents a content analysis of articles published from 1997 through 2010 housed in the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) database on the topic of…

  1. A Review of the Published Research Literature on Arts and the Handicapped, 1971-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Linda D.; Gambach, James

    The document presents findings of a search of research literature in the area of arts and the handicapped published between 1971 and 1981. The literature search addresses the various art forms of visual art, drama, music, and dance/movement as well as the major handicapping conditions: mental retardation, hearing impairments, speech handicaps,…

  2. Publication Anxiety: Emotion and the Stages of Publishing in the Library and Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    Although instruction in writing for Library and Information Science (LIS) publication is becoming more prevalent, emotions inherent in the publishing cycle are seldom discussed. Through a review of the literature this article investigates how LIS writers can develop their technical skills in publishing scholarly articles, and then looks at…

  3. Publication Anxiety: Emotion and the Stages of Publishing in the Library and Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    Although instruction in writing for Library and Information Science (LIS) publication is becoming more prevalent, emotions inherent in the publishing cycle are seldom discussed. Through a review of the literature this article investigates how LIS writers can develop their technical skills in publishing scholarly articles, and then looks at…

  4. Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Published in the Urological Literature from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Corbyons, Katherine; Han, Julia; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Systematic reviews synthesize the current best evidence to address a clinical question. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based clinical practice, systematic reviews are being increasingly sought after and published. We previously reported limitations in the methodological quality of 57 individual systematic reviews published from 1998 to 2008. We provide an update to our previous study, adding systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012. We systematically searched PubMed® and hand searched the table of contents of 4 major urological journals to identify systematic reviews related to questions of prevention and therapy. Two independent reviewers with prior formal evidence-based medicine training assessed the methodological quality using the validated 11-point AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) instrument. We performed predefined statistical hypothesis testing for differences by publication period (1998 to 2008 vs 2009 to 2012) and journal of publication. We performed statistical testing using SPSS®, version 23.0 with a 2-sided α of 0.05 using the Student t-test, ANOVA and the chi-square test. A total of 113 systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012 met study inclusion criteria. The most common topics were oncology (44 reviews or 38.9%), voiding dysfunction (26 or 23.0%) and stones/endourology (13 or 11.5%). The largest contributor was European Urology (46 reviews or 40.7%), followed by BJU International (31 or 27.4%) and The Journal of Urology® (22 or 19.5%). The mean ± SD AMSTAR score for the 2009 to 2012 period was 5.3 ± 2.3 compared to 4.8 ± 2.0 for 1998 to 2008 with a mean difference of 0.5 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.2, p = 0.133). While the number of systematic reviews published in the urological literature has increased substantially, the methodological quality of these studies remains suboptimal. Systematic review authors and editors should make every effort to adhere to well established methodological standards to enhance

  5. Does benzene cause multiple myeloma? An analysis of the published case-control literature

    SciTech Connect

    Bezabeh, S.; Engel, A.; Morris, C.B.; Lamm, S.H.

    1996-12-01

    Two case series and two epidemiological studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that benzene exposure might be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. An analysis has now been conducted of the published population-based and hospital-based case-control studies published through mid-1995 that permit examination of the relationship between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or surrogates for benzene exposure. No increased association was found between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or exposure to chemical groups that included benzene. The odds ratios from these analyses approximated 1.0. Exposures to petroleum products and employment in petroleum-related occupations did not appear to be risk factors for multiple myeloma. Cigarette smoking, as a surrogate of benzene exposure, was not found to be associated with multiple myeloma, while some studies of products of combustion described as {open_quotes}engine exhaust{close_quotes} did show a significant association with multiple myeloma. In toto, the population-based and hospital-based case-control literature indicated that benzene exposure was not a likely causal factor for multiple myeloma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Citation Patterns to Traditional and Electronic Preprints in the Published Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngen, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the growing importance of electronic preprints in the published literature of physics and astronomy and address several areas of concern regarding the future role of electronic preprints in scientific communication. Topics include a history of preprints in astronomy and physics; inaccuracies in preprint citations; and archival issues.…

  7. A meta-synthesis study of literature review and systematic review published in nurse prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prescribing represents a new aspect of practice for nurses. To make qualitative results more accessible to clinicians, researchers, and policy makers, individuals are urged to synthesize findings from related studies. Therefore this study aimed to aggregate and interpret existing literature review and systematic studies to obtain new insights on nurse prescription. Methods: This was a qualitative meta synthesis study using Walsh and Downe process. In order to obtain data all Digital National Library of Medicine's databases, search engines and several related sites were used. Full texts with "review and nurs* prescri* " words in the title or abstract in English language and published without any time limitation were considered. After eliminating duplicate and irrelevant studies, 11 texts were selected. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis. Multiple codes were compared based on the differences and similarities and divided to the categories and themes. Results: The results from the meta synthesis of the 11 studies revealed 8 themes namely: leading countries in prescribing, views, features, infrastructures, benefits, disadvantages, facilitators and barriers of nursing prescription that are discussed in this article. The results led to a schematic model. Conclusion: Despite the positive view on nurse prescribing, there are still issues such as legal, administrative, weak research and educational deficiencies in academic preparation of nurses that needs more effort in these areas and requires further research. PMID:25405142

  8. Post-marketing surveillance in the published medical and grey literature for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty catheters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) may identify rare serious incidents or adverse events due to the long-term use of a medical device, which was not captured in the pre-market process. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a non-surgical procedure that uses a balloon-tipped catheter to enlarge a narrowed artery. In 2011, 1,942 adverse event reports related to the use of PTCA catheters were submitted to the FDA by the manufacturers, an increase from the 883 reported in 2008. The primary research objective is to conduct a systematic review of the published and grey literature published between 2007 and 2012 for the frequency of incidents, adverse events and malfunctions associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Grey literature has not been commercially published. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed for medical literature on PMS for PTCA catheters in patients with CAD published between January 2007 and July 2012. We also searched the grey literature. Results This review included 11 studies. The in-hospital adverse events reported were individual cases of myocardial infarction and hematoma. In studies of patients with coronary perforation, more patients with balloon angioplasty were identified compared with patients who required stenting. Conclusions Our systematic review illustrates that the volume and quality of PMS studies associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with CAD are low in the published and grey literature, and may not be useful sources of information for decisions on safety. In most studies, the objectives were not to monitor the long-term safety of the use of PTCA catheters in clinical practice. Future studies can explore the strengths and limitations of PMS databases administered by regulatory authorities. PMID:24112460

  9. Primary care teams in Ireland: a qualitative mapping review of Irish grey and published literature.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, M; Cullen, W; MacFarlane, A

    2015-03-01

    The Irish government published its primary care strategy, Primary Care: A New Direction in 2001. Progress with the implementation of Primary care teams is modest. The aim of this paper is to map the Irish grey literature and peer-reviewed publications to determine what research has been carried out in relation to primary care teams, the reform process and interdisciplinary working in primary care in Ireland. This scoping review employed three methods: a review of Web of Science, Medline and Embase databases, an email survey of researchers across academic institutions, the HSE and independent researchers and a review of Lenus and the Health Well repository. N = 123 outputs were identified. N = 14 were selected for inclusion. A thematic analysis was undertaken. Common themes identified were resources, GP participation, leadership, clarity regarding roles in primary care teams, skills and knowledge for primary care team working, communication and community. There is evidence of significant problems that disrupt team formation and functioning that warrants more comprehensive research.

  10. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination repr...

  11. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination repr...

  12. Literature-Related Discovery (LRD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    and related nitrogen oxides on platelet aggregation (Gruetter et al, 1981; Rapoport and Murad, 1983; Mellion et al, 1981) Picolinic Acid MED/ MED...Hypotension induced rapidly after intravenous administration of … picolinic acid … due to … direct depression of cardiac function and decrease...Velasco et al, 1975) Fusaric Acid [ picolinic acid derivative] and Picolinin Acid MED/ MED Hypotension induced rapidly after intravenous

  13. Recent trends in published occupational cancer epidemiology research: results from a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Raj, Priyanka; Hohenadel, Karin; Demers, Paul A; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Blair, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    To assess trends in occupational cancer epidemiology research through a literature review of occupational health and epidemiology journals. Fifteen journals were reviewed from 1991 to 2009, and characteristics of articles that assessed the risk of cancer associated with an occupation, industry, or occupational exposure, were incorporated into a database. The number of occupational cancer epidemiology articles published annually declined in recent years (2003 onwards) in the journals reviewed. The number of articles presenting dose-response analyses increased over the review period, from 29% in the first 4 years of review to 49% in the last 4 years. There has been a decrease in the number of occupational cancer epidemiology articles published annually during the review period. The results of these articles help determine the carcinogenicity of workplace exposures and permissible exposure limits, both of which may be hindered with a decline in research. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A critical review of published research literature reviews on nursing and healthcare ageism.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Nam, Mavis A; Murphy, Jill; Victorino, João P; Gondim, Ellen C; Low, Gail

    2017-03-15

    To establish how common and impactful nursing and healthcare ageism is and whether proven interventions or prevention methods exist. Ageism has been a concern since 1969 when it was first introduced as a concept for social reform. As ageism has been linked to lower quality health services and reduced health care access, it is imperative that healthcare and nursing ageism is prevented or identified and reduced or eliminated. A qualitative narrative review of published research literature reviews using a scoping design to map all published reviews was undertaken. The EBSCO Discovery Service (providing access to articles in 271 databases, including MEDLINE and CINAHL) and Directory of Open Access Journals (providing access to over 9,000 open access journals) were used to find review articles. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and limited by English language and peer-review publications, 12 eligible reviews were identified and information from them was systematically identified, assessed and synthesised. The 12 reviews did not provide clear and convincing information to determine how common and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, nor what can best be done to prevent or address it. Although each review had value since research literature was collected and discussed on nursing or healthcare ageism, the array of literature search and analysis methods, and diversity in conclusions reached about the evidence is highly problematic. Research literature reviews offering a more balanced perspective and demonstrating greater care in finding and using quality evidence are needed. At this point in time, there is no clear understanding of how widespread and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, and what can best be done to prevent or address it. Nurses need to be aware that ageism may be common and impactful, and guard against it. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  16. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  17. Decision analytic modeling in spinal surgery: a methodologic overview with review of current published literature.

    PubMed

    McAnany, Steven J; Anwar, Muhammad A F; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of decision analysis studies in the spine literature. Although there are several published reviews on the different types of decision analysis (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-utility), there is limited information in the spine literature regarding the mathematical models used in these studies (decision tree, Markov modeling, Monte Carlo simulation). The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the types of decision analytic models used in spine surgery. A secondary aim was to provide a systematic overview of the most cited studies in the spine literature. This is a systematic review of the available information from all sources regarding decision analytics and economic modeling in spine surgery. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane review was performed to identify the most relevant peer-reviewed literature of decision analysis/cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models including decisions trees, Markov models, and Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, CEA models based on investigational drug exemption studies were reviewed in particular detail, as these studies are prime candidates for economic modeling. The initial review of the literature resulted in 712 abstracts. After two reviewer-assessment of abstract relevance and methodologic quality, 19 studies were selected: 12 with decision tree constructs and 7 with Markov models. Each study was assessed for methodologic quality and a review of the overall results of the model. A generalized overview of the mathematical construction and methodology of each type of model was also performed. Limitations, strengths, and potential applications to spine research were further explored. Decision analytic modeling represents a powerful tool both in the assessment of competing treatment options and potentially in the formulation of policy and reimbursement. Our review provides a generalized overview and a conceptual framework to help

  18. Scholarly Publishing in the Internet Age: A Citation Analysis of Computer Science Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby A.; McCain, Katherine W.; Lawrence, Steve; Giles, C. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of changes in scholarly communication due to the World Wide Web focuses on a comparison of two views of information production and use in computer-related research based on citation analysis of publications on the Web using autonomous citation indexing and a parallel citation analysis of traditional journal literature. (Author/LRW)

  19. Review and bibliometric analysis of published literature citing data produced by the Gap Analysis Program (GAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial datasets providing information on land cover, predicted species distributions, stewardship (ownership and conservation status), and an analysis dataset which synthesizes the other three datasets. The intent in providing these datasets is to support the conservation of biodiversity. The datasets are made available at no cost. The initial datasets were created at the state level. More recent datasets have been assembled at regional and national levels. GAP entered an agreement with the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance branch of the USGS to conduct an evaluation to describe the effect that using GAP data has on those who utilize the datasets (GAP users). The evaluation project included multiple components: a discussion regarding use of GAP data conducted with participants at a GAP conference, a literature review of publications that cited use of GAP data, and a survey of GAP users. The findings of the published literature search were used to identify topics to include on the survey. This report summarizes the literature search, the characteristics of the resulting set of publications, the emergent themes from statements made regarding GAP data, and a bibliometric analysis of the publications. We cannot claim that this list includes all publications that have used GAP data. Given the time lapse that is common in the publishing process, more recent datasets may be cited less frequently in this list of publications. Reports or products that used GAP data may be produced but never published in print or released online. In that case, our search strategies would not have located those reports. Authors may have used GAP data but failed to cite it in such a way that the search strategies we used would have located those publications. These are common issues when using a literature search as part of an evaluation project. Although the final list of publications we identified is not

  20. Booklets for children related with Earth Sciences published in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaniz, S. A.; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.

    2009-04-01

    The Centro de Geociencias, at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, has published a series of booklets for children, entitled "Simple experiments to understand a complex Earth". It is part of the activities of the Mexican committee of the International Year of the Planet Earth. Each booklet contains experiments related with an Earth Sciences topic and includes the procedure to do one of the "Ten most beautiful experiments in physics" (Crease, P., Physics World May 2002 p17 and September 2002 pp19-20). In Mexico, as in other developing countries, there is very little information about Science in general and Earth Sciences in particular, in the basic education programs. Also, there is poor bibliography in Spanish about science experiments. For this reason, we try to fill the vacuum by distributing free the booklets in Science Museums and rural basic schools in paper, and by Internet in the Centro de Geociencias web site (http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/geociencias/difusion/indice.html). At present, we have been distributed 100,000 copies of 5 issues: 1."Atmospheric pressure and the falling bodies", it deals with the Galileo experiment of falling bodies, he proposed that all the bodies fall down at the same velocity. We discuss the properties of the atmosphere air (temperature, pressure and volume) and concluded that Galileo is right but when the bodies are very light. 2. "The light and the colors" is based in the Newton's decomposition of sunlight with a prism experiment. This booklet contains nine experiments to explain the colors that we find in Earth like the blue of the sky, the orange of the sunset, the rainbow and the mirage. 3. "¿Eureka! oceans and continents float". This booklet presents seven experiments related with density and buoyancy to explain the principles of the Plate tectonics theory. 4. "Climate hanging by a thread", Foucault pendulum demonstrates the rotation of Earth without seeing the stars, in this booklet, we explain, through 9

  1. Trends in female representation in published ophthalmology literature, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Deepika N.; Huang, Jiayan; Ying, Gui-shuang; Pietrobon, Ricardo; O’Brien, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine trends in female first and last authors in clinical ophthalmology literature published from January 2000 to December 2009. Methods A total of 3760 articles in American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO), 2347 articles in Archives of Ophthalmology (Archives), and 3838 articles in Ophthalmology spanning 10 years of published ophthalmology peer-reviewed literature were examined. All original research articles and brief reports indexed online were included. Author gender was determined by an exhaustive Internet search. Articles were excluded if the sex of the author could not be determined or was not applicable (for example, articles by a study group rather than an individual author). Results Gender information was identified in 86.8% of articles for first authors and 86% for last authors. The number of female first authors (P < 0.0001) and last authors (P = 0.005) increased significantly in the study period in all journals examined, with a significant association between the sex of the first and last authors (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.96–2.46; P < 0.0001), when examining all articles. Female representation increased for last authors significantly only in Ophthalmology. There was a significant correlation between gender of the first author and total number of authors that was not observed with last-author sex. Conclusions Female first authorship has increased from 2000 to 2009 and is correlated with the gender of the last author; however, there were fewer female last authors compared to female first authors in the same period. PMID:24459456

  2. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64–1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11–0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:28253258

  3. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-01

    We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11-0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.

  4. EPA Published Research Related to the Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A list of publications that will support the draft assessment report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. These publications have undergone peer review through the journal where the paper has been published.

  5. Subspecialization of the ophthalmic literature: a review of the publishing trends of the top general, clinical ophthalmic journals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anupma; Cheeseman, Robert; Durnian, Jonathan M

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the publishing trends of the top general clinical ophthalmic journals and to report: (1) the proportions of articles published in terms of ophthalmic subspecialty, (2) the study design used, (3) any changes in publishing trends, and (4) any differences in the quality of study design between the subspecialties. Retrospective, database review. All original articles published in the top general, clinical ophthalmology journals from 2005 through 2009. All general, clinical ophthalmic journals were selected from the top 20 journals based on 2008 impact factor. All abstracts from original articles were reviewed, and the subject matter was recorded as belonging to 1 of the 11 ophthalmic subspecialties. After the content of the article was assigned, then the study design was recorded as one of the following: nonanalytic study, case-control or cohort study, randomized control trial, meta-analysis, laboratory science article, or systemic review. Subspecialty of the article and the study design used. Seven journals were included, and 12 426 abstracts were reviewed. Articles relating to medical retina were the most prevalent (29.1%), and those relating to strabismus were the least prevalent (2.3%). Case-control or cohort studies comprised most study designs (40.1%), with meta-analyses comprising the least (0.3%). The mean number of articles per year was 2485 (standard deviation, 125.1), remaining stable over the study period. Medical retina articles were significantly more common in 2009 than in 2005 (chi-square, 11.2; P = 0.0008), whereas the proportion of oculoplastic articles was significantly reduced (chi-square, 16.9; P<0.0001). Cataract and refractive surgery had the highest proportions of articles using the higher forms of study design (7.8%), and oculoplastics had the highest proportion of nonanalytic studies (64.5%). There are great differences across the specialty of ophthalmology in the subject matter of published literature, probably driven by recent

  6. The Benefits of Publishing Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews for PhD Candidates and Other Early-Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Byrne, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Universities increasingly expect students to publish during a PhD candidature because it benefits the candidate, supervisor, institution, and wider community. Here, we describe a method successfully used by early-career researchers including PhD candidates to undertake and publish literature reviews--a challenge for researchers new to a field. Our…

  7. The Benefits of Publishing Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews for PhD Candidates and Other Early-Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Byrne, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Universities increasingly expect students to publish during a PhD candidature because it benefits the candidate, supervisor, institution, and wider community. Here, we describe a method successfully used by early-career researchers including PhD candidates to undertake and publish literature reviews--a challenge for researchers new to a field. Our…

  8. Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews Published in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Literature: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Samargandi, Osama A; Hasan, Haroon; Thoma, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Well-conducted systematic reviews have a critical role in informing evidence-based decision-making in plastic surgery. The authors' objective was to assess the methodologic quality of systematic reviews in the plastic surgery literature. The authors systematically assessed all systematic reviews in 10 high-impact plastic surgery journals using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2003 to 2013. These were evaluated for methodologic quality using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), a validated 11-point instrument. After removal of duplicates and screening titles and abstracts, 190 systematic reviews met eligibility criteria. The majority of systematic reviews were published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (n = 88). The most common domain covered was reconstruction (17.9 percent). Using AMSTAR, the median score was 4 (interquartile range, 2.25 to 6.00) on a scale of 1 to 11. No increase in AMSTAR score was observed with time (p = 0.18). Almost half of all systematic reviews (48.4 percent) included at least two independent data extractors, and less than one-third of them (15.3 percent) searched unpublished studies or provided a list of both included and excluded studies (14.8 percent). The methodologic quality of included primary studies was evaluated in 35.3 percent. Systematic reviews in plastic surgery demonstrated inadequate adherence to methodologic standards of quality, which raises concerns about validity. There has been an increase in the number of systematic reviews published in plastic surgery over the past decade, yet there has been no significant improvement observed in methodologic quality.

  9. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  10. Is management of acute traumatic brain injury effective? A literature review of published Cochrane Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jin; Gao, Guo-Yi; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate all the possible therapeutic measures concerning the acute management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mentioned in Cochrane Systematic Reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). An exhausted literature search for all published Cochrane Systematic Reviews discussing therapeutic rather than prevention or rehabilitative interventions of TBI was conducted. We retrieved such databases as CDSR and Cochrane Injury Group, excluded the duplications, and eventually obtained 20 results, which stand for critical appraisal for as many as 20 different measures for TBI patients. The important data of each systematic review, including total population, intervention, outcome, etc, were collected and presented in a designed table. Besides, we also tried to find out the possible weakness of these clinical trials included in each review. Analysis of these reviews yielded meanfuling observations: (1) The effectiveness of most ordinary treatments in TBI is inconclusive except that corticosteroids are likely to be ineffective or harmful, and tranexamic acid, nimodipine and progesterone show a promising effect in bleeding trauma, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, TBI or severe TBI. (2) A majority of the systematic reviews include a small number of clinical trials and the modest numbers of patients, largely due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness. (3) The quality of most trials reported in the systematic reviews is more or less questionable. (4) In addition, lots of other complex factors together may lead to the inconclusive results demonstrated in the Cochrane Systematic Reviews. For clinical physicians, to translate these conclusions into practice with caution is essential. Basic medication and nursing care deserve additional attention as well and can be beneficial. For researchers, high quality trials with perfect design and comprehensive consideration of various factors are urgently required.

  11. Prevention of early childhood caries (ECC)--review of literature published 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Twetman, S

    2008-03-01

    This was to examine the literature published during the last decade and review the effectiveness of methods used for the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). A critical review of papers. A broad search of the PubMed database was conducted from 1998 through September 2007, using "early childhood caries", "baby bottle tooth decay", "nursing caries", "infant caries", "caries prevention" and "oral health education" as index terms. Relevant papers published in English between 1998 and 2007 were identified after a review of their abstracts. Papers were selected if they reported a prospective controlled design with preventive or non-invasive intervention directed to children under the age of 3 years. A defined endpoint measure of cavitated or non-cavitated clinical caries, expressed as incidence or prevalence, was required. The targeted publications were critically assessed by the author concerning design, methodology and performance. The initial search revealed 66 papers of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. The results reinforced the role of fluoride toothpaste as the most cost-effective home-care measure and semi-annual fluoride varnish applications as the best professional method for infants at risk. The evidence concerning the preventive effect of antibacterial agents, primary-primary prevention and dental health education were inconclusive but the included studies supported the importance of early start, outreach activities and motivational interviewing as key factors to overcome cultural and socioeconomic barriers. Although there is a body of evidence for the use of fluoride in preventing ECC, further high-quality studies are needed to further establish the best way to maintain oral health in infants.

  12. ‘Spin’ in published biomedical literature: A methodological systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Kellia; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-01-01

    In the scientific literature, spin refers to reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers so that results are viewed in a more favourable light. The presence of spin in biomedical research can negatively impact the development of further studies, clinical practice, and health policies. This systematic review aims to explore the nature and prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and hand searched reference lists for all reports that included the measurement of spin in the biomedical literature for at least 1 outcome. Two independent coders extracted data on the characteristics of reports and their included studies and all spin-related outcomes. Results were grouped inductively into themes by spin-related outcome and are presented as a narrative synthesis. We used meta-analyses to analyse the association of spin with industry sponsorship of research. We included 35 reports, which investigated spin in clinical trials, observational studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The nature of spin varied according to study design. The highest (but also greatest) variability in the prevalence of spin was present in trials. Some of the common practices used to spin results included detracting from statistically nonsignificant results and inappropriately using causal language. Source of funding was hypothesised by a few authors to be a factor associated with spin; however, results were inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the included papers. Further research is needed to assess the impact of spin on readers’ decision-making. Editors and peer reviewers should be familiar with the prevalence and manifestations of spin in their area of research in order to ensure accurate interpretation and dissemination of research. PMID:28892482

  13. The health economics of bladder cancer: an updated review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Christina; Dinh, Tuan; Lee, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a current view of the economic burden of bladder cancer, with a focus on the cost effectiveness of available interventions. This review updates a previous systematic review and includes 72 new papers published between 2000 and 2013. Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common and expensive malignancies. The annual cost of bladder cancer in the USA during 2010 was $US4 billion and is expected to rise to $US5 billion by 2020. Ten years ago, urinary markers held the potential to lower treatment costs of bladder cancer. However, subsequent real-world experiments have demonstrated that further work is necessary to identify situations in which these technologies can be applied in a cost-effective manner. Adjunct cytology remains a part of diagnostic standard of care, but recent research suggests that it is not cost effective due to its low diagnostic yield. Analysis of intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), neo-adjuvant therapy for cystectomy, and robot-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy suggests that these technologies are cost effective and should be implemented more widely for appropriate patients. The existing literature on the cost effectiveness of bladder cancer treatments has improved substantially since 2000. The body of work now includes many new models, registry analyses, and real-world studies. However, there is still a need for new implementation guidelines, new risk modeling tools, and a better understanding of the empirical burden of bladder cancer.

  14. Systematic assessment of the representativeness of published collections of the traditional literature on Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Yubo; Lu, Chuanjian; Zhang, Anthony L; Chang, Suyueh; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-05-01

    The traditional Chinese medical literature provides a substantial resource for natural products research. When undertaking systematic searches, investigators need to assess the scope, content, and relevance of collections both singly and in comparison. This study examines eight collections of pre-modern literature, develops an approach to quantitatively assess their content, and compares their relative inclusivity. All publications listed in each collection were collated and a uniform scoring system was developed to account for variant editions, incorporation of multiple books under a single title, addition of commentaries, and other factors affecting content. Comparisons were undertaken between collections to determine the degree of overlap, genres of literature represented, and relevance to natural products research. Following adjustments for differences in how books were listed, duplications, and variant editions, Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine) (4th edition CD) is the largest collection of complete books containing 1009 different books. Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica) contains 2026 titles including multiple editions and extracts, so after adjustments the number of different complete books is approximately 740. No collection was fully inclusive of the others, but Zhong Hua Yi Dian includes between 52.1% and 91.5% of the books in the six smaller collections. Comparing traditional collections is complex due to variant editions and multiple titles. This necessitates examination of the text rather than title alone. Prior to undertaking systematic searches, the characteristics of collections need to be investigated, duplicated books identified, and differences between editions should be assessed. Its size, electronic format, and broad spread of genres makes Zhong Hua Yi Dian suitable for systematic searches, but due to the lack of bibliographical detail on included

  15. Computerized Literature Searching of Education and Education Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaporozhetz, Laurene E.

    Computerized literature searching allows the educator to become familiar with resources that help develop individual teaching styles and methods, enhance awareness of pupil needs, explain educational research and evaluation, and describe curriculum materials. This document introduces the fundamentals of computerized literature searching. The…

  16. The impact of biomedical literature published in the province of Vojvodina on researchers in the world and in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Brkić, S

    2001-01-01

    This study uses bibliometric analysis to evaluate scientific biomedical literature published on the territory of Vojvodina and its impact on researchers in Yugoslavia and in the world. The study sample comprised 6.979 publications from the territory of Vojvodina published in the period 1986-1997. The following parameters were determined: productivity of authors and institutions where they were employed and some other bibliometric parameters. The impact of these publications on other researches was analyzed for the same period, by citation analysis of papers published in 3 most eminent medical journals in Yugoslavia (3.440 articles, 58.484 references) and in Science Citation Index. Results of the study revealed that production of biomedical literature on the territory of Vojvodina was at high level. Medical research presented in journals of Vojvodina, which are the carriers of current information and accomplishments in science, technique, and practice in biomedicine, was satisfactory. Biomedical articles published in Vojvodina showed a tendency towards increase in number of authors, whereas the greater number of publications were written by a small number of extremely productive authors and institutions. Biomedical researches in Yugoslavia usually cite only foreign literature, while domestic references are mostly self-citations or citations of older literature. The impact of publications published in Vojvodina on other researchers in Yugoslavia is evident, but it is greatest on the territory where they are published. In regard to biomedical journals from Vojvodina "Medical review" is the most cited journal in Yugoslavia and in SCI. Most of the cited references belong to a small number of authors. Thus, according to bibliometric criteria the impact of medical science and professional practice in Vojvodina on international scientific streems is negligible, as well as the impact of papers published in Vojvodina on researchers in the world. Only 0.4 works published in

  17. Message Framing in Vaccine Communication: A Systematic Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Penţa, Marcela A; Băban, Adriana

    2017-01-06

    Suboptimal vaccination rates are a significant problem in many countries today, in spite of improved access to vaccine services. As a result, there has been a recent expansion of research on how best to communicate about vaccines. The purpose of the present article is to provide an updated review of published, peer-reviewed empirical studies that examined the effectiveness of gain versus loss framing (i.e., goal framing) in the context of vaccine communication. To locate studies, we examined the reference list from the previous meta-analytic review (O'Keefe & Nan, 2012), and we conducted systematic searches across multiple databases. We included 34 studies in the qualitative synthesis. The relative effectiveness of goal-framed vaccine messages was often shown to depend on characteristics of the message recipient, perceived risk, or situational factors, yet most effects were inconsistent across studies, or simply limited by an insufficient number of studies. Methodological characteristics and variations are noted and discussed. The review points to several directions concerning moderators and mediators of framing effects where additional rigorous studies would be needed.

  18. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2016-08-15

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination represents the earlier works. As an historical chronology, the focus is on the emergence of key, specific aspects of the overall topic (often termed PiE) in the published literature and on the most highly cited works. This examination is not a conventional, technical review of the literature; as such, little attention was devoted to the more recent literature. The many dimensions involved with PiE span over 70years of published literature. Some articles began to appear in published works in the 1940s and earlier, while others only began to receive attention in the 1990s and later. Decades of early research on what at the time seemed to be disconnected topics eventually coalesced in the mid-to-late 1990s around a number of interconnected concerns and issues that now comprise PiE. Major objectives are to provide a new perspective to the topic, to facilitate more efficient and effective review of the literature by others, and to recognize the more significant, seminal contributions to the advancement of PiE as a field of research. Some of the most highly cited articles in all of environmental science now involve PiE. As of April 2015, a core group of 385 PiE articles had each received at least 200 citations; one had received 5424 citations. But hundreds of additional articles also played important roles in the evolution and advancement of the field.

  19. Reported reasons for not using a mosquito net when one is available: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A review of the barriers to mosquito net use in malaria-endemic countries has yet to be presented in the published literature despite considerable research interest in this area. This paper partly addresses this gap by reviewing one component of the evidence base; namely, published research pertaining to self-reported reasons for not using a mosquito net among net 'owning' individuals. It was anticipated that the review findings would potentially inform an intervention or range of interventions best suited to promoting greater net use amongst this group. Method Studies were sought via a search of the Medline database. The key inclusion criteria were: that study participants could be identified as owning a mosquito net or having a mosquito net available for use; that these participants on one or more occasions were identified or self-reported as not using the mosquito net; and that reasons for not using the mosquito net were reported. Studies meeting these criteria were included irrespective of mosquito net type. Results A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Discomfort, primarily due to heat, and perceived (low) mosquito density were the most widely identified reason for non-use. Social factors, such as sleeping elsewhere, or not sleeping at all, were also reported across studies as were technical factors related to mosquito net use (i.e. not being able to hang a mosquito net or finding it inconvenient to hang) and the temporary unavailability of a normally available mosquito net (primarily due to someone else using it). However, confidence in the reported findings was substantially undermined by a range of methodological limitations and a dearth of dedicated research investigation. Conclusions The findings of this review should be considered highly tentative until such time as greater quantities of dedicated, well-designed and reported studies are available in the published literature. The current evidence-base is not sufficient in scope or

  20. The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Amy; Bessette, Randi S.

    The purpose of this study is to consider the literature that looks at the implications of information technology for scholarly journals which have historically been a linchpin of communication among scholars in which research results are released, discussed, vetted, and disseminated among faculty, students, and scholars. With the expansion of the…

  1. Continuing Education Needs as Reflected by Changes in the Published Literature. Working Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Robert

    This is the fourth paper issued by the Medical Library Association dealing with the continuing education of health science librarians. The report documents change within health sciences librarianship within the past fifteen years by reviewing the literature of medical librarianship from the years 1970-1974. These sources were compared with three…

  2. A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Shepherdson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A deluge of empirical research became available on MOOCs in 2013-2015 and this research is available in disparate sources. This paper addresses a number of gaps in the scholarly understanding of MOOCs and presents a comprehensive picture of the literature by examining the geographic distribution, publication outlets, citations, data collection and…

  3. Assessment of the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in the urological literature from 1998 to 2008.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Susan L; Canfield, Steven E; Fesperman, Susan F; Dahm, Philipp

    2010-08-01

    Well done systematic reviews provide the highest quality evidence for clinical questions of therapeutic effectiveness. We assessed the methodological quality of systematic reviews in the urological literature. We systematically investigated all systematic reviews published in 4 major urological journals from 1998 to 2008. Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy in PubMed and confirmed by a hand search of journal tables of contents. A validated 11-point instrument to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews was applied by 2 independent reviewers after a pilot testing phase. Disagreements were discussed and resolved by consensus. The systematic literature search identified 217 individual systematic reviews, of which 57 ultimately met study eligibility criteria. Ten (17.5%), 20 (35.1%) and 27 (47.4%) systematic reviews were published in 1998 to 2001, 2002 to 2005 and 2006 to 2008, respectively. Using the measurement tool to assess systematic reviews the mean +/- SD score was 4.8 +/- 2.0 points. Fewer than half of all systematic reviews performed a systematic literature search that included at least 2 databases (49.1%) or unpublished studies (31.6%), or provided a list of included and excluded studies (45.6%). Of the systematic reviews 63.2% assessed and documented the methodological quality of included studies. Systematic reviews with The Cochrane Collaboration authorship affiliation had a higher mean score than those with no such reported affiliation (6.5 +/- 1.2 vs 4.4 +/- 1.9 points, p <0.001). Results suggest that an increasing number of systematic reviews are published in the urological literature. However, many systematic reviews fail to meet established methodological standards, raising concerns about validity. Increased efforts are indicated to promote quality standards for performing systematic reviews among the authors and readership of the urological literature. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education

  4. Scholarly Book Publishers and Journals in English and American Literature: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Submitting scholarly manuscripts and journal articles to university presses and professional journals can result in a lengthy period of frustration for the author. One possible solution is a code of ethics and practices to which publishers subscribe, although authors would have little or no control over it, and a certain amount of self-policing…

  5. Journal Literature on Digital Libraries: Publishing and Indexing Patterns, 1992-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Susan Davis

    2000-01-01

    This study examines publishing and indexing patterns in the area of digital libraries to identify the core journals and the most effective descriptor terms for online searching. Results show that indexing is inconsistent and subject searching is unreliable for full retrieval. (Author/LRW)

  6. The Importance of Structure Coefficients in Multiple Regression: A Review with Examples from Published Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.

    This paper discusses the importance of interpreting both regression coefficients and structure coefficients when analyzing the results of multiple regression analysis, particularly with correlated predictor variables. The concepts of multicolinearity and suppressor effects are introduced, along with examples from the previously published articles…

  7. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-12-15

    Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non-communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe.

  8. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (Gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non–communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Conclusions: Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe. PMID:23390466

  9. What Are the Real Procedural Costs of Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Literature Review of Published Cost Analyses.

    PubMed

    Doble, Brett; Wordsworth, Sarah; Rogers, Chris A; Welbourn, Richard; Byrne, James; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-08-01

    This review aims to evaluate the current literature on the procedural costs of bariatric surgery for the treatment of severe obesity. Using a published framework for the conduct of micro-costing studies for surgical interventions, existing cost estimates from the literature are assessed for their accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness based on their consideration of seven 'important' cost components. MEDLINE, PubMed, key journals and reference lists of included studies were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies had to report per-case, total procedural costs for any type of bariatric surgery broken down into two or more individual cost components. A total of 998 citations were screened, of which 13 studies were included for analysis. Included studies were mainly conducted from a US hospital perspective, assessed either gastric bypass or adjustable gastric banding procedures and considered a range of different cost components. The mean total procedural costs for all included studies was US$14,389 (range, US$7423 to US$33,541). No study considered all of the recommended 'important' cost components and estimation methods were poorly reported. The accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness of the existing cost estimates are, therefore, questionable. There is a need for a comparative cost analysis of the different approaches to bariatric surgery, with the most appropriate costing approach identified to be micro-costing methods. Such an analysis will not only be useful in estimating the relative cost-effectiveness of different surgeries but will also ensure appropriate reimbursement and budgeting by healthcare payers to ensure barriers to access this effective treatment by severely obese patients are minimised.

  10. Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: a systematic review of published literature, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Smith, David M D; Paterson, Pauline

    2014-04-17

    Vaccine "hesitancy" is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. It recognizes a continuum between the domains of vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal and de-polarizes previous characterization of individuals and groups as either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The primary aims of this systematic review are to: 1) identify research on vaccine hesitancy; 2) identify determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact; and 3) inform the development of a model for assessing determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings as proposed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) for dealing with vaccine hesitancy. A broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy around vaccines, was applied across multiple databases. Peer-reviewed studies were selected for inclusion if they focused on childhood vaccines [≤ 7 years of age], used multivariate analyses, and were published between January 2007 and November 2012. Our results show a variety of factors as being associated with vaccine hesitancy but they do not allow for a complete classification and confirmation of their independent and relative strength of influence. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific - varying across time, place and vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of ATP bioluminescence for assessing the cleanliness of hospital surfaces: a review of the published literature (1990-2012).

    PubMed

    Amodio, Emanuele; Dino, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Hospital cleanliness tends to be considered by patients and the public as an important indicator of the general quality of healthcare. Tests for detecting the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a proxy of microbial contamination are increasing in popularity, and several studies have been conducted on this topic in the last few decades. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature on this topic and summarize and discuss the available results. The review focused on relevant English-language articles that were identified through searches of two databases [PubMed and Scopus (1990-2012)] by using the keywords "ATP", "bioluminescence", "hospital", and "surfaces". Twelve articles were included and analyzed. ATP measurements showed a wide variation, with values ranging from 0 to >500,000 relative light units (RLU)/s before cleaning and from 3 to 500,000RLU/s after cleaning. ATP benchmarks used by authors ranged from 100 to 500RLU/s. The percentage of surfaces exceeding the chosen cut-off limit showed a failure rate varying from 21.2% to 93.1% before cleaning and from 5.3% to 96.5% after cleaning. Although the use of ATP bioluminescence can be considered a quick and objective method for assessing hospital cleanliness, it appears to be still poorly standardized at both the national and international level.

  12. Biogenic amines--a possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.

    PubMed

    Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

    2015-03-15

    Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis.

  13. A narrative review of the published chiropractic literature regarding older patients from 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article was to perform a narrative review of the chiropractic literature regarding older patients between 2001 and 2010. Methods: A three step search strategy of the literature involved electronic searching, hand searching and reference tracking. Results: One hundred and eighty eight articles germane to chiropractic geriatric practice and education were retrieved. Discussion: Compared to the review of the literature conducted prior to 2000, the number of references on chiropractic geriatric education increased from 3 to 11, the number of demographic studies increased from 9 to 18, the number of case reports increased from 25 to 83, the number of clinical trials increased from 4 to 21 (only two RCTs found) and the number of references on clinical guidelines and general clinical information increased from 18 to 55. Conclusion: This review found 188 retrievable articles available to practitioners to effectively care plan for their older patients, a better than three fold increase in the number of references found during a similar review conducted at the end of the previous decade. However, there is clearly a gap in the evidence base of chiropractic geriatric care, particularly the under-representation of clinical trials of all kinds involving older chiropractic patients. PMID:21629461

  14. Canities Subita: A Reappraisal of Evidence Based on 196 Case Reports Published in the Medical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Michael; Navarini, Alexander A; Kelly, Emily Williams

    2013-01-01

    We have reviewed the medical literature on unusually rapid Canities of body hair to assess whether the reported clinical evidence can be explained with the current hypotheses of pathogenetic mechanisms. We screened the medical literature from 1800 onward, searching for as many case reports as possible. We assessed literature in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian and Spanish and included all cases, which contained an explicit mention or description of unusually rapid graying or whitening of hair. Case reports were classified into three categories: Cases are “authenticated” when the authors personally observed the rapid color change, “non-authenticated” when they saw the subject only after the alleged color change and “anecdotal” when authors were told about the case by a third party. In total, we found 196 cases of which 44 were authenticated. These studies reported the graying of human hair in the context of aging, somatic diseases, emotional trauma or stress and psychiatric disorders. Numerous cases involved not only scalp hair, but also beards, eyelashes and other body hair. Several authors stressed that there was no alopecia. Although plausible explanations exist to explain Canities subita occurring together with an effluvium, the observation of viable hair losing color along the axis within a timespan shorter than its growth rate remain as yet unexplained. PMID:24403766

  15. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Results: Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). Conclusion: This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. PMID:27799973

  16. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal.

  17. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part One: a review of the peer-reviewed literature using a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-04-01

    This paper is the first in a series of two which reviews the contemporary British evidence-base relating to recovery in mental health over a 4-year period. This review uses a systematic approach analysing the British peer-reviewed literature relating to recovery and mental health. The second paper in the series reviews the non-peer-reviewed literature. Recovery is not a new concept; however, it has recently become increasingly prevalent in practitioner, policy and research discourses. In total 12 papers met the inclusion criteria. Five main themes emerged from the analysis: hope and optimism, meaning to life, activities promoting recovery, definitions and discourses and implications for mental health practice. By including only peer-reviewed literature this paper is in a strong position to analyse the theoretical development of the recovery concept and highlight future directions for recovery in mental health services. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  18. Quality of interventional radiology literature: a review of articles published in JVIR and CVIR.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jared; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala; Spies, James B

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of reporting of clinical studies published in two interventional radiology journals. Two investigators reviewed all articles reporting the outcomes from therapies in 12 consecutive months of Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (JVIR) (August 2007 to July 2008) and CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology (CVIR) (July/August 2007 to May/June 2008). The included studies were evaluated by means of a score sheet adapted from the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials criteria. The score sheet was comprised of 22 categories, with each given a score of 0-2. These scores were summed (maximum score, 44) and the comparative results analyzed by using the Wilcoxon rank sum and chi(2) tests. A total of 129 articles were reviewed from JVIR and 86 from CVIR. JVIR's mean score was 23.3 +/- 4.9, which was significantly higher than CVIR's mean score of 19.8 +/- 5.7 (P< .0001). Prospective studies comprised 38% (49 of 129) of JVIR's articles and 35% (31 of 86) of CVIR's studies (P = .9076). The mean sample sizes were larger for JVIR than for CVIR (130.8 and 66.3, respectively) (P = .0173). Both journals primarily published case series (112/129 [86.8%] for JVIR and 76/86 [88%] for CVIR). Only six of the 129 articles (4.6%) in JVIR and seven of the 87 (8.1%) in CVIR were randomized studies. Key weaknesses in reporting include lack of randomization, blinding of outcome assessment, sample size analysis, and proper reporting of outcomes. Articles published in both journals displayed substantial weaknesses that potentially limit the validity of their conclusions.

