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  1. Traumatic brain injury related research in India: An overview of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Shukla, Dhaval P.; Menon, Geetha R.; Alogolu, Rajesh; Galwankar, Sagar; Kumar, Saginela Satish; Momhan, Pathapati Rama; Pal, Ranabir; Rustagi, Neeti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This paper provides an overview of publications by Indian researchers on traumatic brain injury between 1966 and 2014, to set up a platform for evaluating and synthesizing the results and findings from brain injury research in India. Materials and Methods: All published articles from India related to brain injury since 1966 to 2014 were retrieved from PubMed using the search for (“craniocerebral trauma”[MeSH Terms] OR (“craniocerebral”[All Fields] AND “trauma”[All Fields]) OR “craniocerebral trauma”[All Fields] OR (“head”[All Fields] AND “injury”[All Fields]) OR “head injury”[All Fields]) AND (“India”[MeSH Terms] OR “India”[All Fields]) A data base for variables like study type/category, year of publication, place of study institutes and departments to which the corresponding author belonged or where the study was conducted and the journal of publication was developed in FileMaker Pro 13 Advanced® software. Frequencies and percentages was obtained using R statistics software. Results: A total of 624 original research articles from India were reviewed. There was a substantial increase in the number of publications from 2006 (175) to 2014 (213). Eighty percent of studies were primary clinical observational type. Only 1.6% of studies were on animal experiments. Original research articles were about 55.8%. One fourth of the studies are prospective in nature. Researchers from 46 medical departments have been involved in publishing papers on traumatic brain injury. Among these, the neurosurgery department has published highest number of publications (262), followed by the forensic medicine (32) and the neurology (21). Many institutes from 22 states have contributed in brain injury research. Delhi alone had published nearly one-fourth (23%) of papers. Eleven states had published papers in collaboration with other countries. Papers were published both in national and international journals. Neurology India had published 20.6% of

  2. Critical appraisal of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  3. A Quantitative Analysis of Published Skull Base Endoscopy Literature.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Ponce, Francisco A; Little, Andrew S; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Skull base endoscopy allows for minimal access approaches to the sinonasal contents and cranial base. Advances in endoscopic technique and applications have been published rapidly in recent decades. Setting We utilized an Internet-based scholarly database (Web of Science, Thomson Reuters) to query broad-based phrases regarding skull base endoscopy literature. Participants All skull base endoscopy publications. Main Outcome Measures Standard bibliometrics outcomes. Results We identified 4,082 relevant skull base endoscopy English-language articles published between 1973 and 2014. The 50 top-cited publications (n = 51, due to articles with equal citation counts) ranged in citation count from 397 to 88. Most of the articles were clinical case series or technique descriptions. Most (96% [49/51])were published in journals specific to either neurosurgery or otolaryngology. Conclusions A relatively small number of institutions and individuals have published a large amount of the literature. Most of the publications consisted of case series and technical advances, with a lack of randomized trials. PMID:26949585

  4. An Editor's Tips on Publishing in Library Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    Writing for professional library literature can be a challenging experience, especially for new writers and new librarians. This article reviews a variety of how-to-write publications intended for librarians--those books and articles that provide advice and inspiration to aspiring library writers on how to publish in library literature. Applying…

  5. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines

  6. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

  7. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew W; Allison, David B

    2014-01-01

    cost, crowdsourcing has potential to evaluate published literature in a cost-effective, quick, and reliable manner using existing, easily accessible resources. PMID:24988466

  8. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew W; Allison, David B

    2014-01-01

    cost, crowdsourcing has potential to evaluate published literature in a cost-effective, quick, and reliable manner using existing, easily accessible resources.

  9. Publishing Sami Literature--From Christian Translations to Sami Publishing Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltto, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Publishing in the Sami languages has always been difficult. The Sami are currently spread across four countries, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. There are nine different Sami languages, some of them with only a few speakers. The Sami publishing industry is entirely dependent on government funding as it does not have its own funds nor is there…

  10. Matrix Summaries Improve Research Reports: Secondary Analyses Using Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Correlation matrices and standard deviations are the building blocks of many of the commonly conducted analyses in published research, and AERA and APA reporting standards recommend their inclusion when reporting research results. The authors argue that the inclusion of correlation/covariance matrices, standard deviations, and means can enhance…

  11. ESL Learners: Process Writing and Publishing Good Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudden, Jane F.; Nedeff, Anita R.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an examination of books written by children who are English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. Compares the books with criteria for meritorious literature. Discusses implications of the results relevant to process-writing instruction with second-language learners. Indicates an unexpected adherence to criteria for literary genres.…

  12. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  13. Retinoblastoma: Recent trends A mini review based on published literature

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Vikas; Gupta, Aditi; Gopal, Lingam

    2011-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy in children. Recently, there have been significant advances made in the molecular pathology and the management of the disease. Last decade has witnessed better understanding of the genetics of RB, the discovery of new tumor markers expressed by the RB tumors, the identification of high-risk histopathological factors following enucleation, and newer methods of treatment including periocular chemotherapy and superselective intraarterial chemotherapy. All these advances have translated in improved survival rates for the affected children, improved rates of eye salvage, and improved visual outcomes. This article briefly reviews these advances. Method of Literature Search: Literature on the Medline database was searched using the PubMed interface. The search strategy included MeSH and natural language terms using the keywords mentioned. Reference lists in retrieved articles and textbooks were also searched for relevant references. PMID:22279397