  19. Medical faculty use of the journal literature, publishing productivity and the size of health sciences library journal collections.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, G D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This 1990-1991 study explored the relationship between the size of health sciences library journal collections and the number of different journals cited by medical school faculty in departments of biochemistry and medicine. METHODS: Two regression equations, including variables associated with a national stratified sample of 622 faculty who published articles during those two years, were used to explore factors correlated with variations in faculty use of the journal literature and faculty publishing productivity. RESULTS: Results suggest that, after controlling for other variables in the models, neither the number of different journals those faculty cited, nor the number of articles they published, had statistically significant correlations with the number of journals in the health sciences library collection. CONCLUSION: The traditional view that the size of an academic health sciences library's journal collection is a good measure of how well that library is positioned to support faculty research may not be entirely accurate. PMID:10427433

  20. Toxicity studies of genetically modified plants: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2007-01-01

    According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals during the current decade did not find, or the number was particularly small, references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods. In this paper, the scientific information concerning the potential toxicity of GM/transgenic plants using the Medline database is reviewed. Studies about the safety of the potential use of potatoes, corn, soybeans, rice, cucumber, tomatoes, sweet pepper, peas, and canola plants for food and feed were included. The number of references was surprisingly limited. Moreover, most published studies were not performed by the biotechnology companies that produce these products. This review can be concluded raising the following question: where is the scientific evidence showing that GM plants/food are toxicologically safe?

  1. A review of published literature on emergency medicine training programs in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this review is to identify and critically evaluate the published literature on emergency medicine (EM) training programs in resource-limited health-care settings in order to provide insight for developing EM training programs in such health systems. Methods A literature search was conducted up to the end of April 2011 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, EBM Reviews, Healthstar and Web of Science databases, using the following search terms: Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine Services, Education Training Residency Programs, Emergency Medical Systems and Medical Education, without limitation to income countries as outlined in the World Bank World Trade Indicators classification 2009-2010 (World Trade Indicators Country Classification by Region and Income, July 2009-July 2010). As the intent of the review was to identify and critically evaluate the literature readily available (published) to LMICs developing EM programs, the gray literature was not searched. Results The search yielded 16 articles that met the final inclusion criteria. As the majority of articles provide a narrative description of the processes and building blocks used in developing the residency programs reported, we present our results in narrative format. By providing a summary of the lessons learned to date, we hope to provide a useful starting point for other resource-limited settings interested in establishing emergency medicine specialty training programs and hope to encourage further information exchange on this matter. Conclusions The results of the review indicate that EM training is in its infancy in resource-constrained health-care systems. There are few detailed reports of these programs successes and limitations, including efforts to optimize graduate retention. Despite the paucity of currently published data on the development of EM residency training programs in these settings, this review demonstrates the need for encouraging further information

  2. [A nasal congenital malformation not published in the literature: About 5 cases].

    PubMed

    Colson, T R; Bertrand, B; Degardin, N; Bardot, J; Casanova, D

    2017-02-01

    Five cases of the same congenital malformation of the nose, affecting the nasal dorsum and the supra-tip, were supported in our university plastic surgery center. This malformation has not been described in the literature known to the authors. The aim of this study is to analyze this nasal deformity. Five children presented this congenital deformity between 1994 and 2014. The patients were examined and the malformation precisely described. Genetic and histological examinations were carried on. The diagnosis and treatment of this pathology were discussed. This malformation associated 4 anomalies: hypertrophy of soft tissue of the dorsum located in the middle third of the nasal bridge, deformed alar cartilages turned back downward and outside, advanced support default and median skin brand similar to a scar. These patients showed no other abnormalities of the midline or respiratory disorders. No genetic disorder was found for these five patients, and no histological arguments were found. Three patients were operated, one until adulthood with a satisfying cosmetic result. Bibliographic research has not allowed us to make an accurate diagnosis of this malformation that appears to be non-syndromic and to have a genetic origin. Our therapeutic approach became more clear and it now seems legitimate to propose early excision of fat mass to prevent alar deformations, associated with a cortico-cancellous graft, which in our experience grows with age, to support the tip. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic minority elders: are they neglected in published geriatric psychiatry literature?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Doe, Prosper; Deverill, Ksenia

    2008-10-01

    The population size of the elderly from ethnic minority groups in many developing countries is rapidly increasing. The authors perceived a paucity of publications in the geriatric psychiatry literature pertaining to ethnic minority elders. A study examining the proportion of research publications pertaining to ethnic minority elders in two leading geriatric psychiatry journals, International Psychogeriatrics and International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, was undertaken. The main findings were: (1) overall only 7.6% of the publications examined ethnic minority elders; (2) only 5.1% of publications were exclusively of ethnic minority elderly groups; and, (3) only 2.5% of publications included ethnic minority elderly groups in their overall sample. Findings from studies, such as epidemiological studies of risk factors for mental disorders in old age and randomized controlled studies of treatment interventions, which exclude ethnic minority elders, cannot be assumed to apply to these groups. Researchers, research institutions, funding organizations and policy-makers should acknowledge the rising numbers of ethnic minority elders and recognize the importance of using ethnic minority-specific research data in the planning of culturally sensitive services and mental health promotion programs.

  4. Correlation study in skin and eye irritation between rabbits and humans based on published literatures.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoko; Ishii, Kaori; Nakadate, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Kanji

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations in skin and eye irritations between rabbits and humans using published international databases. We selected 60 and 56 compounds for skin and eye irritation, respectively. When the reactions were divided into irritation-negative or irritation-positive, including corrosion, similar reactions between rabbits and humans were detected for 53 compounds in skin irritation and 54 compounds in eye irritation, showing rates of agreement in skin and eye as 88% and 96%, respectively. These findings revealed that correlation in skin and eye irritations between rabbits and humans were high. However, corrosion was observed in rabbit skin treated with 14 compounds, 4 of which showed similar changes in humans, and in rabbit eyes treated with 9 compounds, 1 of which revealed similar changes in humans. These findings indicated that the incidence of corrosion was higher in rabbits than in humans. Our results showed that the data on rabbit irritations in the skin and eye were useful for identifying risk of irritation in human. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of new vaccine introduction on immunization and health systems: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Terri B; Dentz, Holly; Wang, Susan A; Burchett, Helen E; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Mantel, Carsten F

    2012-10-05

    We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the impact of new vaccine introduction on countries' immunization and broader health systems. Six publication databases were searched using 104 vaccine and health system-related search terms. The search yielded 15,795 unique articles dating from December 31, 1911 to September 29, 2010. Based on review of the title and abstract, 654 (4%) of these articles were found to be potentially relevant and were referred for full review. After full review, 130 articles were found to be relevant and included in the analysis. These articles represented vaccines introduced to protect against 10 different diseases (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, human papilloma virus infection, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae disease, rotavirus diarrhea and typhoid), in various formulations and combinations. Most reviewed articles (97 [75%]) reported experiences in high-income countries. New vaccine introduction was most efficient when the vaccine was introduced into an existing delivery platform and when introduced in combination with a vaccine already in the routine childhood immunization schedule (i.e., as a combination vaccine). New vaccine introduction did not impact coverage of vaccines already included in the routine childhood immunization schedule. The need for increased cold chain capacity was frequently reported. New vaccines facilitated the introduction and widespread use of auto-disable syringes into the immunization and the broader health systems. The importance of training and education for health care workers and social mobilization was frequently noted. There was evidence in high-income countries that new vaccine introduction was associated with reduced health-care costs. Future evaluations of new vaccine introductions should include the systematic and objective assessment of the impacts on a country's immunization system and

  6. The impact of new vaccine introduction on immunization and health systems: A review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Dentz, Holly; Wang, Susan A.; Burchett, Helen E.; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Mantel, Carsten F.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the impact of new vaccine introduction on countries’ immunization and broader health systems. Six publication databases were searched using 104 vaccine and health system-related search terms. The search yielded 15,795 unique articles dating from December 31, 1911 to September 29, 2010. Based on review of the title and abstract, 654 (4%) of these articles were found to be potentially relevant and were referred for full review. After full review, 130 articles were found to be relevant and included in the analysis. These articles represented vaccines introduced to protect against 10 different diseases (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, human papilloma virus infection, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae disease, rotavirus diarrhea and typhoid), in various formulations and combinations. Most reviewed articles (97 [75%]) reported experiences in high-income countries. New vaccine introduction was most efficient when the vaccine was introduced into an existing delivery platform and when introduced in combination with a vaccine already in the routine childhood immunization schedule (i.e., as a combination vaccine). New vaccine introduction did not impact coverage of vaccines already included in the routine childhood immunization schedule. The need for increased cold chain capacity was frequently reported. New vaccines facilitated the introduction and widespread use of auto-disable syringes into the immunization and the broader health systems. The importance of training and education for health care workers and social mobilization was frequently noted. There was evidence in high-income countries that new vaccine introduction was associated with reduced health-care costs. Future evaluations of new vaccine introductions should include the systematic and objective assessment of the impacts on a country’s immunization system

  7. Revision rate of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing arthroplasty: comparison of published literature and arthroplasty register data.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Reinhard; Neumann, Daniel; Rauf, Rauend; Hofstaetter, Jochen; Boehler, Nikolaus; Labek, Gerold

    2012-07-01

    Hip resurfacing arthroplasty has gained popularity for treating young and active patients who have arthritis. There are two major data sources for assessing outcome and revision rate after total joint arthroplasty: sample-based clinical trials and national arthroplasty registers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) arthroplasty in terms of revision rate as reported in clinical studies and recorded by national arthroplasty registers. A comprehensive literature research was performed from English-language, peer-reviewed journals and annual reports from national joint arthroplasty registers worldwide. Only publications from MEDLINE-listed journals were included. The revision rate was used as the primary outcome parameter. In order to allow for direct comparison of different data sets, calculation was based on revisions per 100 observed component years. For statistical analysis, confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. A total of 18,708 implants, equivalent to 106,565 observed component years, were analysed in the follow-up studies. The register reports contained 9,806 primary cases corresponding to 44,294 observed component years. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in revisions per 100 observed component years between the development team (0.27; CI: 0.14-0.40) and register data (0.74; CI: 0.72-0.76). The BHR arthroplasty device shows good results in terms of revision rate in register data as well as in clinical studies. However, the excellent results reported by the development team are not reproducible by other surgeons. Based on the results of our study, we believe that comprehensive national arthroplasty registers are the most suitable tool for assessing hip arthroplasty revision rate.

  8. Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-08-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

  9. Misuse of Odds Ratios in Obesity Literature: An Empirical Analysis of Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tajeu, Gabriel; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B.; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost a quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative risk ratios. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association -- including risk ratios and risk differences -- to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results. PMID:22436842

  10. Apnea testing during brain death assessment: a review of clinical practice and published literature.

    PubMed

    Scott, J Brady; Gentile, Michael A; Bennett, Stacey N; Couture, MaryAnn; MacIntyre, Neil R

    2013-03-01

    The diagnosis of brain death is a complex process. Strong knowledge of neurophysiology and an understanding of brain death etiology must be used to confidently determine brain death. The key findings in brain death are unresponsiveness, and absence of brainstem reflexes in the setting of a devastating neurological injury. These findings are coupled with a series of confirmatory tests, and the diagnosis of brain death is established based on consensus recommendations. The drive to breathe in the setting of an intense ventilatory stimulus (ie, respiratory acidosis) is a critical marker of brainstem function. As a consequence, apnea testing is an important component of brain death assessment. This procedure requires close monitoring of a patient as all ventilator support is temporarily removed and Paco2 levels are allowed to rise. A "positive" test is defined by a total absence of respiratory efforts under these conditions. While apnea testing is not new, it still lacks consensus standardization regarding the actual procedure, monitored parameters, and evidence-based safety measures that may be used to prevent complications. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of apnea testing and discuss issues related to the administration and safety of the procedure.

  11. 30 Years of dental research in Australia and India: a comparative analysis of published peer review literature.

    PubMed

    Madan, Charu; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A sustained program of research is an integral part of human-kind's efforts to improve oral health. In addition, dental research is a vital part of the development of a strong and prosperous dental education system and has been one of the three pillars of the higher education sector (Research, Education and Service) for a very long time. This study aims to examine the last 30 years of peer review published dental literature in both, Australia and India, and to define the trends in publication over that time. This study used the Pubmed database using a set of core dental words for the years 1980 to 2009. Detailed analysis of the year-by-year rates of publication was done using Microsoft Excel. India is on a near exponential upward growth while Australia through the latter half of the last decade has been more stable in output. State-wise breakdown in both countries shows that the proportions are more consistent for Australia, but for India, a major number of publications can be traced to three states. It is expected that dental research in Australia will grow in the coming decade as the new dental schools embed their educational programs and mature to develop strong research profiles. However, India is becoming a significant force in the published peer review dental research literature, and is growing at a very rapid rate.

  12. The methodological quality of systematic reviews published in high-impact nursing journals: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Tarja; Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Elo, Satu; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2014-02-01

    To analyse systematic review articles published in the top 10 nursing journals to determine the quality of the methods employed within them. Systematic review is defined as a scientific research method that synthesises high-quality scientific knowledge on a given topic. The number of such reviews in nursing science has increased dramatically during recent years, but their methodological quality has not previously been assessed. A review of the literature using a narrative approach. Ranked impact factor scores for nursing journals were obtained from the Journal Citation Report database of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge). All issues from the years 2009 and 2010 of the top 10 ranked journals were included. CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched to locate studies using the search terms 'systematic review' and 'systematic literature review'. A total of 39 eligible studies were identified. Their methodological quality was evaluated through the specific criteria of quality assessment, description of synthesis and strengths and weaknesses reported in the included studies. Most of the eligible systematic reviews included several different designs or types of quantitative study. The majority included a quality assessment, and a total of 17 different criteria were identified. The method of synthesis was mentioned in about half of the reviews, the most common being narrative synthesis. The weaknesses of reviews were discussed, while strengths were rarely highlighted. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews examined varied considerably, although they were all published in nursing journals with a high-impact factor. Despite the fact that systematic reviews are considered the most robust source of research evidence, they vary in methodological quality. This point is important to consider in clinical practice when applying the results to patient care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part I: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Michael J.; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C.; Findling, Robert L.; Lopez, Frank A.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature investigating changes in emotional expression (EE) as a function of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD and to differentiate emotional effects related to ADHD pharmacotherapy from emotional effects related to ADHD as a disorder. Method: English language articles published from January 1, 1988, through…

  14. Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part I: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Michael J.; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C.; Findling, Robert L.; Lopez, Frank A.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature investigating changes in emotional expression (EE) as a function of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD and to differentiate emotional effects related to ADHD pharmacotherapy from emotional effects related to ADHD as a disorder. Method: English language articles published from January 1, 1988, through…

  15. Quality tools and resources to support organisational improvement integral to high-quality primary care: a systematic review of published and grey literature.

    PubMed

    Janamian, Tina; Upham, Susan J; Crossland, Lisa; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-04-18

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify existing online primary care quality improvement tools and resources to support organisational improvement related to the seven elements in the Primary Care Practice Improvement Tool (PC-PIT), with the identified tools and resources to progress to a Delphi study for further assessment of relevance and utility. Systematic review of the international published and grey literature. CINAHL, Embase and PubMed databases were searched in March 2014 for articles published between January 2004 and December 2013. GreyNet International and other relevant websites and repositories were also searched in March-April 2014 for documents dated between 1992 and 2012. All citations were imported into a bibliographic database. Published and unpublished tools and resources were included in the review if they were in English, related to primary care quality improvement and addressed any of the seven PC-PIT elements of a high-performing practice. Tools and resources that met the eligibility criteria were then evaluated for their accessibility, relevance, utility and comprehensiveness using a four-criteria appraisal framework. We used a data extraction template to systematically extract information from eligible tools and resources. A content analysis approach was used to explore the tools and resources and collate relevant information: name of the tool or resource, year and country of development, author, name of the organisation that provided access and its URL, accessibility information or problems, overview of each tool or resource and the quality improvement element(s) it addresses. If available, a copy of the tool or resource was downloaded into the bibliographic database, along with supporting evidence (published or unpublished) on its use in primary care. This systematic review identified 53 tools and resources that can potentially be provided as part of a suite of tools and resources to support primary care practices in

  16. A review of current clinical photography guidelines in relation to smartphone publishing of medical images.

    PubMed

    Payne, Karl F B; Tahim, Arpan; Goodson, Alexander M C; Delaney, Margaret; Fan, Kathleen

    2012-12-01

    The rise in popularity of smartphones has seen a surge in the number of smartphone-specific software applications (apps) available. Among these apps, many are medical and healthcare related, of benefit to both the general public and healthcare staff. With this improved technology comes the ability to display full-colour images and videos, for which medical images could be utilised. We reviewed current clinical photography guidelines in relation to the publishing of medical images in smartphone apps. Of the 5 relevant guidelines, none discussed hand-held electronic media or smartphone app publishing. This creates confusion for clinicians as to how to interpret current guidelines for this purpose. Medical illustrators, clinicians and NHS Trusts need to be aware of the changes in technology and the ethical considerations of allowing medical images to be published within smartphones. We discuss the issues surrounding consent and provide practical tips for obtaining informed consent from patients to publish medical images in smartphone apps.

  17. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at…

  18. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  19. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994-2007.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-09-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  20. Literature-Related Discovery: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-05

    papers in MEDLINE (as of mid-2007) related to curcumin (or curcuma or curcuminoid), of which over 20% directly address its role as an anti...involves processing preset amount of dry turmeric powder, dry Curcuma zedoaria powder, dry Curcuma wenyujin powder and sea tangle powder with distilled...role for curcumin longa in retinal diseases. HLT Biolink. Stegmann J, Grohmann G. (2003). Hypothesis generation guided by co- word clustering

  1. Spin in RCTs of anxiety medication with a positive primary outcome: a comparison of concerns expressed by the US FDA and in the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Beijers, Lian; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Turner, Erick H; de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the presence of spin in papers on positive randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antidepressant medication for anxiety disorders by comparing concerns expressed in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviews with those expressed in the published paper. Methods For every positive anxiety medication trial with a matching publication (n=41), two independent reviewers identified the concerns raised in the US FDA reviews and those in the published literature. Spin was identified when concerns or limitations were expressed by the FDA (about the efficacy of the study drug) but not in the corresponding published paper. Concerns mentioned in the papers but not by the FDA were scored as ‘non-FDA’ concerns. Findings Only six out of 35 (17%) of the FDA concerns pertaining to drug efficacy were reported in the papers. Two papers mentioned a concern that fit the FDA categories, but was not mentioned in the corresponding FDA review. Eighty-seven non-FDA concerns were counted, which often reflected general concerns or concerns related to the study design. Conclusions Results indicate the presence of substantial spin in the clinical trial literature on drugs for anxiety disorders. In papers describing RCTs on anxiety medication, the concerns raised by the authors differed from those raised by the FDA. Published papers mentioned a large number of generic concerns about RCTs, such as a lack of long-term research and limited generalisability, while they mentioned few concerns about drug efficacy. These results warrant the promotion of independent statistical review, reporting of patient-level data, more study of spin, and an increased expectation that authors report FDA concerns. PMID:28360236

  2. Erlotinib usage after prior treatment with gefitinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A clinical perspective and review of published literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Jindal, Aditya; Behera, Digambar

    2014-12-10

    Erlotinib and gefitinib are among the most widely researched, used and available molecularly targeted therapies for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They are both tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the past decade, there have been reports on clinical benefit from use of erlotinib after gefitinib failure in NSCLC patients. A review of published literature on this focussed topic is provided herein. Pooled analysis of published literature shows that majority of patients were female (60.6%), non-smokers (64.5%), had adenocarcinoma histology (88.3%) and were of East Asian ethnicity (92.3%). Presence of sensitizing EGFR mutation was detected in 48.4% of subjects. Disease control rates with prior gefitinib therapy and with subsequent erlotinib treatment were 79.4% and 45.4% respectively. Based upon our review, the most important predictive factor for clinical benefit from erlotinib identified was previous response to gefitinib. The exact explanations for the potential benefit from erlotinib use in this patient population is still not known and further studies are required to determine the role of molecular mechanisms especially those related to resistance to initial EGFR TKI therapy.

  3. Studies using Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data for pharmacoepidemiological research: a systematic review of the published literature (1987-2013).

    PubMed

    Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Pesa, Nicole; Langton, Julia M; Drew, Annabelle; Faedo, Margaret; Robertson, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Research using dispensing claims is used increasingly to study post-market medicines use and outcomes. The purpose of this review is to catalogue more than 25 years of published literature using Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) dispensing records. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE and Embase and conducted author searches for studies published from 1987 to 2013. Independent reviewers screened abstracts of 3209 articles and reviewed 264 full-text manuscripts. Included studies used PBS dispensing data to measure patterns and/or outcomes of prescribed medicines use or dispensing claims to derive a proxy for a specific disease cohort or health outcome. Of the 228 studies identified, 106 used PBS claims only (56 using claims-level data and 50 using individual-level data) and 63 studies linked individual-level PBS claims to other health data. Most commonly, studies examined trends in drug utilisation (33%), clinician and patient practices (26%), drug use and outcomes (18%) and evaluations of intervention impacts (17%). Sixty-two percent of studies using individual-level data were based on a subset of elderly Australians. Most studies focused on drug classes acting on the nervous system (36%), cardiovascular system (15%) and alimentary tract (11%). Few studies examined prescribed medicines use in children and pregnant women. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme claims represent a significant resource to examine Australia's billion-dollar annual investment in prescribed medicines. The body of research is growing and has increased in complexity over time. Australia has great potential to undertake world-class, whole-of-population pharmacoepidemiological studies. Recent investment in data linkage infrastructure will significantly enhance these opportunities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of Articles Related to Program Development in Education Published in the Journal of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make an overall assessment of articles related to program development in education that appeared in the "Journal of Primary Education," which had been published between 1939 and 1966. For this purpose, the articles in the journal were analyzed by using content analysis, and evaluated in terms of program…

  5. Evaluation of Articles Related to Program Development in Education Published in the Journal of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make an overall assessment of articles related to program development in education that appeared in the "Journal of Primary Education," which had been published between 1939 and 1966. For this purpose, the articles in the journal were analyzed by using content analysis, and evaluated in terms of program…

  6. University-Industry Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Donald R.; Green, James W.

    1984-01-01

    More than 100 books, articles, and papers concerning university-industry relations are identified by the Literature Subcommittee of the Society of Research Administrators. Mutual interests, obstacles to cooperation, solutions to problems, and emerging trends are highlighted. (MLW)

  7. Health systems and noncommunicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Priya; Abdullah, Asnawi; James, Chris; Dodd, Rebecca; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in countries of the Asia-Pacific region requires well-functioning health systems. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, health systems are generally characterized by inadequate financial and human resources, unsuitable service delivery models, and weak information systems. The aims of this review were to identify (a) health systems interventions being implemented to deliver NCD programs and services and their outcomes and (b) the health systems bottlenecks impeding access to or delivery of these programs and services in LMICs of the Asia-Pacific region. A search of 4 databases for literature published between 1990 and 2010 retrieved 36 relevant studies. For each study, information on basic characteristics, type of health systems bottleneck/intervention, and outcome was extracted, and methodological quality appraised. Health systems interventions and bottlenecks were classified as per the World Health Organization health systems building blocks framework. The review identified interventions and bottlenecks in the building blocks of service delivery, health workforce, financing, health information systems, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. Studies, however, were heterogeneous in methodologies used, and the overall quality was generally low. There are several gaps in the evidence base around NCDs in the Asia-Pacific region that require further investigation. © 2013 APJPH.

  8. A protocol for a systematic review on the impact of unpublished studies and studies published in the gray literature in meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Schmucker, Christine; Bluemle, Annette; Briel, Matthias; Portalupi, Susan; Lang, Britta; Motschall, Edith; Schwarzer, Guido; Bassler, Dirk; Mueller, Katharina F; von Elm, Erik; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2013-05-02

    Meta-analyses are particularly vulnerable to the effects of publication bias. Despite methodologists' best efforts to locate all evidence for a given topic the most comprehensive searches are likely to miss unpublished studies and studies that are published in the gray literature only. If the results of the missing studies differ systematically from the published ones, a meta-analysis will be biased with an inaccurate assessment of the intervention's effects.As part of the OPEN project (http://www.open-project.eu) we will conduct a systematic review with the following objectives:▪ To assess the impact of studies that are not published or published in the gray literature on pooled effect estimates in meta-analyses (quantitative measure).▪ To assess whether the inclusion of unpublished studies or studies published in the gray literature leads to different conclusions in meta-analyses (qualitative measure). Methodological research projects of a cohort of meta-analyses which compare the effect of the inclusion or exclusion of unpublished studies or studies published in the gray literature. To identify relevant research projects we will conduct electronic searches in Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library; check reference lists; and contact experts. 1) The extent to which the effect estimate in a meta-analyses changes with the inclusion or exclusion of studies that were not published or published in the gray literature; and 2) the extent to which the inclusion of unpublished studies impacts the meta-analyses' conclusions. Information will be collected on the area of health care; the number of meta-analyses included in the methodological research project; the number of studies included in the meta-analyses; the number of study participants; the number and type of unpublished studies; studies published in the gray literature and published studies; the sources used to retrieve studies that are unpublished, published in the gray literature, or commercially published

  9. Distribution of Citations Received by Scientific Papers Published in the Imaging Literature From 2001 to 2010: Decreasing Inequality and Polarization.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young; Lee, Hyung Jin; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the distribution of citations received by scientific papers published in the imaging literature between 2001 and 2010. We extracted the number of citations of all articles and reviews for 5 years after publication using the Scopus (Elsevier) citation database of imaging journals between 2001 and 2010. We quantitatively analyzed article and review citations from each journal and each year, including the number, proportion, and annual number of citations of the most- (≥ 20 citations) and least-cited (three or fewer citations) papers; ratio of most-cited to least-cited papers; 75/25 percentile citation ratio; 90/10 percentile citation ratio; Gini coefficient; and Kolkata index. Our analysis of 124,331 articles and 13,575 reviews from 121 journals showed that the proportion of most-cited articles (from 19.6% to 27.1%) and reviews (from 19.1% to 37.2%) increased from 2001 to 2010, whereas the proportion of least-cited articles (from 32.3% to 23.0%) and reviews (from 31.9% to 15.8%) declined over the same period. The annual numbers of citations of most-cited articles and reviews both reached a peak in the fourth year after publication, whereas those of least-cited articles and reviews reached a peak in the second and fist years, respectively, after publication and thereafter decreased. The 75/25 percentile ratio for articles declined from 41.1 to 27.5 between 2001 and 2010. Over the same time, the 75/25 percentile ratio for reviews declined from 47.4 to 22.9. The 90/10 percentile ratio for articles declined from 1730.8 to 188.7; for reviews, the 90/10 percentile ratio declined from 5788.0 to 100.7. The Gini coefficient of articles and reviews also declined from 0.6116 to 0.5721 for articles and from 0.6507 to 0.5649 for reviews; the k index, from 0.7260 to 0.7088 for articles from 0.7409 to 0.7072 for reviews. Inequality and polarization of citations consistently decreased in the imaging literature from 2001 to 2010.

  10. Literature, Literary Values, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through April 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 20 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the teaching of children's literature; the study of American Indian literature and Biblical literature at the college level; the relationship between response to…

  11. Duplicate publications and related problems in published papers on oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Le, A; Moran, C M P; Bezuhly, M; Hong, P

    2015-07-01

    As duplicate publication is unethical, our aim was to find out how common it is among published papers on oral and maxillofacial surgery. We used PubMed to identify index articles published in 2010 in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and the European Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, and searched for possible duplicate publications from 2008 to 2012 using the first or second and last authors' names. Suspected duplicates were categorised into "non-duplicate" (no overlap), "duplicate" (identical results and conclusions), or "salami-sliced" publications (part of the index article repeated or continued). Of the 589 index articles, 17 (3%) had some form of duplication, but specifically, we found 3 duplicate, and 15 salami-sliced publications. Most redundant articles originated from China (n=4), followed by Italy, Japan, and Germany (3 from each) and the United States and Denmark (2 each). Of the 18 redundant publications, 9 did not reference the related index article. Duplicate material is still being published, and salami-slicing is relatively common among publications on oral and maxillofacial surgery. Further research is required into the extent and impact of this finding.

  12. [Analysis on literatures about clinical treatment of low back pain with acupuncture and moxibustion published in the periodicals included by SCI in recent 5 years].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chui-gang

    2007-03-01

    To explore the development state of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in the world. Retrieve and analyze the literatures about clinically treating low back pain with acupuncture and moxibustion published at periodicals included by SCI in recent 5 years in Pubmed. Nineteen concerned literatures were retrieved. Authors of the literatures come from USA, Germany, Hong Kong of China, UK (including Northern Ireland) , Austria, Sweden and Italy. The literatures were published at Altern Ther Health Med, Am J Phys Med Rehabil, Anesth Analg, Arch Intern Med, Forsch Komplementärmed Klass Naturheilkd, Health Technol Assess, Rheumatology (Oxford), South Med J, Spine, Complment Ther Med, Pain. Three researches show that efficacy of acupuncture is uncertain. Other researches support the efficacy of acupuncture. The researches on treating low back pain with acupuncture and moxibustion are still mainly about efficacy of the acupuncture and moxibustion therapy. The acupuncture and moxibustion therapy is still in the process of gradually admitted by international medicine.

  13. A survey of literature relating to administrative dietetics.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, B A; Pickworth, J R

    1985-01-01

    This article provides insight into the complexity of hospital foodservice operations by reviewing selected published material and identifies subject areas that are well developed in the literature. A survey was made of leading professional journals, and an annotated bibliography was compiled of pertinent articles from the Journal of American Dietetic Association from 1965 to 1982. Also, the research abstracts published annually by the Society for the Advancement of Foodservice Research were consolidated for the period 1971-1982. Analysis of over 500 professional articles and research abstracts indicated that personnel management was the most studied area, followed by financial management, productivity, and computer use. Topics which seemed to be overlooked included unionization, cafeteria policies, and allocation of production labour cost.

  14. A Review of the Literature Related to Government Relations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfield, Randall; Miller, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This review of literature identifies the primary writings and research related to how higher education institutions operate government relations offices. These offices are defined by their mission and role of interfacing between institutional needs and officers and public officials. The review first reports the literature related to public…

  15. Some citation-related characteristics of scientific journals published in individual countries.

    PubMed

    Sangwal, Keshra

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between publication language, impact factors and self-citations of journals published in individual countries, eight from Europe and one from South America (Brazil), are analyzed using bibliometric data from Thomson Reuters JCR Science Edition databases of ISI Web of Knowledge. It was found that: (1) English-language journals, as a rule, have higher impact factors than non-English-language journals, (2) all countries investigated in this study have journals with very high self-citations but the proportion of journals with high self-citations with reference to the total number of journals published in different countries varies enormously, (3) there are relatively high percentages of low self-citations in high subject-category journals published in English as well as non-English journals but national-language journals have higher self-citations than English-language journals, and (4) irrespective of the publication language, journals devoted to very specialized scientific disciplines, such as electrical and electronic engineering, metallurgy, environmental engineering, surgery, general and internal medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, gynecology, entomology and multidisciplinary engineering, have high self-citations.

  16. Native American Children's Literature: A Study of Authorship, Publisher Type, and Cultural Diversity of In-Print Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Martin, Sandra Anne Carkin

    The content of 281 works of in-print children's fiction about Native Americans written for grades K-6 was analyzed to determine the amount of cultural diversity as measured by cultural area, time frame, and physical setting of the story. All analyzed works were published in the United States or Canada. Data identifying publisher type, mainline or…

  17. Sports-related concussion: A narrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Cameron M.

    2012-01-01

    Sports-related concussion has gained widespread interest and media attention in recent years due to the potential dangers and long-term consequences. Despite several international consensus statements there remains a great deal of uncertainty surrounding these injuries. This paper is a review of recent literature on the topic of concussion, consisting of: biomechanics, pathophysiology, diagnosis and sideline management. PMID:23204574

  18. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  19. A SURVEY OF LITERATURE RELATED TO SELECTED NONPROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUDERMILK, KENNETH M.; AND OTHERS

    AS THE FIRST PHASE IN DEVELOPING A TESTING PROGRAM FOR VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN IDAHO, STUDIES CONCERNED WITH WORKER CHARACTERISTICS IN A VARIETY OF OCCUPATIONS WERE REVIEWED. THE PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE WAS SURVEYED FOR STUDIES RELATING TO SUCCESS AND/OR MEMBERSHIP IN 28 OCCUPATIONS FOR WHICH TRAINING PROGRAMS EXIST IN IDAHO SCHOOLS. THE PURPOSE…

  20. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  1. Bibliometric analysis of poison center-related research published in peer-review journals.

    PubMed

    Forrester, M B

    2016-07-01

    Poison centers advance knowledge in the field of toxicology through publication in peer-review journals. This investigation describes the pattern of poison center-related publications. Cases were poison center-related research published in peer-review journals during 1995-2014. These were identified through searching the PubMed database, reviewing the tables of contents of selected toxicology journals, and reviewing abstracts of various national and international meetings. The following variables for each publication were identified: year of publication, journal, type of publication (meeting abstract vs. other, i.e. full article or letter to the editor), and the country(ies) of the poison center(s) included in the research. Of the 3147 total publications, 62.1% were meeting abstracts. There were 263 publications in 1995-1999, 536 in 2000-2004, 999 in 2005-2009, and 1349 in 2010-2014. The publications were in 234 different journals. The journals in which the highest number of research was published were Clinical Toxicology (69.7%), Journal of Medical Toxicology (2.2%), and Veterinary and Human Toxicology (2.1%). The research was reported from 62 different countries. The countries with the highest number of publications were the United States (67.9%), United Kingdom (6.5%), Germany (3.9%), France (2.5%), and Italy (2.4%). The number of publications increased greatly over the 20 years. Although the publications were in a large number of journals, a high proportion of the publications were in one journal. While the research came from a large number of countries, the preponderance came from the United States. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  3. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  4. Reporting and methodologic evaluation of meta-analyses published in the anesthesia literature according to AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae Hoon; Shin, Woo Jong; Park, Suin; Chung, Jae Soon

    2017-08-01

    There have been few recent reports on the methodological quality of meta-analysis, despite the enormous number of studies using meta-analytic techniques in the field of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of meta-analyses and systematic reviews according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the anesthesia literature. A search was conducted to identify all meta-analyses ever been published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA), Anaesthesia, and Korean Journal of Anesthesiology (KJA) between Jan. 01, 2004 and Nov. 31, 2016. We aimed to apply the AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists to all published meta-analyses. We identified 121 meta-analyses in the anesthesia literature from January 2004 through the end of November 2016 (BJA; 75, Anaesthesia; 43, KJA; 3). The number of studies published and percentage of 'Yes' responses for meta-analysis articles published after the year 2010 was significantly increased compared to that of studies published before the year 2009 (P = 0.014 for Anaesthesia). In the anesthesia literature as a whole, participation of statisticians as authors statistically improved average scores of PRISMA items (P = 0.004) especially in the BJA (P = 0.003). Even though there is little variability in the reporting and methodology of meta-analysis in the anesthesia literature, significant quality improvement in the reporting was observed in the Anaesthesia by applying the PRISMA checklist. Participation of a statistician as an author improved the reporting quality of the meta-analysis.

  5. Reporting and methodologic evaluation of meta-analyses published in the anesthesia literature according to AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background There have been few recent reports on the methodological quality of meta-analysis, despite the enormous number of studies using meta-analytic techniques in the field of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of meta-analyses and systematic reviews according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the anesthesia literature. Methods A search was conducted to identify all meta-analyses ever been published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA), Anaesthesia, and Korean Journal of Anesthesiology (KJA) between Jan. 01, 2004 and Nov. 31, 2016. We aimed to apply the AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists to all published meta-analyses. Results We identified 121 meta-analyses in the anesthesia literature from January 2004 through the end of November 2016 (BJA; 75, Anaesthesia; 43, KJA; 3). The number of studies published and percentage of ‘Yes’ responses for meta-analysis articles published after the year 2010 was significantly increased compared to that of studies published before the year 2009 (P = 0.014 for Anaesthesia). In the anesthesia literature as a whole, participation of statisticians as authors statistically improved average scores of PRISMA items (P = 0.004) especially in the BJA (P = 0.003). Conclusions Even though there is little variability in the reporting and methodology of meta-analysis in the anesthesia literature, significant quality improvement in the reporting was observed in the Anaesthesia by applying the PRISMA checklist. Participation of a statistician as an author improved the reporting quality of the meta-analysis. PMID:28794841

  6. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) science fiction in elementary school science education; (2) the portrayal of black characters in children's literature; (3) UFOs and their correlates as a…

  7. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 24 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) humorous children's literature and divergent thinking; (2) the development of children's ability to apprehend and distribute attention to important elements in…

  8. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1985 (Vol. 45 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) Victorian ideology and British children's literature from 1850 to 1914, (2) a comparison of passages from books for adults and for children, (3) the use and…

  9. Literature, Literary Values, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1979 (Vol. 39 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 32 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: literary criticism in nineteenth century United States; effects of sexist and nonsexist literature on children's attitudes; effects of silent reading and video…

  10. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 26 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) contemporary and lyric poetry and poetry experiences; (2) bibliotherapy programs; (3) poetry in college anthologies; (4) values in American literature and…

  11. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 26 titles deal with a variety of topics including the following: (1) multicultural representation in children's books, (2) moral education through literature, (3) the effect of death awareness on the protagonists of selected…

  12. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 31 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the reader pragmatics of fiction; (2) readers' choices versus critics' choices in children's literature; (3) nonverbal communication in selected works of…

  13. Student Success for Men of Color in Community Colleges: A Review of Published Literature and Research, 1998-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of scholarship on men of color in postsecondary education has emerged since the late 1990s. Yet, only recently have scholars begun to pursue empirical insights about the status of men of color who attend community colleges. In an effort to inform future research, this article reviews the published scholarship on student success…

  14. "He May Mean Good, but He Do So Doggone Poor!": A Critical Analysis of Recently Published "Social Conscience" Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2003-01-01

    Critically analyzes recently published children's social conscience books, most of which perpetuate racial stereotypes and misrepresent African American experiences and perspectives. Notes that these social conscience books are mainly written by Whites and directed at white readers in an attempt to make them aware of problems Blacks face.…

  15. Student Success for Men of Color in Community Colleges: A Review of Published Literature and Research, 1998-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of scholarship on men of color in postsecondary education has emerged since the late 1990s. Yet, only recently have scholars begun to pursue empirical insights about the status of men of color who attend community colleges. In an effort to inform future research, this article reviews the published scholarship on student success…

  16. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  17. Exploring relation types for literature-based discovery

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Judita; Stevenson, Mark; Gaizauskas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Literature-based discovery (LBD) aims to identify “hidden knowledge” in the medical literature by: (1) analyzing documents to identify pairs of explicitly related concepts (terms), then (2) hypothesizing novel relations between pairs of unrelated concepts that are implicitly related via a shared concept to which both are explicitly related. Many LBD approaches use simple techniques to identify semantically weak relations between concepts, for example, document co-occurrence. These generate huge numbers of hypotheses, difficult for humans to assess. More complex techniques rely on linguistic analysis, for example, shallow parsing, to identify semantically stronger relations. Such approaches generate fewer hypotheses, but may miss hidden knowledge. The authors investigate this trade-off in detail, comparing techniques for identifying related concepts to discover which are most suitable for LBD. Materials and methods A generic LBD system that can utilize a range of relation types was developed. Experiments were carried out comparing a number of techniques for identifying relations. Two approaches were used for evaluation: replication of existing discoveries and the “time slicing” approach.1 Results Previous LBD discoveries could be replicated using relations based either on document co-occurrence or linguistic analysis. Using relations based on linguistic analysis generated many fewer hypotheses, but a significantly greater proportion of them were candidates for hidden knowledge. Discussion and Conclusion The use of linguistic analysis-based relations improves accuracy of LBD without overly damaging coverage. LBD systems often generate huge numbers of hypotheses, which are infeasible to manually review. Improving their accuracy has the potential to make these systems significantly more usable. PMID:25971437

  18. Publisher's note Publisher's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Due to an error in the production process, an incorrect version of the article by Margaritis Voliotis et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 036002 was published on 3 May 2012. IOP Publishing apologizes for this error. This version of the article has now been superseded by a new version published on 29 May 2012 with the article reference Margaritis Voliotis et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 036007.

  19. Do Social Stories help to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders? A review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-03-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of success was variable. Overall, Social Stories appear to be an acceptable intervention for use in the classroom, however unplanned verbal prompting by teachers, in some studies, reduced confidence in the effectiveness of Social Stories when used in isolation. An increasing body of literature has indicated that Social Stories are an effective intervention for children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders, however very few studies have addressed the efficacy of Social Stories when used with children with other disabilities.

  20. Sortal anaphora resolution to enhance relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Rosemblat, Graciela; Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2016-04-14

    Entity coreference is common in biomedical literature and it can affect text understanding systems that rely on accurate identification of named entities, such as relation extraction and automatic summarization. Coreference resolution is a foundational yet challenging natural language processing task which, if performed successfully, is likely to enhance such systems significantly. In this paper, we propose a semantically oriented, rule-based method to resolve sortal anaphora, a specific type of coreference that forms the majority of coreference instances in biomedical literature. The method addresses all entity types and relies on linguistic components of SemRep, a broad-coverage biomedical relation extraction system. It has been incorporated into SemRep, extending its core semantic interpretation capability from sentence level to discourse level. We evaluated our sortal anaphora resolution method in several ways. The first evaluation specifically focused on sortal anaphora relations. Our methodology achieved a F1 score of 59.6 on the test portion of a manually annotated corpus of 320 Medline abstracts, a 4-fold improvement over the baseline method. Investigating the impact of sortal anaphora resolution on relation extraction, we found that the overall effect was positive, with 50 % of the changes involving uninformative relations being replaced by more specific and informative ones, while 35 % of the changes had no effect, and only 15 % were negative. We estimate that anaphora resolution results in changes in about 1.5 % of approximately 82 million semantic relations extracted from the entire PubMed. Our results demonstrate that a heavily semantic approach to sortal anaphora resolution is largely effective for biomedical literature. Our evaluation and error analysis highlight some areas for further improvements, such as coordination processing and intra-sentential antecedent selection.

  1. Extracting relations from traditional Chinese medicine literature via heterogeneous entity networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Huaiyu; Moens, Marie-Francine; Luyten, Walter; Zhou, Xuezhong; Mei, Qiaozhu; Liu, Lu; Tang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a unique and complex medical system that has developed over thousands of years. This article studies the problem of automatically extracting meaningful relations of entities from TCM literature, for the purposes of assisting clinical treatment or poly-pharmacology research and promoting the understanding of TCM in Western countries. Instead of separately extracting each relation from a single sentence or document, we propose to collectively and globally extract multiple types of relations (eg, herb-syndrome, herb-disease, formula-syndrome, formula-disease, and syndrome-disease relations) from the entire corpus of TCM literature, from the perspective of network mining. In our analysis, we first constructed heterogeneous entity networks from the TCM literature, in which each edge is a candidate relation, then used a heterogeneous factor graph model (HFGM) to simultaneously infer the existence of all the edges. We also employed a semi-supervised learning algorithm estimate the model's parameters. We performed our method to extract relations from a large dataset consisting of more than 100,000 TCM article abstracts. Our results show that the performance of the HFGM at extracting all types of relations from TCM literature was significantly better than a traditional support vector machine (SVM) classifier (increasing the average precision by 11.09%, the recall by 13.83%, and the F1-measure by 12.47% for different types of relations, compared with a traditional SVM classifier). This study exploits the power of collective inference and proposes an HFGM based on heterogeneous entity networks, which significantly improved our ability to extract relations from TCM literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Extracting causal relations on HIV drug resistance from literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In HIV treatment it is critical to have up-to-date resistance data of applicable drugs since HIV has a very high rate of mutation. These data are made available through scientific publications and must be extracted manually by experts in order to be used by virologists and medical doctors. Therefore there is an urgent need for a tool that partially automates this process and is able to retrieve relations between drugs and virus mutations from literature. Results In this work we present a novel method to extract and combine relationships between HIV drugs and mutations in viral genomes. Our extraction method is based on natural language processing (NLP) which produces grammatical relations and applies a set of rules to these relations. We applied our method to a relevant set of PubMed abstracts and obtained 2,434 extracted relations with an estimated performance of 84% for F-score. We then combined the extracted relations using logistic regression to generate resistance values for each pair. The results of this relation combination show more than 85% agreement with the Stanford HIVDB for the ten most frequently occurring mutations. The system is used in 5 hospitals from the Virolab project http://www.virolab.org to preselect the most relevant novel resistance data from literature and present those to virologists and medical doctors for further evaluation. Conclusions The proposed relation extraction and combination method has a good performance on extracting HIV drug resistance data. It can be used in large-scale relation extraction experiments. The developed methods can also be applied to extract other type of relations such as gene-protein, gene-disease, and disease-mutation. PMID:20178611

  3. What are we reading now? An update on the papers published in the orthodontic literature (1999-2008).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Richard M; Harrison, Jayne E

    2011-09-01

    To assess differences between articles published in the Journal of Orthodontics (JO) and European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO) from 1999 to 2008 and compare longitudinal publication profiles. Retrospective, observational. The main study examined articles from the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics and Angle Orthodontist alongside the JO and EJO. All journals were hand-searched to identify eligible articles. A random sample from these articles was obtained to provide 80% power to detect a 100% increase in the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) at the 5% level of significance. Each article was classified according to pre-determined criteria by one author (RG). Variations between journals were assessed using the chi-squared test or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A random sample of 425 articles was obtained from 4301 eligible articles, of which 113 were from the JO or EJO. About 34·5% of articles were from the JO and 66·5% the EJO. Statistically significant differences were found between the type (P<0·001), subject (P=0·049), method/direction (P=0·038) and controls (P=0·006) of articles published in the two journals. When compared longitudinally the proportion of RCTs published between 1989 and 1993 (2·8%) and 1999-2008 (18·5%) was statistically significant (OR=8·0, 95% CI 2·8, 23·1). Statistically significant differences were seen over time in all aspects investigated. Statistically significant differences were found in the publication profiles of the two orthodontic journals during the period examined and longitudinally. A piece of clinical research was 8 times more likely to be an RCT during 1999-2008, compared to 1989-1993.

  4. Acceptability of Health Care-Related Risks: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Bruno; Roberts, Tamara; Nitaro, Léa; Quenon, Jean-Luc; Michel, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Risk management aims at reducing risks associated with hospital care to an acceptable level, both in their frequency and their impact on health. The social acceptability of risk on the part of the general population and of the health-care professionals, faced with regular information about adverse events, is undoubtedly evolving rapidly.In contrast to risk acceptability, the concept of risk perception is of limited interest to risk managers because it does not inform on the behaviors and actions resulting from these perceptions. The aim of this work was to define the concept of social acceptability of risk through an in-depth examination of a wide-ranging and multidisciplinary literature. A 1990-2010 English and French literature review was carried out in medical, epidemiological, and human and social sciences online databases, gray literature, and books. Of the 5931 references retrieved, 203 met the inclusion criteria. We identified contributions from 5 major research fields: economic, sociocognitive, psychometric, sociological/anthropological, and interactionist. When assessing risks, individuals use a variety of psychological and social processes that include their perception not only of a given risk but also of their own personal and social resources. This global perception has a direct impact on the responses and actual behavior of individuals and groups, enabling them to cope with the risk and/or manage it. Social acceptability includes perceptions related to risks and the stated intentions of individual behavior. This concept may therefore be relevant for defining local and national patient safety priorities.

  5. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  6. Inappropriate fiddling with statistical analyses to obtain a desirable p-value: tests to detect its presence in published literature.

    PubMed

    Gadbury, Gary L; Allison, David B

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written regarding p-values below certain thresholds (most notably 0.05) denoting statistical significance and the tendency of such p-values to be more readily publishable in peer-reviewed journals. Intuition suggests that there may be a tendency to manipulate statistical analyses to push a "near significant p-value" to a level that is considered significant. This article presents a method for detecting the presence of such manipulation (herein called "fiddling") in a distribution of p-values from independent studies. Simulations are used to illustrate the properties of the method. The results suggest that the method has low type I error and that power approaches acceptable levels as the number of p-values being studied approaches 1000.

  7. Nursing curricula relating to care for disabled children: literature review.

    PubMed

    Ilkhani, Mahnaz; Glasper, Alan; Jarrett, Nikki

    2016-03-01

    To provide a literature review of nursing curricula relating to care for children with disabilities. Children with disabilities do not receive adequate attention in nursing curricula for children. The best approach to promoting the standard of care delivery to children with disabilities is to improve the quantity and quality of training among health professionals. We conducted the review using three databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE and ProQuest, between the years 1990 and 2015. The review commenced in 2012 and was updated in 2015. Seventy-eight studies were initially identified. Out of 78 retrieved articles, only six research articles contained all the keywords 'education', 'disability' and 'curriculum'; no articles contained all the keywords 'nursing education, 'children with disabilities' and 'curriculum'. Five themes have been generated from the literature review relating to disability content within nursing curricula, namely: overloaded curriculum, gaps in the contemporary curricula, lack of faculty expertise, problems with teaching methods and focus on the medical model. There was a paucity of evidence for the way that disability was presented in the nursing curricula for children. Improving the provision of care delivery to children with disabilities should be paid adequate attention in nursing curricula for children. Additionally, there is a need for policy-makers to identify the best coverage of nursing curricula, as well as the most effective nurse training methods that enhance knowledge and clinical skills relating to the care of children with disabilities. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, K; Canham-Chervak, M; Gazal-Carvalho, C; Jones, B; Baker, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the published evidence on interventions to prevent softball related injuries among adults, and to encourage more epidemiologic research as a foundation for future softball injury prevention efforts. Methods: The authors reviewed literature identified from six electronic databases for studies on softball related injuries. The search was limited to studies written in the English language, published between 1970 and 2002, and involving adult populations. Research was excluded that evaluated baseball ("hard ball") related injuries or was aimed at injury treatment. Identified studies were categorized by study design. Intervention/prevention papers were evaluated further and described in detail. Results: The search strategy identified 39 studies specifically related to softball. Most studies were case reports/case series (n = 13) or descriptive studies (n = 11); only four were analytic or intervention/prevention studies. Studies collected data in a variety of ways, often without denominator data to permit calculation of injury rates. Studies also did not differentiate between slow or fast pitch softball activities and most did not mention the type of softball that was used. Conclusions: Surprisingly few studies exist on interventions to reduce injuries during softball, one of the most popular recreational sports in the US. Of the existing literature, much attention has been on sliding related injuries, which comprise only a segment of softball injuries. Basic epidemiologic studies describing the nature, severity, and risk factors for softball injuries in a variety of populations are needed, followed by additional intervention evaluation studies aimed at modifiable risk factors. PMID:16203835

  9. Newly established stem cell transplant program: 100 days follow-up of patients and its comparison with published Indian literature

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Arora, Dinesh; Dara, Ravi C.; Dorwal, Pranav; Sood, Nitin; Misra, Ruchira; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Raina, Vimarsh; Vaid, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplantation (HPSCT) is used as a standard treatment option to improve outcome in hematological and nonhematological disorders. It is important for new HPSCT program to look at its patient outcome data and compare it with the published data to evaluate the efficacy of program. Aims: The aim was to compile and collate the patient outcome data of HPSCT and compare with published reports. Materials and Methods: Patient demographics, indications, stem cell harvest by apheresis, dose collected, infusion, engraftment, and follow-up data were collected from hospital information system from 2010 to 2013 in a tertiary care hospital. HPSCs were mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and harvests were done on the 5th day. Engraftment was decided for neutrophil when counts were 0.5 × 109/L and for platelets when counts were 20 × 109/L on two consecutive days without any transfusion support. Results: There were 133 harvests for 95 patients with various disorders; multiple myeloma was most common in autologous and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in allogeneic group. One hundred harvests were done for autologous and 33 for allogeneic HPSCT. In autologous group, of 66 patients, 60 (90.9%) received stem cell infusion at median dose of 4.63 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. Similarly, in allogeneic group, of 29 patients, 27 (93.10%) received infusion at median dose of 5.8 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. 58 (96.9%) patients and 25 (92.6%) engrafted in autologous and allogeneic group, respectively. The median time for neutrophils engraftment was 11 days in autologous group and 12 days in allogeneic group. The median time for platelet engraftment was 11.5 days in autologous group and 13 days in allogeneic group. The 100-day survival rate was 95% (n = 57) in autologous group and 77.8% (n = 21) in allogeneic group. Conclusion: This data analysis shows reasonably good results of HPSCTs with majority of patients surviving at 100-day follow

  10. Mucor irregularis infection around the inner canthus cured by amphotericin B: a case report and review of published literatures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daoxian; Jiang, Xian; Wan, Huiying; Ran, Yuping; Hao, Dan; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis. A 47-year-old farmer was presented to our clinic with the history of progressive red plaque around the inner canthus following dacryocystectomy about a year earlier. Linear, aseptate hyphae were seen by direct KOH examination and in biopsy. Fungal culture revealed light yellow filamentous colonies that were identified as Mucor irregularis by nucleotide sequencing of rRNA gene. Amphotericin B and dexamethasone were used in gradually increasing dosage. The treatment lasted 43 days, and the patient received 760 mg total amphotericin B. The patient was discharged after 2 months of treatment. The plaque became smooth, and fungal culture was negative. There was no recurrence for half a year through telephone follow-ups. A review of published studies revealed 23 cases of Mucor irregularis infection. Most cases resulted following injuries or surgical complications. Farmers and manual laborers were most at risk with males outnumbering females among patients. Amphotericin B and its liposomal preparations remain most effective treatment choices.

  11. Effect of Angiogenesis Inhibitor Bevacizumab on Survival in Patients with Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi; Ye, Zhi-Jian; Shi, Huan-Zhong; Zhou, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor which has been used in conjunction with other anti-cancer agents in the treatment of patients with many cancers. It remains controversial whether bevacizumab can prolong survival in cancer patients. This meta-analysis was therefore performed to evaluate effect of bevacizumab on survival in cancer patients. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for English-language studies of randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab with control therapy published through February 8, 2012. Progression-free survival, overall survival, and one-year survival rate were analyzed using random- or fixed-effects model. Thirty one assessable randomized controlled trials were identified. A significant improvement in progression-free survival in cancer patients was attributable to bevacizumab compared with control therapy (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 0.76; p<0.001). Overall survival was also significantly longer in patients were treated with bevacizumab (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.91; p<0.001). The significant benefit in one-year survival rate was further seen in cancer patients receiving bevacizumab (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 1.41; p<0.001). Current evidences showed that bevacizumab prolong progression-free survival and overall survival, and increase one-year survival rate in cancer patients as compared with control therapy. PMID:22539986

  12. ACTN3 Genotype, Athletic Status, and Life Course Physical Capability: Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature and Findings from Nine Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Tamuno; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gunnell, David; Harris, Sarah E; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Moran, Colin N; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Ring, Susan M; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Smith, George Davey; Starr, John M; Kuh, Diana; Day, Ian NM

    2011-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genotype has been associated with athletic status and muscle phenotypes, although not consistently. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published literature on athletic status and investigate its associations with physical capability in several new population-based studies. Relevant data were extracted from studies in the literature, comparing genotype frequencies between controls and sprint/power and endurance athletes. For life course physical capability, data were used from two studies of adolescents and seven studies in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research program, involving individuals aged between 53 and 90+ years. We found evidence from the published literature to support the hypothesis that in Europeans the RR genotype is more common among sprint/power athletes compared with their controls. There is currently no evidence that the X allele is advantageous to endurance athleticism. We found no association between R577X and grip strength (P = 0.09, n = 7,672 in males; P = 0.90, n = 7,839 in females), standing balance, timed get up and go, or chair rises in our studies of physical capability. The ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power athletic status in Europeans, but does not appear to be associated with objective measures of physical capability in the general population. Hum Mutat 32:1–11, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21542061

  13. Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, S.; Ved, Devendra Kumar; Lalitha, S.; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparṇī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparṇī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? Aim: There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Results and Conclusion: Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes

  14. Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature.

    PubMed

    Aparna, S; Ved, Devendra Kumar; Lalitha, S; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-07-01

    Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparṇī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparṇī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes prescribed.

  15. Evidence-based medicine training in undergraduate medical education: a review and critique of the literature published 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Lauren A; Tannery, Nancy H; Chen, H Carrie; ten Cate, Olle; O'Brien, Bridget

    2013-07-01

    To characterize recent evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational interventions for medical students and suggest future directions for EBM education. The authors searched the MEDLINE, Scopus, Educational Resource Information Center, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases for English-language articles published between 2006 and 2011 that featured medical students and interventions addressing multiple EBM skills. They extracted data on learner and instructor characteristics, educational settings, teaching methods, and EBM skills covered. The 20 included articles described interventions delivered in 12 countries in classroom (75%), clinic (25%), and/or online (20%) environments. The majority (60%) focused on clinical students, whereas 30% targeted preclinical students and 10% included both. EBM skills addressed included recognizing a knowledge gap (20%), asking a clinical question (90%), searching for information (90%), appraising information (85%), applying information (65%), and evaluating practice change (5%). Physicians were most often identified as instructors (60%); co-teachers included librarians (20%), allied health professionals (10%), and faculty from other disciplines (10%). Many studies (60%) included interventions at multiple points during one year, but none were longitudinal across students' tenures. Teaching methods varied. Intervention efficacy could not be determined. Settings, learner levels and instructors, teaching methods, and covered skills differed across interventions. Authors writing about EBM interventions should include detailed descriptions and employ more rigorous research methods to allow others to draw conclusions about efficacy. When designing EBM interventions, educators should consider trends in medical education (e.g., online learning, interprofessional education) and in health care (e.g., patient-centered care, electronic health records).

  16. Historical ambient airborne asbestos concentrations in the United States - an analysis of published and unpublished literature (1960s-2000s).

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Anders; Glynn, Meghan E; Pierce, Jennifer S; Scott, Paul K; Serrano, Samantha; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor concentrations of airborne asbestos have been measured throughout the US over time. However, a thorough review and analysis of these data has not been conducted. The purpose of this study is to characterize asbestos concentrations in ambient air by environment type (urban, rural) and by decade, using measurements collected in the absence of known asbestos emission sources. A total of 17 published and unpublished studies and datasets were identified that reported the results of 2058 samples collected from the 1960s through the 2000s across the US. Most studies did not report asbestos fiber type, and data based on different analytical methods (e.g. Phase Contrast Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, etc.) were combined in the dataset; however, only fibers ≥5 μm in length were considered. For a small subset of the measurements (n = 186, 9.0%), a conversion factor was used to convert mass-based data (e.g. ng/m(3)) to count-based values (i.e. f/cc ≥5 μm). The estimated overall mean and median ambient asbestos concentrations for the 1960s through 2000s were 0.00093 f/cc and 0.00022 f/cc, respectively. Concentrations generally increased from the 1960s through the early 1980s, after which they declined considerably. While asbestos use decreased throughout the 1970s, these results indicate that ambient concentrations peaked during the early 1980s, which suggests the possible contribution of abatement or demolition activities. Lastly, ambient asbestos concentrations were higher in urban than rural settings, which is consistent with the greater use of asbestos-containing materials in more densely populated areas.

  17. The fifth plot of the Carcinogenic Potency Database: results of animal bioassays published in the general literature through 1988 and by the National Toxicology Program through 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Garfinkel, G B; Rohrbach, L; Ames, B N

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the fifth plot of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) that first appeared in this journal in 1984 (1-5). We report here results of carcinogenesis bioassays published in the general literature between January 1987 and December 1988, and in technical reports of the National Toxicology Program between July 1987 and December 1989. This supplement includes results of 412 long-term, chronic experiments of 147 test compounds and reports the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 (carcinogenic potency) and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. We refer the reader to the 1984 publications (1,5,6) for a guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency, and a discussion of the sources of data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. The five plots of the database are to be used together, as results of individual experiments that were published earlier are not repeated. In all, the five plots include results of 4487 experiments on 1136 chemicals. Several analyses based on the CPDB that were published earlier are described briefly, and updated results based on all five plots are given for the following earlier analyses: the most potent TD50 value by species, reproducibility of bioassay results, positivity rates, and prediction between species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8354183

  18. Acupuncture-related adverse events: a systematic review of the Chinese literature

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Gao, Xiumei; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To systematically review the Chinese-language literature on acupuncture-related adverse events. Methods We searched three Chinese databases (the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, 1980–2009; the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database, 1980–2009; and the Weipu Journal Database, 1989–2009) to identify Chinese-language articles about the safety of traditional needle acupuncture. Case reports, case series, surveys and other observational studies were included if they reported factual data, but review articles, translations and clinical trials were excluded. Findings The inclusion criteria were met by 115 articles (98 case reports and 17 case series) that in total reported on 479 cases of adverse events after acupuncture. Fourteen patients died. Acupuncture-related adverse events were classified into three categories: traumatic, infectious and “other”. The most frequent adverse events were pneumothorax, fainting, subarachnoid haemorrhage and infection, while the most serious ones were cardiovascular injuries, subarachnoid haemorrhage, pneumothorax and recurrent cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion Many acupuncture-related adverse events, most of them owing to improper technique, have been described in the published Chinese literature. Efforts should be made to find effective ways of monitoring and minimizing the risks related to acupuncture. PMID:21124716

  19. Flood-related skin diseases: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Lueangarun, Saoraya; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2013-10-01

    Flood is one of the most common natural disasters, which commonly occurs in all parts of the world. The effects of the disasters considerably become enormous problems to overall public health systems. Flood-related skin diseases are a portion of these consequences presenting with cutaneous manifestations and/or signs of systemic illnesses. We conducted a systematic literature review of research publications relating to flooding and skin diseases. The purpose of this review was to provide dermatologists as well as general practitioners with comprehensive conditions of flood-related skin diseases and suggested treatments. Moreover, we categorized these flood-related diseases into four groups comprising inflammatory skin diseases, skin infections, traumatic skin diseases, and other miscellaneous skin diseases in a bid to implement early interventions and educate, prevent, and efficaciously handle those skin diseases under such a catastrophic situation so that better treatment outcomes and prevention of further complications could be ultimately achieved and accomplished. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Evaluation for skin sensitization based on published literatures (existing information) of major PRTR designated chemical substances in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoko; Ishii, Kaori; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Fujino, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Nakadate, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Of the 354 substances designated as class I under the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) law in Japan, we reviewed the sensitization data of the selected 144 substances and analyzed it from various aspects comparing human and animal data, determining the relationship between skin sensitization and chemical structure and comparing the various international organizations. Although most of them were expected to be hazardous substances, 49 out of the 144 substances lacked both human and animal sensitization data. Positive substances accounted for 69% and 42% of the substances for which sensitization data were available in the case of humans and animals, respectively. A correlation was observed between the chemical structures of the substances and sensitization, despite the relatively few substances examined in this study and the limited homogeneity of the collected data. In particular, epoxides clearly had sensitizing potentials and more than half of carboxylic esters or dicarboxyl anhydrides, aliphatic aldehydes, and aromatic compounds with at least two hydroxyl groups also had sensitizing potentials. Also, this study clearly demonstrated the lack of consistency across the sensitization assessment criteria adopted by different countries or among those adopted by the same country on the basis of different laws or administrative measures.

  1. Orthognathic surgery and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Z; Coombes, D M; Cascarini, L; Brennan, P A

    2010-07-01

    This paper provides a review of articles relating to deformity, orthognathic surgery, and distraction osteogenesis published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during 2008 and 2009. A total of 42 papers (26 full length articles, 5 technical notes, and 11 short communications or letters to the editor) were published. It was pleasing that 62% were full length articles; this is encouraging as such papers have a high educational value and are likely to be cited in future publications. Copyright 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 24-hour pattern of falls in hospitalized and long-term care institutionalized elderly persons: A systematic review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Manfredini, Roberto; Smolensky, Michael H; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2015-05-01

    Falls are common among the elderly > 65 years of age and can result in both serious trauma and costly medical care. The epidemiology of falls in the elderly typically focuses on identifying contributory exogenous environmental and endogenous age-related physical, cognitive and other health status factors; however, one potentially important variable seldom considered is time of fall. We sought to determine if falls in hospitalized/institutionalized elderly persons exhibit 24 h and other temporal patterns, since knowledge of such could be useful in their prevention. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to critically appraise and synthesize the methods and findings of previous reports addressing clock-time, day-of-week and month-of-year fall patterns of institutionalized elderly cohorts. Medline, SCOPUS, Ovid SP and Web of Knowledge were systematic assessed, entering search terms of "accidental fall", "circadian rhythm", "biological clocks", "circadian clocks", "activity cycles", "periodicity", and with databases accepting an age limiter, "age of 65(+) years". Methodological quality was assessed by STROBE and CONSORT checklists, respectively, in observational and clinical studies. Publications were reviewed if meeting inclusion criteria of: (i) being an empirical study, (ii) adopting circadian and/or other period rhythmicity as a fall risk, and (iii) focusing on hospitalized/institutionalized falls in those ≥ 65 years of age; plus exclusion criteria of: (i) cohort < 65 years of age and (ii) reports as dissertations or editorials. The search retrieved 170 publications; however, only nine met all inclusion/exclusion criteria. Typically, past studies disregarded the temporal aspects of fall incidents; the few that did varied in quality, institutional setting, and patient type, i.e. medical diagnoses. Overall, findings suggest a single or double-peak 24 h pattern of fall incidence, with time of greatest incidence seemingly associated

  3. Bibliographic database of PACS-related articles from the SPIE literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shile, Peter E.; Freiermuth, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    Publications of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE) contain much of the relevant literature on Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and related topics. In fact, many PACS-related articles indexed by the National Library of Medicine contain references to articles published by SPIE. Unfortunately, SPIE publications themselves are not indexed by the National Library of Medicine and thus can not be identified through Medline. The lack of a convenient mechanism for searching the SPIE literature is problematic for researchers in medical imaging. With the recent introduction on SPIE's Internet server of their Abstracts Online service and their In-CiteTM title and author searching software, the SPIE literature has become more accessible. However, the searching process is still a cumbersome and time consuming process, and it is not possible to perform key word searches of manuscript abstracts. In this paper we present results of our work on developing a mechanism to more thoroughly search SPIE publications for PACS-related articles.

  4. Detection and Reporting of Ranavirus in Amphibians: Evaluation of the Roles of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Black, Yvonne; Meredith, Anna; Price, Stephen J

    2017-04-12

    Pathogens of wildlife can have direct impacts on human and livestock health as well as on biodiversity, as causative factors in population declines and extinctions. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) seeks to facilitate rapid sharing of information about animal diseases to enable up-to-date risk assessments of translocations of animals and animal products. The OIE also produces manuals of recommended methods to standardize diagnostic testing. Ranaviruses are important amphibian pathogens that may have spread through international trade, and infections became notifiable to OIE in 2009. We surveyed and reviewed published literature for data on sampling, diagnostic testing, and reporting of ranavirus during 2009-2014. We also investigated attitudes and awareness of the OIE and its recommendations for best practice. We found that sampling effort is uneven and concentrated in the northern hemisphere. We also identified citizen science projects that have the potential to improve the quantity and quality of data on the incidence of ranavirus infection and the circumstances surrounding disease outbreaks. We found reporting of infection to be inconsistent: reporting was split between the published literature (where it was subject to a 2-yr lag) and the OIE with little overlap, results of negative diagnostic tests were underreported, and scientific researchers lacked awareness of the role of the OIE. Approaches to diagnostic screening were poorly harmonized and heavily reliant on molecular methods. These flaws in the mechanisms of ranavirus detection and reporting hamper the construction of a comprehensive disease information database.

  5. Sixth plot of the carcinogenic potency database: results of animal bioassays published in the General Literature 1989 to 1990 and by the National Toxicology Program 1990 to 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Garfinkel, G B; Ames, B N; Rohrbach, L; Stern, B R; Chow, K

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents two types of information from the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): (a) the sixth chronological plot of analyses of long-term carcinogenesis bioassays, and (b) an index to chemicals in all six plots, including a summary compendium of positivity and potency for each chemical (Appendix 14). The five earlier plots of the CPDB have appeared in this journal, beginning in 1984 (1-5). Including the plot in this paper, the CPDB reports results of 5002 experiments on 1230 chemicals. This paper includes bioassay results published in the general literature between January 1989 and December 1990, and in Technical Reports of the National Toxicology Program between January 1990 and June 1993. Analyses are included on 17 chemicals tested in nonhuman primates by the Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, National Cancer Institute. This plot presents results of 531 long-term, chronic experiments of 182 test compounds and includes the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 (carcinogenic potency) and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. We refer the reader to the 1984 publications (1,6,7) for a detailed guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency, and a discussion of the sources of data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. The six plots of the CPDB are to be used together since results of individual experiments that were published earlier are not repeated. Appendix 14 is designed to facilitate access to results on all chemicals. References to the published papers that are the source of

  6. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.; Stratton, Chris; Wray, Craig P.

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  7. Review of orthognathic surgery and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Alexander M C; Payne, Karl F B; Tahim, Arpan; Colbert, Serryth; Brennan, Peter A

    2015-04-01

    This review summarises all orthognathic and related papers published between January 2011 and December 2012 in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS). A total of 36 articles were published, a high proportion of which (78%) were full-length papers. The remainder consisted of short communications and technical notes. The topics included operative planning and postoperative outcomes, and there was a strong focus on distraction osteogenesis. There were fewer orthognathic articles published in BJOMS than articles on other subspecialties such as trauma or head and neck oncology. Only 8 (29%) of the full-length articles were prospective studies or randomised trials, which highlights a need for well-designed clinical studies in orthognathic research. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Summarization and analysis on the acupuncture-related articles published in science citation index (SCI) periodicals in 2005].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Wu, Li-Ping; Guo, Yi

    2007-04-01

    To retrieve, summarize and analyze journals and articles related to acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005, so as to understand the international dynamics about acupuncture researches. The articles about treatment and mechanisms of acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005 were found out and searched for by acupuncture information retrieval online and databank. Most of the 72 SCI periodicals retrieved are from the west, with 147 articles of acupuncture published, and Lancet has the highest impact factors of 23. 407. The kinds of the journals and articles publishing acupuncture researches are increasing, with varied types, rich and varied contents, and increasing the design level. However, the results of the studies are vastly different due to differences of experimental methods, objects and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of acupuncture studies is extremely urgent.

  9. Mining of relations between proteins over biomedical scientific literature using a deep-linguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Schneider, Gerold; Kaljurand, Kaarel; Hess, Michael; Andronis, Christos; Konstandi, Ourania; Persidis, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    The amount of new discoveries (as published in the scientific literature) in the biomedical area is growing at an exponential rate. This growth makes it very difficult to filter the most relevant results, and thus the extraction of the core information becomes very expensive. Therefore, there is a growing interest in text processing approaches that can deliver selected information from scientific publications, which can limit the amount of human intervention normally needed to gather those results. This paper presents and evaluates an approach aimed at automating the process of extracting functional relations (e.g. interactions between genes and proteins) from scientific literature in the biomedical domain. The approach, using a novel dependency-based parser, is based on a complete syntactic analysis of the corpus. We have implemented a state-of-the-art text mining system for biomedical literature, based on a deep-linguistic, full-parsing approach. The results are validated on two different corpora: the manually annotated genomics information access (GENIA) corpus and the automatically annotated arabidopsis thaliana circadian rhythms (ATCR) corpus. We show how a deep-linguistic approach (contrary to common belief) can be used in a real world text mining application, offering high-precision relation extraction, while at the same time retaining a sufficient recall.

  10. Canadian Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  11. [Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Katherine; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Literature. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide starts with an overview of literature topics for grades 4-12, followed by suggested activities, a list of supplementary books for elementary grades, and a table listing specific skills. The remainder of the guide deals with ten cardinal concerns and…

  12. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as…

  13. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Methods Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. Results A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Conclusions Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations. PMID:22966953

  14. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain in Cancer Patients: Pooled Estimates From a Systematic Review of Published Literature and Results From a Survey Conducted in 50 Italian Palliative Care Centers.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Anna; Deandrea, Silvia; Greco, Maria Teresa; Corli, Oscar; Negri, Eva; Pizzuto, Massimo; Ruggeri, Fabrizio

    2016-06-01

    Because of the increasing body of literature on neuropathic cancer pain (NCP), an accurate estimate of its prevalence requires recurring updates. To provide this estimate using information from a systematic review and a survey. Using MEDLINE, Embase, and a previous review, we searched for studies published up to 2014 reporting data on NCP prevalence in adult cancer populations. Pooled prevalence rates from observational prospective studies were computed. The association between NCP prevalence and possible predictors was investigated for oncology and palliative settings. Prevalence rates were extracted from a questionnaire answered by 137 physicians working in 50 Italian centers of palliative care. Estimates from studies conducted in palliative settings and from the experts were analyzed separately and eventually pooled with an informative Bayesian random-effect model. Twenty-nine observational studies were identified. The overall pooled prevalence was 31.2%, with high heterogeneity; similar figures were observed when oncology and palliative settings were individually considered. A slightly higher prevalence of NCP was detected for hospice/inpatients as compared to outpatients, in both settings. The mean NCP prevalence reported by the survey experts was 44.2%; the pooled Bayesian estimate for the palliative setting corresponded to 43.0% (95% CI: 40.0-46.0). The subgroup with the lowest heterogeneity and where the literature and experts' estimates were closest is hospice/inpatients, with a pooled Bayesian prevalence rate of 34.9% (95% CI: 29.9-41.0). The systematic review and the survey suggest that more than one in three patients with cancer pain also experiences NCP. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions to Prevent Child Marriage Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Lee-Rife, Susan; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Child marriage, defined as marriage before the age of 18 years, is a human rights violation that can have lasting adverse educational and economic impacts. The objective of this review was to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decease child marriage in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was used, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Eleven high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Six found positive results in decreasing the proportion married or increasing age at marriage, one had both positive and negative findings, and four had no statistical impact on the proportion married or age at marriage. There is wide range of high-quality, impactful interventions included in this review which can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to eradicate marriage, a current target of the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the cultural factors that promote child marriage, the diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the cultural context of the target population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A descriptive review of the peer and non-peer reviewed literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published between 2000 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Potterton, S L; Bell, N J; Whay, H R; Berry, E A; Atkinson, O C D; Dean, R S; Main, D C J; Huxley, J N

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to collate and review the peer and non-peer reviewed English language literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published since January 2000. The study aimed to identify deficits in knowledge and areas of disparity between what is recommended in the field by veterinarians, foot trimmers and advisors and what has been substantiated experimentally. Peer reviewed literature containing original work was gathered by searching three databases. Papers were categorised and reviewed if they contained material on treatment or prevention. Non-peer reviewed clinical materials were collated from a range of sources. The materials were reviewed and categorised based on whether they recommended a range of possible treatment and prevention strategies. The peer reviewed data base contained 591 papers, of which 286 contained information on treatment or prevention. The vast majority of papers (258) concerned prevention; only a small number covered treatment (31) and of these only three contained information on the treatment of sole ulcers or white line disease. The number of intervention studies and trials was low; most papers on prevention were observational. Generally, lesion specific outcomes were not described making the findings of these papers difficult to use clinically. The non-peer reviewed material contained 46 sources; they varied significantly in regard to the treatments they advocated with some texts directly contradicting each other. Some aspects of prevention recommended in these sources seemed poorly supported by findings from the research literature. Well designed intervention studies are required to address these deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global trend in articles related to stereotactic published in science citation index-expanded.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kuang-Chen; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liu, Jung-Tung

    2012-04-01

    This is the first article using bibliometrics to study the field of stereotactic related research. This study aims to evaluate the global scientific production of simulation research in the category of "stereotactic" during 1993-2008 and to provide insights on the characteristics of the stereotactic related research patterns, tendencies, and methods that might exist in the papers, as well as in leading countries and institutes. In this study, "stereotactic*" was used as the keyword to search titles, abstracts, and keywords in the database of the Science Citation Index Expanded. All the articles referring to stereotactic during the studied years, were assessed by the following aspects: document type of publication, characteristics of publication outputs, distribution of outputs in journals, publication outputs of source country, source institute, and analysis of words cluster in title, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus. Eleven document types were found in the total 10 015 publications during 1993-2008. Clinical neurology was the most common category in stereotactic-related research. Neurosurgery listed in categories of clinical neurology and surgery, ranked first. The most productive country and institute were USA and University of Pittsburgh respectively. Words cluster analysis was elaborated regarding the issues of movement disorders, radiosurgery, tumor, and vascular/stroke, it revealed the sharp rise of articles from 1995 until the end of the period covered in "movement disorders" category. The results analyzed by this bibliometric method can show the research performance, significant events and major inventors, those attributed to stereotactic neurosurgery, and trend of stereotactic related research.

  18. Publishing Research in LIS Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to the considerable coverage of research methods and report writing, relatively little attention has been given in the professional literature to the steps that should be taken and issues which may be borne in mind by a researcher seeking to have his or her work published. By addressing ten broad questions reflecting common concerns,…

  19. Publishing Research in LIS Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to the considerable coverage of research methods and report writing, relatively little attention has been given in the professional literature to the steps that should be taken and issues which may be borne in mind by a researcher seeking to have his or her work published. By addressing ten broad questions reflecting common concerns,…

  20. Etiology of depression comorbidity in combat-related PTSD: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Highfill-McRoy, Robyn M

    2014-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is often diagnosed with other mental health problems, particularly depression. Although PTSD comorbidity has been associated with more severe and chronic symptomology, relationships among commonly co-occurring disorders are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to review the literature regarding the development of depression comorbid with combat-related PTSD among military personnel. We summarize results of commonly tested hypotheses about the etiology of PTSD and depression comorbidity, including (1) causal hypotheses, (2) common factor hypotheses, and (3) potential confounds. Evidence suggests that PTSD may be a causal risk factor for subsequent depression; however, associations are likely complex, involving bidirectional causality, common risk factors, and common vulnerabilities. The unique nature of PTSD-depression comorbidity in the context of military deployment and combat exposure is emphasized. Implications of our results for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. "Getting the Point" of Literature: Relations between Processing and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Candice; Goldman, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of literary experts and novices indicate that experts engage in interpretive processes to "get the point" during their reading of literary texts but novices do not. In two studies the reading and interpretive processes of literary novices (undergraduates with no formal training in literature study) were elicited through…

  2. Focus-on-Form Instruction: A Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahani, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this literature review I have first provided an introduction in which I've clarified the meaning of focus on form issue and some debates about its advantages and disadvantages and the needed degree of focus on form in teaching structures in classroom. Then I have stated some features of focus on form and the ways that focus on form can…

  3. Teaching Poetry in Elementary Grades: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Theresa N.

    In order to assess current ideas, reveal their shortcomings, and suggest steps for future investigation, this review of the literature on teaching poetry discusses definitions of poetry, references on teaching poetry, teaching methods, poetic forms, experimental research, and the benefits of poetry. The paper concludes that the lack of empirical…

  4. Why Are Medical and Health-Related Studies Not Being Published? A Systematic Review of Reasons Given by Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fujian; Loke, Yoon; Hooper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective About half of medical and health-related studies are not published. We conducted a systematic review of reports on reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies in peer-reviewed journals. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (until 13/09/2013), and references of identified articles were searched to identify reports of surveys that provided data on reasons given by investigators for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission and reasons for non-publication was calculated using the number of unpublished studies as the denominator. Because of heterogeneity across studies, quantitative pooling was not conducted. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted. Results We included 54 survey reports. Data from 38 included reports were available to estimate proportions of at least one reason given for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission among unpublished studies ranged from 55% to 100%, with a median of 85%. The reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies included: lack of time or low priority (median 33%), studies being incomplete (median 15%), study not for publication (median 14%), manuscript in preparation or under review (median 12%), unimportant or negative result (median 12%), poor study quality or design (median 11%), fear of rejection (median 12%), rejection by journals (median 6%), author or co-author problems (median 10%), and sponsor or funder problems (median 9%). In general, the frequency of reasons given for non-publication was not associated with the source of unpublished studies, study design, or time when a survey was conducted. Conclusions Non-submission of studies for publication remains the main cause of non-publication of studies. Measures to reduce non-publication of studies and alternative models of research dissemination need to be developed to address the main reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies, such as lack of time or low

  5. Why are medical and health-related studies not being published? A systematic review of reasons given by investigators.

    PubMed

    Song, Fujian; Loke, Yoon; Hooper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    About half of medical and health-related studies are not published. We conducted a systematic review of reports on reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies in peer-reviewed journals. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (until 13/09/2013), and references of identified articles were searched to identify reports of surveys that provided data on reasons given by investigators for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission and reasons for non-publication was calculated using the number of unpublished studies as the denominator. Because of heterogeneity across studies, quantitative pooling was not conducted. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted. We included 54 survey reports. Data from 38 included reports were available to estimate proportions of at least one reason given for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission among unpublished studies ranged from 55% to 100%, with a median of 85%. The reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies included: lack of time or low priority (median 33%), studies being incomplete (median 15%), study not for publication (median 14%), manuscript in preparation or under review (median 12%), unimportant or negative result (median 12%), poor study quality or design (median 11%), fear of rejection (median 12%), rejection by journals (median 6%), author or co-author problems (median 10%), and sponsor or funder problems (median 9%). In general, the frequency of reasons given for non-publication was not associated with the source of unpublished studies, study design, or time when a survey was conducted. Non-submission of studies for publication remains the main cause of non-publication of studies. Measures to reduce non-publication of studies and alternative models of research dissemination need to be developed to address the main reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies, such as lack of time or low priority and fear of being rejected by

  6. A Systematic Review and Taxonomy of Published Quality Criteria Related to the Evaluation of User-Facing eHealth Programs.

    PubMed

    Baumel, Amit; Birnbaum, Michael L; Sucala, Madalina

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify and classify key criteria concepts related to the evaluation of user-facing eHealth programs. In line with the PRISMA statement methodology, computer searches of relevant databases were conducted for studies published between January 1, 2000 and March 1, 2016 that contained explicit quality criteria related to mHealth and eHealth products. Reference lists of included articles, review articles, and grey literature (e.g., books, websites) were searched for additional sources. A team of nine experts led by the first author was gathered to support the classification of these criteria. Identified criteria were extracted, grouped and organized using an inductive thematic analysis. Eighty-four sources - emanating from 26 different courtiers - were included in this review. The team extracted 454 criteria that were grouped into 11 quality domains, 58 criteria concepts and 134 concepts' sub-groups. Quality domains were: Usability, Visual Design, User Engagement, Content, Behavior Change/Persuasive Design, Influence of Social Presence, Therapeutic Alliance, Classification, Credibility/Accountability, and Privacy/Security. Findings suggest that authors around the globe agree on key criteria concepts when evaluating user-facing eHealth products. The high proportion of new published criteria in the second half of this review time-frame (2008-2016), and more specifically, the high proportion of criteria relating to persuasive design, therapeutic alliance and privacy/security within this time-frame, points to the advancements made in recent years within this field.