  14. Publishing Not Perishing: How Research Students Transition from Novice to Knowledgeable Using Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Grignon, Julien; Steven, Rochelle; Guitart, Daniela; Byrne, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Current understandings suggest that three aspects of writing practice underpin the research student publication process: knowledge creation, text production and identity formation. Publishing a literature review is the first opportunity most students have to publish. This article compares the pedagogical benefits of different literature review…

  15. Published criteria for evaluating health related web sites: review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Objective To review published criteria for specifically evaluating health related information on the world wide web, and to identify areas of consensus. Design Search of world wide web sites and peer reviewed medical journals for explicit criteria for evaluating health related information on the web, using Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases, and the following internet search engines: Yahoo!, Excite, Altavista, Webcrawler, HotBot, Infoseek, Magellan Internet Guide, and Lycos. Criteria were extracted and grouped into categories. Results 29 published rating tools and journal articles were identified that had explicit criteria for assessing health related web sites. Of the 165 criteria extracted from these tools and articles, 132 (80%) were grouped under one of 12 specific categories and 33 (20%) were grouped as miscellaneous because they lacked specificity or were unique. The most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information (includes frequency of update, freshness, maintenance of site), authority of source, ease of use, and accessibility and availability. Conclusions Results suggest that many authors agree on key criteria for evaluating health related web sites, and that efforts to develop consensus criteria may be helpful. The next step is to identify and assess a clear, simple set of consensus criteria that the general public can understand and use. Key messagesMany organisations and individuals have published criteria to evaluate health related information on the world wide webA literature and world wide web search found that the most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information, authority of source, and ease of useCriteria related to confidentiality and privacy were only cited by one authorConsensus regarding critical criteria for

  16. Publication Anxiety: Emotion and the Stages of Publishing in the Library and Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    Although instruction in writing for Library and Information Science (LIS) publication is becoming more prevalent, emotions inherent in the publishing cycle are seldom discussed. Through a review of the literature this article investigates how LIS writers can develop their technical skills in publishing scholarly articles, and then looks at…

  17. Children's Literature at the Turn of the Century: Toward a Political Economy of the Publishing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxel, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the beginnings of a political economy of the children's literature publishing industry. Focuses on the ways that changes in the ownership and structure of the industry are altering the underlying culture of the book publishing industry and concomitantly, the ways that books are conceived, commissioned, and marketed. (SG)

  18. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur.

  19. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur. PMID:22054188

  20. NETS[middle dot]A Scholarship: A Review of Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Bathon, Justin; Flora, Kevin L.; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, no systematic analysis of the current body of literature has aimed to understand the extent to which school technology leadership is being investigated. This review of the literature presents a content analysis of articles published from 1997 through 2010 housed in the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) database on the topic of…

  1. Does benzene cause multiple myeloma? An analysis of the published case-control literature

    SciTech Connect

    Bezabeh, S.; Engel, A.; Morris, C.B.; Lamm, S.H.

    1996-12-01

    Two case series and two epidemiological studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that benzene exposure might be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. An analysis has now been conducted of the published population-based and hospital-based case-control studies published through mid-1995 that permit examination of the relationship between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or surrogates for benzene exposure. No increased association was found between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or exposure to chemical groups that included benzene. The odds ratios from these analyses approximated 1.0. Exposures to petroleum products and employment in petroleum-related occupations did not appear to be risk factors for multiple myeloma. Cigarette smoking, as a surrogate of benzene exposure, was not found to be associated with multiple myeloma, while some studies of products of combustion described as {open_quotes}engine exhaust{close_quotes} did show a significant association with multiple myeloma. In toto, the population-based and hospital-based case-control literature indicated that benzene exposure was not a likely causal factor for multiple myeloma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Does benzene cause multiple myeloma? An analysis of the published case-control literature.

    PubMed

    Bezabeh, S; Engel, A; Morris, C B; Lamm, S H

    1996-12-01

    Two case series and two epidemiological studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that benzene exposure might be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. An analysis has now been conducted of the published population-based and hospital-based case-control studies published through mid-1995 that permit examination of the relationship between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or surrogates for benzene exposure. No increased association was found between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or exposure to chemical groups that included benzene. The odds ratios from these analyses approximated 1.0. Exposures to petroleum products and employment in petroleum-related occupations did not appear to be risk factors for multiple myeloma. Cigarette smoking, as a surrogate of benzene exposure, was not found to be associated with myeloma, while some studies of products of combustion described as "engine exhaust" did show a significant association with multiple myeloma. In toto, the population-based and hospital-based case-control literature indicated that benzene exposure was not a likely causal factor for multiple myeloma.