  7. Relating patenting and peer-review publications: an extended perspective on the vascular health and risk management literature.

    PubMed

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2011-01-01

    This investigation identifies patent applications published under the international Patent Convention Treaty between July 2010 and January 2011 in three significant fields of vascular risk management (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms) and investigates whether the inventors have also published peer reviewed papers directly describing their claimed invention. Out of only 48 patent documents that specifically addressed at least one of the above-mentioned fields, 15 had immediate companion papers of which 13 were published earlier than the corresponding patent applications; the majority of these papers were published by noncorporate patentees. Although the majority of patent applications (30 documents) had at least one corporate assignee, 18 came from academic environments. As expected, medical devices dominated in the aneurysm segment while pharmacology dominated hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although information related to hypertension, atherosclerosis, or aneurysms that was claimed in international patent applications reached the public quicker through the corresponding peer review document if one was published, more than two-thirds of the patent applications had no such companion paper in a scientific journal. The patent literature, which is freely available online as full text, offers information to scientists and developers in the fields of vascular risk management that is not available from the peer reviewed literature.

  8. [Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. A report of two new cases and a review of the literature published over the past ten years].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Costa, T; Cabello, A; Recuero-Fernández, E; Casas-Fernández, C; Puche-Mira, A; Domingo-Jiménez, R; Ricoy, J R

    The neuroaxonal dystrophies make up a group of neurodegenerative disorders of unknown origin, which are characterized by all showing axonal lesions. The infantile form, or Seitelberger s disease, is one of the forms of earliest onset and rapid progression. The clinical, neurophysiological and pathological criteria described by Aicardi and Castelein in 1979 are still valid. However, we should emphasise the great usefulness of cerebral MR scanning in making an early diagnosis of this condition. We report two brothers, sons of consanguineous parents, who fulfilled the above clinical criteria. Their illness presented before the age of three years, with arrested psychomotor development followed by regression, an initial hypotonia syndrome which progressed to spastic tetraplegia, optic atrophy and progressive deafness, blindness and dementia. Neurophysiological findings were of central conduction disorders, and chronic denervation was shown on EMG. On EEG there were high frequency, high voltage rhythms. MR scanning showed the cerebral cortex to become atrophied and hyperintense at an early stage. On biopsy of the sural nerve and of skin there was spheroid swelling of the axons with tubulous vesicular material seen in myelinated and nonmyelinated axons. We reviewed the literature published over the past ten years (1990 2000). From this we conclude that on the initial clinical and neurophysiological criteria of Aicardi and with the aid of current neuroimaging techniques, the diagnosis may be suspected sufficiently early so as to permit genetic counselling. This would help to avoid further, high risk pregnancies, even before the diagnosis had been confirmed by the biopsy findings.

  9. Desktop Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Milt

    1986-01-01

    Defines desktop publishing, describes microcomputer developments and software tools that make it possible, and discusses its use as an instructional tool to improve writing skills. Reasons why students' work should be published, examples of what to publish, and types of software and hardware to facilitate publishing are reviewed. (MBR)

  10. Mind the Gap! A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Variation in Published Cost-Effectiveness Estimates within and between Countries

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christian E. H.; Lord, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Published cost-effectiveness estimates can vary considerably, both within and between countries. Despite extensive discussion, little is known empirically about factors relating to these variations. Objectives. To use multilevel statistical modeling to integrate cost-effectiveness estimates from published economic evaluations to investigate potential causes of variation. Methods. Cost-effectiveness studies of statins for cardiovascular disease prevention were identified by systematic review. Estimates of incremental costs and effects were extracted from reported base case, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses, with estimates grouped in studies and in countries. Three bivariate models were developed: a cross-classified model to accommodate data from multinational studies, a hierarchical model with multinational data allocated to a single category at country level, and a hierarchical model excluding multinational data. Covariates at different levels were drawn from a long list of factors suggested in the literature. Results. We found 67 studies reporting 2094 cost-effectiveness estimates relating to 23 countries (6 studies reporting for more than 1 country). Data and study-level covariates included patient characteristics, intervention and comparator cost, and some study methods (e.g., discount rates and time horizon). After adjusting for these factors, the proportion of variation attributable to countries was negligible in the cross-classified model but moderate in the hierarchical models (14%−19% of total variance). Country-level variables that improved the fit of the hierarchical models included measures of income and health care finance, health care resources, and population risks. Conclusions. Our analysis suggested that variability in published cost-effectiveness estimates is related more to differences in study methods than to differences in national context. Multinational studies were associated with much lower country-level variation than single

  11. Mind the Gap! A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Variation in Published Cost-Effectiveness Estimates within and between Countries.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Christian E H; Lord, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Published cost-effectiveness estimates can vary considerably, both within and between countries. Despite extensive discussion, little is known empirically about factors relating to these variations. To use multilevel statistical modeling to integrate cost-effectiveness estimates from published economic evaluations to investigate potential causes of variation. Cost-effectiveness studies of statins for cardiovascular disease prevention were identified by systematic review. Estimates of incremental costs and effects were extracted from reported base case, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses, with estimates grouped in studies and in countries. Three bivariate models were developed: a cross-classified model to accommodate data from multinational studies, a hierarchical model with multinational data allocated to a single category at country level, and a hierarchical model excluding multinational data. Covariates at different levels were drawn from a long list of factors suggested in the literature. We found 67 studies reporting 2094 cost-effectiveness estimates relating to 23 countries (6 studies reporting for more than 1 country). Data and study-level covariates included patient characteristics, intervention and comparator cost, and some study methods (e.g., discount rates and time horizon). After adjusting for these factors, the proportion of variation attributable to countries was negligible in the cross-classified model but moderate in the hierarchical models (14%-19% of total variance). Country-level variables that improved the fit of the hierarchical models included measures of income and health care finance, health care resources, and population risks. Our analysis suggested that variability in published cost-effectiveness estimates is related more to differences in study methods than to differences in national context. Multinational studies were associated with much lower country-level variation than single-country studies. These findings are for a single clinical

  12. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Luka A.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel. PMID:28263989

  13. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision.

    PubMed

    Lamurias, Andre; Clarke, Luka A; Couto, Francisco M

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel.

  14. Topiramate in the treatment of substance related disorders: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shinn, Ann K.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To critically review the literature on topiramate in the treatment of substance related disorders. Data Sources A PubMed search of human studies published in English through January 2009. Study Selection 26 articles were identified and reviewed; these studies examined topiramate in disorders related to alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines. Data Extraction Study design, sample size, topiramate dose and duration, and study outcomes were reviewed. Data Synthesis There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Two trials show trends for topiramate’s superiority over oral naltrexone in alcohol dependence, while one trial suggests topiramate is inferior to disulfiram. Despite suggestive animal models, evidence for topiramate in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans is slim. Studies of topiramate in nicotine dependence show mixed results. Human laboratory studies that used acute topiramate dosing show that topiramate actually enhances the pleasurable effects of both nicotine and methamphetamine. Evidence for topiramate in the treatment of cocaine dependence is promising, but limited by small sample size. The data on opioids, benzodiazepines, and ecstasy are sparse. Conclusion Topiramate is efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but side effects may limit widespread use. While topiramate’s unique pharmacodynamic profile offers a promising theoretical rationale for use across multiple substance related disorders, heterogeneity both across and within these disorders limits topiramate’s broad applicability in treating substance related disorders. Recommendations for future research include exploration of genetic variants for more targeted pharmacotherapies. PMID:20361908

  15. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  16. How are the costs of drug-related morbidity measured?: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Rehnberg, Clas; Carlsten, Anders

    2012-03-01

    Drug-related morbidity has been associated with increased healthcare costs and has been suggested as one of the leading causes of death. Previous reviews have identified heterogeneity in research methods in studies measuring the cost of drug-related morbidity. To date, no attempt has been made to analyse different methods and cost sources used when estimating the costs of drug-related morbidity. The aim of this review was to evaluate and compare methods and data sources in cost estimates of drug-related morbidity. A literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE and MEDLINE) to identify peer-reviewed articles written in English and published between January 1990 and November 2011. Articles were included if estimating the direct or indirect costs of drug-related morbidity based on clinical data from general patient groups. The general patient groups were defined as patients visiting, being admitted to, treated at or discharged from a general hospital, excluding studies from nursing homes or specialized hospitals. Study information was collected using a standardized data collection sheet. Studies were categorized according to the type of costs included in the cost analysis. Thereafter, the cost analyses of included studies were reviewed regarding viewpoint, costing methods and adjustments for timing of costs. In total, 9569 articles were identified, of which 25 publications were included in this review, and four additional articles were identified from reference or citation lists of publications already included. Eighteen studies measured either the total or attributable costs of drug-related morbidity, while seven studies estimated the increased costs using matched controls or regression analyses. Six studies measured costs from a payer perspective, while the other 23 measured costs to the hospital. One study included costs resulting after discharge, and discounted future costs, while the remaining 28 studies measured costs during the

  17. [Family practices related to breast-feeding maintenance: literature review and meta-synthesis].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Alder Mourão; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone

    2013-08-01

    To identify and summarize family practices related to the maintenance of breast-feeding. We conducted a literature review and meta-synthesis of the findings of selected articles. Fourteen articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish between 1989 and 2009 were selected. The synthesis revealed five categories concerning family practices related to the maintenance of breast-feeding: 1) emotional support, which involves welcoming the mother and the baby, valuing and encouraging breast-feeding, and emphasizing the value of breast-feeding; 2) instrumental support, which covers attending prenatal consultations and home visits, participating in baby care, and providing help in everyday tasks beyond the first few weeks postpartum; 3) informational support, which involves stating the wish to be involved in breast-feeding and encouraging the mother, but not forcing her to share experiences; 4) presence support, which involves being close to the mother and taking the time to listen to her; and 5) self-support, which involves maintaining positive expectations about breast-feeding. The results show that practices defined as support contribute to the maintenance of breast-feeding for longer periods. These findings underscore the need for expansion of the care provided to women, children, and families to include issues related to interpersonal interactions.

  18. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F

    2015-01-01

    Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic.

  19. Oral lichenoid lesions related to contact with dental materials: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cobos-Fuentes, María-José; Martínez-Sahuquillo-Márquez, Angel; Gallardo-Castillo, Isabel; Armas-Padrón, Jose-Ramón; Moreno-Fernández, Ana; Bullón-Fernández, Pedro

    2009-10-01

    Oral lichenoid lesions related to contact are defined as oral-cavity eruptions with an identifiable etiology, and are clinically and histologically similar to oral lichen planus. Within this group are found oral lichenoid lesions related to contact with dental materials (OLLC), the most common being those related to silver amalgam. Currently, it remains difficult to diagnose these lesions due to the clinical and histopathological similarity with oral lichen planus and other oral mucosa lesions of lichenoid characteristics. In the present paper, we carry out an updated review of the tests for, and the different characteristics of OLLC, which may aid the diagnosis. For this review, we made searches in the Pubmed(R) and Cochrane(R) databases. Among the literature we found several published papers, from which we have used review papers, case papers, cohort studies, case and control studies, and a meta-analysis study. After carrying out this review, we can conclude that the diagnosis of these lesions is still difficult and controversial. However, there are different aspects in the clinical presentation, pathological study and results obtained when replacing suspect materials, which, when taken together, may be useful when establishing the final diagnosis of OLLC.

  20. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  1. Is the large simple trial design used for comparative, post-approval safety research? A review of a clinical trials registry and the published literature.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Robert F; Lem, Joanna A; Gatto, Nicolle M; Eng, Sybil M

    2011-10-01

    Post-approval, observational drug safety studies face well known difficulties in controlling for confounding, particularly confounding by indication for drug use. A study design that addresses confounding by indication is the large simple trial (LST). LSTs are characterized by large sample sizes, often in the thousands; broad entry criteria consistent with the approved medication label; randomization based on equipoise, i.e. neither physician nor patient believes that one treatment option is superior; minimal, streamlined data collection requirements; objectively-measured endpoints (e.g. death, hospitalization); and follow-up that minimizes interventions or interference with normal clinical practice. In theory then, the LST is a preferred study design for drug and vaccine safety research because it controls for biases inherent to observational research while still providing results that are generalizable to 'real-world' use. To evaluate whether LSTs are used for comparative safety evaluation and if the design is, in fact, advantageous compared with other designs, we conducted a review of the published literature (1949 through 31 December 2010) and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry (2000 through 31 December 2010). Thirteen ongoing or completed safety LSTs were identified. The design has rarely been used in comparative drug safety research, which is due to the operational, financial and scientific hurdles of implementing the design. The studies that have been completed addressed important clinical questions and, in some cases, led to re-evaluation of medical practice. We conclude the design has demonstrated utility for comparative safety research of medicines and vaccines if the necessary scientific and operational conditions for its use are met.

  2. Genetic Variants in the Folate Pathway and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects: A Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ti; Lou, Jiao; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Jing; Zou, Li; Sun, Yu; Lu, Xuzai; Liu, Li; Miao, Xiaoping; Xiong, Guanglian

    2013-01-01

    Background Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are among the most prevalent and most severe congenital malformations worldwide. Polymorphisms in key genes involving the folate pathway have been reported to be associated with the risk of NTDs. However, the results from these published studies are conflicting. We surveyed the literature (1996–2011) and performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to provide empirical evidence on the association. Methods and Findings We investigated the effects of 5 genetic variants from 47 study populations, for a total of 85 case-control comparisons MTHFR C677T (42 studies; 4374 cases, 7232 controls), MTHFR A1298C (22 studies; 2602 cases, 4070 controls), MTR A2756G (9 studies; 843 cases, 1006 controls), MTRR A66G (8 studies; 703 cases, 1572 controls), and RFC-1 A80G (4 studies; 1107 cases, 1585 controls). We found a convincing evidence of dominant effects of MTHFR C677T (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.07–1.42) and suggestive evidence of RFC-1 A80G (OR 1.55; 95%CI 1.24–1.92). However, we found no significant effects of MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G in risk of NTDs in dominant, recessive or in allelic models. Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly suggested a significant association of the variant MTHFR C677T and a suggestive association of RFC-1 A80G with increased risk of NTDs. However, other variants involved in folate pathway do not demonstrate any evidence for a significant marginal association on susceptibility to NTDs. PMID:23593147

  3. Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): Results ofanimal bioassays published in the general literature through 1997 and bythe National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Lois Swirsky; Manley, Neela B.; Slone, Thomas H.; Rohrbach,Lars; Garfinkel, Georganne Backman

    2005-04-08

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a systematic and unifying resource that standardizes the results of chronic, long-term animal cancer tests which have been conducted since the 1950s. The analyses include sufficient information on each experiment to permit research into many areas of carcinogenesis. Both qualitative and quantitative information is reported on positive and negative experiments that meet a set of inclusion criteria. A measure of carcinogenic potency, TD50 (daily dose rate in mg/kg body weight/day to induce tumors in half of test animals that would have remained tumor-free at zero dose), is estimated for each tissue-tumor combination reported. This article is the ninth publication of a chronological plot of the CPDB; it presents results on 560 experiments of 188 chemicals in mice, rats, and hamsters from 185 publications in the general literature updated through 1997, and from 15 Reports of the National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998. The test agents cover a wide variety of uses and chemical classes. The CPDB Web Site(http://potency.berkeley.edu/) presents the combined database of all published plots in a variety of formats as well as summary tables by chemical and by target organ, supplemental materials on dosing and survival, a detailed guide to using the plot formats, and documentation of methods and publications. The overall CPDB, including the results in this article, presents easily accessible results of 6153 experiments on 1485 chemicals from 1426 papers and 429 NCI/NTP (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology program) Technical Reports. A tab-separated format of the full CPDB for reading the data into spreadsheets or database applications is available on the Web Site.

  4. The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: a Compilation of Published Literature on Health Needs and Relief Activities, March 2011-September 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Murray, Virginia; Hodgson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the health needs following the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and the lessons identified. Methods The relevant of peer review and grey literature articles in English and Japanese, and books in Japanese, published from March 2011 to September 2012 were searched. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and HMIC were searched for journal articles in English, CiNii for those in Japanese, and Amazon.co.jp. for books. Descriptions of the health needs at the time of the disaster were identified using search terms and relevant articles were reviewed. Findings 85 English articles, 246 Japanese articles and 13 books were identified, the majority of which were experience/activity reports. Regarding health care needs, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were reported to be the greatest burden from the early stages of the disaster. Loss of medication and medical records appeared to worsen the situation. Many sub-acute symptoms were attributed to the contaminated sludge of the tsunamis and the poor living environment at the evacuation centres. Particularly vulnerable groups were identified as the elderly, those with mental health illnesses and the disabled. Although the response of the rescue activities was prompt, it sometimes failed to meet the on-site needs due to the lack of communication and coordination. Conclusion The lessons identified from this mega-disaster highlighted the specific health needs of the vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly and those with non-communicable diseases. Further research is needed so that the lessons identified can be incorporated into future contingency plans in Japan and elsewhere. PMID:23787732

  5. Interventions to Prevent Unintended and Repeat Pregnancy Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J; Kalamar, Amanda M; Thompson, Terri-Ann; Upadhyay, Ushma D

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, particularly unintended pregnancy, can have lasting social, economic, and health outcomes. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease unintended and repeat pregnancy among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched for all languages for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as unpacking systematic reviews. Selected articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Nine reported statistically significant declines in pregnancy rates (five cash transfer programs, one education curriculum, two life-skills curricula, and a provision of contraception intervention), seven reported increases in contraceptive use (three provision of contraception interventions, two life-skills curricula, a peer education program, and a mass media campaign), two reported decreases in sexual activity (a cash transfer program and an education and life-skills curriculum), and two reported an increase in age of sexual debut (both cash transfer programs). The selected high quality, effective interventions included in this review can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease unintended pregnancy during young adulthood. Additionally, this review can assist with avoiding investments in interventions that failed to produce significant impact on the intended outcomes. The diversity of successful high-quality interventions, implemented in a range of venues, with a diversity of young people, suggests that there are multiple strategies that can work to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  6. Publishers' Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EPL Management Team

    2008-12-01

    We would like to thank all our contributors, subscribers, reviewers, and readers for their interest in EPL during 2008. You each play an invaluable role in the promotion, prestige, development and success of the journal and therefore your continued support is greatly appreciated. The Directors' vision for EPL to become a leading home for global physics letters, to offer rapid publication of ground-breaking physics results from the international community, and to provide the broadest coverage of physics research, is beginning to take shape as increased submissions, reduced acceptance rates, raised scientific quality, rapid publication, and greater visibility amongst the community are achieved. The latest published articles will continue to be freely available for 30 days from their on-line publication. Those articles highlighted by the Co-Editors in 2008 will remain free-to-all for the entire of 2009. We invite you to visit the website regularly (http://www.epljournal.org) to stay up-to-date with the journal's latest developments and to read the most recent articles. Our most recent opportunity publicized on the EPL website and in the CERN SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) messages is below: Open Access Opportunity for Authors of Experimental and Theoretical HEP Articles EPL is delighted to offer open access free of charge to all authors submitting experimental and theoretical letters in PACS codes 10 and 20. This offer will remain open until the SCOAP3 agreement at CERN takes effect. Authors submitting any article to EPL will continue to be offered the opportunity to make their published letter open access for a one-off payment. However, with effect from 1 November 2008, any author who submits work related to subject areas within PACS 10 and 20 will benefit from open access at no charge, meaning their published article will be available free to all readers, forever. ``Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields'' and

  7. Industry-Based Bilingual Vocational Training. A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichon, Donald J.; And Others

    Drawing upon published research, reports, and critical analyses, this paper examines the major issues involved in helping private business and industry face the challenge of effectively training limited-English-proficient (LEP) employees. The literature review is part of a larger project that is developing nine demonstration private…

  8. Duplicate Publication and Related Problems in the Pediatrics Literature

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Rebecca; Anderson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to (a) determine the rate of redundant publication in the pediatrics literature and (b) to characterize these articles. Methods. Index articles in JAMA Pediatrics, Pediatrics, and the Journal of Pediatrics from 2010 were identified using PubMed. Possible redundant material from 2008 to 2012 were searched using the authors’ names. Suspected duplicates were categorized into “duplicate publication” or “salami-slicing” (part of the index article repeated or continued). Results. Of the 1838 index articles, 39 (2.1%) were found to have some form of redundancy. Specifically, 45 articles were identified as salami-sliced, which corresponded to the 39 index articles. Fifteen salami-sliced articles did not reference the corresponding index article, 2 vaguely referenced the index article, and 28 had clear references to the respective index article. Conclusion. Salami-slicing was a common practice. Salami-slicing may be acceptable in certain cases but authors should clearly reference the index article. PMID:27335929

  9. A clinician's review of the WHI-related literature.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2004-01-01

    When the monitoring board of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) canceled the estrogen-progestin arm of the study in July 2002, the effect was immediate and dramatic, as several million postmenopausal women with the full agreement of their physicians ceased taking combined hormone therapy. Soon thereafter the manufacturers of conjugated equine estrogens felt compelled to publicize a drastic restriction of the indications for their product. Little notice, except in the medical literature, was given to the continuation of the other treatment arms of the WHI, nor did the rather small (however significant) increases in risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer resulting from combined therapy receive widespread serious analysis. In this article, special attention is given to the population sampling involved in setting up the WHI, arm by arm, with full discussion of how these samplings compare with those in other studies--HERS, ERA, WEST, etc. All studies are scrutinized in terms of treatment regimens, follow-up, confounding factors, particularly statins and aspirin, and high drop-out rates in order to discover possible reasons for the results in the WHI for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the combined-therapy arm and slightly disappointing results for breast cancer. Each of the two main sections of the article, Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer, concludes with a detailed summation of points derived from the often contrasting results of the various studies, which can be used in counseling patients.

  10. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  11. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunhee; Kim, Heejung; Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-03-03

    Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers' needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of "health-related Internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose(s)," "Web-based resource(s)," and "online resources," combined with informal caregiver (or "parents") of "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower educated minorities. Most studies had methodological challenges resulting from

  12. Medicolegal Death Scene Investigations After Natural Disaster- and Weather-Related Events: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Luciana A.; Fromknecht, Catharine Q.; Redman, Sarah Davis; Brady, Joanne E.; Hodge, Sarah E.; Noe, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The number of disaster-related deaths recorded by vital statistics departments often differs from that reported by other agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-National Weather Service storm database and the American Red Cross. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched an effort to improve disaster-related death scene investigation reporting practices to make data more comparable across jurisdictions, improve accuracy of reporting disaster-related deaths, and enhance identification of risk and protective factors. We conducted a literature review to examine how death scene data are collected and how such data are used to determine disaster relatedness. Methods Two analysts conducted a parallel search using Google and Google Scholar. We reviewed published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished documents including relevant forms, protocols, and worksheets from coroners, medical examiners, and death scene investigators. Results We identified 177 documents: 32 published peer-reviewed articles and 145 other documents (grey literature). Published articles suggested no consistent approach for attributing deaths to a disaster. Researchers generally depended on death certificates to identify disaster-related deaths; several studies also drew on supplemental sources, including medical examiner, coroner, and active surveillance reports. Conclusions These results highlight the critical importance of consistent, accurate data collection during a death investigation. Review of the grey literature found variation in use of death scene data collection tools, indicating the potential for widespread inconsistency in data captured for routine reporting and public health surveillance. Findings from this review will be used to develop guidelines and tools for capturing disaster-related death investigation data. PMID:28845205

  13. Medicolegal Death Scene Investigations After Natural Disaster- and Weather-Related Events: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luciana A; Fromknecht, Catharine Q; Redman, Sarah Davis; Brady, Joanne E; Hodge, Sarah E; Noe, Rebecca S

    2017-06-01

    The number of disaster-related deaths recorded by vital statistics departments often differs from that reported by other agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-National Weather Service storm database and the American Red Cross. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched an effort to improve disaster-related death scene investigation reporting practices to make data more comparable across jurisdictions, improve accuracy of reporting disaster-related deaths, and enhance identification of risk and protective factors. We conducted a literature review to examine how death scene data are collected and how such data are used to determine disaster relatedness. Two analysts conducted a parallel search using Google and Google Scholar. We reviewed published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished documents including relevant forms, protocols, and worksheets from coroners, medical examiners, and death scene investigators. We identified 177 documents: 32 published peer-reviewed articles and 145 other documents (grey literature). Published articles suggested no consistent approach for attributing deaths to a disaster. Researchers generally depended on death certificates to identify disaster-related deaths; several studies also drew on supplemental sources, including medical examiner, coroner, and active surveillance reports. These results highlight the critical importance of consistent, accurate data collection during a death investigation. Review of the grey literature found variation in use of death scene data collection tools, indicating the potential for widespread inconsistency in data captured for routine reporting and public health surveillance. Findings from this review will be used to develop guidelines and tools for capturing disaster-related death investigation data.

  14. Geometry-Related Children's Literature Improves the Geometry Achievement and Attitudes of Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Erica M.; Morris, Wendy L.; Fennell, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Use of mathematics-related literature can engage students' interest and increase their understanding of mathematical concepts. A quasi-experimental study of two second-grade classrooms assessed whether daily inclusion of geometry-related literature in the classroom improved attitudes toward geometry and achievement in geometry. Consistent with the…

  15. Geometry-Related Children's Literature Improves the Geometry Achievement and Attitudes of Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Erica M.; Morris, Wendy L.; Fennell, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Use of mathematics-related literature can engage students' interest and increase their understanding of mathematical concepts. A quasi-experimental study of two second-grade classrooms assessed whether daily inclusion of geometry-related literature in the classroom improved attitudes toward geometry and achievement in geometry. Consistent with the…

  16. Conceptualising School-Community Relations in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods: Mapping the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kirstin; Dyson, Alan; Gallannaugh, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background: The field of school-community relations is well established in the scholarly literature. However, its largely descriptive and fragmented nature has served to disguise its conceptual complexity. To date, the sets of assumptions about school-community relations which underpin the literature, and the opportunities, tensions and…

  17. Conceptualising School-Community Relations in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods: Mapping the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kirstin; Dyson, Alan; Gallannaugh, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background: The field of school-community relations is well established in the scholarly literature. However, its largely descriptive and fragmented nature has served to disguise its conceptual complexity. To date, the sets of assumptions about school-community relations which underpin the literature, and the opportunities, tensions and…

  18. Changes in emotions related to medication used to treat ADHD. Part I: literature review.

    PubMed

    Manos, Michael J; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C; Findling, Robert L; López, Frank A; Jensen, Peter S

    2011-02-01

    To summarize the literature investigating changes in emotional expression (EE) as a function of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD and to differentiate emotional effects related to ADHD pharmacotherapy from emotional effects related to ADHD as a disorder. English language articles published from January 1, 1988, through August 31, 2008 were identified through a PubMed literature search using the search terms attention, ADHD, hyperactive, hyperkinesis, and ADD cross-referenced with medication terms amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate , guanfacine, atomoxetine, and clonidine. The search was limited to randomized, controlled trials. Abstracts from all identified articles were selected for further review if they met criteria including (a) presence of a placebo arm, (b) children ≤ 18 years of age, (c) ≥ 20 participants, and (b) study design elements that would allow reviewers to determine whether EE phenomena were specifically attributable to medication effects versus alternative explanations (e.g., time, maturation, baseline comorbidity, selection artifacts, or treatments other than the medication-placebo contrast). Qualifying full-text articles were reviewed for prespecified EE terms. Of 148 articles that met selection criteria, 47 reported varying types of EE. Eight of these included two active treatment arms. Hence, 55 data sets were identified. Patterns of change in EE in studies meeting search criteria are discussed. Data sets that reported accounts of EE by the percentage of patients were compiled and further analyzed for specific medication classes. The changes in EE are further discussed as (a) salutary or detrimental, (b) associated with time of day or circumscribed, and (c) presumed to be caused by pharmacological effects. Definitive methodologies for assessing the presence of changes in EE in clinical trials and guidelines for the evaluation of EE in clinical practice are yet to be established and are needed. Such guidelines could be

  19. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  20. Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Denton E.; And Others

    This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…

  1. Literature and the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katahira, Jenifer

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  2. Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Denton E.; And Others

    This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…

  3. A method of searching for related literature on protein structure analysis by considering a user's intention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, with advances in techniques for protein structure analysis, the knowledge about protein structure and function has been published in a vast number of articles. A method to search for specific publications from such a large pool of articles is needed. In this paper, we propose a method to search for related articles on protein structure analysis by using an article itself as a query. Results Each article is represented as a set of concepts in the proposed method. Then, by using similarities among concepts formulated from databases such as Gene Ontology, similarities between articles are evaluated. In this framework, the desired search results vary depending on the user's search intention because a variety of information is included in a single article. Therefore, the proposed method provides not only one input article (primary article) but also additional articles related to it as an input query to determine the search intention of the user, based on the relationship between two query articles. In other words, based on the concepts contained in the input article and additional articles, we actualize a relevant literature search that considers user intention by varying the degree of attention given to each concept and modifying the concept hierarchy graph. Conclusions We performed an experiment to retrieve relevant papers from articles on protein structure analysis registered in the Protein Data Bank by using three query datasets. The experimental results yielded search results with better accuracy than when user intention was not considered, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25952498

  4. Literature Review of Military Related Suicide Prevention Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...19a. NAME OF RESONSIBLE PERSON Dr Steve Bullock a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b...Litts DA, Talcott GW, Feig JC, Caine ED. Risk of Suicide and Related Adverse Outcomes After Exposure to a Suicide Prevention Programme in the US Air

  5. Literature Review of Military Related Suicide Prevention Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...19a. NAME OF RESONSIBLE PERSON Dr Steve Bullock a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b...Litts DA, Talcott GW, Feig JC, Caine ED. Risk of Suicide and Related Adverse Outcomes After Exposure to a Suicide Prevention Programme in the US Air

  6. Literature-Related Discovery: Potential Treatments and Preventives for SARS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Janies D, Habib F, Alexandrov B, Hill A, Pol D. Evolution of genomes , host shifts and the geographic spread of SARS-CoV and related coronaviruses...Benefits Of Citrus Or Journal Of Medicinal Plants Research) OR TS=(Acetabularia OR Achlya OR Acupressure OR Acupuncture OR Algae OR Alkaloid...OR Chia OR Chicory OR Chimera OR Chive* OR Chlamydomonas OR Chlorella OR Chlorophyll* OR Chondrus OR Citrus OR Clove-Oil OR Cod-Liver-Oil OR Coffee

  7. Trends in funding, internationalization, and types of study for original articles published in five implant-related journals between 2005 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Shyamsunder, Nodesh; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Knoernschild, Kent L; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the trends in funding, geographic origin, and study types of original articles in the dental implant literature and to investigate the relationships among these factors. Articles published in Clinical Oral Implants Research, The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Implant Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Implantology from 2005 to 2009 were reviewed. Nonoriginal articles were excluded. For each article included, extramural funding source, geographic origin, and study type were recorded. Descriptive and analytic analyses (α = .05), including a logistic regression analysis, and chi-square test were used where appropriate. Of a total of 2,085 articles published, 1,503 met the inclusion criteria. The most common source of funding was from industry (32.4%). The proportion of studies that reported funding increased significantly over time. Europe represented the highest percentage (55.8%) of published articles. Most of the articles reported on clinical studies (49.9%), followed by animal studies (25.9%). Articles from Asia and South America and animal and in vitro studies were significantly more likely to be funded. Almost half of the original dental implant articles were funded. The trend toward internationalization of authorship was evident. A strong association was observed between funding and geographic origin and between funding and study type. Most studies in North America and Europe were clinical studies and supported by industry, whereas a greater proportion of studies in Asia and South America were in vitro or animal studies funded through government resources.

  8. Is 'self-medication' a useful term to retrieve related publications in the literature? A systematic exploration of related terms.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Ava; Sarayani, Amir; Ashouri, Asieh; Sherafatmand, Mona; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2015-01-01

    Self-Medication (SM), i.e. using medications to treat oneself, is a major concern for health researchers and policy makers. The terms "self medication" or "self-medication" (SM terms) have been used to explain various concepts while several terms have also been employed to define this practice. Hence, retrieving relevant publications would require exhaustive literature screening. So, we assessed the current situation of SM terms in the literature to improve the relevancy of search outcomes. In this Systematic exploration, SM terms were searched in the 6 following databases and publisher's portals till April 2012: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar, ScienceDirect, and Wiley. A simple search query was used to include only publications with SM terms. We used Relative-Risk (RR) to estimate the probability of SM terms use in related compared to unrelated publications. Sensitivity and specificity of SM terms as keywords in search query were also calculated. Relevant terms to SM practice were extracted and their Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR+/-) were calculated to assess their effect on the probability of search outcomes relevancy in addition to previous search queries. We also evaluated the content of unrelated publications. All mentioned steps were performed in title (TI) and title or abstract (TIAB) of publications. 1999 related and 1917 unrelated publications were found. SM terms RR was 4.5 in TI and 2.1 in TIAB. SM terms sensitivity and specificity respectively were 55.4% and 87.7% in TI and 84.0% and 59.5% in TIAB. "OTC" and "Over-The-Counter Medication", with LR+ 16.78 and 16.30 respectively, provided the most conclusive increase in the probability of the relevancy of publications. The most common unrelated SM themes were self-medication hypothesis, drug abuse and Zoopharmacognosy. Due to relatively low specificity or sensitivity of SM terms, relevant terms should be employed in search queries and clear definitions of SM applications should

  9. Neurological manifestations of autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease: a comparison of the published literature with the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS).

    PubMed

    Tang, Mengxuan; Ryman, Davis C; McDade, Eric; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Buckles, Virginia D; Cairns, Nigel J; Fagan, Anne M; Goate, Alison; Marcus, Daniel S; Xiong, Chengjie; Allegri, Ricardo F; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P; Danek, Adrian; Farlow, Martin R; Fox, Nick C; Ghetti, Bernardino; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Laske, Christopher; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Mayeux, Richard P; Ringman, John M; Rossor, Martin N; Salloway, Stephen P; Schofield, Peter R; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J

    2016-12-01

    Autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is a rare disorder with non-amnestic neurological symptoms in some clinical presentations. We aimed to compile and compare data from symptomatic participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS) with those reported in the literature to estimate the prevalences of non-amnestic neurological symptoms in participants with ADAD. We prospectively collected data from the DIAN-OBS database, which recruited participants from study centres in the USA, Europe, and Australia, between Feb 29, 2008, and July 1, 2014. We also did a systematic review of publications to extract individual-level clinical data for symptomatic participants with ADAD. We used data for age of onset (from first report of cognitive decline), disease course from onset to death, and the presence of 13 neurological findings that have been reported in association with ADAD. Using multivariable linear regression, we investigated the prevalences of various non-amnestic neurological symptoms and the contributions of age of onset and specific mutation type on symptoms. The DIAN-OBS dataset included 107 individuals with detailed clinical data (forming the DIAN-OBS cohort). Our systematic review yielded 188 publications reporting on 1228 symptomatic individuals, with detailed neurological examination descriptions available for 753 individuals (forming the published data cohort). The most prevalent non-amnestic cognitive manifestations in participants in the DIAN-OBS cohort were those typical of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, including visual agnosia (55·1%, 95% CI 45·7-64·6), aphasia (57·9%, 48·6-67·3), and behavioural changes (61·7%, 51·5-70·0). Non-amnestic cognitive manifestations were less prevalent in the published data cohort (eg, visual agnosia [5·6%, 3·9-7·2], aphasia [23·0%, 20·0-26·0], and behavioural changes [31·7%, 28·4-35·1]). Prevalence of non-cognitive neurological manifestations in

  10. Acupuncture and related techniques during perioperative period: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Acar, H Volkan

    2016-12-01

    Acupuncture has been used in the Far East for more than 2000 years. Since the early 1970s, this technique has been gaining popularity among Western medical community. A number of studies suggest that its mechanism of effect can be explained in biomedical terms. In this context, a number of transmitters and modulators including beta-endorphin, serotonin, substance P, interleukins, and calcitonin gene-related peptide are released. For that reason, acupuncture can be used in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Studies showed that acupuncture may have beneficial effect in perioperative period. It relieves preoperative anxiety, decreases postoperative analgesic requirements, and decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this review article, we examine perioperative use of acupuncture for a variety of conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed.

  12. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Yen, Laurann; W, Paul Mathews

    2012-12-03

    The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands of self-management, particularly for

  13. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Methods Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Results Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. Conclusions While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands

  14. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the

  15. Cannabis-related stroke: case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niranjan N; Pan, Yi; Muengtaweeponsa, Sombat; Geller, Thomas J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2012-10-01

    Marijuana, or cannabis, is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. Although there are some case reports of stroke associated with cannabis use, there is no information on a causal role of cannabis in stroke. We identified 14 patients admitted to St Louis University Hospital between January 2004 and July 2007 with ischemic stroke who had documented clear exposure to cannabis during or before symptom onset and a positive urine screen for cannabis. We report this series, along with 3 cases previously reported by our group, for a total of 17 patients (13 men and 4 women), with a mean age of 41 years (range, 15-63 years). Nine patients were under age 45 years, 4 had a history of hypertension, and 10 sustained stroke in the posterior circulation. Headache, dysarthria, and ataxia were the most common presenting symptoms. Five patients had recurrent stroke with reexposure to cannabis. No patient had a prothrombotic state or cardiac source of embolism. Autopsy performed in 2 patients revealed hemorrhagic infarct with no evidence of vasculitis or embolus. The absence of other vascular risk factors in most of our patients, the temporal relation of symptom onset to cannabis exposure, and the recurrence of symptoms in a few patients with reexposure suggest a causal role of cannabis in these cases of ischemic stroke. However, this causal association cannot be definitely ascertained, given the descriptive nature of our series. More research is needed to explore this possible causal association.

  16. Rehabilitation of pediatric musculoskeletal sport-related injuries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cohen, E; Sala, D A

    2010-06-01

    The recent increase in sports participation in children and adolescents has resulted in the increase of sport-related injuries and the need for rehabilitation. The purposes of this study were to review studies involving rehabilitation of pediatric musculoskeletal sport-related injuries to determine the study design (level of evidence), inclusion of a reference to skeletal immaturity, adequacy of the description of the rehabilitation program and treatment outcome. Medline(1950-June 2009), CINAHL(1982-June 2009), Cochrane and journals (sports, physical therapy, pediatric orthopedic) were searched using the terms: physical therapy or rehabilitation plus sports/athletic injuries or individual sports plus pediatrics, adolescent, children, youth and young. Inclusion criteria were: published in English peer-reviewed journal, examined rehabilitation/management, subjects related musculoskeletal injury/diagnosis. Study design (level of evidence), injury/diagnosis, sport involved, information regarding skeletal maturity, description of rehabilitation program and treatment outcome were extracted. Fifty-seven studies met the criteria: 75% were case reports, 21% case series, 4% retrospective comparative studies and no randomized-controlled trials. Forty-seven different diagnoses were investigated. Fifty-four percent did not address skeletal immaturity; 26% involved injuries/diagnoses unique to skeletally immature. Components and parameters of each study's rehabilitation program and outcome are reported. Current literature lacks well-designed controlled studies: 1) to address issues relevant to the pediatric injured athlete and 2) to determine the optimum program for each sport-related injury/diagnosis to expedite return to sport. Programs were often inadequately detailed to permit replication.

  17. Topiramate in the treatment of substance-related disorders: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Ann K; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2010-05-01

    To critically review the literature on topiramate in the treatment of substance-related disorders. A PubMed search of human studies published in English through January 2009 was conducted using the following search terms: topiramate and substance abuse, topiramate and substance dependence, topiramate and withdrawal, topiramate and alcohol, topiramate and nicotine, topiramate and cocaine, topiramate and opiates, and topiramate and benzodiazepines. 26 articles were identified and reviewed; these studies examined topiramate in disorders related to alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, Ecstasy, and benzodiazepines. Study design, sample size, topiramate dose and duration, and study outcomes were reviewed. There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Two trials show trends for topiramate's superiority over oral naltrexone in alcohol dependence, while 1 trial suggests topiramate is inferior to disulfiram. Despite suggestive animal models, evidence for topiramate in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans is slim. Studies of topiramate in nicotine dependence show mixed results. Human laboratory studies that used acute topiramate dosing show that topiramate actually enhances the pleasurable effects of both nicotine and methamphetamine. Evidence for topiramate in the treatment of cocaine dependence is promising, but limited by small sample size. The data on opioids, benzodiazepines, and Ecstasy are sparse. Topiramate is efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but side effects may limit widespread use. While topiramate's unique pharmacodynamic profile offers a promising theoretical rationale for use across multiple substance-related disorders, heterogeneity both across and within these disorders limits topiramate's broad applicability in treating substance-related disorders. Recommendations for future research include exploration of genetic variants for more targeted pharmacotherapies.

  18. Why Publish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    In humanities, there does not seem to be any good reason to privilege the academic journal over other venues. If the goal of humanities publishing is to spread new ideas, then it seems that creating a popular Internet blog would be the better choice. However, the goal of humanities publishing is not just to spread new ideas, but to spread "good"…

  19. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  20. Influence of mHealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Gagliardi, Laina

    2013-10-16

    Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women's empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women's interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study's characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple's health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women's decision-making, social status, and access to health resources. However

  1. A phenomenological relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model for proton therapy based on all published in vitro cell survival data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Aimee L.; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2015-11-01

    Proton therapy treatments are currently planned and delivered using the assumption that the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) relative to photons is 1.1. This assumption ignores strong experimental evidence that suggests the RBE varies along the treatment field, i.e. with linear energy transfer (LET) and with tissue type. A recent review study collected over 70 experimental reports on proton RBE, providing a comprehensive dataset for predicting RBE for cell survival. Using this dataset we developed a model to predict proton RBE based on dose, dose average LET (LETd) and the ratio of the linear-quadratic model parameters for the reference radiation (α/β)x, as the tissue specific parameter. The proposed RBE model is based on the linear quadratic model and was derived from a nonlinear regression fit to 287 experimental data points. The proposed model predicts that the RBE increases with increasing LETd and decreases with increasing (α/β)x. This agrees with previous theoretical predictions on the relationship between RBE, LETd and (α/β)x. The model additionally predicts a decrease in RBE with increasing dose and shows a relationship between both α and β with LETd. Our proposed phenomenological RBE model is derived using the most comprehensive collection of proton RBE experimental data to date. Previously published phenomenological models, based on a limited data set, may have to be revised.

  2. Identifying Liver Cancer and Its Relations with Diseases, Drugs, and Genes: A Literature-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min

    2016-01-01

    In biomedicine, scientific literature is a valuable source for knowledge discovery. Mining knowledge from textual data has become an ever important task as the volume of scientific literature is growing unprecedentedly. In this paper, we propose a framework for examining a certain disease based on existing information provided by scientific literature. Disease-related entities that include diseases, drugs, and genes are systematically extracted and analyzed using a three-level network-based approach. A paper-entity network and an entity co-occurrence network (macro-level) are explored and used to construct six entity specific networks (meso-level). Important diseases, drugs, and genes as well as salient entity relations (micro-level) are identified from these networks. Results obtained from the literature-based literature mining can serve to assist clinical applications. PMID:27195695

  3. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Unmasking or Worsening AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Anna; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Dina, Julia; Kazemi, Apolline; Verdon, Renaud; Mortier, Emmanuel; de La Blanchardière, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV-infected patients has declined in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era although a growing number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (PML-IRIS) have been published during the same period. Therapeutic management of PML-IRIS is not consensual and mainly relies on corticosteroids. Our main aim was, in addition to provide a thoughtful analysis of published PML-IRIS cases, to assess the benefit of corticosteroids in the management of PML-IRIS, focusing on confirmed cases. We performed a literature review of the 46 confirmed cases of PML-IRIS cases occurring in HIV-infected patients from 1998 to September 2016 (21 unmasking and 25 paradoxical PML-IRIS). AIDS-related PML-IRIS patients were mostly men (sex ratio 4/1) with a median age of 40.5 years (range 12–66). Median CD4 T cell count before cART and at PML-IRIS onset was 45/μl (0–301) and 101/μl (20–610), respectively. After cART initiation, PML-IRIS occurred within a median timescale of 38 days (18–120). Clinical signs were motor deficits (69%), speech disorders (36%), cognitive disorders (33%), cerebellar ataxia (28%), and visual disturbances (23%). Brain MRI revealed hyperintense areas on T2-weighted sequences and FLAIR images (76%) and suggestive contrast enhancement (87%). PCR for John Cunningham virus (JCV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive in only 84% of cases; however, when performed, brain biopsy confirmed diagnosis of PML in 90% of cases and demonstrated histological signs of IRIS in 95% of cases. Clinical worsening related to PML-IRIS and leading to death was observed in 28% of cases. Corticosteroids were prescribed in 63% of cases and maraviroc in one case. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate significant benefit from steroid treatment, despite spectacular improvement in certain cases. Diagnosis of PML-IRIS should be considered in HIV

  4. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Unmasking or Worsening AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Anna; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Dina, Julia; Kazemi, Apolline; Verdon, Renaud; Mortier, Emmanuel; de La Blanchardière, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV-infected patients has declined in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era although a growing number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (PML-IRIS) have been published during the same period. Therapeutic management of PML-IRIS is not consensual and mainly relies on corticosteroids. Our main aim was, in addition to provide a thoughtful analysis of published PML-IRIS cases, to assess the benefit of corticosteroids in the management of PML-IRIS, focusing on confirmed cases. We performed a literature review of the 46 confirmed cases of PML-IRIS cases occurring in HIV-infected patients from 1998 to September 2016 (21 unmasking and 25 paradoxical PML-IRIS). AIDS-related PML-IRIS patients were mostly men (sex ratio 4/1) with a median age of 40.5 years (range 12-66). Median CD4 T cell count before cART and at PML-IRIS onset was 45/μl (0-301) and 101/μl (20-610), respectively. After cART initiation, PML-IRIS occurred within a median timescale of 38 days (18-120). Clinical signs were motor deficits (69%), speech disorders (36%), cognitive disorders (33%), cerebellar ataxia (28%), and visual disturbances (23%). Brain MRI revealed hyperintense areas on T2-weighted sequences and FLAIR images (76%) and suggestive contrast enhancement (87%). PCR for John Cunningham virus (JCV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive in only 84% of cases; however, when performed, brain biopsy confirmed diagnosis of PML in 90% of cases and demonstrated histological signs of IRIS in 95% of cases. Clinical worsening related to PML-IRIS and leading to death was observed in 28% of cases. Corticosteroids were prescribed in 63% of cases and maraviroc in one case. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate significant benefit from steroid treatment, despite spectacular improvement in certain cases. Diagnosis of PML-IRIS should be considered in HIV

  5. Google Scholar versus PubMed in locating primary literature to answer drug-related questions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Maisha Kelly; Lauderdale, Stacy A; Kendrach, Michael G; Woolley, Thomas W

    2009-03-01

    Google Scholar linked more visitors to biomedical journal Web sites than did PubMed after the database's initial release; however, its usefulness in locating primary literature articles is unknown. To assess in both databases the availability of primary literature target articles; total number of citations; availability of free, full-text journal articles; and number of primary literature target articles retrieved by year within the first 100 citations of the search results. Drug information question reviews published in The Annals of Pharmacotherapy Drug Information Rounds column served as targets to determine the retrieval ability of Google Scholar and PubMed searches. Reviews printed in this column from January 2006 to June 2007 were eligible for study inclusion. Articles were chosen if at least 2 key words of the printed article were included in the PubMed Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) database, and these terms were searched in both databases. Twenty-two of 33 (67%) eligible Drug Information Rounds articles met the inclusion criteria. The median number of primary literature articles used in each of these articles was 6.5 (IQR 4.8, 8.3; mean +/- SD 8 +/- 5.4). No significant differences were found for the mean number of target primary literature articles located within the first 100 citations in Google Scholar and PubMed searches (5.1 +/- 3.9 vs 5.3 +/- 3.3; p = 0.868). Google Scholar searches located more total results than PubMed (2211.6 +/- 3999.5 vs 44.2 +/- 47.4; p = 0.019). The availability of free, full-text journal articles per Drug Information Rounds article was similar between the databases (1.8 +/- 1.7 vs 2.3 +/- 1.7; p = 0.325). More primary literature articles published prior to 2000 were located with Google Scholar searches compared with PubMed (62.8% vs 34.9%; p = 0.017); however, no statistically significant differences between the databases were observed for articles published after 2000 (66.4 vs 77.1; p = 0.074). No significant differences

  6. Coping with cancer-related cognitive dysfunction: a scoping review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sleight, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) impacts memory, attention, concentration, language, multi-tasking, and organizational skills and decreases participation and quality of life for cancer survivors. The objectives of this article are: (1) to outline the neuroscience of CRCD, its risk factors, and its effect on participation; and (2) to identify and summarize the literature on rehabilitation interventions and coping techniques for CRCD in cancer survivors. A scoping review of articles cited in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and CINAHL was performed. To be included, articles must have been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal between 1996 and 2014, written in English, and included a quantitative or qualitative non-pharmacological study of interventions and/or coping strategies for adult cancer survivors experiencing CRCD. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria for final review. Six studies tested the efficacy of rehabilitation treatments on CRCD. Three involved cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), while three tested neuropsychological and/or cognitive training interventions. Four qualitative studies investigated coping strategies used by survivors with CRCD. CBT-based treatments and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most commonly-reported coping strategy is utilization of assistive technology and memory aids. Further research is needed about efficacious rehabilitation techniques for this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) may impact up to 50% of cancer survivors. CRCD can significantly decrease participation and quality of life during survivorship. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most common coping strategy reported by cancer survivors with CRCD is the use of assistive technology and memory aids.

  7. Rest and Return to Activity After Sport-Related Concussion: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Lewis, Joy H; Whelihan, Kate; Bacon, Cailee E Welch

    2017-03-01

    To systematically review the literature regarding rest and return to activity after sport-related concussion. The search was conducted in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Educational Resources Information Center, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed using terms related to concussion, mild traumatic brain injury, physical and cognitive rest, and return to activity. Studies were included if they were published in English; were original research; and evaluated the use of, compliance with, or effectiveness of physical or cognitive rest or provided empirical evidence supporting the graded return-to-activity progression. The study design, patient or participant sample, interventions used, outcome measures, main results, and conclusions were extracted, as appropriate, from each article. Articles were categorized into groups based on their ability to address one of the primary clinical questions of interest: use of rest, rest effectiveness, compliance with recommendations, or outcome after graded return-to-activity progression. A qualitative synthesis of the results was provided, along with summary tables. Our main findings suggest that rest is underused by health care providers, recommendations for rest are broad and not specific to individual patients, an initial period of moderate physical and cognitive rest (eg, limited physical activity and light mental activity) may improve outcomes during the acute postinjury phase, significant variability in the use of assessment tools and compliance with recommended return-to-activity guidelines exists, and additional research is needed to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of graded return-to-activity progressions. Furthermore, there is a significant need to translate knowledge of best practices in concussion management to primary care providers.

  8. [Pulmonary surfactant protein gene mutation associated with pediatric interstitial lung disease: a case study and the review of related literature].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chun-mei; Cao, Ling; Huang, Rong-yan; Wang, Ya-jun; Zou, Ji-zhen; Yuan, Xin-yu; Song, Fang; Chen, Hui-zhong

    2013-02-01

    To report a case of pulmonary surfactant protein (SP) gene mutation associated with pediatric interstitial lung disease, and study the clinical diagnosis process and review of related literature, to understand the relationship between interstitial lung disease and SP gene mutation in infants and children. The clinical, radiological, histological, and genetic testing information of a case of SP gene mutation related pediatric interstitial lung disease were analyzed and related literature was reviewed. A 2-year-old girl without a history of serious illness was hospitalized because of the shortness of breath, cough, excessive sputum, and the progressive dyspnea. Physical examination on admission revealed tachypnea, slight cyanosis, and the retraction signs were positive, respiratory rate of 60 times/minute, fine crackles could be heard through the lower lobe of both lungs; heart rate was 132 beats/minute. No other abnormalities were noted, no clubbing was found. Laboratory test results: pathologic examination was negative, multiple blood gas analysis suggested hypoxemia. Chest CT showed ground-glass like opacity, diffused patchy infiltration. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid had a large number of neutrophils, and a few tissue cells. Eosinophil staining: negative. Fluconazole and methylprednisolone were given after admission, pulmonary symptoms and signs did not improve, reexamination showed no change in chest CT. Then lung biopsy was carried out through thoracoscopy. Histopathology suggested chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis. The heterozygous mutation of R219W in the SFPTA1 and the S186N in SFTPC were identified by SP-related gene sequencing. The review of related literature showed that polymorphisms at the 219th amino acid in SP-A1 allele were found in adults with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but there is no related literature in pediatric cases. The patient in this report had a mutation at the SP-A1 allele consistent with related literature. Data of

  9. Why Aren't E-Books Gaining More Ground in Academic Libraries? E-Book Use and Perceptions: A Review of Published Literature and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Robert

    2010-01-01

    E-books have yet to assume a significant place in academic library collections. This article focuses on extracting common themes from the literature that might help the reader better understand why e-books have not yet become the cornerstone of the academic library. Patrons do not use e-books because they find the experience of using e-books…

  10. Why Aren't E-Books Gaining More Ground in Academic Libraries? E-Book Use and Perceptions: A Review of Published Literature and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Robert

    2010-01-01

    E-books have yet to assume a significant place in academic library collections. This article focuses on extracting common themes from the literature that might help the reader better understand why e-books have not yet become the cornerstone of the academic library. Patrons do not use e-books because they find the experience of using e-books…

  11. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes

  12. Literature-based discovery of diabetes- and ROS-related targets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known mediators of cellular damage in multiple diseases including diabetic complications. Despite its importance, no comprehensive database is currently available for the genes associated with ROS. Methods We present ROS- and diabetes-related targets (genes/proteins) collected from the biomedical literature through a text mining technology. A web-based literature mining tool, SciMiner, was applied to 1,154 biomedical papers indexed with diabetes and ROS by PubMed to identify relevant targets. Over-represented targets in the ROS-diabetes literature were obtained through comparisons against randomly selected literature. The expression levels of nine genes, selected from the top ranked ROS-diabetes set, were measured in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of diabetic and non-diabetic DBA/2J mice in order to evaluate the biological relevance of literature-derived targets in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Results SciMiner identified 1,026 ROS- and diabetes-related targets from the 1,154 biomedical papers (http://jdrf.neurology.med.umich.edu/ROSDiabetes/). Fifty-three targets were significantly over-represented in the ROS-diabetes literature compared to randomly selected literature. These over-represented targets included well-known members of the oxidative stress response including catalase, the NADPH oxidase family, and the superoxide dismutase family of proteins. Eight of the nine selected genes exhibited significant differential expression between diabetic and non-diabetic mice. For six genes, the direction of expression change in diabetes paralleled enhanced oxidative stress in the DRG. Conclusions Literature mining compiled ROS-diabetes related targets from the biomedical literature and led us to evaluate the biological relevance of selected targets in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:20979611

  13. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m(3) for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m(3)). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  14. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2017-01-01

    Background The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Results Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417–12,739 µg/m3). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. Conclusion The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of

  15. A synopsis of head and neck oncology and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in 2009/10.

    PubMed

    Gulati, A; Herd, M K; Blythe, J; Habib, A; Anand, R; Brennan, P A

    2011-07-01

    This review summarises all head and neck oncology and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) during the period 2009-2010. A similar review, covering the years 2007-2008 was published in the Journal in 2009 and was well received by readers, as evidenced by the high number of downloads from the BJOMS website. In this article, we include all head and neck oncology-related articles published in the print version of the journal during 2009/10 and concentrate on summarising the full length article papers. Compared to the previous 2-year period, there has been a 25% increase in number of articles published in this sub-specialty. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

  17. Spirituality in nursing and health-related literature: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah; Jezewski, Mary Ann

    2007-12-01

    Spirituality has become an increasingly popular concept among the nursing and health-related literature. The purpose for conducting this concept analysis, guided by Walker and Avant's methodology, was to (a) examine how spirituality has been used within the current body of nursing and health-related literature, (b) clarify the meaning of spirituality by discovering what this concept's current critical attributes/characteristics are, and (c) propose a definition of spirituality based on the concept analysis findings. A total of 90 references were reviewed, including 73 nursing and health-related references. Concept analysis findings revealed that spirituality was defined within four main themes in the nursing and health-related literature: (a) spirituality as religious systems of beliefs and values (spirituality = religion); (b) spirituality as life meaning, purpose, and connection with others; (c) spirituality as nonreligious systems of beliefs and values; and (d) spirituality as metaphysical or transcendental phenomena.

  18. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Bayer, Angela M; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, are prevalent among adolescents and can have lasting adverse health consequences. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease STI transmission and related risky behaviors among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Three reported declines in STI diagnoses, three reported declines in STI symptoms, six showed declines in risky sexual behavior, seven reported increases in abstinence, 11 found increases in condom use, and five reported increases in health care utilization. There is a wide range of rigorously evaluated high-quality interventions included in this review that can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease the spread of STIs, including HIV. With the recent advent of biomarkers, researchers can use a gold standard measure to assess intervention impact. The diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the context, age range, and gender of the target population.

  19. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html.

  20. Publisher's Announcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashan, Yasmin

    2008-01-01

    Article numbering Nuclear Fusion has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Papers in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance, from this issue: Li G.Q. et al 2008 Nucl. Fusion 48 015001 Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition.

  1. Beyond generational differences: a literature review of the impact of relational diversity on nurses' attitudes and work.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Angela C; Ratner, Pamela A; Robinson, Sandra L; Oliffe, John L; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2010-11-01

    Based on a review of the empirical literature, we examine the influence of selected diversity attributes on nurses' work-related attitudes and behaviour. The nursing workforce has become increasingly heterogeneous in its age, educational attainment, and ethnicity/race distributions. There is considerable speculation, in the literature, that the work values of recent nursing graduates are discordant with more experienced nurses. A review of studies published between 1980 and 2009 in nursing, healthcare, psychology, and organizational behaviour led to the inclusion of 19 peer-reviewed research articles, from which our analyses are drawn. The findings indicate that age diversity leads to negative behaviour toward others in the workgroup (e.g. poor collegial relationships) whereas perceived work-values diversity is negatively associated with individuals' own attitudes and behaviour toward their work as well as toward other members of their workgroup. There is inconclusive evidence about the attributes that most significantly influence nurses' attitudes and work; however, preliminary evidence supports the salience of work values. Irrespective of the actual diversity within workgroups, how nurses see one another can have a significant impact on members of their workgroups and their functioning. Broader conceptualizations of diversity are necessary. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Using Semantic Association to Extend and Infer Literature-Oriented Relativity Between Terms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Jie; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Yongzhuang; Chu, Yanshuo; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Relative terms often appear together in the literature. Methods have been presented for weighting relativity of pairwise terms by their co-occurring literature and inferring new relationship. Terms in the literature are also in the directed acyclic graph of ontologies, such as Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology. Therefore, semantic association between terms may help for establishing relativities between terms in literature. However, current methods do not use these associations. In this paper, an adjusted R-scaled score (ARSS) based on information content (ARSSIC) method is introduced to infer new relationship between terms. First, set inclusion relationship between terms of ontology was exploited to extend relationships between these terms and literature. Next, the ARSS method was presented to measure relativity between terms across ontologies according to these extensional relationships. Then, the ARSSIC method using ratios of information shared of term's ancestors was designed to infer new relationship between terms across ontologies. The result of the experiment shows that ARSS identified more pairs of statistically significant terms based on corresponding gene sets than other methods. And the high average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.9293) shows that ARSSIC achieved a high true positive rate and a low false positive rate. Data is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/ARSSIC/.

  3. Significant weight loss following clozapine use, how is it possible? A case report and review of published cases and literature relevant to the subject

    PubMed Central

    Tungaraza, Tongeji E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that clozapine is more efficacious than other antipsychotics in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a number of side effects including weight gain. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain has been linked with a number of untoward events including psychological factors such as stigma and low self-esteem, and physical factors such as metabolic syndromes and untimely death. The mechanism underlying antipsychotic (including clozapine)-induced weight gain is not clearly understood, although it is said to involve several brain areas, several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and genetic factors. To some individuals however, clozapine use is associated with significant weight loss (13.5–50% of body weight). The observed weight loss in these groups of patients has not been attributed to any underlying diagnosable physical disorders. There have been a handful cases published with this phenomenon, which seems to be contrary to what is expected when clozapine is prescribed. From the currently published cases three groups emerge – those who lost weight simply by taking clozapine, those who lost weight due to improved mental state, engaging in diet and increased exercise, and those for whom weight loss was a sign of a poor response to clozapine. A case of JX who has a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is presented. JX lost over 26% of her body weight when she was prescribed clozapine. A detailed review of other published cases is undertaken. The underlying mechanisms involving weight loss are discussed and the implications to clinicians are highlighted. Coordinated studies to examine these groups of patients may provide some insight, not only in the mechanism of clozapine-induced weight loss, but also in the better management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia involving clozapine use. PMID:27721972

  4. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE RELATING TO CAPTIVE GREAT APE MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY.

    PubMed

    Strong, Victoria J; Grindlay, Douglas; Redrobe, Sharon; Cobb, Malcolm; White, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii) are threatened with extinction. In order to help maintain a self-sustaining zoo population, clinicians require a sound understanding of the diseases with which they might be presented. To provide an up-to-date perspective on great ape morbidity and mortality, a systematic review of the zoological and veterinary literature of great apes from 1990 to 2014 was conducted. This is the first review of the great ape literature published since 1990 and the first-ever systematic literature review of great ape morbidity and mortality. The following databases were searched for relevant articles: CAB Abstracts, Web of Science Core Collection, BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record. A total of 189 articles reporting on the causes of morbidity and mortality among captive great apes were selected and divided into comparative morbidity-mortality studies and case reports-series or single-disease prevalence studies. The content and main findings of the morbidity-mortality studies were reviewed and the main limitations identified. The case reports-case series and single-disease prevalence studies were categorized and coded according to taxa, etiology, and body system. Subsequent analysis allowed the amount of literature coverage afforded to each category to be calculated and the main diseases and disorders reported within the literature to be identified. This review concludes that reports of idiopathic and infectious diseases along with disorders of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal body systems were particularly prominent within the great ape literature during 1990-2014. However, recent and accurate prevalence figures are lacking and there are flaws in those reviews that do exist. There is

  5. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension--a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Emilie; Gustafsson, Klas; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-09-12

    Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations.

  6. Buccal pad of fat and its applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery: a review of published literature (February) 2004 to (July) 2009.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasmeet; Prasad, Kavitha; Lalitha, R M; Ranganath, K

    2010-12-01

    This review of the literature was performed to study the frequency and preference of usage of the buccal fat pad (BFP) in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction and to determine its potential versatility in various clinical applications. A computerized literature search using Medline, the JGate@Helinet database, and the Google internet search engine was performed for all relevant articles with specific keywords from February 2004 to July 2009. Focus was on the use of BFP regarding size, location, and types of defects and success and failure rates for various applications. It was found that BFP has been used most commonly for closure of oroantral communications/fistula, followed by reconstruction of maxillary defects; with closure of primary clefts, coverage of mucosal defects, etc. being other uses. Studies suggested that owing to favorable anatomic location, high vascularity, ease of handling, and low failure rate, the BFP has become the flap of choice for reconstruction of various oral defects. The size limitation of the BFP must be known to permit successful outcome. The results have been encouraging for clinicians to make use of potential benefits of the BFP in closure of defects in the oral and maxillofacial region.

  7. Publisher's Announcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scriven, Neil

    2003-12-01

    We are delighted to announce that the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General for 2004 will be Professor Carl M Bender of Washington University, St. Louis. Carl will, with the help of his world class editorial board, maintain standards of scientific rigour whilst ensuring that research published is of the highest importance. Carl attained his first degree in physics at Cornell University before studying for his PhD at Harvard. He later worked at The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and at MIT before assuming his current position at Washington University, St Louis. He has been a visiting professor at Technion, Haifa, and Imperial College, London and a scientific consultant for Los Alamos National Laboratory. His main expertise is in using classical applied mathematics to solve a broad range of problems in high-energy theoretical physics and mathematical physics. Since the publication of his book Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, written with Steven Orszag, he has been regarded as an expert on the subject of asymptotic analysis and perturbative methods. `Carl publishes his own internationally-important research in the journal and has been an invaluable, energetic member of the Editorial Board for some time' said Professor Ed Corrigan, Carl's predecessor as Editor, `he will be an excellent Editor-in-Chief'. Our grateful thanks and best wishes go to Professor Corrigan who has done a magnificent job for the journal during his five-year tenure.

  8. Publisher's Announcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashan, Yasmin

    2008-01-01

    Important changes for 2008 As a result of reviewing several aspects of our content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008. These changes are described below: Article numbering Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Papers in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance, from this issue: Z Y Chen et al 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 015001 Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. A new look and feel We have also taken the opportunity to refresh the design of the journal cover, in order to modernise the typography and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. We hope you like the new cover. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at ppcf@iop.org.

  9. Measures assessing spirituality as more than religiosity: a methodological review of nursing and health-related literature.

    PubMed

    Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah S; Underhill, Meghan; Chang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Hsi-Ling

    2011-08-01

    This paper is a report of a methodological review conducted to analyse, evaluate and synthesize the rigour of measures found in nursing and health-related literature used to assess and evaluate patient spirituality as more than religiosity. Holistic healthcare practitioners recognize important distinctions exist about what constitutes spiritual care needs and preferences and what constitutes religious care needs and preferences in patient care practice. Databases searched, limited to the years 1982 and 2009, included AMED, Alt Health Watch, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCO Host, EBSCO Host Religion and Philosophy, ERIC, Google Scholar, HAPI, HUBNET, IngentaConnect, Mental Measurements Yearbook Online, Ovid MEDLINE, Social Work Abstracts and Hill and Hood's Measures of Religiosity text. A methodological review was carried out. Measures assessing spirituality as more than religiosity were critically reviewed including quality appraisal, relevant data extraction and a narrative synthesis of findings. Ten measures fitting inclusion criteria were included in the review. Despite agreement among nursing and health-related disciplines that spirituality and religiosity are distinct and diverse concepts, the concept of spirituality was often used interchangeably with the concept religion to assess and evaluate patient spirituality. The term spiritual or spirituality was used in a preponderance of items to assess or evaluate spirituality. Measures differentiating spirituality from religiosity are grossly lacking in nursing and health-related literature. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. [Comparison and thinking on literatures of low back pain treated with acupuncture-moxibustion published in foreign SCI journals and domestic core journals].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiang-Jun; Li, Rui

    2012-07-01

    The literatures of clinical research on acupuncture treatment of low back pain included in foreign SCI journals as well as the domestic core journals in the recent 10 years were collected in this article to discuss the divergence of views domestically and abroad. The result showed that acute and chronic back pain and low back pain were generally set as the targets of research abroad. While, diseases with western diagnosis such as lumbar disc herniation was often set as the study target by domestic researchers. It indicats that divergence existed in understanding and study methods between Chinese and foreign research fellows. Thus, comparison should be carried out so as to learn from the strong points of each other and close the gap.

  11. A synopsis of oncology and oncology-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Shekar, K; McLeod, N; Puxeddu, R; Cascarini, L

    2009-10-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 95 papers related to oncology that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) during 2007-2008. They include full length articles on clinical studies, radiology, basic science, and reconstruction in oral, and head and neck cancer. The journal also publishes technical notes and short communications. It encompasses the whole remit of the specialty and it is encouraging that authors choose to submit their work to BJOMS, but to improve the quality and status of the journal, we need to increase the ratio of full length articles to other submissions. Reviews of other subspecialties will be published in due course.

  12. A review of oral surgery-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Tahim, A S; Goodson, A M C; Payne, K F B; Brennan, P A

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a synopsis of all articles relating to oral surgery that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) between January 2011 and December 2012. Of the 57 published, 40 (70%) were full-length articles that predominantly focused on implantology, dentoalveolar surgery, and bisphosphonate osteonecrosis of the jaws (BONJs). In addition, a number of short communications, technical notes, and letters to the editor described rare cases, unusual complications, and novel surgical techniques. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of TMJ-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Tahim, A S; Goodson, A M C; Payne, K F B; Brennan, P A

    2015-03-01

    This review summarises the articles relating to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) between January 2011 and December 2012. In total 24 papers were published. Of these, 16 (67%) were full-length articles, which included prospective, retrospective, and laboratory-based studies as well as reviews. The remaining 8 papers were short communications, technical notes, and letters to the editor, which report on, amongst other things, unusual cases, rare complications, and novel surgical techniques. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventing congenital neonatal heart block in offspring of mothers with anti-SSA/Ro and SSB/La antibodies: a review of published literature and registered clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Elkayam, Uri

    2013-09-01

    Offspring of women with anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La antibodies are believed to be at risk for congenital heart block (CHB). Whether this risk can be reduced, and what constitutes standard of care treatment is, however, unclear. The objective of this review therefore was to determine whether currently proposed standard of care treatments to avoid CHB in offspring of mothers at risk are evidence-based. To do so, we conducted a review of the literature under appropriate keywords and phrases in Medline/PubMed and Google Scholar for the years 2000-2013. Reference lists were further reviewed, and relevant manuscripts were pulled. We also reviewed www.clinicaltrials.gov for registered studies. In the absence of randomized prospective clinical trials, a meta-analysis was not feasible. We, therefore, reviewed lower evidence level studies individually. Risk of CHB actually appears more closely associated with general autoimmunity than, specifically, with SSA/Ro-SSB/La antibodies. This and other observations raise questions whether CHB is caused by passively transferred maternal autoimmunity, as is currently widely believed. Observational studies suggest the possible effectiveness of intravenous gamma globulin (IV-Ig) and hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) in reducing CHB-risk. Evidence for both is, however, inconclusive, and studies are biased in favor of hydroxychloroquine and against IV-Ig. Based on the review of the literature, current evidence of effectiveness for any treatment has to be judged as insufficient. Among the available treatment options, some considerations favor IV-Ig over hydroxychloroquine or, alternatively, suggest treatment with IV-Ig periconceptionally and into early gestation, with hydroxychloroquine added or replacing IV-Ig at approximately 10weeks gestational age. Benefits for the utilization of steroid drugs are unclear. Since no treatment can be considered as established, prevention of CHB in offspring should be considered experimental, and performed under

  15. Conformity and controversies in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up evaluation of canine nodal lymphoma: a systematic review of the last 15 years of published literature.

    PubMed

    Marconato, L; Polton, G A; Sabattini, S; Dacasto, M; Garden, O A; Grant, I; Hendrickx, T; Henriques, J; Lubas, G; Morello, E; Stefanello, D; Comazzi, S

    2017-09-01

    Diagnostic methods used in the initial and post-treatment evaluation of canine lymphoma are heterogeneous and can vary within countries and institutions. Accurate reporting of clinical stage and response assessment is crucial in determining the treatment efficacy and predicting prognosis. This study comprises a systematic review of all available canine multicentric lymphoma studies published over 15 years. Data concerning diagnosis, clinical stage evaluation and response assessment procedures were extracted and compared. Sixty-three studies met the eligibility criteria. Fifty-five (87.3%) studies were non-randomized prospective or retrospective studies. The survey results also expose variations in diagnostic criteria and treatment response assessment in canine multicentric lymphoma. Variations in staging procedures performed and recorded led to an unquantifiable heterogeneity among patients in and between studies, making it difficult to compare treatment efficacies. Awareness of this inconsistency of procedure and reporting may help in the design of future clinical trials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Epidemiology, health-related quality of life and economic burden of binge eating disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ágh, Tamás; Kovács, Gábor; Pawaskar, Manjiri; Supina, Dylan; Inotai, András; Vokó, Zoltán

    2015-03-01

    To perform a systematic review on the epidemiology, the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden of binge eating disorder (BED). A systematic literature search of English-language articles was conducted using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, Business Source Premier and Cochrane Library. Literature search on epidemiology was limited to studies published between 2009 and 2013. Cost data were inflated and converted to 2012 US$ purchasing power parities. All of the included studies were assessed for quality. Forty-nine articles were included. Data on epidemiology were reported in 31, HRQoL burden in 16, and economic burden in 7 studies. Diagnosis of BED was made using 4th Edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria in 46 studies. Lifetime prevalence of BED was 1.1-1.9% in the general population (DSM-IV). BED was associated with significant impairment in aspects of HRQoL relating to both physical and mental health; the Short Form 36 Physical and Mental Component Summary mean scores varied between 31.1 to 47.3 and 32.0 to 49.8, respectively. Compared to individuals without eating disorder, BED was related to increased healthcare utilization and costs. Annual direct healthcare costs per BED patient ranged between $2,372 and $3,731. BED is a serious eating disorder that impairs HRQoL and is related to increased healthcare utilization and healthcare costs. The limited literature warrants further research, especially to better understand the long-term HRQoL and economic burden of BED.

  17. Physical activity, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness in adults with spina bifida: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi

    2013-12-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of Hepatitis B Virus-related Stigmatization Experienced by Asians: A Scoping Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Kim, Deogwoon; Yang, Jin Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Although remarkable progress in the pharmacological components of the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cancer has been achieved, HBV-related stigma is recognized as a major barrier to HBV management. The purpose of this Revised Social Network Model (rSNM)-guided review was to examine the existing research literature about HBV-related stigma among Asians and Asian immigrants residing in other countries. A scoping review of literature was conducted to determine the depth and breadth of literature. Totally, 21 publications were identified. The review findings were linked with the concepts of rSNM to demonstrate how individual factors and sociocultural contexts shape and affect the experience of HBV-related stigma. Most studies were quantitative cross-sectional surveys or qualitative methods research that had been conducted among Chinese in China and in the USA. The three concepts in rSNM that have been identified as important to stigma experience are individual factors, sociocultural factors, and health behaviors. The major factors of most studies were on knowledge and attitudes toward HBV; only three studies focused on stigma as the primary purpose of the research. Few studies focused on the measurement of stigma, conceptual aspects of stigma, or interventions to alleviate the experience of being stigmatized. The scoping review revealed the existing depth and breadth of literature about HBV-related stigma. Gaps in the literature include lack of research address group-specific HBV-related stigma instruments and linkages between stigma and stigma-related factors.

  19. Correlates of Hepatitis B Virus-related Stigmatization Experienced by Asians: A Scoping Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Kim, Deogwoon; Yang, Jin Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although remarkable progress in the pharmacological components of the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cancer has been achieved, HBV-related stigma is recognized as a major barrier to HBV management. The purpose of this Revised Social Network Model (rSNM)-guided review was to examine the existing research literature about HBV-related stigma among Asians and Asian immigrants residing in other countries. Methods: A scoping review of literature was conducted to determine the depth and breadth of literature. Totally, 21 publications were identified. The review findings were linked with the concepts of rSNM to demonstrate how individual factors and sociocultural contexts shape and affect the experience of HBV-related stigma. Results: Most studies were quantitative cross-sectional surveys or qualitative methods research that had been conducted among Chinese in China and in the USA. The three concepts in rSNM that have been identified as important to stigma experience are individual factors, sociocultural factors, and health behaviors. The major factors of most studies were on knowledge and attitudes toward HBV; only three studies focused on stigma as the primary purpose of the research. Few studies focused on the measurement of stigma, conceptual aspects of stigma, or interventions to alleviate the experience of being stigmatized. Conclusions: The scoping review revealed the existing depth and breadth of literature about HBV-related stigma. Gaps in the literature include lack of research address group-specific HBV-related stigma instruments and linkages between stigma and stigma-related factors. PMID:28083549

  20. Autonomy in Relation to Health among People with Intellectual Disability: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wullink, M.; Widdershoven, G.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Metsemakers, J.; Dinant, G. -J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Since the 1990s, individualisation, participation, normalisation and inclusion have been the main principles of care for people with intellectual disability (ID). Autonomy has become an important issue for these people. This review of the literature tried to answer the question: how do people with ID exercise autonomy in relation to…

  1. Autonomy in Relation to Health among People with Intellectual Disability: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wullink, M.; Widdershoven, G.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Metsemakers, J.; Dinant, G. -J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Since the 1990s, individualisation, participation, normalisation and inclusion have been the main principles of care for people with intellectual disability (ID). Autonomy has become an important issue for these people. This review of the literature tried to answer the question: how do people with ID exercise autonomy in relation to…

  2. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  3. On the Margins of Discourse: The Relation of Literature to Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara Herrnstein

    This centrally focused collection of articles and lectures examines literary interpretation and the relation of literature to language. The first of the book's three parts introduces the distinction between natural discourse and fictive discourse (verbal structures that function as representatives of natural utterances). It also deals with the…

  4. The Relations of Literature and Science. An Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship, 1880-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatzberg, Walter, Ed.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is offered as a resource tool for literary scholars, historians of science, and historians of ideas. Annually since 1939, a bibliography of scholarship on the relations of literature and science has been compiled by the Modern Language Association. The present bibliography incorporates the work of the annual…

  5. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  6. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  7. Relational Reasoning and Its Manifestations in the Educational Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within otherwise unconnected information, is regarded as central to human learning and cognition and as particularly critical for those functioning in today's information age. However, the literature on this foundational ability is currently housed within a range of domains of…

  8. Relational Reasoning and Its Manifestations in the Educational Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within otherwise unconnected information, is regarded as central to human learning and cognition and as particularly critical for those functioning in today's information age. However, the literature on this foundational ability is currently housed within a range of domains of…

  9. Publication Bias in Antipsychotic Trials: An Analysis of Efficacy Comparing the Published Literature to the US Food and Drug Administration Database

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Erick H.; Knoepflmacher, Daniel; Shapley, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background Publication bias compromises the validity of evidence-based medicine, yet a growing body of research shows that this problem is widespread. Efficacy data from drug regulatory agencies, e.g., the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), can serve as a benchmark or control against which data in journal articles can be checked. Thus one may determine whether publication bias is present and quantify the extent to which it inflates apparent drug efficacy. Methods and Findings FDA Drug Approval Packages for eight second-generation antipsychotics—aripiprazole, iloperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, risperidone long-acting injection (risperidone LAI), and ziprasidone—were used to identify a cohort of 24 FDA-registered premarketing trials. The results of these trials according to the FDA were compared with the results conveyed in corresponding journal articles. The relationship between study outcome and publication status was examined, and effect sizes derived from the two data sources were compared. Among the 24 FDA-registered trials, four (17%) were unpublished. Of these, three failed to show that the study drug had a statistical advantage over placebo, and one showed the study drug was statistically inferior to the active comparator. Among the 20 published trials, the five that were not positive, according to the FDA, showed some evidence of outcome reporting bias. However, the association between trial outcome and publication status did not reach statistical significance. Further, the apparent increase in the effect size point estimate due to publication bias was modest (8%) and not statistically significant. On the other hand, the effect size for unpublished trials (0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.39) was less than half that for the published trials (0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.54), a difference that was significant. Conclusions The magnitude of publication bias found for antipsychotics was less than that found

  10. Power Relations in Creating and Distributing Official Knowledge in Children's Literature: "Historical Picture of Taiwan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lin-Miao

    2014-01-01

    With a specific focus on power relations in creating and distributing knowledge in society, this study examines the government-published children's series "Historical Picture of Taiwan" produced in Taiwan in the Martial Law era (1949-1987) to uncover ideological assumptions and persuasions permeating both linguistic and visual…

  11. Power Relations in Creating and Distributing Official Knowledge in Children's Literature: "Historical Picture of Taiwan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lin-Miao

    2014-01-01

    With a specific focus on power relations in creating and distributing knowledge in society, this study examines the government-published children's series "Historical Picture of Taiwan" produced in Taiwan in the Martial Law era (1949-1987) to uncover ideological assumptions and persuasions permeating both linguistic and visual…

  12. The Complex Relations between the Academy and Industry: Views from the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa S.

    2001-01-01

    This report on university-industry relations and their effects on higher education is based on three recently published books: Slaughter and Leslie's "Academic Capitalism"; Etzkowitz, Webster, and Healey's "Capitalizing Knowledge"; and Tudiver's "Universities for Sale." It reviews the implications of fundamental changes in the nature of…

  13. Influence of cooking processes on the concentrations of toxic metals and various organic environmental pollutants in food: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have determined the daily intake of various chemical pollutants through the diet. Although the influence of cooking on the concentrations of chemical pollutants in food should not be discarded, in most surveys concerning dietary intake of environmental contaminants, food analyses were performed on uncooked/raw products. However, a very important number of foodstuffs are consumed after being cooked. This paper presents an overview on the available scientific information on the influence of cooking processes on the concentrations of various metals and organic contaminants in foodstuffs. The scientific literature has been reviewed using the PubMed and Scopus databases. Although certain cooking processes could reduce or increase the levels of chemical contaminants in food, it seems that the influence of cooking on the levels of these contaminants depends not only on the particular cooking process, but even more on the specific food item. In general terms, cooking procedures that release or remove fat from the product should tend to reduce the total concentrations of the organic contaminants in the cooked food.

  14. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    PubMed

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept.

  15. Predictors of alcohol-related negative consequences in adolescents: A systematic review of the literature and implications for future research

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Myriam; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. Methods We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. Results Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. Conclusions Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research. PMID:26871952

  16. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  17. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  18. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug–disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed from http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr. The online CD-REST demonstration system is available at http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL: http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr; http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html PMID:27016700

  19. Multiple sclerosis and mobility-related assistive technology: systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rosemarie; Cooper, Rory A; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Collins, Diane M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes a wide variety of neurological deficits, with ambulatory impairment the most obvious cause of disability. Within 10 to 15 years of disease onset, 80% of persons with MS experience gait problems due to muscle weakness or spasticity, fatigue, and loss of balance. To facilitate mobility, persons with MS frequently use mobility assistive technology (MAT), such as canes, crutches, walkers, wheelchairs, and scooters. We systematically reviewed the published literature on MAT use among persons with MS. We used electronic reference lists such as Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed to search the literature. We located 50 articles that met the initial criteria of providing good evidence of the types of MAT devices and their benefits for individuals with MS. A limited number of articles with higher levels of evidence was found regarding benefits of MAT use specifically for persons with MS. Evidence-based literature provides the basis for the strongest method of measurable clinical performance; therefore, having a strong research study design is vital to the justification of MAT prescription and reimbursement decisions. However, a paucity of studies with higher levels of evidence-based practice exists.