  3. A meta-synthesis study of literature review and systematic review published in nurse prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prescribing represents a new aspect of practice for nurses. To make qualitative results more accessible to clinicians, researchers, and policy makers, individuals are urged to synthesize findings from related studies. Therefore this study aimed to aggregate and interpret existing literature review and systematic studies to obtain new insights on nurse prescription. Methods: This was a qualitative meta synthesis study using Walsh and Downe process. In order to obtain data all Digital National Library of Medicine's databases, search engines and several related sites were used. Full texts with "review and nurs* prescri* " words in the title or abstract in English language and published without any time limitation were considered. After eliminating duplicate and irrelevant studies, 11 texts were selected. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis. Multiple codes were compared based on the differences and similarities and divided to the categories and themes. Results: The results from the meta synthesis of the 11 studies revealed 8 themes namely: leading countries in prescribing, views, features, infrastructures, benefits, disadvantages, facilitators and barriers of nursing prescription that are discussed in this article. The results led to a schematic model. Conclusion: Despite the positive view on nurse prescribing, there are still issues such as legal, administrative, weak research and educational deficiencies in academic preparation of nurses that needs more effort in these areas and requires further research. PMID:25405142

  4. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination repr...

  5. Review of published criteria for evaluating health-related websites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    •Objective To review published criteria for specifically evaluating health-related information on the World Wide Web and to identify areas of consensus in evaluation. •Design Search of Web sites and peer-reviewed medical journals for explicit criteria for evaluating health-related information on the Web using Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases and the following Internet search engines: Yahoo!, Excite, Altavista, Webcrawler, HotBot, Infoseek, Magellan Internet Guide, and Lycos. Criteria were extracted and grouped into categories. •Results Twenty-nine published rating tools and journal articles were identified that had explicit criteria for assessing health-related Web sites. Of the 165 criteria extracted from these tools and articles, 132 (80%) were grouped under 1 of 12 specific categories, and 33 (20%) were grouped as miscellaneous because they lacked specificity or were unique. The most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with the content, design, and aesthetics of a site; disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers; currency of information (includes frequency of update, freshness, and maintenance of site); authority of source; ease of use; and accessibility and availability. •Conclusions Many authors agree on the key criteria for evaluating health-related Web sites and efforts to develop consensus criteria may be helpful. The next step is to identify and assess a clear, simple set of consensus criteria that the general public can understand and use. PMID:18751150

  6. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  7. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  8. Review and bibliometric analysis of published literature citing data produced by the Gap Analysis Program (GAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial datasets providing information on land cover, predicted species distributions, stewardship (ownership and conservation status), and an analysis dataset which synthesizes the other three datasets. The intent in providing these datasets is to support the conservation of biodiversity. The datasets are made available at no cost. The initial datasets were created at the state level. More recent datasets have been assembled at regional and national levels. GAP entered an agreement with the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance branch of the USGS to conduct an evaluation to describe the effect that using GAP data has on those who utilize the datasets (GAP users). The evaluation project included multiple components: a discussion regarding use of GAP data conducted with participants at a GAP conference, a literature review of publications that cited use of GAP data, and a survey of GAP users. The findings of the published literature search were used to identify topics to include on the survey. This report summarizes the literature search, the characteristics of the resulting set of publications, the emergent themes from statements made regarding GAP data, and a bibliometric analysis of the publications. We cannot claim that this list includes all publications that have used GAP data. Given the time lapse that is common in the publishing process, more recent datasets may be cited less frequently in this list of publications. Reports or products that used GAP data may be produced but never published in print or released online. In that case, our search strategies would not have located those reports. Authors may have used GAP data but failed to cite it in such a way that the search strategies we used would have located those publications. These are common issues when using a literature search as part of an evaluation project. Although the final list of publications we identified is not

  9. An evaluation of drug promotional literatures published in scientific medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Vachhani, Pooja M.; Solanki, Manish N.; Desai, Mira K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluation and comparison of ethical standards of published drug promotional literatures (DPLs) between different Indian and non-Indian scientific medical journals regarding compliance to the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMAs) guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was carried out at pharmacology department. DPLs published in Indian and non-Indian scientific medical journals available at central library of medical college during the period of 6 months were collected according to selection criteria. DPLs were evaluated and compared for compliance to ethical standards of drug promotion laid by the WHO and IFPMA. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Out of total 178 DPLs, 103 DPLs were from Indian journals and 75 DPLs were from non-Indian journals. When compared regarding compliance to all the 11 ethical criteria of WHO, no significant difference was found between DPLs published in Indian and non-Indian journals. However, DPLs from indian journals contained significantly less information regarding dosage regimen (P = 0.0096), adverse drug reactions (P = 0.0028), warnings (P = 0.0104) and major drug interactions (P < 0.0001) as compared to non-Indian journals. Compliance to all the five IFPMA criteria was significantly higher in DPLs of non-Indian journals (88%) than Indian journals (39%) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Noncompliance to ethical standards of WHO and IFPMA guidelines is more common in DPLs of Indian journals as compared to non-Indian journals. Thus strict implementation of regulatory measures regarding DPLs published in Indian medical journals is recommended. PMID:27413355