  20. Predictors of quality of life for chronic stroke survivors in relation to cultural differences: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongrong; Langhammer, Birgitta

    2017-09-26

    Stroke survivors might perceive their quality of life (QoL) as being affected even years after onset. The purpose of this review was to go through the literature to identify factors related to QoL for persons with stroke in China and Western countries for possible similarities and differences in their respective cultural views. A narrative literature review was conducted on the papers identified by searching PubMed, EBSCO/CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data that published up to November 2016. Factors predicting QoL after stroke were extracted, and comparisons were made between Chinese and Western studies respecting cultural aspects. A total of 43 articles were included in this review, with 31 conducted in Western countries and 12 in China. Predictors of QoL included Demographic factors: age, gender, marital status, education level, socioeconomic status; Clinically related factors: severity of stroke, physical function, depression/anxiety, cognitive impairment, incontinence and other comorbidities; Environmental factors: residential status, social support, social participation; and Individual factors: coping strategies and self-perception. Being married and resident at home might be associated with the perception of QoL differently between Chinese and Western survivors. Most predictors of QoL in stroke survivors were the same in China and the Western countries. However, their QoL might be predicted differently regarding to the individualistic and collectivistic cultural differences. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Recomposing a fragmented literature: how conditional and relational arguments engage different neural systems for deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jérôme; Van Der Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Noveck, Ira A

    2010-07-01

    Deductive reasoning is traditionally viewed as a unitary process involving either rule-based or visuo-spatial mechanisms. However, there is a disagreement in the neuroimaging literature on whether the data support one alternative over the other. Here we test the hypothesis that discrepancies in the literature result from the reasoning materials themselves. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measure brain activity of participants while they integrate the premises of conditional arguments (primarily Modus Tollens: If P then Q; not-Q) and Relational Syllogisms (i.e., linear arguments of the sort P is to the left of Q; Q is to the left of R). We find that reasoning with Modus Tollens activates the left inferior frontal gyrus to a greater extent than the Relational Syllogisms. In contrast, the Relational Syllogisms engage the right temporo-parieto-occipital junction more than conditional arguments. This suggests that conditional reasoning relies more on so-called syntactic processes than relational reasoning, while relational reasoning may rely on visuo-spatial processes and mental imagery more than conditional reasoning. This investigative approach, together with its results, clarifies some apparently inconsistent findings in this literature by showing that the nature of the logical argument, whether it is relational or conditional, determines which neural system is engaged. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reporting of clinical trials in the orthodontic literature from 2008 to 2012: observational study of published reports in four major journals.

    PubMed

    Bearn, David R; Alharbi, Fahad

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an update as to whether authors in the orthodontic field of research currently report randomized clinical trials (RCTs) adequately as defined by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO), Journal of Orthodontics (JO), European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO) and Angle Orthodontist (AO) were reviewed to identify all articles that reported RCTs published between January 2008 and June 2012.Reports were scored using the CONSORT 37 item checklist. A 10% random sample of the papers was scored by a second examiner to assess inter-examiner reliability of the CONSORT score. Another 10% random sample of the papers was scored a second time by the first examiner 3 months after initial data collection to test intra-examiner reliability. A total of 151 clinical trial reports have been identified out of 3335 articles in the four journals from January 2008 to June 2012.Mean CONSORT score of the four journals was 51.7%. Journal of Orthodontics achieved the highest score of 73.6% and the lowest score was achieved by AO with a score of 44.5%. Overall compliance with CONSORT increased from 47.8 to 56.3% between 2008 and 2012. Clinical trials reports represented < 5% of articles in the four main orthodontic journals between 2008 and 2012. • CONSORT mean score ranged from 44.5 to 73.6% between journals. • CONSORT mean score increased through the period of investigation.

  3. Use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictors for dentistry in patients with cardiopathies. Review of the literature published in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Serrera Figallo, María A; Velázquez Cayón, Rocío T; Torres Lagares, Daniel; Corcuera Flores, Jose R; Machuca Portillo, Guillermo

    2012-04-01

    The use of local anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents in dentistry is thoroughly justified and is widely extended, but we cannot ignore the fact that anesthetic infiltration poses risk of complications throughout the dental treatment period. The objective of the present review is to document the reported effects the use of the local anesthetics most widely employed in dentistry, with or without association to vasoconstrictor agents may have in patients with any sort of cardiopathy. We have searched for randomized clinical trials on the assessment of the cardiovascular effects of local anesthetics used in dentistry, without limits as regards age or sex, conducted in patients with any type of cardiopathy which were published during the last decade and were index-linked in Cochrane, Embase and Medline. We have found six randomized clinical trials index-linked in Medline and Cochrane in the past ten years. These trials compare different types of anesthetics: lidocaine 2%, mepivacaine 2%, prilocaine 2% , associated or not to different vasoconstrictor concentrations such as adrenaline or felypressin. The cardiopathies affecting the patients included in the different trials range from hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrythmias, chronic coronary disease to heart transplantation. The use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents is justified in the case of patients with cardiopathies (once we get over the period in which any type of dental manipulation is contraindicated) and in controlled hypertensive patients. In any case, we must be very careful with the choice and execution of the anesthetic technique, being it possible to use a dose between 1.8 and 3.6 ml, on a general basis. Further studies are necessary to establish the effects of these drugs on severe hypertensive patients or in patients with other more advanced cardiopathies. Key words:Vasoconstrictor agents, epinephrine/adverse effects, local anesthetics, dental restoration, oral

  4. Use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictors for dentistry in patients with cardiopathies. Review of the literature published in the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Serrera Figallo, María A.; Velázquez Cayón, Rocío T.; Corcuera Flores, Jose R.; Machuca Portillo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of local anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents in dentistry is thoroughly justified and is widely extended, but we cannot ignore the fact that anesthetic infiltration poses risk of complications throughout the dental treatment period. The objective of the present review is to document the reported effects the use of the local anesthetics most widely employed in dentistry, with or without association to vasoconstrictor agents may have in patients with any sort of cardiopathy. Study Design: We have searched for randomized clinical trials on the assessment of the cardiovascular effects of local anesthetics used in dentistry, without limits as regards age or sex, conducted in patients with any type of cardiopathy which were published during the last decade and were index-linked in Cochrane, Embase and Medline. Results: We have found six randomized clinical trials index-linked in Medline and Cochrane in the past ten years. These trials compare different types of anesthetics: lidocaine 2%, mepivacaine 2%, prilocaine 2% , associated or not to different vasoconstrictor concentrations such as adrenaline or felypressin. The cardiopathies affecting the patients included in the different trials range from hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrythmias, chronic coronary disease to heart transplantation. Conclusions: The use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents is justified in the case of patients with cardiopathies (once we get over the period in which any type of dental manipulation is contraindicated) and in controlled hypertensive patients. In any case, we must be very careful with the choice and execution of the anesthetic technique, being it possible to use a dose between 1.8 and 3.6 ml, on a general basis. Further studies are necessary to establish the effects of these drugs on severe hypertensive patients or in patients with other more advanced cardiopathies. Key words:Vasoconstrictor agents, epinephrine/adverse effects

  5. A review of trauma and trauma-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Payne, Karl F B; Tahim, Arpan; Goodson, Alexander M C; Colbert, Serryth; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-12-01

    This review summarises all trauma and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) from January 2010 to December 2011. In total 45 articles were published, of which 42% (19) were full-length articles. These articles primarily focused on the management of mandibular condyle and orbital fractures, with several papers discussing maxillofacial surgery by the British military. There were no articles discussing midfacial fractures or massive facial trauma. The remaining papers included short communications, technical notes, and letters; and provided discussion of interesting cases, new surgical techniques and fracture classifications. The number of trauma papers published in BJOMS appears to be less than other sub-specialties such as head and neck oncology. The number of prospective and randomised studies remains low, highlighting a need to foster further research within maxillofacial trauma. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-related quality of life in patients with psoriasis: a systematic review of the European literature.

    PubMed

    Obradors, Montse; Blanch, Carles; Comellas, Marta; Figueras, Montse; Lizan, Luis

    2016-11-01

    To summarize the data published over the last 5 years in the European Union related to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with psoriasis and its conditioning factors. International electronic databases and gray literature were searched to identify studies conducted on patient-reported outcomes in patients with psoriasis, published in Europe between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Bibliographic references were hand-searched. Editorials, letters, commentaries, opinion papers, and studies related to specific treatments were excluded. A total of 46 studies met the inclusion criteria, 27 of them reporting data related to HRQoL or its conditioning factors. The publications reviewed highlighted the substantial negative impact of psoriasis on patients' HRQoL. Most of the studies that analyzed the relationship between HRQoL and sociodemographic characteristics described a relation between gender (female) and age (young patients) and poorer HRQoL. An association between HRQoL impairment and visibility of skin lesions and disease activity and severity was also established. Skin discomfort and pruritus were identified as elements that negatively influenced HRQoL. Use of biological agents had a positive impact on HRQoL and on treatment satisfaction, a better HRQoL being seen in patients treated with systemic therapies and biologics. HRQoL has been broadly addressed in patients with psoriasis in Europe. Several disease- and patient-related factors contributed to its deterioration. Therapeutic measures with proven effectiveness in controlling disease symptoms and reducing PASI should be considered in patients with a severe disease who have a poorer HRQoL.

  7. Vitamin D supplementation and health-related quality of life: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michelle R; Senior, Peter A; Mager, Diana R

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are highly prevalent worldwide and thought to potentiate a variety of chronic disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and depression. Routine vitamin D supplementation is often needed to meet vitamin D requirements. Little is known regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on quality of life. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature regarding quality-of-life outcomes from vitamin D supplementation in healthy and clinical populations. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, where quality-of-life outcomes were reported, were selected from Medline and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria were English language articles available online (published between 1950 and May 2014), primary research articles, studies conducted on human beings, and treatment/supplementation with vitamin D. Articles were excluded if they involved topical vitamin D application or implicit cotreatment with other vitamins (eg, multivitamins). Articles selected for review were examined for process and methodologic quality using validated methodologies. A total of 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for review. Interventions were highly variable in terms of study population (eg, healthy/diseased, children/elderly, and baseline vitamin D status) vitamin D dose, and duration of follow-up. Vitamin D supplementation ranged from 400 IU/day for an average of 7.1 years, to a single 300, 000 IU dose. The main tools used to capture quality of life were adaptations of validated, questionnaires (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item questionnaire and EuroQOL five dimension questionnaire). Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with significant changes in quality of life. Studies that reported changes in quality of life as a result of vitamin D supplementation were in clinical populations on short-term vitamin D. Most articles reviewed displayed poor methodologic quality (eg, no randomization

  8. Toward a technology of derived stimulus relations: an analysis of articles published in the journal of applied behavior analysis, 1992-2009.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Every article on stimulus equivalence or derived stimulus relations published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis was evaluated in terms of characteristics that are relevant to the development of applied technologies: the type of participants, settings, procedure (automated vs. tabletop), stimuli, and stimulus sensory modality; types of relations targeted and emergent skills demonstrated by participants; and presence versus absence of evaluation of generalization and maintenance. In most respects, published reports suggested the possibility of applied technologies but left the difficult work of technology development to future investigations, suggestions for which are provided.

  9. TOWARD A TECHNOLOGY OF DERIVED STIMULUS RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS, 1992–2009

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Every article on stimulus equivalence or derived stimulus relations published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis was evaluated in terms of characteristics that are relevant to the development of applied technologies: the type of participants, settings, procedure (automated vs. tabletop), stimuli, and stimulus sensory modality; types of relations targeted and emergent skills demonstrated by participants; and presence versus absence of evaluation of generalization and maintenance. In most respects, published reports suggested the possibility of applied technologies but left the difficult work of technology development to future investigations, suggestions for which are provided. PMID:21541138

  10. Publishing the research report.

    PubMed

    Cupples, S A

    1999-01-01

    Although research is not finished until it is published, many investigators fail to report their research. The purpose of this article is to discuss the dissemination of research findings via the published manuscript. Barriers to publication are reviewed and strategies for overcoming these barriers are presented. Selection of a target journal is discussed, along with the purpose of the query letter. The format of the research report is addressed and specific information is provided regarding the literature review and the use of illustrative materials. Practical tips are provided for each stage of the writing process.

  11. Infrequent Reservoir‐Related Complications of Urologic Prosthetics: A Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Ryan; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aim Complications related to inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) and artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) reservoirs are rare, potentially life threatening, and poorly described in the literature. As more devices are implanted, the incidence of reservoir‐related complications may increase, and it will be important to recognize the relevant signs and symptoms. Methods and Main Outcome Measures We present a case series of reservoir‐related complications presenting to our institution for treatment. We also reviewed all accounts of reservoir‐related complications within the urologic literature Results Three cases of reservoir‐related complications are presented. Case 1 involves erosion of an intact AUS reservoir into the cecum of a patient with a history of myelomeningocele and bladder augmentation. Case 2 involves an IPP reservoir causing vascular compression, resulting in open exploration and repositioning of the reservoir. Case 3 involves intraperitoneal migration of a retained IPP reservoir to a subhepatic area, which was then removed laparoscopically. Literature review yielded descriptions of eight cases of intestinal complications, five cases of vascular complications, but zero reports of migration to a subhepatic area. Other notable complications include 20 reported cases of reservoir erosion into the bladder and inguinal herniation of the reservoir. Conclusion Complications involving urologic prosthesis reservoirs, although rare, can have serious implications for patients. A high index of suspicion and familiarity with treatment options is required in order to allow timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients with prior major abdominal surgeries seem to be more prone to intestinal complications of reservoirs and warrant special concern. Cui T, Terlecki R, and Mirzazadeh M. Infrequent reservoir‐related complications of urologic prosthetics: A case series and literature review. Sex Med 2015;3:334–338. PMID:26797069

  12. Infrequent Reservoir-Related Complications of Urologic Prosthetics: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tao; Terlecki, Ryan; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2015-12-01

    Complications related to inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) and artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) reservoirs are rare, potentially life threatening, and poorly described in the literature. As more devices are implanted, the incidence of reservoir-related complications may increase, and it will be important to recognize the relevant signs and symptoms. We present a case series of reservoir-related complications presenting to our institution for treatment. We also reviewed all accounts of reservoir-related complications within the urologic literature. Three cases of reservoir-related complications are presented. Case 1 involves erosion of an intact AUS reservoir into the cecum of a patient with a history of myelomeningocele and bladder augmentation. Case 2 involves an IPP reservoir causing vascular compression, resulting in open exploration and repositioning of the reservoir. Case 3 involves intraperitoneal migration of a retained IPP reservoir to a subhepatic area, which was then removed laparoscopically. Literature review yielded descriptions of eight cases of intestinal complications, five cases of vascular complications, but zero reports of migration to a subhepatic area. Other notable complications include 20 reported cases of reservoir erosion into the bladder and inguinal herniation of the reservoir. Complications involving urologic prosthesis reservoirs, although rare, can have serious implications for patients. A high index of suspicion and familiarity with treatment options is required in order to allow timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients with prior major abdominal surgeries seem to be more prone to intestinal complications of reservoirs and warrant special concern. Cui T, Terlecki R, and Mirzazadeh M. Infrequent reservoir-related complications of urologic prosthetics: A case series and literature review. Sex Med 2015;3:334-338.

  13. Use of the Yitzhaki Index as a test of relative deprivation for health outcomes: a review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Kafui; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-07-01

    We reviewed the empirical studies published between 2000 and 2010 that test the relative deprivation (RD) hypothesis in relation to population health. Our review focuses primarily on 14 studies using the Yitzhaki Index and related relative income measures. We summarize their main findings by health outcome, address methodological challenges in measuring RD, and identify several gaps in the literature as well as future directions for research in this area. Gaps in the evidence include the need for longitudinal studies with stronger causal designs - for example, examining changes in RD in relation to changes in health outcomes, with careful control for confounding by individual income and other indicators of socioeconomic position. Defining the appropriate reference group (from which people make social comparisons) poses a major empirical challenge, as evidenced by the fact that the measurement of RD has not materially advanced since Yitzhaki's original formulation in 1979. More innovative approaches to operationalizing RD are needed - including the measurement of RD in dimensions other than income, incorporating inter-generational comparisons; and attempting exogenous manipulation of RD, e.g. through laboratory-based experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Knowledge-Driven Approach to Extract Disease-Related Biomarkers from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, À.; Cases, M.; Queralt-Rosinach, N.; Sanz, F.; Furlong, L. I.

    2014-01-01

    The biomedical literature represents a rich source of biomarker information. However, both the size of literature databases and their lack of standardization hamper the automatic exploitation of the information contained in these resources. Text mining approaches have proven to be useful for the exploitation of information contained in the scientific publications. Here, we show that a knowledge-driven text mining approach can exploit a large literature database to extract a dataset of biomarkers related to diseases covering all therapeutic areas. Our methodology takes advantage of the annotation of MEDLINE publications pertaining to biomarkers with MeSH terms, narrowing the search to specific publications and, therefore, minimizing the false positive ratio. It is based on a dictionary-based named entity recognition system and a relation extraction module. The application of this methodology resulted in the identification of 131,012 disease-biomarker associations between 2,803 genes and 2,751 diseases, and represents a valuable knowledge base for those interested in disease-related biomarkers. Additionally, we present a bibliometric analysis of the journals reporting biomarker related information during the last 40 years. PMID:24839601

  15. Toward a Technology of Derived Stimulus Relations: An Analysis of Articles Published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," 1992-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Every article on stimulus equivalence or derived stimulus relations published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" was evaluated in terms of characteristics that are relevant to the development of applied technologies: the type of participants, settings, procedure automated vs. tabletop), stimuli, and stimulus sensory modality; types of…

  16. Issues in Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues related to electronic publishing. Topics include writing; reading; production, distribution, and commerce; copyright and ownership of intellectual property; archival storage; technical obsolescence; control of content; equality of access; and cultural changes. (Author/LRW)

  17. How effectively does medical care achieve its purposes? Evaluation of peer-reviewed literature in ophthalmology related to wellness.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, George L; Monteiro de Barros, Daniela S; Gheith, Moataz; Siam, Ghada Ali; Nagarsheth, Mehul

    2007-01-01

    To get an idea of whether the issue of what makes people healthier is studied in ophthalmology by determining the proportion of articles dealing with that subject. Prospective review of all articles published in 3 consecutive issues of 7 peer-reviewed ophthalmology journals, using a grading system in which A signified an article that clearly dealt with a subject expected to have an impact on health or quality of life, or that considered health or quality of life itself directly; B indicated an article similar to A, but not directly concerned with the issue of health; C signified an article similar to B but more distantly related to health or quality of life; and D was the grade given when there was no relationship at all to health or quality of life. Grading was done independently by 3 graders. A literature review on the subject was also performed. Thirty-three articles received a grade of A, 229 of B, 740 of C, and 81 of D. There were more articles that had no relationship at all to health or quality of life than there were articles dealing directly with those issues. On the basis of a review of the literature and of over 1000 articles, ophthalmologists do not appear to give much priority to issues of quality of life or health. How validly these conclusions can be generalized to general clinicians is not known.

  18. A Review of the Literature on Remote Monitoring Technology in Incentive-Based Interventions for Health-Related Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Allison N.; Davis, Danielle R.; Redner, Ryan; Jarvis, Brantley P.; Zvorsky, Ivori; Keith, Diana R.; Bolivar, Hypatia A.; White, Thomas J.; Rippberger, Peter; Markesich, Catherine; Atwood, Gary; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Use of technology (e.g., Internet, cell phones) to allow remote implementation of incentives interventions for health-related behavior change is growing. To our knowledge, there has yet to be a systematic review of this literature reported. The present report provides a systematic review of the controlled studies where technology was used to remotely implement financial incentive interventions targeting substance use and other health behaviors published between 2004 and 2015. For inclusion in the review, studies had to use technology to remotely accomplish one of the following two aims alone or in combination: (a) monitor the target behavior, or (b) deliver incentives for achieving the target goal. Studies also had to examine financial incentives (e.g., cash, vouchers) for health-related behavior change, be published in peer-reviewed journals, and include a research design that allowed evaluation of the efficacy of the incentive intervention relative to another condition (e.g., non-contingent incentives, treatment as usual). Of the 39 reports that met inclusion criteria, 18 targeted substance use, 10 targeted medication adherence or home-based health monitoring, and 11 targeted diet, exercise, or weight loss. All 39 (100%) studies used technology to facilitate remote monitoring of the target behavior, and 26 (66.7%) studies also incorporated technology in the remote delivery of incentives. Statistically significant intervention effects were reported in 71% of studies reviewed. Overall, the results offer substantial support for the efficacy of remotely implemented incentive interventions for health-related behavior change, which have the potential to increase the cost-effectiveness and reach of this treatment approach. PMID:27777964

  19. Pharmacological prevention of sevoflurane- and desflurane-related emergence agitation in children: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, S; Stany, I; Brasher, C; Lejeune, C; Bruneau, B; Wood, C; Nivoche, Y; Constant, I; Murat, I

    2010-02-01

    Emergence agitation (EA) in children is increased after sevoflurane anaesthesia. The efficacy of prophylactic treatment is controversial. The aim of this study was to provide a meta-analysis of the studies of the pharmacological prevention of EA in children. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials that focused on the prevention of EA in children anaesthetized with sevoflurane, desflurane, or both. The data from each trial were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel model to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval. I(2) statistics were used to assess statistics heterogeneity and the funnel plot and the Begg-Mazumdar test to assess bias. Thirty-seven articles were found which included a total of 1695 patients in the intervention groups and 1477 in the control ones. Midazolam and 5HT(3) inhibitors were not found to have a protective effect against EA [OR=0.88 (0.44, 1.76); OR=0.39 (0.12, 1.31), respectively], whereas propofol [OR=0.21 (0.16, 0.28)], ketamine [OR=0.28 (0.13, 0.60)], alpha(2)-adrenoceptors [OR=0.23 (0.17, 0.33)], fentanyl [OR=0.31 (0.18, 0.56)], and peroperative analgesia [OR=0.15 (0.07, 0.34)] were all found to have a preventive effect. Subgroup analysis according to the peroperative analgesia given does not affect the results. This meta-analysis found that propofol, ketamine, fentanyl, and preoperative analgesia had a prophylactic effect in preventing EA. The analgesic properties of these drugs do not seem to have a role in this effect.

  20. Exploitation of ontological resources for scientific literature analysis: searching genes and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Berlanga-Llavori, Rafael; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    Ontological resources such as controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies from the OBO foundry are used to represent biomedical domain knowledge. The development of such resources is a time consuming task. Once they are finished they contribute to standardization of information representation, interoperability of IT solutions, literature analysis and knowledge discovery. Text mining comprises IT solutions for information retrieval (IR) and information extraction (IE). IR technology exploits ontological resources to select documents that fit best to the processed query, for example, through indexing of the literature content with concept ids or through disambiguation of terms in the query. IE solutions make use of the ontological labels to identify concepts in the text. The text passages that denote conceptual entries are then used either to annotate named entities or to relate the named entities to each other. For knowledge discovery (KD) solutions the identified concepts in the scientific literature are used to relate entities to each other, e.g. to identify gene-disease relations based on shared molecular functions.

  1. Religiosity/spirituality and substance use in adolescence as related to positive development: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kub, Joan; Solari-Twadell, P Ann

    2013-01-01

    Positive youth development interventions are strategies to address adolescent health risk behaviors and are recommended in Healthy People 2020. Although the incorporation of spirituality into these programs has been recommended, much of the empirical literature actually addresses religiosity rather than spirituality. The purpose of our review of 36 studies published between 2007 and 2013 was to (1) examine the relationship of religiosity and/or spirituality to substance use and abuse in adolescence, (2) discuss the measurement and meaning of the concept of spirituality in contrast to religiosity in adolescence, and (3) discuss the implications of these empirical studies for the concept of positive youth development. Findings from this literature review supported earlier findings of an inverse relationship between religiosity and substance use, a lack of or inconsistent definition of spirituality and religiosity as well as limited measures to address these constructs. Recommendations from this review include dedicated work by interdisciplinary teams to address consistency in definitions and creation of consistent tools that include consideration of the stages of development included in the adolescent years. From a research and clinical perspective, an interprofessional approach to clarify the concepts of spirituality and spiritual development would not only benefit research but could inform the substance abuse prevention field. This work is essential to insure that evidence-based strategies, which include religiosity and spirituality, are developed with the goal of protecting youth and supporting positive development of adolescents.

  2. [Nursing and industry relations: literature review and conflicts of interest survey].

    PubMed

    Nordhausen, Thomas; Lins, Sabine; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Köpke, Sascha; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Langer, Gero; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Advanced competencies and tasks of nurses go along with an increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers in nurses as a marketing target. To identify nurses' attitudes, perceptions and behavior regarding industry and marketing strategies. 1) Systematic literature search in Medline via PubMed and CINAHL for international studies on nurses' conflict of interests towards pharmaceutical companies; 2) analysis of a survey with PhD students from two Nursing Science doctoral programs. The review including 16 publications published between 1999 and 2014 and the survey among 82 PhD students revealed comparable results. The majority of nurses already had contact with pharmaceutical companies. Nurses are often uncritical in their attitudes, and suggestibility is claimed to be low. The majority of nurses were not - or at least not sufficiently - provided with conflict of interest training, neither as part of their vocational training nor their continuing education. Conflict of interest seems to be an important topic for nurses. Increasing relevance in the future underpins the need for making nurses more sensitive towards this issue, especially through professional training programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. A Critical Review of the Empirical Literature on the Relation between Anxiety and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Laura E.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Hayward, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The current paper critically reviews the empirical literature focused on the association between puberty and anxiety. A detailed review of more than 45 empirical articles is provided. There is some evidence that among girls, but not boys, a more advanced pubertal status (controlling for age) is associated with higher reported anxiety symptoms. Also among girls, earlier pubertal timing is linked to higher anxiety scores. It is unclear whether early puberty may lead to increased anxiety or if high anxiety influences pubertal timing. With respect to hormones, there were relatively few significant associations for girls, although this literature is very small. Among boys, several studies reported positive associations between both gonadal and adrenal hormones and anxiety. The direction of effect for these finding is also unstudied. The primary limitation of the hormone-anxiety literature pertains to the absence of pubertal measures in samples of youth in which hormones are measured. The paper concludes with a comprehensive examination of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the literature and recommendations for future work. PMID:19019513

  4. Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity Related to Product: A Meta-Analysis of the Studies Published between 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Saul Neves; Rus, Claudia Lenuta; Lens, Willy; Imaginário, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Although the relationship between motivation (especially intrinsic motivation) and creativity (especially as a product), no meta-analyses have been conducted on the relationship between these 2 concepts. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity related to product (i.e., creative outcomes) through…

  5. Making sense of journal publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Robert

    1982-10-01

    With cut-backs in library budgets it is hard to understand why new journals continue to appear. Here Robert Campbell discusses the economics of journal publishing and the prognosis for this part of the scientific literature.

  6. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  7. Drug-related death following release from prison: a brief review of the literature with recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Leach, D; Oliver, P

    2011-12-01

    Mortality from drug-related death is a significant contributor to the loss of life of young people in the UK. Despite attention, the high death rate from this cause continues to persist. One of the most frequently cited factors involved in drug-related death (DRD) is release from prison. This review aims to examine the published literature with a view to quantifying the risk associated with recent prison release and identifying risk factors and prevention strategies. Most deaths following release from prison are caused by overdose, usually from opioid use. The risk of death is greatest within the first week of release but, when compared with the general population, continues to be elevated for several weeks. Relative risk estimates suggest that those released from prison are up to 40 times more likely to die than similar individuals from the general population. Other than gender and an association with poor mental health, there is little in the way of robust risk factors for post-release death that could be identified from the literature. In-prison pharmacological maintenance treatment with methadone and buprenorphine has been shown to reduce the rate of heroin use, in the period immediately following release, in a small number of randomised controlled trials. It is widely recognised that continuity of care, of any form, is critical in avoiding DRDs. For problem drug users, packages of education, including information on the associated risks, treatments, and recognition of DRD after release from prison, are seen as a basic minimum requirement of the prison services. However, special protocols may be required for those drug-using prisoners who have a possibility of being released at short notice.

  8. Semisupervised Learning Based Disease-Symptom and Symptom-Therapeutic Substance Relation Extraction from Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuxia

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid growth of biomedical literature, a large amount of knowledge about diseases, symptoms, and therapeutic substances hidden in the literature can be used for drug discovery and disease therapy. In this paper, we present a method of constructing two models for extracting the relations between the disease and symptom and symptom and therapeutic substance from biomedical texts, respectively. The former judges whether a disease causes a certain physiological phenomenon while the latter determines whether a substance relieves or eliminates a certain physiological phenomenon. These two kinds of relations can be further utilized to extract the relations between disease and therapeutic substance. In our method, first two training sets for extracting the relations between the disease-symptom and symptom-therapeutic substance are manually annotated and then two semisupervised learning algorithms, that is, Co-Training and Tri-Training, are applied to utilize the unlabeled data to boost the relation extraction performance. Experimental results show that exploiting the unlabeled data with both Co-Training and Tri-Training algorithms can enhance the performance effectively. PMID:27822473

  9. Health-related quality-of-life of children with speech and language difficulties: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Rachel; Desha, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2012-02-01

    A review of the literature has been undertaken to examine health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents with speech and language difficulties (SaLD), with a particular focus on evidence regarding the domains of HRQoL most affected by SaLD. Twelve electronic databases were searched for articles on this topic published from 1966 to January 2011. Seven studies suitable for inclusion were identified. These papers were reviewed in relation to their participants, sample size, study design, and outcome measures, which differed considerably across studies. From the studies reviewed, there is emerging evidence that HRQoL can be compromised for children and adolescents with SaLD relative to their peers, and some consensus that the social domain of HRQoL is most impacted. Overall, the review highlights a paucity of research in this area and recommendations are made as to how research may advance. Most importantly, studies examining the effect of child and family factors in mediating or moderating the relationship between SaLD and HRQoL are required. This knowledge will support the identification of children with SaLD at risk of poorer HRQoL outcomes and inform intervention strategies through the identification of relevant risk and protective factors.

  10. Approaches by School Counselors To Enhance the Self-Concept of High School Students: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterling, Kathleen G.

    This paper reviews the relevant literature on approaches by school counselors to enhance the self-concept of high school students. Seventeen journal articles and five microfiche articles published over a period of five years, between 1991 and 1996, were examined. These reviewed sources were identified through an ERIC search. In an attempt to…

  11. Conflict on the courts: a review of sports-related violence literature.

    PubMed

    Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-10-01

    Sports-related violence is a form of interpersonal violence. Violence that occurs in and around the sporting world can have potentially severe physical and psychological repercussions for those involved. Although scholars in a wide range of disciplines have addressed three of the subsets of sports-related violence, they have done so without regard to the interconnected nature of the subsets, choosing instead to look at hazing, brawling, and foul play as independent problems. By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognize that their connection to sport connects them, scholars fail to see how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. This review describes some of the academic literature, primarily from the United States, and identifies similar themes and prevention suggestions that appear across disciplines. It also argues that the three subsets are an interconnected whole of sports-related violence that deserves more detailed study.

  12. Fairness in scientific publishing

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Philippa C.

    2017-01-01

    Major changes are afoot in the world of academic publishing, exemplified by innovations in publishing platforms, new approaches to metrics, improvements in our approach to peer review, and a focus on developing and encouraging open access to scientific literature and data. The FAIR acronym recommends that authors and publishers should aim to make their output Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. In this opinion article, I explore the parallel view that we should take a collective stance on making the dissemination of scientific data fair in the conventional sense, by being mindful of equity and justice for patients, clinicians, academics, publishers, funders and academic institutions. The views I represent are founded on oral and written dialogue with clinicians, academics and the publishing industry. Further progress is needed to improve collaboration and dialogue between these groups, to reduce misinterpretation of metrics, to minimise inequity that arises as a consequence of geographic setting, to improve economic sustainability, and to broaden the spectrum, scope, and diversity of scientific publication. PMID:28163900

  13. Recently published protein sequences. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.; Holmquist, R.

    1972-01-01

    Some polypeptide sequences that have been published in the 1972 scientific literature are listed. Only selected sequences are included. The compilation has two objectives. Current information between periods when more comprehensive compilations are published is to be assembled and the use of data that do not include arrangements of unsequenced peptides for 'maximum homology' is to be encouraged.

  14. Publishing Information on Individual Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Petegem, P.; Vanhoof, J.; Daems, F.; Mahieu, P.

    2005-01-01

    Publishing data on individual schools is becoming a common practice in more and more countries. Based on an extensive study of literature and interviews with experts in England, Scotland, The Netherlands, and France, this article reveals that publishing individual school data is not only a contested but also a very complex affair. Different…

  15. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools. The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. Methods General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. Results We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. Conclusion The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality

  16. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough.

    PubMed

    Boeker, Martin; Vach, Werner; Motschall, Edith

    2013-10-26

    Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools.The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality indicator of Google Scholar confined to

  17. Family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perceived CVD risk, and health-related behavior: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 82 million Americans have one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for 32.8% of all deaths in the United States. Although the evidence for the familial aggregation of CVD is strong, the relationship between family history (FH) of CVD, perceived risk for CVD and their relationship to health-related behavior is poorly understood. Objective The objective of this article is to review and summarize the published research on the relationship between a FH of CVD, an individual’s perceived risk, and health-related behavior in order to make recommendations for clinical practice and future research. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO to identify articles that examined the relationship between a FH of CVD, perceived CVD risk, and health-promoting behaviors. A total of 263 unique articles were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-eight were excluded, resulting in a total of 25 articles included in the paper. Results There was a positive relationship between a reported FH of CVD and perceived risk. However, the relationship between a FH of CVD and health-related behavior change and perceived risk and behavior change was inconsistent. Conclusions A person’s awareness of their FH of CVD or their own risk for CVD is not a sufficient predictor of changes in their health-related behavior. Future studies are needed to better explain the processes by which perceived CVD risk or FH of CVD can be used to affect health-related behavior changes. It appears that both FH and perceived personal risk for CVD are necessary but not sufficient conditions to change health-related behavior in high-risk populations. Future studies should also test interventions that help individuals with a FH of CVD attribute increased personal risk to themselves for developing CVD, while providing lifestyle management options to minimize their risk. PMID:23321782

  18. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    PubMed

    Brand, E Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes ("seeds") as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ(9)-THC are investigated.

  19. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    PubMed Central

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  20. Performance monitoring in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic literature review of event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Hüpen, Philippa; Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by impairments in social-emotional situations, executive functioning, and behavioral regulation. These symptoms may be related to deficits in performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to observe and evaluate one's own behavior and performance which is necessary for the regulation of future behavior. The present literature review investigated electroencephalic correlates of performance monitoring in ASD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) considered in this review included internal performance monitoring components (error-related negativity, error positivity), external performance monitoring components (feedback-related negativity, feedback-P3), and observational performance monitoring components (observer error-related negativity, observer feedback-related negativity). The majority of studies point to reduced internal performance monitoring in ASD. External performance monitoring in reward-processing paradigms, where rewards are independent of performance, seems to be intact in ASD. So far, no studies have investigated the observer error-related negativity in ASD. Available data on the observer feedback-related negativity are inconclusive, since only two studies with differential study results investigated this construct in ASD. In general, results suggest that individuals with ASD have problems with internal performance monitoring and with learning from external, abstract feedback. In contrast, the processing of external, concrete feedback seems to be largely intact in ASD.

  1. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1) convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2) detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3) refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4) annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch. PMID:20682041

  2. Pregnancy-related acute aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine; Gros, Bernard

    2017-04-02

    A well-established association exists between acute aortic dissection and pregnancy, particularly in women with Marfan syndrome. However, there is debate regarding appropriate management guidelines. In particular, there are differing opinions regarding when prophylactic aortic root repair should be recommended as well as the efficacy of beta blockers in this clinical scenario. The current study evaluated 10 years of published literature (2005-2015) in the PubMed/Medline database. Fifty articles, describing 72 cases of women who presented with aortic dissection in the antepartum or postpartum period were identified. Comparisons on demographic variables and clinical outcomes between cases of women with Marfan syndrome (n = 36) and without Marfan syndrome (n = 36) were conducted. There were no significant differences in demographics (age, gravidity, parity) between the Marfan and non-Marfan cases. Marfan patients presented with antepartum dissections significantly earlier in pregnancy than those without Marfan syndrome (P = .002). However, there were no significant difference between the 2 groups in maternal mortality, fetal mortality, or obstetric outcomes (mode of delivery and gestational age at delivery). Eight cases described events in Marfan women with an aortic root diameter ≤40 mm. Six events occurred in Marfan women who were managed with beta blockers. Current guidelines rely on aortic root diameter for stratification of Marfan women into risk categories, but we identified several cases that would be missed by these guidelines. Specifically, the existing literature suggest that women with Marfan syndrome should take precautions throughout pregnancy, rather than the third trimester.

  3. Integrative Literature Review: A Review of Literature Related to Geographical Information Systems, Healthcare Access, and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Barbara Ann

    2008-01-01

    Differences in access to healthcare services and the resulting adverse health outcomes are major public health priorities. The Institute of Medicine and the Department of Health and Human Services have identified the need for strategies to improve access to healthcare services and to support the improvement of health outcomes. The literature documents health disparities associated with healthcare access and health outcomes from a geographic perspective. Place of residence, location of healthcare services, and geography in general are important factors in the analysis of health. Geographical information systems (GISs) are an emerging technology in the analysis of health from a geographical or location context. As a type of information technology, GISs are potentially powerful assessment tools for the investigation of healthcare access, health outcomes, and the possible resulting health disparities. Their ability to integrate health data with mapping functions allows for visualization, exploration, and modeling of health patterns. Application of GIS technology using health data can help in describing and explaining disparities in healthcare access and health outcomes. The studies reviewed demonstrated the use of GISs to investigate various aspects of healthcare access and health outcomes, including environmental variables of Lyme disease, sociodemographic variables and teen pregnancy, geographical disparities in breast cancer mortality by racial groups, PCP and AIDS prevalence, and factors of a leptospirosis disease outbreak. The literature reviewed shows effective integration and analysis of health data using GIS technology. PMID:18698429

  4. LGscore: A method to identify disease-related genes using biological literature and Google data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    Since the genome project in 1990s, a number of studies associated with genes have been conducted and researchers have confirmed that genes are involved in disease. For this reason, the identification of the relationships between diseases and genes is important in biology. We propose a method called LGscore, which identifies disease-related genes using Google data and literature data. To implement this method, first, we construct a disease-related gene network using text-mining results. We then extract gene-gene interactions based on co-occurrences in abstract data obtained from PubMed, and calculate the weights of edges in the gene network by means of Z-scoring. The weights contain two values: the frequency and the Google search results. The frequency value is extracted from literature data, and the Google search result is obtained using Google. We assign a score to each gene through a network analysis. We assume that genes with a large number of links and numerous Google search results and frequency values are more likely to be involved in disease. For validation, we investigated the top 20 inferred genes for five different diseases using answer sets. The answer sets comprised six databases that contain information on disease-gene relationships. We identified a significant number of disease-related genes as well as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Our method was up to 40% more accurate than existing methods.

  5. HIV-related stigma within communities of gay men: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Peter J; Brady, Michael; Carter, Michael; Fernandes, Ricardo; Lamore, Lance; Meulbroek, Michael; Ohayon, Michel; Platteau, Tom; Rehberg, Peter; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Thompson, Marc

    2012-01-01

    While stigma associated with HIV infection is well recognised, there is limited information on the impact of HIV-related stigma between men who have sex with men and within communities of gay men. The consequences of HIV-related stigma can be personal and community-wide, including impacts on mood and emotional well-being, prevention, testing behaviour, and mental and general health. This review of the literature reports a growing division between HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men, and a fragmentation of gay communities based along lines of perceived or actual HIV status. The literature includes multiple references to HIV stigma and discrimination between gay men, men who have sex with men, and among and between many gay communities. This HIV stigma takes diverse forms and can incorporate aspects of social exclusion, ageism, discrimination based on physical appearance and health status, rejection and violence. By compiling the available information on this understudied form of HIV-related discrimination, we hope to better understand and target research and countermeasures aimed at reducing its impact at multiple levels.

  6. Humanistic principles in relation to psychiatric nurse education: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper addresses the topic of humanistic educative principles and examines it in the context of Irish psychiatric nurse education. Humanistic or existential philosophy influences the nursing curriculum profoundly, and yet a dichotomy continues to exist in relation to the epistemological basis informing nurse education. The dichotomy is manifested broadly in relation to the notion of individual choice and statutory responsibility as regulated professional governing bodies. Humanism is based on the notion that people are born 'blank slates' only to become who they are later. McKenna would describe the humanistic theory of learning as emphasizing feelings and experiences, leading to self-awareness, personal growth and individual optimization. A review of the literature indicates there are very few empirical studies relating to the area of the humanistic principles as applied to psychiatric nurse education. Most of the literature that was initially located referred to humanistic existentialism in the field of psychology, which although provided interesting reading and relevant, to a point, did not apply specifically to psychiatric nursing education. The emphasis of this paper is psychiatric nursing education and these studies do not apply to the area under investigation.

  7. HIV-related stigma within communities of gay men: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Peter J.; Brady, Michael; Carter, Michael; Fernandes, Ricardo; Lamore, Lance; Meulbroek, Michael; Ohayon, Michel; Platteau, Tom; Rehberg, Peter; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Thompson, Marc

    2011-01-01

    While stigma associated with HIV infection is well recognised, there is limited information on the impact of HIV-related stigma between men who have sex with men and within communities of gay men. The consequences of HIV-related stigma can be personal and community-wide, including impacts on mood and emotional well-being, prevention, testing behaviour, and mental and general health. This review of the literature reports a growing division between HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men, and a fragmentation of gay communities based along lines of perceived or actual HIV status. The literature includes multiple references to HIV stigma and discrimination between gay men, men who have sex with men, and among and between many gay communities. This HIV stigma takes diverse forms and can incorporate aspects of social exclusion, ageism, discrimination based on physical appearance and health status, rejection and violence. By compiling the available information on this understudied form of HIV-related discrimination, we hope to better understand and target research and countermeasures aimed at reducing its impact at multiple levels. PMID:22117138

  8. Ergonomics of electronic mail address systems: related literature review and survey of users.

    PubMed

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The paper reviews the cognitive ergonomics literature related to electronic mail (e-mail) address design. Based on this information, a survey of 160 users of current e-mail address system was conducted. The aim was to obtain information on likes, dislikes and difficulties associated with e-mail address and to obtain users' suggestions and input for improving the current e-mail address system. The survey results indicated that users want an improved e-mail address system with regard to shorter length, useful information and appropriate presentation of information.