  10. Trends in female representation in published ophthalmology literature, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Deepika N.; Huang, Jiayan; Ying, Gui-shuang; Pietrobon, Ricardo; O’Brien, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine trends in female first and last authors in clinical ophthalmology literature published from January 2000 to December 2009. Methods A total of 3760 articles in American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO), 2347 articles in Archives of Ophthalmology (Archives), and 3838 articles in Ophthalmology spanning 10 years of published ophthalmology peer-reviewed literature were examined. All original research articles and brief reports indexed online were included. Author gender was determined by an exhaustive Internet search. Articles were excluded if the sex of the author could not be determined or was not applicable (for example, articles by a study group rather than an individual author). Results Gender information was identified in 86.8% of articles for first authors and 86% for last authors. The number of female first authors (P < 0.0001) and last authors (P = 0.005) increased significantly in the study period in all journals examined, with a significant association between the sex of the first and last authors (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.96–2.46; P < 0.0001), when examining all articles. Female representation increased for last authors significantly only in Ophthalmology. There was a significant correlation between gender of the first author and total number of authors that was not observed with last-author sex. Conclusions Female first authorship has increased from 2000 to 2009 and is correlated with the gender of the last author; however, there were fewer female last authors compared to female first authors in the same period. PMID:24459456

  11. The Benefits of Publishing Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews for PhD Candidates and Other Early-Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Byrne, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Universities increasingly expect students to publish during a PhD candidature because it benefits the candidate, supervisor, institution, and wider community. Here, we describe a method successfully used by early-career researchers including PhD candidates to undertake and publish literature reviews--a challenge for researchers new to a field. Our…

  12. Booklets for children related with Earth Sciences published in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaniz, S. A.; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.

    2009-04-01

    The Centro de Geociencias, at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, has published a series of booklets for children, entitled "Simple experiments to understand a complex Earth". It is part of the activities of the Mexican committee of the International Year of the Planet Earth. Each booklet contains experiments related with an Earth Sciences topic and includes the procedure to do one of the "Ten most beautiful experiments in physics" (Crease, P., Physics World May 2002 p17 and September 2002 pp19-20). In Mexico, as in other developing countries, there is very little information about Science in general and Earth Sciences in particular, in the basic education programs. Also, there is poor bibliography in Spanish about science experiments. For this reason, we try to fill the vacuum by distributing free the booklets in Science Museums and rural basic schools in paper, and by Internet in the Centro de Geociencias web site (http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/geociencias/difusion/indice.html). At present, we have been distributed 100,000 copies of 5 issues: 1."Atmospheric pressure and the falling bodies", it deals with the Galileo experiment of falling bodies, he proposed that all the bodies fall down at the same velocity. We discuss the properties of the atmosphere air (temperature, pressure and volume) and concluded that Galileo is right but when the bodies are very light. 2. "The light and the colors" is based in the Newton's decomposition of sunlight with a prism experiment. This booklet contains nine experiments to explain the colors that we find in Earth like the blue of the sky, the orange of the sunset, the rainbow and the mirage. 3. "¿Eureka! oceans and continents float". This booklet presents seven experiments related with density and buoyancy to explain the principles of the Plate tectonics theory. 4. "Climate hanging by a thread", Foucault pendulum demonstrates the rotation of Earth without seeing the stars, in this booklet, we explain, through 9

  13. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  14. The health economics of bladder cancer: an updated review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Christina; Dinh, Tuan; Lee, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a current view of the economic burden of bladder cancer, with a focus on the cost effectiveness of available interventions. This review updates a previous systematic review and includes 72 new papers published between 2000 and 2013. Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common and expensive malignancies. The annual cost of bladder cancer in the USA during 2010 was $US4 billion and is expected to rise to $US5 billion by 2020. Ten years ago, urinary markers held the potential to lower treatment costs of bladder cancer. However, subsequent real-world experiments have demonstrated that further work is necessary to identify situations in which these technologies can be applied in a cost-effective manner. Adjunct cytology remains a part of diagnostic standard of care, but recent research suggests that it is not cost effective due to its low diagnostic yield. Analysis of intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), neo-adjuvant therapy for cystectomy, and robot-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy suggests that these technologies are cost effective and should be implemented more widely for appropriate patients. The existing literature on the cost effectiveness of bladder cancer treatments has improved substantially since 2000. The body of work now includes many new models, registry analyses, and real-world studies. However, there is still a need for new implementation guidelines, new risk modeling tools, and a better understanding of the empirical burden of bladder cancer.

  15. Publishing Children's Literature at the Dawn of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxel, Joel; Ward, Holly M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a critique of recent trends and changes within the children's book publishing industry, especially nonliterary factors, tensions between commerce and culture, and the impact of mergers. Suggests that changes are dramatically altering the underlying culture of the publishing industry and radically altering the publishing people have come…

  16. A literature review of sports-related orofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, David P; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    This literature review evaluates the significance of dental injuries and their relationship to specific sports activities. Many studies have been published on individual sports or groups of sports but most pertain to specific age groups or levels of competition. Research suggests that many sports that do not require mouthguards should encourage male and female participants to use orofacial protectors. Athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, parents, and members of the dental community should be aware of how individuals who participate in sporting activities are at risk for dental trauma. Any sport where the potential for dental trauma can exist (such as basketball, soccer, or wrestling) should consider utilizing mouthguards to protect the competitors. The establishment of mouthguard programs for athletes of all ages, genders, and sports may help to reduce the incidence of dental trauma. A sports-related, orofacial/dental trauma reporting system is considered.