  9. Adolescent men's attitudes in relation to pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of the literature from 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Maria; Cruise, Sharon; O'Halloran, Peter; Alderdice, Fiona; Hyde, Abbey

    2010-10-01

    This review article reveals a long-standing gender bias in academic and policy research on adolescent pregnancy, which has led to the neglect of adolescent men's perspectives. The review summarizes the available literature on adolescent men's attitudes in relation to pregnancy occurrence and pregnancy outcomes in the context of addressing three questions: (1) What are adolescent men's attitudes to an adolescent pregnancy? (2) What are adolescent men's attitudes in relation to pregnancy outcomes? (3) What explanations are offered for the identified attitudes to adolescent pregnancy and resolution? The review establishes a foundation for future quantitative and qualitative research on adolescent men's perspectives. It emphasizes that a greater understanding of adolescent men's perspectives could lead to a re-framing of adolescent pregnancy away from being seen solely as a woman's issue. Furthermore, it is argued that the inclusion of adolescent men would lead to more effective adolescent pregnancy prevention and counseling programmes. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Translation of Questionnaires Measuring Health Related Quality of Life Is Not Standardized: A Literature Based Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Angenete, Eva; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is growing awareness of the need to explore patient reported outcomes in clinical trials. In the Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group we are conducting several clinical trials in cooperation between Danish and Swedish surgical researchers, and we use questionnaires aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects. Main Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting translation of questionnaires. Furthermore, we wanted to make some methodological suggestions for clinical researchers who are faced with having to translate a questionnaire. Material and Methods We designed a research study based on a survey of the literature and extracted data from published studies reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases. Results We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus was on internal validity (96%), reliability (67%) criterion validity (81%), and construct validity (62%). For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies. Conclusions This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity) although most researchers did not use a translation guide. Moreover, we recommended that clinical researchers should consider three steps covering the process of translation, the qualitative validation as well as the quantitative validation. PMID:25965447

  11. The AAO-HNS Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium guidelines for the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy in Menière's disease: have they been applied in the published literature of the last decade?

    PubMed

    Thorp, M A; Shehab, Z P; Bance, M L; Rutka, J A

    2003-06-01

    To assess how effectively the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium (AAO-HNS CHE) guidelines for the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy in Meniere's disease have been applied in the last 11 years of published literature. This was a MedLine-based review. Some 79.7% of papers attempted to use the AAO-HNS CHE guidelines. However, only 50% of these publications managed to use the AAO-HNS CHE criteria in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy correctly. In order to advance our understanding of this condition, improved application of the AAO-HNS CHE guidelines by authors and editors alike is required in the reporting of results of the therapy of Meniere's disease.

  12. Neurocognitive functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and unaffected relatives: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Stephanie A; Kassem, Layla; Brotman, Melissa A; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J

    2016-10-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are present in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and their unaffected (nonbipolar) relatives, but it is not clear which domains are most often impaired and the extent of the impairment resulting from shared genetic factors. In this literature review, we address these issues and identify specific neurocognitive tasks most sensitive to cognitive deficits in patients and unaffected relatives. We conducted a systematic review in Web of Science, PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO databases. Fifty-one articles assessing cognitive functioning in BD patients (23 studies) and unaffected relatives (28 studies) were examined. Patients and, less so, relatives show impairments in attention, processing speed, verbal learning/memory, and verbal fluency. Studies were more likely to find impairment in patients than relatives, suggesting that some neurocognitive deficits may be a result of the illness itself and/or its treatment. However, small sample sizes, differences among relatives studied (e.g., relatedness, diagnostic status, age), and differences in assessment instruments may contribute to inconsistencies in reported neurocognitive performance among relatives. Additional studies addressing these issues are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Which Health Cares Are Related to the Family Physician? A Critical Interpretive Synthesis of Literature.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Shahram; Akbarilakeh, Maryam

    2017-05-01

    This study provided the theoretical basis for program development through a new conceptualization of the concept of family physician related health care. Critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) was used to carry out qualitative analysis and synthesis of the literature from 2006 until 2015. At the beginning of CIS, the search strategy was designed to access electronic databases such as CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane library, PsycINFO, Embase, EBMreviews, and Thomson scientific web of science database. The main review question was the clarification of the health care related to family physician in health system, which produced over related 750 articles; 60 articles related to the research objective were studied by purposive sampling. After identifying the main categories and sub-categories, synthesis of the contradictory findings in different studies was conducted. New concepts and relationships between concepts were created using CIS of documentation related to the place of family physician in health system. To define the original position of family physician in health system, clarify its related health care and determine its boundaries from other health care providers, and its use in the design and development of family physician's educational program, a frame of concepts related to the main concept and question was created. A more useful means of understanding family physician is offered by the synthetic constructs of this framework. The theoretical conceptualization of family physician position and duties in the health system can be an appropriate guide for educational program and curricula in our context.

  14. Which Health Cares Are Related to the Family Physician? A Critical Interpretive Synthesis of Literature

    PubMed Central

    YAZDANI, Shahram; AKBARILAKEH, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study provided the theoretical basis for program development through a new conceptualization of the concept of family physician related health care. Methods: Critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) was used to carry out qualitative analysis and synthesis of the literature from 2006 until 2015. At the beginning of CIS, the search strategy was designed to access electronic databases such as CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane library, PsycINFO, Embase, EBMreviews, and Thomson scientific web of science database. The main review question was the clarification of the health care related to family physician in health system, which produced over related 750 articles; 60 articles related to the research objective were studied by purposive sampling. After identifying the main categories and sub-categories, synthesis of the contradictory findings in different studies was conducted. New concepts and relationships between concepts were created using CIS of documentation related to the place of family physician in health system. Results: To define the original position of family physician in health system, clarify its related health care and determine its boundaries from other health care providers, and its use in the design and development of family physician’s educational program, a frame of concepts related to the main concept and question was created. A more useful means of understanding family physician is offered by the synthetic constructs of this framework. Conclusion: The theoretical conceptualization of family physician position and duties in the health system can be an appropriate guide for educational program and curricula in our context. PMID:28560187

  15. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature.

    PubMed

    Žitnik, Slavko; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice of transforming

  16. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. Results We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice

  17. Neighborhood safety factors associated with older adults' health-related outcomes: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Chanam; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-09-01

    Neighborhood safety is important for older adults' health and wellbeing, but there has not been a synthesis in the literature of what is currently known about this construct. This systematic literature review, following the PRISMA guidelines, focuses on identifying neighborhood safety factors associated with health-related outcomes and behaviors of older adults in the U.S. A search was conducted in 2014 via Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, SportDis, and Transportation Databases. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified thirty-two articles for review. Sixteen studies examined health outcomes such as health status, mental health, physical function, morbidity/mortality, and obesity; the other sixteen studies focused on health behaviors, such as physical activity and walking. Four domains of neighborhood safety were identified: overall/general neighborhood safety; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety; and proxies for safety (e.g., vandalism, graffiti). Overall/general neighborhood safety appeared most relevant to mental health and physical function. Traffic-related safety was most pertinent to physical activity, while crime-related safety was more consistently associated with mental health and walking. While all safety variables were significantly associated with mental health, no significant associations were found for obesity. We also found that specific measures or constructs of safety were not applied consistently across the examined studies, making it difficult to compare the results. This review identified several important gaps in the existing studies dealing with neighborhood safety-health relationships among older adults. Further studies are needed that examine the different roles of multidimensional neighborhood safety in promoting the community health, not only in the U.S., but globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    PubMed

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  19. Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain

  20. Health related quality of life in burn patients--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Demetris; Weissman, Oren; Tessone, Ariel; Zilinsky, Isaac; Holloway, Samantha; Boyd, Julie; Haik, Josef

    2014-08-01

    The burn trauma is multifactorial and involves pathophysiologic processes of all of the body's systems. The impact it could have on a person's life includes impairments on their esthetic appearance, interpersonal relationships, psychological, social and physical functioning. Previously, the outcomes of burn care were confined in the context of mortality and length of hospital stay. Currently, a shift is afoot from defining good health care as merely the reduction of morbidity and mortality to a more holistic approach that involves aspects of Health Related Quality of Life. In this article we aim to present a concise review of the relevant literature and relevant topics pertaining Health Related Quality of Life and burn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. miRAFinder and GeneAFinder scripts: large-scale searching for miRNA and related information in indexed literature abstracts.

    PubMed

    Berillo, Olga; Régnier, Mireille; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, information on miRNAs and their binding sites is gaining momentum. Therefore, there is interest in the development of tools extracting miRNA related information from known literature. Hence, we describe GeneAFinder and miRAFinder scripts (open source) developed using python programming for the semi-automatic extraction and arrangement of updated information on miRNAs, genes and additional data from published article abstracts in PubMed. The scripts are suitable for custom modification as per requirement. miRAFinder and GeneAFinder scripts are free and available for download at http://sites.google.com /site/malaheenee/software.

  2. PPInterFinder—a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein–protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder—a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. Database URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/ PMID:23325628

  3. Social Support and HIV-related Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Global Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  4. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/

  5. Social support and HIV-related risk behaviors: a systematic review of the global literature.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-02-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction.

  6. Dust and soiling issues and impacts relating to solar energy systems: Literature review update for 2012–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Suellen C. S.; Diniz, Antonia Sonia A. C.; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this review survey is to provide a literature compilation, updating materials reported in several review papers on solar-device soiling and mitigation approaches published over the past 5 years. The focus is on the period 2013-2015, but an updated listing is also provided for the year 2012 for completeness. This literature review also provides the first update for a periodic, single collation report on such publications proposed in this journal two years ago. This review presents a listing of the publications, their publication source, and some brief tabulated information to help guide the reader into the focus of each of the works.

  7. Relations between task delegation and job satisfaction in general practice: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Riisgaard, Helle; Nexøe, Jørgen; Le, Jette V; Søndergaard, Jens; Ledderer, Loni

    2016-11-30

    It has for years been discussed whether practice staff should be involved in patient care in general practice to a higher extent. The research concerning task delegation within general practice is generally increasing, but the literature focusing on its influence on general practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction appears to be sparse even though job satisfaction is acknowledged as an important factor associated with both patient satisfaction and medical quality of care. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was 1) to review the current research on the relation between task delegation and general practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction and, additionally, 2) to review the evidence of possible explanations for this relation. A systematic literature review. We searched the four databases PubMed, Cinahl, Embase, and Scopus systematically. The immediate relevance of the retrieved articles was evaluated by title and abstract by the first author, and papers that seemed to meet the aim of the review were then fully read by first author and last author independently judging the eligibility of content. We included four studies in the review. They explored views and attitudes of the staff, encompassing nurses as well as practice managers. Only one of the included studies also explored general practitioners' views and attitudes, hence making it impossible to establish any syntheses on this relation. According to the studies, the staff's overall attitude towards task delegation was positive and led to increased job satisfaction, probably because task delegation comprised a high degree of work autonomy. The few studies included in our review suggest that task delegation within general practice may be seen by the staff as an overall positive issue contributing to their job satisfaction, primarily due to perceived autonomy in the work. However, because of the small sample size comprising only qualitative studies, and due to the heterogeneity of these studies

  8. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies published before October 2010. Fifty studies were included and assessed on methodological quality. Twenty-eight studies reported significantly favorable health outcomes following communication-related BCTs. In these studies, 'behavioral counseling' was most frequently used (15 times), followed by motivational interviewing (eight times), education and advice (both seven times). Physicians and nurses seem equally capable of providing face-to-face communication-related BCTs in primary care. Behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice all seem effective communication-related BCTs. However, BCTs were also found in less successful studies. Furthermore, based on existing literature, one primary care profession does not seem better equipped than the other to provide face-to-face communication-related BCTs. There is evidence that behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice can be used as effective communication-related BCTs by physicians and nurses. However, further research is needed to examine the underlying working mechanisms of communication-related BCTs, and whether they meet the requirements of patients and primary care providers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craievich, Aldo F.; Fischer, Hannes

    2010-10-01

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  10. What is known on angiogenesis-related rare diseases? A systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Caso, Luis; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from pre-existing ones, is essential during ontogenetic development and is related to many important physio-pathological processes in the adult. In fact, a persistent and deregulated angiogenesis is a required event for many diseases and pathological situations, including cancer progression and metastasis. Some rare diseases are also angiogenesis-related pathologies. However, there is a lack of an exhaustive review on the topic. The main purpose of this work is to carry out a systematic review of literature to determine what (and how much) scientific information concerning angiogenesis-related rare diseases can be extracted from available sources. After exhaustive searches in bibliographic databases, preselected data were filtered by selecting only those articles on rare diseases with an Orpha number hosted in the Orphanet web. The selected bibliographic references were further curated manually. With the 187 selected references, a critical reading and analysis was carried out allowing for an identification and classification of angiogenesis-related rare diseases, the involved genes and the drugs available for their treatment, all on the basis of the information available in Orphanet database. PMID:22882737

  11. BSQA: integrated text mining using entity relation semantics extracted from biological literature of insects.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Li, Yanen; Khetani, Radhika; Sanders, Barry; Lu, Yue; Ling, Xu; Zhai, Chengxiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2010-07-01

    Text mining is one promising way of extracting information automatically from the vast biological literature. To maximize its potential, the knowledge encoded in the text should be translated to some semantic representation such as entities and relations, which could be analyzed by machines. But large-scale practical systems for this purpose are rare. We present BeeSpace question/answering (BSQA) system that performs integrated text mining for insect biology, covering diverse aspects from molecular interactions of genes to insect behavior. BSQA recognizes a number of entities and relations in Medline documents about the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. For any text query, BSQA exploits entity annotation of retrieved documents to identify important concepts in different categories. By utilizing the extracted relations, BSQA is also able to answer many biologically motivated questions, from simple ones such as, which anatomical part is a gene expressed in, to more complex ones involving multiple types of relations. BSQA is freely available at http://www.beespace.uiuc.edu/QuestionAnswer.

  12. New Media Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Ian

    The media industry is the fastest growing business in the world today; additional leisure time, coupled with increasingly global distribution, has created large international markets for information and entertainment. The United Kingdom is relatively strong in the three main areas concerned with new media publishing: information technology,…

  13. Infection-related mental and inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia: literature review and presentation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R

    1997-07-01

    A review of the literature on infection-related mental and inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia is given. This is followed by 2 case reports. The first case is of a mandibular left second molar in which a chloropercha overfill puff occurred in the vicinity of the inferior alveolar canal. The tooth remained asymptomatic until 2 and 1/2 yr later, when the periapical lesion enlarged and swelling, pain, and paresthesia developed. The paresthesia resolved 2 weeks following periapical surgery. The second case is of a mandibular right first premolar in which paresthesia began 1 day after the initial endodontic treatment. The intracanal medication was formocresol on a cotton pellet that was squeezed dry. The paresthesia was treated by irrigation, antibiotics, and dexamethasone. The paresthesia lasted 7 weeks, and when it resolved the root canal was filled with gutta-percha/eucapercha. Almost 9 months later, the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  14. Menstruation-Related Hypersomnia Treated with Hormonal Contraception: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Suau, Gloria M; Cabrera, Valerie; Romaguera, Josefina

    2016-03-01

    Menstrual-related hypersomnia (MRH) is a rare disorder consisting of recurrent hypersomnia that is temporally linked with menses. An unusual case of an 18-yearold female with repeated episodes of hypersomnia was referred to a psychiatrist and a neurologist. A review of the literature was done so that an accurate diagnosis could be made, thereby enabling the development of an appropriate treatment plan. Making an effective diagnosis was a challenge because of the similarity of the symptoms of MRH with other psychiatric disorders. As additional clinical features were identified and treatments were ruled ineffective, further diagnoses were proposed. The patient's symptoms ceased with oral contraceptive treatment. Hormones play a role in the menstrual cycle and frequently affect behavior (such as sleep patterns). This case underlines the importance of multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment in unusual cases. The potential role of hormone fluctuation in patients with psychiatric conditions should be considered when diagnosing and treating those who are unresponsive to traditional pharmacological treatments.

  15. Social and Interpersonal Factors Relating to Adolescent Suicidality: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Merchant, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature concerning social and interpersonal variables as risk factors for adolescent suicidality (suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, death by suicide. It also describes major social constructs in theories of suicide and the extent to which studies support their importance to adolescent suicidality. PsychINFO and PubMed searches were conducted for empirical studies focused on family and friend support, social isolation, peer victimization, physical/sexual abuse, or emotional neglect as these relate to adolescent suicidality. Empirical findings converge in documenting the importance of multiple social and interpersonal factors to adolescent suicidality. Research support for the social constructs in several major theories of suicide is summarized and research challenges are discussed. PMID:18576200

  16. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of…

  17. Publishing and academic promotion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    2009-09-01

    Clearly, academic endeavour has to be the single most important criterion for appointment to an academic position and for subsequent promotion. It is rare for excellence either in teaching or clinical practice to offset a poor publication record. However, the pressure to publish and gain related grant income can lead to problems in the normal academic pursuits of a department or institution. These and other related issues will be explored in this editorial.

  18. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational, and Residential Use Exposure Pathways to House Dust Pesticide Concentrations: Meta-Regression of Published Data.

    PubMed

    Deziel, Nicole C; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Graubard, Barry I; Jones, Rena R; Hoppin, Jane A; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Chen, Honglei; Lubin, Jay H; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C R; Friesen, Melissa C

    2017-03-01

    Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995 to 2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics [e.g., geometric means (GM)]. We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (interquartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from seven studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 3.3; 15 statistics, five studies] in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more recently or frequently versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for the pest treatment was 1-19% and ≥ 20%, respectively (88 statistics, five studies). Our quantification of the relative contributions of pesticide exposure pathways in agricultural populations could improve exposure assessments in epidemiologic studies. The meta-regression models can be updated when additional data become available. Citation: Deziel NC, Beane Freeman LE, Graubard BI, Jones RR, Hoppin JA, Thomas K, Hines CJ, Blair A, Sandler DP, Chen H, Lubin JH, Andreotti G, Alavanja MC, Friesen MC. 2017

  19. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational, and Residential Use Exposure Pathways to House Dust Pesticide Concentrations: Meta-Regression of Published Data

    PubMed Central

    Deziel, Nicole C.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Graubard, Barry I.; Jones, Rena R.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Chen, Honglei; Lubin, Jay H.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. Objective: To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. Methods: From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995 to 2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics [e.g., geometric means (GM)]. We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). Results: For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (interquartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from seven studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 3.3; 15 statistics, five studies] in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more recently or frequently versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for the pest treatment was 1–19% and ≥ 20%, respectively (88 statistics, five studies). Conclusion: Our quantification of the relative contributions of pesticide exposure pathways in agricultural populations could improve exposure assessments in epidemiologic studies. The meta-regression models can be updated when additional data become available. Citation: Deziel NC, Beane Freeman LE, Graubard BI, Jones RR, Hoppin JA, Thomas K, Hines CJ, Blair A, Sandler DP, Chen H, Lubin

  20. The biology of cancer-related fatigue: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Saligan, Leorey N; Olson, Karin; Filler, Kristin; Larkin, David; Cramp, Fiona; Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Sriram, Yennu; Escalante, Carmen P; del Giglio, Auro; Kober, Kord M; Kamath, Jayesh; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the etiology of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is critical to identify targets to develop therapies to reduce CRF burden. The goal of this systematic review was to expand on the initial work by the National Cancer Institute CRF Working Group to understand the state of the science related to the biology of CRF and, specifically, to evaluate studies that examined the relationships between biomarkers and CRF and to develop an etiologic model of CRF to guide researchers on pathways to explore or therapeutic targets to investigate. This review was completed by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Fatigue Study Group-Biomarker Working Group. The initial search used three terms (biomarkers, fatigue, cancer), which yielded 11,129 articles. After removing duplicates, 9145 articles remained. Titles were assessed for the keywords "cancer" and "fatigue" resulting in 3811 articles. Articles published before 2010 and those with samples <50 were excluded, leaving 75 articles for full-text review. Of the 75 articles, 28 were further excluded for not investigating the associations of biomarkers and CRF. Of the 47 articles reviewed, 25 were cross-sectional and 22 were longitudinal studies. More than half (about 70 %) were published recently (2010-2013). Almost half (45 %) enrolled breast cancer participants. The majority of studies assessed fatigue using self-report questionnaires, and only two studies used clinical parameters to measure fatigue. The findings from this review suggest that CRF is linked to immune/inflammatory, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and genetic biomarkers. We also identified gaps in knowledge and made recommendations for future research.

  1. Backbiting and bloodshed in books: short-term effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Ridge, Robert; Stevens, McKay; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura

    2012-03-01

    The current research consisted of two studies examining the effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature. In both studies, participants read one of two stories (containing physical or relational aggression), and then participated in one of two tasks to measure aggression. In Study 1, participants who read the physical aggression story were subsequently more physically aggressive than those who read the relational aggression story. Conversely, in Study 2, participants who read the relational aggression story were subsequently more relationally aggressive than those who read the physical aggression story. Combined, these results show evidence for specific effects of reading aggressive content in literature. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Siblings and child friends in death-related literature for children.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    This article explores ways in which siblings and child friends are represented as being involved in death and loss experiences. These representations are taken from 51 selected examples of death-related literature designed to be read by or with children. The main goal is to ask how these youngsters respond when confronted by the death of a sibling or child friend. How do they act when they are on their own, with each other, or with adults? This is important because these representations of children coping with death-related situations can serve as partial role models for the youngsters who read these books, either on their own or with a companion adult. And when adults are involved in reading, discussing, or examining books of this type, they can gain some insights into the world of children as portrayed by these authors, insights that adult readers might not otherwise have had, insights about how children respond to death-related situations, what they need, and how they might be helped.

  3. Combat-Related Hemipelvectomy: 14 Cases, a Review of the Literature and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    DʼAlleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Lewandowski, Louis R; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Fleming, Mark E; Mullis, Brian H; Andersen, Romney C; Potter, Benjamin K

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-related hemipelvectomy is a rare and often fatal injury that poses a number of challenges to the treating surgeon. Our objective was to identify patient and injury characteristics that have proven difficult to treat, and to describe management techniques. Retrospective review. Level II trauma center. Thirteen consecutive patients who underwent 14 combat-related hemipelvectomies between 2001 and 2013. We reviewed our prospective trauma registry, along with the patients' medical records, radiographs, and clinical photographs. Injury severity scores, required surgical procedures, ambulatory status, and bowel and bladder function. Hemipelvectomy was indicated for insufficient soft tissue coverage, complicated by life-threatening local infection and/or a dysvascular hemipelvis. Five patients underwent resection for angioinvasive fungal infections. All patients sustained a genitourinary injury, with 7 requiring suprapubic catheters and all undergoing diverting colostomy. After a median of 2 years of follow-up, 2 patients had normal urinary continence and 3 regained fecal continence. The surviving patients required a mean of 44 operations. One patient returned to community ambulation. This is the largest published series of trauma-related hemipelvectomies. Our lessons learned may benefit civilian surgeons who are confronted with high-energy open injuries to the pelvic girdle. Although the decision to perform hemipelvectomy should not be taken lightly, this procedure can be lifesaving and should be performed in a timely fashion when indicated. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature. [Once-through Cycle and Plutonium Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included.

  5. A literature review on self-care of chronic illness: definition, assessment and related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Davide; Masotto, Matteo; Dall'Ora, Chiara; Salvini, Lorena; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Chronic illnesses care represents a challenging issue for people well-being and future health systems' sustainability. Promotion of self-care is considered a key point for chronically ill patients' care. The aim of this literature was to explore: how self-care of chronic illness has been theoretically defined; how self-care can be assessed in clinical and research settings; what associations exist between self-care and health outcomes of chronically ill patients. A wide range of definitions and terminologies related to self-care of chronic illness has been found in the literature. Although some common elements useful to explain the concept of self-care have been identified, the physical, cognitive, emotional and social processes underlying self-care remain controversial and poorly defined. Valid and reliable disease-specific assessment tools have been developed and used in a growing number of studies; however, the lack of utilization of standardized instruments in clinical practice has been referred by many authors. Significant correlations between self-care of chronic illness and outcome measures e.g. general health status, quality of life and healthcare costs, are reported by a limited number of studies. Supporting patient self-care is recognized as a crucial factor in chronic illness care. A deeper analysis of variables and processes influencing self-care could help for a full description of the phenomenon. A systematic evaluation of self-care in health professionals' everyday clinical practice is strongly recommended. The development of general non-disease-specific assessment tools could facilitate the evaluation of complex patients, especially those with multiple co-morbidities. Although self-care has been recognized as a vital intermediate outcome, further large-scale studies clarifying the association between self-care and patients' and health systems' outcomes are needed.

  6. The Biology of Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saligan, Leorey N.; Olson, Karin; Filler, Kristin; Larkin, David; Cramp, Fiona; Sriram, Yennu; Escalante, Carmen P.; del Giglio, Auro; Kober, Kord M.; Kamath, Jayesh; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Understanding the etiology of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is critical to identify targets to develop therapies to reduce CRF burden. The goal of this systematic review was to expand on the initial work by the National Cancer Institute CRF Working Group to understand the state of the science of the biology of CRF. Specifically, to evaluate studies that examined the relationships between biomarkers and CRF, and to develop an etiologic model of CRF to guide researchers on pathways to explore or therapeutic targets to investigate. Methods This review was completed by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Fatigue Study Group – Biomarker Working Group. The initial search used three terms (biomarkers, fatigue, cancer), which yielded 11,129 articles. After removing duplicates, 7,175 articles remained. Titles were assessed for the keywords, “cancer” and “fatigue” resulting in 3,811 articles. Articles published before 2010 and those with samples <50 were excluded, leaving 75 articles for full-text review. Of the 75 articles, 25 were further excluded for not investigating the associations of biomarkers and CRF. Results Of the 47 articles reviewed, 25 were cross-sectional and 22 were longitudinal studies. Less than half (44%) were published recently (2010-2013). Almost half (46%) enrolled breast cancer participants. A majority of studies assessed fatigue using self-report questionnaires, and only two studies used clinical parameters to measure fatigue. Conclusions The findings from this review suggest that CRF is linked to immune/inflammatory, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and genetic biomarkers. We also identified gaps in knowledge and made recommendations for future research. PMID:25975676

  7. Health-related Quality of Life of Youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comparison with Published Data Using the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Hommel, Kevin A.; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2010-01-01

    Background This study compared youth and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to published comparison group data and examined concordance between youth and parent-proxy reports of HRQoL. Method One hundred thirty-six youth and parent-proxy reports on the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were compared to published data from chronically ill, acutely ill, and healthy comparison groups using independent samples t-tests. Reporter agreement was examined using paired samples t-tests and intraclass correlations (ICCs). Results Youth with IBD reported lower psychosocial functioning than the healthy comparison group, higher physical and social functioning than the chronically ill group, and lower school functioning than all published comparison groups. Parent-proxy reports of youth HRQoL were higher than the chronically ill group, but lower than the healthy group on all scales except psychosocial functioning. Youth with active IBD reported lower physical health domain scores than youth with inactive disease. Concordance between youth and parent-proxy reports was moderate, with lowest agreement in school and social functioning. Conclusions Youth with IBD and their parents rate HRQoL as lower than healthy youth but do not perceive the impact of IBD to be as limiting as in other chronic conditions. Youth report suggests that IBD may be particularly detrimental to HRQoL in the school functioning domain. Moderate agreement between parent and youth reports substantiates continued use of multiple informants in studies of pediatric HRQoL. PMID:19998462

  8. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Young, J.R.; Lu, An

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  9. Health-related Quality of Life Assessment after Antiretroviral Therapy: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gakhar, Harleen; Kamali, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for HIV infection has resulted in significant improvement in immunologic and virologic parameters, as well as a reduction in AIDS-defining illnesses and death. Over 25 medications are approved for use, usually in combination regimens of three or four ARVs. Several ARVs are now available as combinatorial products, which have been associated with better adherence. However, while ARV therapy has prolonged life, ARVs also pose a challenge for quality of life as they can cause significant side effects in addition to the potential for drug toxicity and interaction. Given the many complications, side effects and symptoms of HIV/AIDS in addition to associated medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, the need to understand and assess how these interactions may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has grown. Numerous instruments (some validated, others not) are available and have been applied to understanding how ARV treatment affects HRQOL in those with HIV infection, both in clinical trials and clinical practice. In general, ARV treatment improves HRQOL, but this is dependent on the population being studied, the HRQOL instrument being used and the timeframe during which HRQOL has been studied. This article provides a review of the literature on quality of-life assessment as it relates to ARV treatment in developed countries and briefly reviews the HRQOL instruments used, how they have been applied to ARV utilization, and where future research should be applied in HRQOL assessment and HIV infection. PMID:23591907

  10. Total hip arthroplasty-related osteogenic osteosarcoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kavalar, Rajko; Fokter, Samo K; Lamovec, Janez

    2016-03-01

    Orthopedic implant-related sarcoma is an exceedingly rare, but a known complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). The authors describe clinical and radiologic features, histologic appearance, and treatment of osteogenic osteosarcoma located in the proximal femoral diaphysis associated with an unstable femoral prosthesis following THA in a 65-year-old male patient. The patient with HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis underwent arthroplasty 15 years ago. The neoplastic process may be considered as an extraordinary complication of THA and might just be coincidental or the result of some derangement of the healing process in host tissue with no definitely proven hypothesis that the implants or their by-products are carcinogenic. The soluble chemical substances from the implanted prosthetic material are, at least in animals, suspected to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of the neoplastic transformation of the bone tissue. The presented case shall alert orthopedic surgeons to clinical, radiologic, and macroscopic similarities between a malignant tumor and benign lesions caused by wear debris at THA sites. At the examination of plane X-rays of patients with THA loosening, the differential diagnosis should always include osteogenic sarcoma, as well. To our knowledge, there have been only nine cases of THA-related osteogenic osteosarcomas described in the English-language literature.

  11. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis-Related Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Three Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Chi; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Wang, Hua-Hong

    2009-08-28

    The association between primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is uncommon; only fourteen such case reports have been described. In this report, three patients who developed AIHA on the basis of PBC underwent successful therapy with corticosteroids and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Patient 3 was more complicated, suffering from PBC, Evans syndrome, Sjögren syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome simultaneously. This has not previously been reported in the world literature. Review of all fifteen cases showed that there is a prominent occurrence sequence that AIHA might take place on the basis of PBC. With sufficient doses of corticosteroids or immunosuppressant therapy, besides hemolysis under effective control, liver function also improved. According to the criteria of secondary AIHA, we may call them PBC-related AIHA. Thus, patients with PBC with serum bilirubin levels rising suddenly should undergo screening for associated hemolysis. Recommended treatment for PBC-related AIHA includes sufficient doses of corticosteroids to control the hemolysis in the acute phase, and immunosuppressant or adequate dose of UDCA to maintain therapy. These case reports have been increasing in recent years, so further reserch is needed to illustrate the incidence and natural courses of these two organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

  12. A Critical Review of Search Strategies Used in Recent Systematic Reviews Published in Selected Prosthodontic and Implant-Related Journals: Are Systematic Reviews Actually Systematic?

    PubMed

    Layton, Danielle

    The aim of this study was to outline how search strategies can be systematic, to examine how the searches in recent systematic reviews in prosthodontic and implant-related journals were structured, and to determine whether the search strategies used in those articles were systematic. A total of 103 articles published as systematic reviews and indexed in Medline between January 2013 and May 2016 were identified from eight prosthodontic and implant journals and reviewed. The search strategies were considered systematic when they met the following criteria: (1) more than one electronic database was searched, (2) more than one searcher was clearly involved, (3) both text words and indexing terms were clearly included in the search strategy, (4) a hand search of selected journals or reference lists was undertaken, (5) gray research was specifically sought, and (6) the articles were published in English and at least one other language. The data were tallied and qualitatively assessed. The majority of articles reported on implants (54%), followed by tooth-supported fixed prosthodontics (13%). A total of 23 different electronic resources were consulted, including Medline (by 100% of articles), the Cochrane Library (52%), and Embase (37%). The majority consulted more than one electronic resource (71%), clearly included more than one searcher (73%), and employed a hand search of either selected journals or reference lists (86%). Less than half used both text words and indexing terms to identify articles (42%), while 15% actively sought gray research. Articles published in languages other than English were considered in 63 reviews, but only 14 had no language restrictions. Of the 103 articles, 5 completed search strategies that met all 6 criteria, and a further 12 met 5 criteria. Two articles did not fulfill any of the criteria. More than 95% of recent prosthodontic and implant review articles published in the selected journals failed to use search strategies that were

  13. Sex Differences in the Incidence of Skin and Skin-Related Diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a Comparison With Other Rates Published Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Louise K.; Davis, Mark D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To better evaluate the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males versus females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18–39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial. PMID:27009931

  14. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial.

  15. Measuring health-related quality of life for child maltreatment: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Lisa A; Corso, Phaedra S

    2007-01-01

    Background Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D) for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D) have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. Conclusion Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However, if relevant domains are not

  16. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable

  17. An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Relating to the Costs and Benefits of Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powel, John H., Jr.; Lamson, Robert D.

    This study and analysis of the literature on the costs and benefits of graduate education (the GRADCOST study) is organized into 4 parts: (1) The Economics of Higher Education (Behavioral Models, Planning and Budgeting, the Financing of Higher Education); (2) Outputs and Benefits of Higher Education (Conceptual Literature, Measurements of Outputs…

  18. Encephalitis related to a H1N1 vaccination: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ussel, Isabelle Van; Boer, Willem; Parizel, Paul; Cras, Patrick; Jorens, Philippe G

    2014-09-01

    To illustrate that acute, even dramatic, demyelination of the central nervous system and encephalitis can occur after viral, i.e., influenza A/H1N1 vaccination or infection. We describe a case of encephalitis/acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with vaccination against influenza A/H1N1 and review the available literature. We report a case of a 26-year-old female who developed symptoms of acute encephalitis 5 days after vaccination against the pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. MRI of the brain showed confluent T2-hyperintense signal intensity changes in the deep white matter which further confirmed the diagnosis of encephalitis/acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Despite therapy with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids, her persistent vegetative state continued. In light of the dramatic cause of this case, we reviewed all 21 other previously reported cases of central nervous system demyelination related to H1N1 vaccination and/or infection. The available data suggest that even severe central nervous system demyelination i.e. acute encephalitis/disseminated encephalomyelitis and transverse myelitis may very rarely be associated with vaccination against novel influenza A/H1N1 or with A/H1N1 infection itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Submacular hemorrhage in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: A synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stanescu-Segall, Dinu; Balta, Florian; Jackson, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Large submacular hemorrhage, an uncommon manifestation of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, may also occur with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Submacular hemorrhage damages photoreceptors owing to iron toxicity, fibrin meshwork contraction, and reduced nutrient flux, with subsequent macular scarring. Clinical and experimental studies support prompt treatment, as tissue damage can occur within 24 hours. Without treatment the natural history is poor, with a mean final visual acuity (VA) of 20/1600. Reported treatments include retinal pigment epithelial patch, macular translocation, pneumatic displacement, intravitreal or subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, and combinations thereof. In the absence of comparative studies, we combined eligible studies to assess the VA change before and after each treatment option. The greatest improvement occurred after combined pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, with VA improving from 20/1000 to 20/400. The best final VA occurred using combined intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator, gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, with VA improving from 20/200 to 20/100. Both treatments had an acceptable safety profile, but most studies were small, and larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine both safety and efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Concepts and definitions for “supportive care,” “best supportive care,” “palliative care,” and “hospice care” in the published literature, dictionaries, and textbooks

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; De La Cruz, Maxine; Mori, Masanori; Parsons, Henrique A.; Kwon, Jung Hye; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Kim, Sun Hyun; Dev, Rony; Hutchins, Ronald; Liem, Christiana; Kang, Duck-Hee; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Commonly used terms such as “supportive care,” “best supportive care,” “palliative care,” and “hospice care” were rarely and inconsistently defined in the palliative oncology literature. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to further identify concepts and definitions for these terms. Methods We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and CINAHL for published peer-reviewed articles from 1948 to 2011 that conceptualized, defined, or examined these terms. Two researchers independently reviewed each citation for inclusion and then extracted the concepts/definitions when available. Dictionaries/textbooks were also searched. Results Nine of 32 “SC/BSC,” 25 of 182 “PC,” and 12 of 42 “HC” articles focused on providing a conceptual framework/definition. Common concepts for all three terms were symptom control and quality-of-life for patients with life-limiting illness. “SC” focused more on patients on active treatment compared to other categories (9/9 vs. 8/37) and less often involved interdisciplinary care (4/9 vs. 31/37). In contrast, “HC” focused more on volunteers (6/12 vs. 6/34), bereavement care (9/12 vs. 7/34), and community care (9/12 vs. 6/34). Both “PC” and “SC/BSC” were applicable earlier in the disease trajectory (16/34 vs. 0/9). We found 13, 24, and 17 different definitions for “SC/BSC,” “PC,” and “HC,” respectively. “SC/BSC” was the most variably defined, ranging from symptom management during cancer therapy to survivorship care. Dictionaries/textbooks showed similar findings. Conclusion We identified defining concepts for “SC/BSC,” “PC,” and “HC” and developed a preliminary conceptual framework unifying these terms along the continuum of care to help build consensus toward standardized definitions. PMID:22936493

  1. Afro-American Literary Bibliographies: An Annotated List of Bibliographical Guides for the Study of Afro-American Literature, Folklore and Related Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Charles Henry

    This dissertation is an annotated bibliographical guide to published and unpublished bibliographies of primary and secondary materials useful in the study of Afro-American literature, folklore, and allied fields. The published bibliographies listed include those devoted to particular literary genres, individual authors, specific subjects, and…

  2. Relating relapse and T2 lesion changes to disability progression in multiple sclerosis: a systematic literature review and regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most important therapeutic aim of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) is to prevent or postpone long-term disability. Given the typically slow progression observed in the majority of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, the primary endpoint for most randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is a reduction in relapse rate. It is widely assumed that reducing relapse rate will slow disability progression. Similarly, MRI studies suggest that reducing T2 lesions will be associated with slowing long-term disability in MS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between treatment effects on relapse rates and active T2 lesions to differences in disease progression (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) in trials evaluating patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), RRMS, and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and PsycINFO to identify randomized trials published in English from January 1, 1993-June 3, 2013 evaluating DMTs in adult MS patients using keywords for CIS, RRMS, and SPMS combined with keywords for relapse and recurrence. Eligible studies were required to report outcomes of relapse and T2 lesion changes or disease progression in CIS, RRMS, or SPMS patients receiving DMTs and have a follow-up duration of at least 22 months. Ultimately, 40 studies satisfied these criteria for inclusion. Regression analyses were conducted on RCTs to relate differences between the effect of treatments on relapse rates and on active T2 lesions to differences between the effects of treatments on disease progression (as measured by EDSS). Results Regression analysis determined there is a substantive clinically and statistically significant association between concurrent treatment effects in relapse rate and EDSS; p < 0.01. Lower treatment effects were associated with higher relative rates of disease

  3. A Relatively Painless Method of Introduction to the Psychological Literature Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Louis E.

    1977-01-01

    Described is an innovative teaching method for developing student psychological literature search skills. The method involves empirical analysis of cliches and writing abstracts of psychological studies used in support or rejection of cliche hypotheses. (Author/DB)

  4. A Relatively Painless Method of Introduction to the Psychological Literature Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Louis E.

    1977-01-01

    Described is an innovative teaching method for developing student psychological literature search skills. The method involves empirical analysis of cliches and writing abstracts of psychological studies used in support or rejection of cliche hypotheses. (Author/DB)

  5. Results of literature search on dielectric properties and electron interaction phenomena related to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, J. A.; Burke, E. A.; Frederickson, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the literature search was to determine the required material properties and electron interaction parameters needed for modeling charge buildup and breakdown in insulators. A brief overview of the results of the literature search is given. A partial list of the references covered is included in a bibliography. Although inorganic insulators were also considered in the search, coverage is limited to the organics, primarily Kapton and Teflon.