  17. Global Epidemiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a Systematic Review of the Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, A; Logroscino, G; Traynor, BJ; Collins, J; Simeone, JC; Goldstein, LA; White, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is relatively rare, yet the economic and social burden is substantial. Having accurate incidence and prevalence estimates would facilitate efficient allocation of healthcare resources. Objective To provide a comprehensive and critical review of the epidemiologic literature on ALS. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE (1995–2011) databases of population-based studies on ALS incidence and prevalence reporting quantitative data were analyzed. Data extracted included study location and time, design and data sources, case ascertainment methods, and incidence and/or prevalence rates. Medians and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated, and ALS case estimates derived using 2010 population estimates. Results In all, 37 articles met inclusion criteria. In Europe, the median (IQR) incidence rate (/100,000 population) was 2.08 (1.47–2.43), corresponding to an estimated 15,355 (10,852–17,938) cases. Median (IQR) prevalence (/100,000 population) was 5.40 (4.06–7.89), or 39,863 (29,971–58,244) prevalent cases. Conclusions Disparity in rates among ALS incidence and prevalence studies may be due to differences in study design or true variations in population demographics, such as age, and geography, including environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Additional large-scale studies that use standardized case ascertainment methods are needed to more accurately assess the true global burden of ALS. PMID:23860588

  18. Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part I: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Michael J.; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C.; Findling, Robert L.; Lopez, Frank A.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature investigating changes in emotional expression (EE) as a function of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD and to differentiate emotional effects related to ADHD pharmacotherapy from emotional effects related to ADHD as a disorder. Method: English language articles published from January 1, 1988, through…

  19. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (Gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non–communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Conclusions: Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe. PMID:23390466

  20. Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: a systematic review of published literature, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Smith, David M D; Paterson, Pauline

    2014-04-17

    Vaccine "hesitancy" is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. It recognizes a continuum between the domains of vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal and de-polarizes previous characterization of individuals and groups as either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The primary aims of this systematic review are to: 1) identify research on vaccine hesitancy; 2) identify determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact; and 3) inform the development of a model for assessing determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings as proposed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) for dealing with vaccine hesitancy. A broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy around vaccines, was applied across multiple databases. Peer-reviewed studies were selected for inclusion if they focused on childhood vaccines [≤ 7 years of age], used multivariate analyses, and were published between January 2007 and November 2012. Our results show a variety of factors as being associated with vaccine hesitancy but they do not allow for a complete classification and confirmation of their independent and relative strength of influence. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific - varying across time, place and vaccines.

  1. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Results: Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). Conclusion: This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. PMID:27799973

  2. The Importance of Structure Coefficients in Multiple Regression: A Review with Examples from Published Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.

    This paper discusses the importance of interpreting both regression coefficients and structure coefficients when analyzing the results of multiple regression analysis, particularly with correlated predictor variables. The concepts of multicolinearity and suppressor effects are introduced, along with examples from the previously published articles…

  3. Continuing Education Needs as Reflected by Changes in the Published Literature. Working Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Robert

    This is the fourth paper issued by the Medical Library Association dealing with the continuing education of health science librarians. The report documents change within health sciences librarianship within the past fifteen years by reviewing the literature of medical librarianship from the years 1970-1974. These sources were compared with three…

  4. A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Shepherdson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A deluge of empirical research became available on MOOCs in 2013-2015 and this research is available in disparate sources. This paper addresses a number of gaps in the scholarly understanding of MOOCs and presents a comprehensive picture of the literature by examining the geographic distribution, publication outlets, citations, data collection and…

  5. Biogenic amines--a possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.

    PubMed

    Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

    2015-03-15

    Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis.

  6. A narrative review of the published chiropractic literature regarding older patients from 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article was to perform a narrative review of the chiropractic literature regarding older patients between 2001 and 2010. Methods: A three step search strategy of the literature involved electronic searching, hand searching and reference tracking. Results: One hundred and eighty eight articles germane to chiropractic geriatric practice and education were retrieved. Discussion: Compared to the review of the literature conducted prior to 2000, the number of references on chiropractic geriatric education increased from 3 to 11, the number of demographic studies increased from 9 to 18, the number of case reports increased from 25 to 83, the number of clinical trials increased from 4 to 21 (only two RCTs found) and the number of references on clinical guidelines and general clinical information increased from 18 to 55. Conclusion: This review found 188 retrievable articles available to practitioners to effectively care plan for their older patients, a better than three fold increase in the number of references found during a similar review conducted at the end of the previous decade. However, there is clearly a gap in the evidence base of chiropractic geriatric care, particularly the under-representation of clinical trials of all kinds involving older chiropractic patients. PMID:21629461

  7. Toxicity studies of genetically modified plants: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2007-01-01

    According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals during the current decade did not find, or the number was particularly small, references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods. In this paper, the scientific information concerning the potential toxicity of GM/transgenic plants using the Medline database is reviewed. Studies about the safety of the potential use of potatoes, corn, soybeans, rice, cucumber, tomatoes, sweet pepper, peas, and canola plants for food and feed were included. The number of references was surprisingly limited. Moreover, most published studies were not performed by the biotechnology companies that produce these products. This review can be concluded raising the following question: where is the scientific evidence showing that GM plants/food are toxicologically safe?

  8. The impact of new vaccine introduction on immunization and health systems: A review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Dentz, Holly; Wang, Susan A.; Burchett, Helen E.; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Mantel, Carsten F.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the impact of new vaccine introduction on countries’ immunization and broader health systems. Six publication databases were searched using 104 vaccine and health system-related search terms. The search yielded 15,795 unique articles dating from December 31, 1911 to September 29, 2010. Based on review of the title and abstract, 654 (4%) of these articles were found to be potentially relevant and were referred for full review. After full review, 130 articles were found to be relevant and included in the analysis. These articles represented vaccines introduced to protect against 10 different diseases (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, human papilloma virus infection, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae disease, rotavirus diarrhea and typhoid), in various formulations and combinations. Most reviewed articles (97 [75%]) reported experiences in high-income countries. New vaccine introduction was most efficient when the vaccine was introduced into an existing delivery platform and when introduced in combination with a vaccine already in the routine childhood immunization schedule (i.e., as a combination vaccine). New vaccine introduction did not impact coverage of vaccines already included in the routine childhood immunization schedule. The need for increased cold chain capacity was frequently reported. New vaccines facilitated the introduction and widespread use of auto-disable syringes into the immunization and the broader health systems. The importance of training and education for health care workers and social mobilization was frequently noted. There was evidence in high-income countries that new vaccine introduction was associated with reduced health-care costs. Future evaluations of new vaccine introductions should include the systematic and objective assessment of the impacts on a country’s immunization system

  9. The impact of new vaccine introduction on immunization and health systems: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Terri B; Dentz, Holly; Wang, Susan A; Burchett, Helen E; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Mantel, Carsten F

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the impact of new vaccine introduction on countries' immunization and broader health systems. Six publication databases were searched using 104 vaccine and health system-related search terms. The search yielded 15,795 unique articles dating from December 31, 1911 to September 29, 2010. Based on review of the title and abstract, 654 (4%) of these articles were found to be potentially relevant and were referred for full review. After full review, 130 articles were found to be relevant and included in the analysis. These articles represented vaccines introduced to protect against 10 different diseases (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, human papilloma virus infection, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae disease, rotavirus diarrhea and typhoid), in various formulations and combinations. Most reviewed articles (97 [75%]) reported experiences in high-income countries. New vaccine introduction was most efficient when the vaccine was introduced into an existing delivery platform and when introduced in combination with a vaccine already in the routine childhood immunization schedule (i.e., as a combination vaccine). New vaccine introduction did not impact coverage of vaccines already included in the routine childhood immunization schedule. The need for increased cold chain capacity was frequently reported. New vaccines facilitated the introduction and widespread use of auto-disable syringes into the immunization and the broader health systems. The importance of training and education for health care workers and social mobilization was frequently noted. There was evidence in high-income countries that new vaccine introduction was associated with reduced health-care costs. Future evaluations of new vaccine introductions should include the systematic and objective assessment of the impacts on a country's immunization system and

  10. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at Al-Garb,""Al…

  11. Sports-related Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Pamela S.; Chandler, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Physical educators can incorporate sports-related novels into their curricula to help students explore a variety of sports and to open the door to discussions of the benefits of sport and fitness activities. This article describes how students can take the reading and compositions skills they learned in English and apply them to physical education…

  12. Patient reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions: a review of published literature and international experience

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, A; Wilkie, P; Wang, M; Routledge, P A

    2007-01-01

    Aims To synthesize data from published studies and international experience to identify evidence of potential benefits and drawbacks of direct patient reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by patients. Methods Structured search of MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO supplemented by internet searches and requests for information to key contacts. Results Seven studies (eight papers) were included in the review. None of the studies concerned spontaneous reporting by patients. Information on patient reporting systems was obtained for six countries, with summary data reported by four. Patient reports identified possible new ADRs that had not previously been reported by health professionals. The quality of patient reports appears to be similar to that of health professional reports. There is some evidence that patients report an ADR when they consider their health professional has not paid attention to their concerns. Patient reports may, at least initially, be more time consuming to process. Conclusions Overall, the evidence indicates that patient reporting of suspected ADRs has more potential benefits than drawbacks. Evaluation of patient reporting systems is needed to provide further evidence. PMID:17274788

  13. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

    PubMed Central

    VARELA, MANUEL F.; LUTNESKY, MARVIN M. F.; OSGOOD, MARCY P.

    2005-01-01

    Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits) to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5), and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (n = 10 papers over 103 days). By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions) and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis). Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased) for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621) but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003). Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which they desire

  14. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  15. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa – a non-systematic literature review of research published 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Storberg, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) has been found all over the world, and risk factors for acquiring these bacteria involve hospital care and antibiotic treatment. Surveillance studies are present in Europe, North America, and Asia, but there is no summarizing research published on the situation in Africa. Aim This review aims to describe the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital and community settings in Africa and the ESBL genes involved. Method A non-systematic literature search was performed in PubMed. All articles published between 2008 and 2012 were screened and read in full text. Relevant articles were assessed for quality of evidence and included in the review. Articles were divided into regional areas in Africa and tabulated. Results ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized patients and in communities varies largely between countries and specimens but is common in Africa. ESBLs (class A and D) and plasmid-encoded AmpC (pAmpC) were regularly found, but carbapenemases were also present. Conclusion ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital and community settings in Africa is common. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance needs to be implemented in Africa to tailor interventions targeted at stopping the dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24765249

  16. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  17. A Review of the Literature Related to Government Relations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfield, Randall; Miller, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This review of literature identifies the primary writings and research related to how higher education institutions operate government relations offices. These offices are defined by their mission and role of interfacing between institutional needs and officers and public officials. The review first reports the literature related to public…