  6. Age-related safety in professional heavy vehicle drivers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Duke, Janine; Guest, Maya; Boggess, May

    2010-03-01

    With Australia facing a looming shortage of heavy vehicle drivers the question is raised as to whether it is desirable or prudent to encourage older professional heavy vehicle drivers to remain in the transport sector for longer, particularly those of heavy vehicles or recruit drivers of a younger age. To review age-related safety and identify other factors that contribute to accidents experienced by heavy vehicle drivers. A search was conducted of national and international peer-reviewed literature in the following databases: MedLine, Embase, Cinahl, PsychInfo and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articles within selected journals. A limited number of studies reported age-specific accident rates for heavy vehicles for the spectrum of driver age that included drivers younger than 27 years and those over 60 years of age. Heavy vehicle drivers younger than 27 years of age demonstrated higher rates of accident/fatality involvement which decline and plateau until the age of 63 years where increased rates were again observed. Other contributing factors to heavy vehicle accidents include: long hours and subsequent sleepiness and fatigue, employer safety culture, vehicle configuration particularly multiple trailers, urbanisation and road classification. Drivers of heavy vehicles are over-involved until age 27 years however a characteristic 'U' shaped curve indicates a higher risk of accident involvement for both younger and older drivers. More detailed analyses of "at-fault" involvement and inability to avert an accident and other factors that contribute to accidents across the ages of heavy vehicle drivers may give further clarification to the degree of safety of both younger and older commercial heavy vehicle drivers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PRRT2-related disorders: further PKD and ICCA cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Becker, Felicitas; Schubert, Julian; Striano, Pasquale; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Liukkonen, Elina; Gaily, Eija; Gerloff, Christian; Müller, Stephan; Heußinger, Nicole; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Robbiano, Angela; Polvi, Anne; Zittel, Simone; von Oertzen, Tim J; Rostasy, Kevin; Schöls, Ludger; Warner, Tom; Münchau, Alexander; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Zara, Federico; Lerche, Holger; Weber, Yvonne G

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies reported mutations in the gene encoding the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) to be causative for paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), PKD combined with infantile seizures (ICCA), and benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS). PRRT2 is a presynaptic protein which seems to play an important role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. PKD is the most common form of paroxysmal movement disorder characterized by recurrent brief involuntary hyperkinesias triggered by sudden movements. Here, we sequenced PRRT2 in 14 sporadic and 8 familial PKD and ICCA cases of Caucasian origin and identified three novel mutations (c.919C>T/p.Gln307, c.388delG/p.Ala130Profs 46, c.884G>A/p.Arg295Gln) predicting two truncated proteins and one probably damaging point mutation. A review of all published cases is also included. PRRT2 mutations occur more frequently in familial forms of PRRT2-related syndromes (80-100 %) than in sporadic cases (33-46 %) suggesting further heterogeneity in the latter. PRRT2 mutations were rarely described in other forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias deviating from classical PKD, as we report here in one ICCA family without kinesigenic triggers. Mutations are exclusively found in two exons of the PRRT2 gene at a high rate across all syndromes and with one major mutation (c.649dupC) in a mutational hotspot of nine cytosines, which is responsible for 57 % of all cases in all phenotypes. We therefore propose that genetic analysis rapidly performed in early stages of the disease is highly cost-effective and can help to avoid further unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  8. Associations between genetic variants in mRNA splicing-related genes and risk of lung cancer: a pathway-based analysis from published GWASs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yongchu; Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Yanru; Kang, Xiaozheng; Liu, Zhensheng; Owzar, Kouros; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Teresa Landi, Maria; Heinrich, Joachim; Risch, Angela; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-01-01

    mRNA splicing is an important mechanism to regulate mRNA expression. Abnormal regulation of this process may lead to lung cancer. Here, we investigated the associations of 11,966 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 206 mRNA splicing-related genes with lung cancer risk by using the summary data from six published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) (12,160 cases and 16,838 controls) and another two lung cancer GWASs of Harvard University (984 cases and 970 controls) and deCODE (1,319 cases and 26,380 controls). We found that a total of 12 significant SNPs with false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05 were mapped to one novel gene PRPF6 and two previously reported genes (DHX16 and LSM2) that were also confirmed in this study. The six novel SNPs in PRPF6 were in high linkage disequilibrium and associated with PRPF6 mRNA expression in lymphoblastoid cells from 373 Europeans in the 1000 Genomes Project. Taken together, our studies shed new light on the role of mRNA splicing genes in the development of lung cancer. PMID:28304396

  9. SU-F-BRD-13: A Phenomenological Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) Model for Proton Therapy Based On All Published in Vitro Cell Survival Data

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, A; Schuemann, J; Paganetti, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Proton therapy treatments are currently planned and delivered using the assumption that the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) relative to photons is 1.1. This assumption ignores strong experimental evidence that suggests the RBE varies. A recent review study (Paganetti 2014), collected over 72 experimental reports on proton RBE, providing a comprehensive dataset for predicting proton RBE. Using this dataset we develop a model to predict RBE based on dose, linear energy transfer (LET) and the tissue specific parameter (α/β)x. Methods: The relationship of the RBE on dose, dose average LET (LETd) and (α/β)x was explored using 290 experimental data points. The RBE was calculated for each experimental point for doses ranging from 1 to 10 Gy. An RBE model, based on the linear-quadratic model, was derived using a nonlinear regression fit to the experimental data. Results: The proposed RBE model predicts that the RBE increases with LET and decreases with (α/β)x. The model additionally predicts a decrease in RBE with increasing dose for low (α/β)x values (< 3 Gy). However the model predicts an increase in RBE with increasing dose for large (α/β)x (> 4 Gy). Previous phenomenological models were based on a small subset of experimental data and deviate significantly from our findings. Conclusion: The proposed RBE model is derived using the most comprehensive collection of proton RBE experimental data to date. The model agrees with previous theoretical predictions on the relationship between RBE, LETd and (α/β)x and also makes predictions on the relationship between RBE and dose. The proposed model shows a relationship between α and LETd but no significant relationship between β and LETd. Previously published phenomenological models based on a limited data set might have to be revised.

  10. Wellness Curricula to Improve the Health of Children and Youth: A Review and Synthesis of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Heidi; Eccles, Karena

    2008-01-01

    Alberta Education is currently considering options for enhancing health and learning outcomes of students and is exploring opportunities to develop new wellness-related curriculum. This literature review is a component of this exploratory process that will inform curriculum development and was undertaken to: (1) provide a comprehensive review of…

  11. Books Related to English Language and Literature in Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Bibliography from the Educational Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Lois B., Comp.; Stanley, Caroline, Comp.

    Trade and textbooks received at the Educational Materials Center between January 1968 and October 1969 and related to English language and literature programs for elementary and secondary schools are represented in this annotated bibliography. The over-70 textbooks and textbook series are grouped under four headings: language study (composition,…

  12. Constituents of Music and Visual-Art Related Pleasure – A Critical Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver’s internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure

  13. Quality of life in age-related macular degeneration: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jan; Bradley, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background The Age-related Macular Degeneration Alliance International commissioned a review of the literature on quality of life (QoL) in macular degeneration (MD) with a view to increasing awareness of MD, reducing its impact and improving services for people with MD worldwide. Method A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases, conference proceedings and key journal hand search checks. The resulting 'White Paper' was posted on the AMD Alliance website and is reproduced here. Review MD is a chronic, largely untreatable eye condition which leads to loss of central vision needed for tasks such as reading, watching TV, driving, recognising faces. It is the most common cause of blindness in the Western world. Shock of diagnosis, coupled with lack of information and support are a common experience. Incidence of depression is twice that found in the community-dwelling elderly, fuelled by functional decline and loss of leisure activities. Some people feel suicidal. MD threatens independence, especially when comorbidity exacerbates functional limitations. Rehabilitation, including low vision aid (LVA) provision and training, peer support and education, can improve functional and psychological outcomes but many people do not receive services likely to benefit them. Medical treatments, suitable for only a small minority of people with MD, can improve vision but most limit progress of MD, at least for a time, rather than cure. The White Paper considers difficulties associated with inappropriate use of health status measures and misinterpretation of utility values as QoL measures: evidence suggests they have poor validity in MD. Conclusion There is considerable evidence for the major damage done to QoL by MD which is underestimated by health status and utility measures. Medical treatments are limited to a small proportion of people. However, much can be done to improve QoL by early diagnosis of MD with good communication of prognosis and continuing support

  14. Constituents of Music and Visual-Art Related Pleasure - A Critical Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver's internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure

  15. Prone Position-Related Meralgia Paresthetica after Lumbar Spinal Surgery : A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jun

    2008-01-01

    Lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy occurring during spinal surgery is frequently related to iliac bone graft harvesting, but meralgia paresthetica (MP) can result from the patient being in the prone position. Prone position-related MP is not an uncommon complication after posterior spine surgery but there are only few reports in the literature on this subject. It is usually overlooked because of its mild symptoms and self-limiting course, or patients and physicians may misunderstand the persistence of lower extremity symptoms in the early postoperative period to be a reflection of poor surgical outcome. The authors report a case of prone position-related MP after posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the L3-4 and reviewed the literature with discussion on the incidence, pathogenesis, and possible risk factors related to this entity. PMID:19137086

  16. Prone position-related meralgia paresthetica after lumbar spinal surgery : a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cho, Keun-Tae; Lee, Ho Jun

    2008-12-01

    Lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy occurring during spinal surgery is frequently related to iliac bone graft harvesting, but meralgia paresthetica (MP) can result from the patient being in the prone position. Prone position-related MP is not an uncommon complication after posterior spine surgery but there are only few reports in the literature on this subject. It is usually overlooked because of its mild symptoms and self-limiting course, or patients and physicians may misunderstand the persistence of lower extremity symptoms in the early postoperative period to be a reflection of poor surgical outcome. The authors report a case of prone position-related MP after posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the L3-4 and reviewed the literature with discussion on the incidence, pathogenesis, and possible risk factors related to this entity.

  17. A review of the literature relating to psychological interventions and people with intellectual disabilities: issues for research, policy, education and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael; Duff, Heather; Karatzias, Thanos; Horsburgh, Dorothy

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review is to identify and analyse the published evidence base and wider literature in relation to psychological interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities. The review suggests that the evidence base regarding psychological interventions is sparse yet growing, and if the therapeutic approaches are modified and adapted to meet the distinct needs of people with intellectual disabilities these may be life enhancing. The lack of access to psychotherapies for people with intellectual disabilities has led to their exclusion from mainstream research, thereby limiting the evidence base on effective interventions and treatment approaches. This has significant implications for research, policy, education and clinical practice and is an area requiring strategic and local attention and development in the future.

  18. Opinions of Literature Teachers Related to Academic Training, In-Service Training and Organizational Socialization Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Arslan Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    One of the utmost important functions of Turkish Education system is to teach Turkish Language at pre-schools, elementary schools, junior high schools and higher education institutions effectively. In this respect, at high schools which comprise the secondary schools, it is clear that Turkish Language and Literature teachers have paramount roles.…

  19. Environmental criteria for human comfort. A study of the related literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    The data presented has for the most part been extracted from existing in-house and memoranda reports. The variables considered are motion, noise, temperature and pressure. The report is broken down into chapters for each of the environmental variables and criteria proposed based on the existing literature.

  20. Review of Literature Relating to the Use of Nonprofessionals in Education (from 1942 to 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barry

    A review of literature between 1942 and 1967 on the use of nonprofessionals in elementary and secondary education indicates that authors somehow involved with teacher aide projects tend to be favorably impressed, while those lacking such involvement are critical. Difficulties in class management, supervision, and evaluation have been cited by…

  1. Embracing Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Electronic publishing is the grandest revolution in the capture and dissemination of academic and professional knowledge since Caxton developed the printing press. This article examines electronic publishing, describes different electronic publishing scenarios (authors' cooperative, consolidator/retailer/agent oligopsony, publisher oligopoly), and…

  2. Embracing Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Electronic publishing is the grandest revolution in the capture and dissemination of academic and professional knowledge since Caxton developed the printing press. This article examines electronic publishing, describes different electronic publishing scenarios (authors' cooperative, consolidator/retailer/agent oligopsony, publisher oligopoly), and…

  3. Influence of temperature and relative humidity on dentin and enamel bonding: a critical review of the literature. Part 1. Laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Bruno; Durand, Jean-Cédric; Farge, Pierre; Valcarcel, Jean; Deville de Périère, Dominique; Cuisinier, Frédéric

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this literature review was to investigate the results from in vitro laboratory studies on the influence of temperature and relative humidity present before polymerization on enamel and dentin bonding systems. A systematic search was carried out including articles published in English, in peer reviewed journals, and indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed database. The search was carried out using the terms: relative AND humidity AND dental. In vitro studies were retrieved and divided into laboratory simulation studies and studies on physical properties. Laboratory simulation studies were addressed by subtopic: resin-enamel bond strength, resin-dentin bond strength, and dentin-enamel microleakage. Studies on physical properties tested the influence of humidity and temperature through polymerization contraction, flexural strength, and dentin wettability. Laboratory simulation studies demonstrated a strong influence of humidity and temperature on dentin and enamel bond strength and microleakage with dental adhesives systems. The studies on physical properties failed to demonstrate any influence of humidity on the adhesion performance, except for wettability measurement. The clinical relevance of these in vitro results remains to be demonstrated. A review of in vivo clinical studies will complete the literature data presented here.

  4. Open access: implications for scholarly publishing and medical libraries.

    PubMed

    Albert, Karen M

    2006-07-01

    The paper reviews and analyzes the evolution of the open access (OA) publishing movement and its impact on the traditional scholarly publishing model. A literature survey and analysis of definitions of OA, problems with the current publishing model, historical developments, funding agency responses, stakeholder viewpoints, and implications for scientific libraries and publishing are performed. The Internet's transformation of information access has fueled interest in reshaping what many see as a dysfunctional, high-cost system of scholarly publishing. For years, librarians alone advocated for change, until relatively recently when interest in OA and related initiatives spread to the scientific community, governmental groups, funding agencies, publishers, and the general public. Most stakeholders acknowledge that change in the publishing landscape is inevitable, but heated debate continues over what form this transformation will take. The most frequently discussed remedies for the troubled current system are the "green" road (self-archiving articles published in non-OA journals) and the "gold" road (publishing in OA journals). Both movements will likely intensify, with a multiplicity of models and initiatives coexisting for some time.

  5. Open access: implications for scholarly publishing and medical libraries

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper reviews and analyzes the evolution of the open access (OA) publishing movement and its impact on the traditional scholarly publishing model. Procedures: A literature survey and analysis of definitions of OA, problems with the current publishing model, historical developments, funding agency responses, stakeholder viewpoints, and implications for scientific libraries and publishing are performed. Findings: The Internet's transformation of information access has fueled interest in reshaping what many see as a dysfunctional, high-cost system of scholarly publishing. For years, librarians alone advocated for change, until relatively recently when interest in OA and related initiatives spread to the scientific community, governmental groups, funding agencies, publishers, and the general public. Conclusions: Most stakeholders acknowledge that change in the publishing landscape is inevitable, but heated debate continues over what form this transformation will take. The most frequently discussed remedies for the troubled current system are the “green” road (self-archiving articles published in non-OA journals) and the “gold” road (publishing in OA journals). Both movements will likely intensify, with a multiplicity of models and initiatives coexisting for some time. PMID:16888657

  6. Assessing the Need of Discourse-Level Analysis in Identifying Evidence of Drug-Disease Relations in Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction typically involves the extraction of relations between two or more entities occurring within a single or multiple sentences. In this study, we investigated the significance of extracting information from multiple sentences specifically in the context of drug-disease relation discovery. We used multiple resources such as Semantic Medline, a literature based resource, and Medline search (for filtering spurious results) and inferred 8,772 potential drug-disease pairs. Our analysis revealed that 6,450 (73.5%) of the 8,772 potential drug-disease relations did not occur in a single sentence. Moreover, only 537 of the drug-disease pairs matched the curated gold standard in Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a trusted resource for drug-disease relations. Among the 537, nearly 75% (407) of the drug-disease pairs occur in multiple sentences. Our analysis revealed that the drug-disease pairs inferred from Semantic Medline or retrieved from CTD could be extracted from multiple sentences in the literature. This highlights the significance of the need of discourse-level analysis in extracting the relations from biomedical literature.

  7. Community-academic partnerships in HIV-related research: a systematic literature review of theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research (CBPR), with the latter being the most

  8. Community-academic partnerships in HIV-related research: a systematic literature review of theory and practice

    PubMed Central

    Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research

  9. Health-related QOL in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Doll, Helen; Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of emphasis on health-related QOL (HR-QOL) changes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to examine the use of HR-QOL instruments to evaluate acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, so as to form recommendations for future research.A literature search of papers published between 1966 and July 2003 identified more than 300 articles that used acute exacerbation of CB or COPD as the search term. However, only 21 of these studies employed HR-QOL measures as predictors of outcome or in the assessment of the impact, evolution or treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD or CB. A variety of HR-QOL measures were used, both generic and disease specific. The disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), devised for patients with stable CB and with a recall period of 1-12 months, was the most widely used measure, with the Chronic Respiratory disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Baseline and Transitional Dyspnoea Index (BDI, TDI) being the only other disease-specific measures used. Most measures, both generic and disease specific, performed adequately when used during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD and indicated poor HR-QOL during acute exacerbation, which improved on resolution of the exacerbation. Relationships were evident between HR-QOL during an acute exacerbation and various outcomes, including post-exacerbation functional status, hospital re- admission for acute exacerbation or COPD, and mortality. There is a need for studies of treatments for acute exacerbation of CB or COPD to include an appropriate HR-QOL instrument to aid in the stratification of patients so as to target the right treatment to the right patient group. While a new instrument could be developed to measure HR-QOL during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, currently available disease-specific measures such as the CRQ and the SGRQ appear to be acceptable to patients during acute

  10. Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  11. Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  12. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  13. Etiquette in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Publishing a scientific article in a journal with a high impact factor and a good reputation is considered prestigious among one's peer group and an essential achievement for career progression. In the drive to get their work published, researchers can forget, either intentionally or unintentionally, the ethics that should be followed in scientific publishing. In an environment where "publish or perish" rules the day, some authors might be tempted to bend or break rules. This special article is intended to raise awareness among orthodontic journal editors, authors, and readers about the types of scientific misconduct in the current publishing scenario and to provide insight into the ways these misconducts are managed by the Committee of Publishing Ethics. Case studies are presented, and various plagiarism detection software programs used by publishing companies are briefly described. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative Publishing and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Jack

    1973-01-01

    A guide to the underground education publishers and their products. The guide discusses the reasons underground publishers exist and suggests ways in which they have influenced the giants. (Author/DN)

  15. Literature review of intrinsic actinide colloids related to spent fuel waste package release rates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P.; Steward, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Existence of actinide colloids provides an important mechanism in the migration of radionuclides and will be important in performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. Actinide colloids have been formed during long-term unsaturated dissolution of spent fuel by groundwater. This article summarizes a literature search of actinide colloids. This report emphasizes the formation of intrinsic actinide colloids, because they would have the opportunity to form soon after groundwater contact with the spent fuel and before actinide-bearing groundwater reaches the surrounding geologic formations.

  16. Darwin and his publisher.

    PubMed

    McClay, David

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's publisher John Murray played an important, if often underrated, role in bringing his theories to the public. As their letters and publishing archives show they had a friendly, business like and successful relationship. This was despite fundamental scientific and religious differences between the men. In addition to publishing Darwin, Murray also published many of the critical and supportive works and reviews which Darwin's own works excited.

  17. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  18. Nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity in rural communities: a systematic review of the literature, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Calancie, Larissa; Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-04-30

    Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the "COCOMO" strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities.

  19. Medication-related errors: a literature review of incidence and antecedents.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Gaya; Blegen, Mary A

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety has become a major concern for both society and policymakers. Since nurses are intimately involved in the delivery of medications and are ultimately responsible during the medication administration phase, it is important for nursing to understand factors contributing to medication administration errors. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the incidence of these errors and the associated factors in an attempt to better understand the problem and lessen future error occurrence. Literature review revealed both active failures and latent conditions established in Reason's theory remain prevalent in current literature where active failures often display themselves in the form of incorrect drug calculations, lack of individual knowledge, and failure to follow established protocol. Latent conditions are evidenced as time pressures, fatigue, understaffing, inexperience, design deficiencies, and inadequate equipment and may lie dormant within a system until combined with active failures to create opportunity for error. Although medication error research has shifted in emphasis toward identification of system problems inherent in error occurrence, no one force emerges as a clear antecedent, reinforcing the need for further research and replication of existing studies with emphasis placed on more dependable reporting measures through which nurses are not threatened by reprisal.

  20. Congenital cystic malformation of the bile ducts: report of a case and review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, J; Laird, R C

    1966-07-09

    A 20-year-old woman had a cyst of the proximal part of the common bile duct and a cyst of the left hepatic duct; these lesions were diagnosed preoperatively by intravenous cholangiography and successfully operated upon. At the time of writing, she has been followed up for one year.Congenital defects in the biliary system are rare and, in a review of the literature, only two cases were found similar to this one. It is generally accepted that these lesions are congenital, but the exact pathogenesis is unknown.Alonso-Lej, Rever and Pessagno(2) reviewed the literature in 1959 and found 403 authentic congenital cysts of the hepatic ducts. The most common congenital defect is a single choledochal cyst of the lower end of the common bile duct. Pain, jaundice and tumour are the main symptoms.Until the advent of intravenous cholangiography, these lesions were seldom recognized preoperatively. Means of operative repair as well as complications and prognosis are reviewed.

  1. [Gastric cancer concurrent with IgG4-related disease: A clinical case and a review of literature].

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, I A; Lishchuk, S V; Gribunov, Yu P; Shestakova, I N; Pavlov, K A

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the data available in the literature on IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) concurrent with malignancies at different sites, as well as possible common pathogenetic mechanisms of their development and morphological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. The authors give their own observation of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma concurrent with morphologically verified IgG4-RD.

  2. Published versus Unpublished Dissertations in Psycho-Oncology Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne; Schneider, Stefan; Knapp-Oliver, Sarah K.; Sohl, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective There are conflicting views regarding whether gray literature, including unpublished doctoral dissertations, should be included in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although publication status frequently is used as a proxy for study quality, some research suggests that dissertations are often of superior quality to published studies. Methods We examined 107 projects involving doctoral dissertations (42 published, 65 unpublished) that studied psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. Results Published dissertations were more likely to be supported by research funding but were not more likely than unpublished dissertations to examine specific types of interventions. Across several indices of methodological quality there were minimal differences. Dissertations with significant findings tended to be more likely to be published than those without significant findings. Conclusions Unpublished dissertations focusing on psychosocial interventions for cancer patients are not necessarily of vastly inferior quality to those that eventually are published. Because doctoral dissertations are easy to access relative to other forms of gray literature, are free from some types of bias, and are reported thoroughly, they merit inclusion in comprehensive literature reviews. PMID:19353515

  3. An Overview of Literature Topics Related to Current Concepts, Methods, Tools, and Applications for Cumulative Risk Assessment (2007–2016)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Mary A.; Brewer, L. Elizabeth; Martin, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. The first context is the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search and discusses a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications. PMID:28387705

  4. An Overview of Literature Topics Related to Current Concepts, Methods, Tools, and Applications for Cumulative Risk Assessment (2007-2016).

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary A; Brewer, L Elizabeth; Martin, Lawrence

    2017-04-07

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. The first context is the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search and discusses a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications.

  5. Publishing in Canada; Proceedings of the Institute on Publishing in Canada, June 27-30, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomahac, G., Ed.; Richeson, M., Ed.

    The purpose of the Institute was to establish a dialogue between the people concerned with the fate of the publishing industry and those directly involved in it. Papers by eleven Canadians prominent in publishing and literature are presented to an audience made up of librarians, booksellers, government officials, educators, publishers and…

  6. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  7. Central Venous Catheter-Related Tachycardia in the Newborn: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Aya; Broadbent, Roland S.; Edmonds, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Central venous access is an important aspect of neonatal intensive care management. Malpositioned central catheters have been reported to induce cardiac tachyarrhythmia in adult populations and there are case reports within the neonatal population. We present a case of a preterm neonate with a preexisting umbilical venous catheter (UVC), who then developed a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). This was initially treated with intravenous adenosine with transient reversion. Catheter migration was subsequently detected, with the UVC tip located within the heart. Upon withdrawal of the UVC and a final dose of adenosine, the arrhythmia permanently resolved. Our literature review confirms that tachyarrhythmia is a rare but recognised neonatal complication of malpositioned central venous catheters. We recommend the immediate investigation of central catheter position when managing neonatal tachyarrhythmia, as catheter repositioning is an essential aspect of management. PMID:28058050

  8. Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: relate of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Cabral, Francisco; Pereira, Larissa Vilela; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira; Alves, Venâncio; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Adenomas with neuroendocrine differentiation are defined as neuroendocrine neoplasms, and they are rarely found in the head and neck. Objective: To describe two cases of a middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, with a literature review. Case Report: Patient 1 was a 41-year-old woman who presented with a 3-year history of left aural fullness associated with ipsilateral “hammer beating” tinnitus. Patient 2 was a 41-year-old male who presented with unilateral conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: Adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of the middle ear is a rare entity, but it should be considered in patients with tinnitus, aural fullness, and a retrotympanic mass and remembered as a diferential diagnosis of tympanic paraganglioma. PMID:25992031

  9. Self-reported health-related quality-of-life issues for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with experience of cancer in Australia: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Micklem, Jasmine M

    2015-12-01

    Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islander peoples (who comprise the indigenous people or the original inhabitants of Australia before colonization) are more likely to experience cancers with poorer prognoses, are more likely to be diagnosed with cancer at a later stage of disease progression, are less likely to receive adequate cancer treatment and are more likely to pass away due to cancer, compared with other Australians. Cancer and biomedical therapies for cancer often have significant, ongoing effects on patient health-related quality of life (HRQL). Therefore, consideration of HRQL for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with experience of cancer in Australia is imperative. This article examines the literature for HRQL issues self-reported by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people with experience of cancer in Australia. A search of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other literature was undertaken using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Self-reports from Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people with experience of cancer were examined. HRQL issues were determined utilizing the Australian Psycho-Oncology Co-operative Research Group's definition of HRQL. Fifty-two documents were found with original data from Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people who self-reported their experiences of cancer. No published reports were found that specifically examined self-reports from Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people on the impact of cancer and biomedical treatment on their HRQL. Previous literature suggests that there is urgency for improved communication and cultural competency in cancer care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients in Australia, with a stronger focus on meeting patient needs and improving HRQL. This review has provided insight into HRQL issues for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with cancer in Australia. Further work using patient-reported outcomes

  10. [Evaluation of the risk related to repetitive work activities: testing of several methods proposed in the literature].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Facioli, M; Bazzini, G

    2001-01-01

    Pathologies due to the repetitive activity of the upper limbs constitutes a growing part of the work-related musculo-skeletal disorders. At the moment, there are no universally accepted and validated methods for the description and assessment of the work-related risks. Yet, the criteria fundamentally characterizing the exposure are rather clear and even. This study reports a practical example of the application of some recent risk assessment methods proposed in the literature, combining objective and subjective measures obtained on the field, with the traditional activity analysis.

  11. 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Joo; Kim, Sang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders. PMID:26090077

  12. Evaluating health-related quality of life in type 1 diabetes: a systematic literature review of utilities for adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Palmer, Jayne; Bae, Jay P; Boye, Kristina S; Norrbacka, Kirsi; Hunt, Barnaby; Valentine, William J

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition associated with micro- and macrovascular complications that have a notable impact on health-related quality of life, the magnitude of which can be quantified via the use of utility values. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify and compare published health state utility values for adults with type 1 diabetes both, with and without diabetes-related complications. Methods Literature searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were performed to identify English language studies on adults with type 1 diabetes, published from 2000 onward, reporting utility values for patients with or without diabetes-related complications or assessing the impact of changes in HbA1c or body mass index on quality of life. For inclusion, studies were required to report utilities elicited using validated methods. Results A total of 20 studies were included in the final review that included utility values elicited using the EuroQuol five dimensions questionnaire (n=9), 15D questionnaire (n=2), Quality of Well-Being scale (n=4), time trade-off (n=3), and standard gamble (n=2) methods. For patients with no complications, reported utility values ranged from 0.90 to 0.98. Complications including stroke (reported disutility range, −0.105 to −0.291), neuropathy (range, −0.055 to −0.358), and blindness (range, −0.132 to −0.208) were associated with the largest decrements in utility values. The magnitude of utility values and utility decrements was influenced by the assessment method used. Conclusion Complications lead to impaired health-related quality of life in patients with type 1 diabetes, the magnitude of which is influenced by the method used to determine utilities. There is currently a lack of utility data for certain complications of type 1 diabetes, meaning that many economic evaluations have relied on a combination of type 1 and type 2 diabetes utilities

  13. A Review of Research and Evaluation Literature on Outward Bound and Related Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Robert

    The paper presents a rapid scanning of the state of the art of research and evaluation of Outward Bound and related educational programs. Initial comments outline criteria for assessing internal and external validity of studies. Distinctions are made between research, evaluation, measurement, judgement, and public relations. The work of Rosen,…

  14. The experience of providing end-of-life care to a relative with advanced dementia: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Shelley C

    2013-04-01

    The number of people with dementia is growing at an alarming rate. An abundance of research over the past two decades has examined the complex aspects of caring for a relative with dementia. However, far less research has been conducted specific to the experiences of family caregivers providing end-of-life care, which is perplexing, as dementia is a terminal illness. This article presents what is known and highlights the gaps in the literature relevant to the experiences of family caregivers of persons with dementia at the end of life. A thorough search of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PubMed databases from 1960 to 2011 was conducted. Ten studies were identified that specifically addressed the experience of family caregivers providing end-of-life care to a relative with advanced dementia. Common themes of these studies included: 1) the experience of grief, 2) guilt and burden with decision making, 3) how symptoms of depression may or may not be resolved with death of the care receiver, 4) how caregivers respond to the end-stage of dementia, and 5) expressed needs of family caregivers. It is evident from this literature review that much remains to be done to conceptualize the experience of end-of-life caregiving in dementia.

  15. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  16. PLAN2L: a web tool for integrated text mining and literature-based bioentity relation extraction.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rodriguez-Penagos, Carlos; Tendulkar, Ashish; Valencia, Alfonso

    2009-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in using literature mining techniques to complement information extracted from annotation databases or generated by bioinformatics applications. Here we present PLAN2L, a web-based online search system that integrates text mining and information extraction techniques to access systematically information useful for analyzing genetic, cellular and molecular aspects of the plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Our system facilitates a more efficient retrieval of information relevant to heterogeneous biological topics, from implications in biological relationships at the level of protein interactions and gene regulation, to sub-cellular locations of gene products and associations to cellular and developmental processes, i.e. cell cycle, flowering, root, leaf and seed development. Beyond single entities, also predefined pairs of entities can be provided as queries for which literature-derived relations together with textual evidences are returned. PLAN2L does not require registration and is freely accessible at http://zope.bioinfo.cnio.es/plan2l.

  17. IgG4-Related Hypophysitis: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Decker, Lauren; Crawford, Angela M; Lorenzo, Gamaliel; Stippler, Martina; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; SantaCruz, Karen

    2016-12-01

    IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare, inflammatory process of the pituitary that mimics more commonly seen pituitary tumors. We report a case of IgG4-related hypophysitis in a 16-year-old female with diabetes insipidus who was found to have IgG4-related hypophysitis based on tissue diagnosis. This entity has not been previously described in a pediatric patient. Recognition of certain inflammatory processes of the pituitary may lead to alternative means of diagnosis and medical management without a biopsy.

  18. IgG4-Related Hypophysitis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Lauren; Crawford, Angela M; Lorenzo, Gamaliel; Stippler, Martina; Konstantinov, Konstantin N

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare, inflammatory process of the pituitary that mimics more commonly seen pituitary tumors. We report a case of IgG4-related hypophysitis in a 16-year-old female with diabetes insipidus who was found to have IgG4-related hypophysitis based on tissue diagnosis. This entity has not been previously described in a pediatric patient. Recognition of certain inflammatory processes of the pituitary may lead to alternative means of diagnosis and medical management without a biopsy. PMID:28083451

  19. Tobacco and alcohol-related interventions for people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kerr, S; Lawrence, M; Darbyshire, C; Middleton, A R; Fitzsimmons, L

    2013-05-01

    spanned a period of three weeks to one academic year. The studies highlighted a number of important issues linked to the appropriateness of interventions for this client group (e.g., use of pictures, quizzes, role play, incentives); however, in the majority of cases the interventions appeared to lack a theoretical framework (e.g., behaviour change theory). The appropriateness of the outcome measures for use with this client group was not tested. One study discussed feasibility (teachers delivering lessons on alcohol and tobacco) and only one was informative in terms of effectiveness, i.e., increasing knowledge of the health and social dangers of smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This review is the first to systematically collate evidence on tobacco and alcohol-related interventions for people with ID. While there is currently little evidence to guide practice, the review delivers clear insights for the development of interventions and presents a strong case for more robust research methods. In particular there is a need to test the effectiveness of interventions in large-scale, well-designed trials and to ensure that outcome measures are developed/tailored appropriately for this client group. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [Primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults in Mexico: national characteristics and the relation to international literature].

    PubMed

    Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations.

  1. Alsin Related Disorders: Literature Review and Case Study with Novel Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Sampaio, Mafalda; Nahavandi, Nahid; Fernandes, Susana; Leão, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the ALS2 gene cause three distinct disorders: infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia, juvenile primary lateral sclerosis, and autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We present a review of the literature and the case of a 16-year-old boy who is, to the best of our knowledge, the first Portuguese case with infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia. Clinical investigations included sequencing analysis of the ALS2 gene, which revealed a heterozygous mutation in exon 5 (c.1425_1428del p.G477Afs*19) and a heterozygous and previously unreported variant in exon 3 (c.145G>A p.G49R). We also examined 42 reported cases on the clinical characteristics and neurophysiological and imaging studies of patients with known ALS2 gene mutations sourced from PubMed. This showed that an overlap of phenotypic manifestations can exist in patients with infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia, juvenile primary lateral sclerosis, and juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:25302125

  2. Complications Related to Pectus Carinatum Correction: Lessons Learned from 15 Years' Experience. Management and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Del Frari, Barbara; Sigl, Stephan; Schwabegger, Anton H

    2016-08-01

    Various methods of corrective thoracoplasty for pectus carinatum deformity have been described, but to date no studies describe a review of complications and how to manage them. Complications are dependent not only on the technique used and the patient's age, but also on the experience of the treating surgeon. The authors present their 15 years' experience with surgical correction of pectus carinatum and the complications that have occurred. A literature review regarding complications with pectus carinatum surgery is performed. A retrospective review of 95 patients (mean age, 19 years) was performed. One hundred four surgical procedures for repair of pectus carinatum were performed from July of 2000 to July of 2015 using a modified Ravitch technique, bioabsorbable material, postoperative bracing, and in some cases a diced rib cartilage graft technique. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. The mean patient follow-up was 13.6 months (range, 4 months to 9.75 years). Intraoperative complications were pleura lesion and laceration of the internal mammary vein. Postoperative complications were recurrent mild protrusion, persistent protrusion of one or two costal cartilages, minor wound healing delay, skin ulcer, hypertrophic scar, transient intercostal dysesthesia, marginal pneumothorax, seroma, meningitis, and epidural hematoma. In our reported series of pectus carinatum repair, increasing experience and progressively less extensive techniques have resulted in fewer complications, low morbidity, and early return to activity. Complications were observed in the early period of application, predominantly because of a lack of experience, and usually subsided with increasing numbers of patients and frequency of surgery. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. [Nursing minimum data sets (NMDS) - a literature review relating to objective and data elements].

    PubMed

    Ranegger, Renate; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2014-12-01

    Hintergrund: Um den prognostizierten Wandel im Pflegebereich begleiten zu können, wird seit langem die Forderung nach einer einheitlichen Datenbasis gestellt, auf deren Grundlage Pflegedaten von Leistungsanbietern transparent abgebildet werden können. In Österreich fehlt bis dato eine Empfehlung, welche Pflegedaten als «Basisdaten» dokumentiert werden müssen, wodurch eine nationale Vergleichbarkeit von Pflegedaten erschwert wird. Internationale Entwicklungen von Nursing Minimum Data Sets (NMDS) weisen darauf hin, dass Pflegedaten adäquat abgebildet werden können. Ziel der vorgestellten systematischen Literaturanalyse ist es, den aktuellen Wissensstand über NMDS zu erheben und eine strukturierte Beschreibung von NMDS zu entwickeln, welche vor allem die erfassten Datenelemente und die zugehörigen Zielsetzungen der NMDS-Verwendung dokumentieren kann. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 70 Publikationen zum Thema NMDS in die Literaturübersicht eingeschlossen. Die Analyse der vorgestellten acht NMDS ergab sechs zentrale Zielsetzungen und sechs übergeordnete Datenelemente. Zu den identifizierten sechs Zielsetzungen gehören: Beschreibung der Pflegepraxis, Verteilung finanzieller Mittel, Benchmarking, Personaleinsatzplanung, Trendanalysen und Qualitätssicherung. Die identifizierten sechs Datenelemente umfassen betriebliche Daten, demografische Daten, Pflegediagnosen, -interventionen, -ergebnisse (Qualitätsindikatoren) und Pflegeintensität (klinische Daten). Diskussion: Es hat sich gezeigt, dass kein klarer Zusammenhang zwischen den Zielsetzungen und Datenelementen der untersuchten minimalen Pflegedatensätzen vorliegt.

  4. Intracranial clear cell meningioma in two children with blood relations: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Enming; Wang, Zhiqiu; Li, Wengang; Huang, Shan; Li, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Intracranial clear cell meningioma (CCM) is very rare and often has an aggressive clinical course. The predilection site of intracranial CCM in children was cerebellopontine angle where represents challenging tumor resection because of the vicinity of brainstem, vertebral artery, and lower cranial nerve. Therefore, special consideration is required for this tumor.We report two cases with intracranial CCM in a family and reviewed the literature concerning pediatric intracranial CCM. Case 1 is a 4-year-old boy with a tumor at the right posterior fossa. Case 2 is an 8-year-old boy with a left basilar region tumor. Gross total resection and subtotal resection was achieved in case 1 and case 2, respectively. Case 1 had no tumor recurrence at 12 months after the operation. Case 2 received cyber-knife radiosurgery (CKS) after subtotal resection at 4 months, and the residual tumor had gradually shrunk. Comprehensive chromosomal number aberrations in both patients were revealed by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and loss of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene was the common genetic abnormality in the two patients.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerned two patients with CCM in a family, and the findings in this article suggest that CKS is a safe and effective adjuvant therapy for residual CCM after operation and NF2 gene mutation plays a role in tumorigenesis of pediatric intracranial CCM.

  5. Cancer-related secondary lymphoedema due to cutaneous lymphangitis carcinomatosa: clinical presentations and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Damstra, R J; Jagtman, E A; Steijlen, P M

    2010-09-01

    Lymphoedema is a clinical condition caused by impairment of the lymphatic system, leading to swelling of subcutaneous soft tissues. As a result, accumulation of protein-rich interstitial fluid and lymphostasis often causes additional swelling, fibrosis and adipose tissue hypertrophy leading to progressive morbidity and loss of quality of life for the patient. Lymphoedema can be distinguished as primary or secondary. Lymphoedema is a complication frequently encountered in patients treated for cancer, especially after lymphadenoectomy and/or radiotherapy based on destruction of lymphatics. However, although lymphatic impairment is sometimes caused by obstructive solid metastasis, we present three cases of secondary lymphoedema with minor dermatological features without detectable solid metastasis. Sometimes this type of lymphoedema is mistakenly called malignant lymphoedema. All patients were previously treated for cancer without clinical signs of recurrence, presented with progressive lymphoedema and minor dermatological features of unknown origin. Clinical and histopathological examination of the skin revealed diffuse lymphangitis carcinomatosa, leading to secondary lymphoedema and adjustment of the therapeutic approach and prognosis. We reviewed literature on these rare presentations of cancer recurrence and recommend, where appropriate, consulting a dermatologist when discrete skin abnormalities are seen in patients with a history of cancer and developing lymphoedema.

  6. Technical, economical, and climate-related aspects of biochar production technologies: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sebastian; Glaser, Bruno; Quicker, Peter

    2011-11-15

    For the development of commercial biochar projects, reliable data on biochar production technologies is needed. For this purpose, peer-reviewed scientific articles on carbonization technologies (pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal carbonization, and flash carbonization) have been analyzed. Valuable information is provided by papers on pyrolysis processes, less information is available on gasification processes, and few papers about hydrothermal and flash carbonization technologies were identified. A wide range of data on the costs of char production (between 51 US$ per tonne pyrolysis biochar from yard waste and 386 US$ per tonne retort charcoal) and on the GHG balance of biochar systems (between -1054 kg CO(2)e and +123 kg CO(2)e per t dry biomass feedstock) have been published. More data from pilot projects are needed to improve the evaluation of biochar production technologies. Additional research on the influence of biochar application on surface albedo, atmospheric soot concentration, and yield responses is necessary to assess the entire climate impact of biochar systems. Above all, further field trials on the ability of different technologies to produce chars for agricultural soils and carbon sequestration are essential for future technology evaluation.

  7. Prevention of central venous catheter-related infection in the neonatal unit: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jacqueline E; McDonald, Susan J; Tan, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Central venous catheter infections are the leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections and contribute significantly to mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Moreover, infection poses significant economic consequence which increased hospital costs and increased length of hospital stay. Prevention strategies are detailed in guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States; nevertheless, recent surveys in neonatal units in the United States, and Australia and New Zealand demonstrate these are not always followed. This review discusses the numerous evidence-based strategies to prevent catheter infections including hand hygiene, maximal sterile barriers during insertion, skin disinfection, selection of insertion site, dressings, aseptic non-touch technique, disinfection of catheter hubs/ports, administration set management, prompt removal of catheter, antibiotic locks, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and chlorhexidine bathing. Furthermore, it will describe different strategies that can be implemented into clinical practice to reduce infection rates. These include the use of care bundles including checklists, education and the use of CVC teams.

  8. A Course in Desktop Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerick, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Promotional Publications," a required course for public relations majors, which teaches the basics of desktop publishing. Outlines how the course covers the preparation of publications used as communication tools in public relations, advertising, and organizations, with an emphasis upon design, layout, and technology. (MM)

  9. Graduated compression stockings as prophylaxis for flight-related venous thrombosis: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Lee, Feng-Ping

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports a systematic review whose objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of graduated compression stockings as prophylaxis for flight-related venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and superficial venous thrombosis, after air travel in the general population. Despite the extended history of the use of graduated compression stockings, their application to prevent flight-related thrombosis was not explored until flight-related thrombosis was perceived as a preventable illness. Even now, their effectiveness in preventing flight-related thrombosis remains unresolved. Generic terms including stocking/s, sock/s, or hosiery/hosieries were used to search a variety of electronic databases. Based on the selection criteria, decisions regarding inclusion and exclusion of primary studies were made. Using a meta-analysis software program, relative risk for the incidence of deep vein thrombosis, superficial venous thrombosis, and intention-to-treat analysis was calculated. A total of nine randomized controlled trials were included. In the treatment group, two of 1237 participants developed deep vein thrombosis in comparison with 46 of 1245 in the control group. The weighted relative risk for deep vein thrombosis was 0.08, with fixed 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.23. In the treatment group, four of 826 participants developed superficial venous thrombosis in comparison with seven of 823 in the control group. The weighted relative risk for superficial venous thrombosis was 0.67. with fixed 95% confidence interval 0.24-1.87 (non-significant difference). Using intention-to-treat analysis, the risk for participants in the treatment group was 0.53 times as great as that for those in the control group. This review demonstrates the effectiveness of medium compression pressure, below-knee graduated compression stockings in preventing flight-