  18. Evaluation of Articles Related to Program Development in Education Published in the Journal of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make an overall assessment of articles related to program development in education that appeared in the "Journal of Primary Education," which had been published between 1939 and 1966. For this purpose, the articles in the journal were analyzed by using content analysis, and evaluated in terms of program…

  19. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  20. Health systems and noncommunicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Priya; Abdullah, Asnawi; James, Chris; Dodd, Rebecca; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in countries of the Asia-Pacific region requires well-functioning health systems. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, health systems are generally characterized by inadequate financial and human resources, unsuitable service delivery models, and weak information systems. The aims of this review were to identify (a) health systems interventions being implemented to deliver NCD programs and services and their outcomes and (b) the health systems bottlenecks impeding access to or delivery of these programs and services in LMICs of the Asia-Pacific region. A search of 4 databases for literature published between 1990 and 2010 retrieved 36 relevant studies. For each study, information on basic characteristics, type of health systems bottleneck/intervention, and outcome was extracted, and methodological quality appraised. Health systems interventions and bottlenecks were classified as per the World Health Organization health systems building blocks framework. The review identified interventions and bottlenecks in the building blocks of service delivery, health workforce, financing, health information systems, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. Studies, however, were heterogeneous in methodologies used, and the overall quality was generally low. There are several gaps in the evidence base around NCDs in the Asia-Pacific region that require further investigation.

  1. Evaluating Temporal Trends from Occupational Lead Exposure Data Reported in the Published Literature Using Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Nam, Jun-Mo; Graubard, Barry I.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Locke, Sarah J.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The published literature provides useful exposure measurements that can aid retrospective exposure assessment efforts, but the analysis of this data is challenging as it is usually reported as means, ranges, and measures of variability. We used mixed-effects meta-analysis regression models, which are commonly used to summarize health risks from multiple studies, to predict temporal trends of blood and air lead concentrations in multiple US industries from the published data while accounting for within- and between-study variability in exposure. Methods: We extracted the geometric mean (GM), geometric standard deviation (GSD), and number of measurements from journal articles reporting blood and personal air measurements from US worksites. When not reported, we derived the GM and GSD from other summary measures. Only industries with measurements in ≥2 time points and spanning ≥10 years were included in our analyses. Meta-regression models were developed separately for each industry and sample type. Each model used the log-transformed GM as the dependent variable and calendar year as the independent variable. It also incorporated a random intercept that weighted each study by a combination of the between- and within-study variances. The within-study variances were calculated as the squared log-transformed GSD divided by the number of measurements. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to obtain the regression parameters and between-study variances. Results: The blood measurement models predicted statistically significant declining trends of 2–11% per year in 8 of the 13 industries. The air measurement models predicted a statistically significant declining trend (3% per year) in only one of the seven industries; an increasing trend (7% per year) was also observed for one industry. Of the five industries that met our inclusion criteria for both air and blood, the exposure declines per year tended to be slightly greater based on blood measurements than

  2. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland: a narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth; Smide, Bibbi; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sigurdardottir, Arun K

    2016-06-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has contributed to diabetes research overall. The larger goal of our analyses was to produce a comprehensive picture of this research in order to guide future studies in the field. We conducted a narrative literature review by systematically searching Medline, Medline in process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. These searches were limited to studies published between 1979 and 2009 that had an abstract available in English or a Nordic language. Two researchers independently selected studies for analysis, leading to the inclusion of 164 relevant publications for analysis. In summary, Nordic nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised in networks in order to share knowledge and expertise across national groups and borders, (ii) more multidisciplinary collaborations in order to promote patient-centred care and (iii) further research directed towards improving the dissemination and implementation of research findings. Using complex intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research.

  3. Native American Children's Literature: A Study of Authorship, Publisher Type, and Cultural Diversity of In-Print Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Martin, Sandra Anne Carkin

    The content of 281 works of in-print children's fiction about Native Americans written for grades K-6 was analyzed to determine the amount of cultural diversity as measured by cultural area, time frame, and physical setting of the story. All analyzed works were published in the United States or Canada. Data identifying publisher type, mainline or…

  4. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  5. Bibliographic database of PACS-related articles from the SPIE literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shile, Peter E.; Freiermuth, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    Publications of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE) contain much of the relevant literature on Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and related topics. In fact, many PACS-related articles indexed by the National Library of Medicine contain references to articles published by SPIE. Unfortunately, SPIE publications themselves are not indexed by the National Library of Medicine and thus can not be identified through Medline. The lack of a convenient mechanism for searching the SPIE literature is problematic for researchers in medical imaging. With the recent introduction on SPIE's Internet server of their Abstracts Online service and their In-CiteTM title and author searching software, the SPIE literature has become more accessible. However, the searching process is still a cumbersome and time consuming process, and it is not possible to perform key word searches of manuscript abstracts. In this paper we present results of our work on developing a mechanism to more thoroughly search SPIE publications for PACS-related articles.

  6. Review of Literature: Genes Related to Postaxial Polydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant Kumar; El-Harouni, Ashraf A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is one of the commonest congenital malformations and usually is associated to several syndromes. There is no primary investigational strategy for PAP cases with single gene disorder in literature. PAP cases with single gene disorder can be classified according to common pathways and molecular basis. Molecular classification may help in diagnostic approach. Materials and Methods: All single gene disorders associated with PAP reported on PubMed and OMIM are analyzed and classified according to molecular basis. Results: Majority of genes related to cilia structure and functions are associated with PAP, so we classified them as ciliopathies and non-ciliopathies groups. Genes related to Shh–Gli3 pathway was the commonest group in non-ciliopathies. Conclusion: Genes related to cilia are most commonly related to PAP due to their indirect relationship to Shh–Gli3 signaling pathway. Initially, PAP may be the only clinical finding with ciliopathies so those cases need follow up. Proper diagnosis is helpful for management and genetic counseling. Molecular approach may help to define pleiotropy. PMID:25717468

  7. Student Success for Men of Color in Community Colleges: A Review of Published Literature and Research, 1998-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of scholarship on men of color in postsecondary education has emerged since the late 1990s. Yet, only recently have scholars begun to pursue empirical insights about the status of men of color who attend community colleges. In an effort to inform future research, this article reviews the published scholarship on student success…

  8. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 26 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) contemporary and lyric poetry and poetry experiences; (2) bibliotherapy programs; (3) poetry in college anthologies; (4) values in American literature and…

  9. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 26 titles deal with a variety of topics including the following: (1) multicultural representation in children's books, (2) moral education through literature, (3) the effect of death awareness on the protagonists of selected…

  10. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) science fiction in elementary school science education; (2) the portrayal of black characters in children's literature; (3) UFOs and their correlates as a…

  11. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 31 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the reader pragmatics of fiction; (2) readers' choices versus critics' choices in children's literature; (3) nonverbal communication in selected works of…

  12. Bibliometric analysis of poison center-related research published in peer-review journals.

    PubMed

    Forrester, M B

    2016-07-01

    Poison centers advance knowledge in the field of toxicology through publication in peer-review journals. This investigation describes the pattern of poison center-related publications. Cases were poison center-related research published in peer-review journals during 1995-2014. These were identified through searching the PubMed database, reviewing the tables of contents of selected toxicology journals, and reviewing abstracts of various national and international meetings. The following variables for each publication were identified: year of publication, journal, type of publication (meeting abstract vs. other, i.e. full article or letter to the editor), and the country(ies) of the poison center(s) included in the research. Of the 3147 total publications, 62.1% were meeting abstracts. There were 263 publications in 1995-1999, 536 in 2000-2004, 999 in 2005-2009, and 1349 in 2010-2014. The publications were in 234 different journals. The journals in which the highest number of research was published were Clinical Toxicology (69.7%), Journal of Medical Toxicology (2.2%), and Veterinary and Human Toxicology (2.1%). The research was reported from 62 different countries. The countries with the highest number of publications were the United States (67.9%), United Kingdom (6.5%), Germany (3.9%), France (2.5%), and Italy (2.4%). The number of publications increased greatly over the 20 years. Although the publications were in a large number of journals, a high proportion of the publications were in one journal. While the research came from a large number of countries, the preponderance came from the United States. PMID:26240162

  13. Bibliometric analysis of poison center-related research published in peer-review journals.

    PubMed

    Forrester, M B

    2016-07-01

    Poison centers advance knowledge in the field of toxicology through publication in peer-review journals. This investigation describes the pattern of poison center-related publications. Cases were poison center-related research published in peer-review journals during 1995-2014. These were identified through searching the PubMed database, reviewing the tables of contents of selected toxicology journals, and reviewing abstracts of various national and international meetings. The following variables for each publication were identified: year of publication, journal, type of publication (meeting abstract vs. other, i.e. full article or letter to the editor), and the country(ies) of the poison center(s) included in the research. Of the 3147 total publications, 62.1% were meeting abstracts. There were 263 publications in 1995-1999, 536 in 2000-2004, 999 in 2005-2009, and 1349 in 2010-2014. The publications were in 234 different journals. The journals in which the highest number of research was published were Clinical Toxicology (69.7%), Journal of Medical Toxicology (2.2%), and Veterinary and Human Toxicology (2.1%). The research was reported from 62 different countries. The countries with the highest number of publications were the United States (67.9%), United Kingdom (6.5%), Germany (3.9%), France (2.5%), and Italy (2.4%). The number of publications increased greatly over the 20 years. Although the publications were in a large number of journals, a high proportion of the publications were in one journal. While the research came from a large number of countries, the preponderance came from the United States.

  14. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as Literature,""A Southern Author's Fight for…

  15. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  16. Anthracycline-Related Cardiotoxicity in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Down Syndrome: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Erik; Blanco, Javier G

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of developing certain cancers. Specifically, patients with DS have a reported 10-20-fold increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Anthracycline-based treatment regimens achieve good results in patients with DS and AML. It has been proposed that DS status constitutes a risk factor for the cardiotoxicity associated with the use of anthracyclines in the pediatric setting. However, published evidence pointing toward an increased risk of cardiotoxicity in patients with DS is relatively scarce and conflictive. This concise review compiles literature relating to the incidence of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity in pediatric patients with DS. In general, reports from trials using anthracyclines at the maximum recommended dose showed increases in the incidence of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity in patients with DS in comparison with trials that used anthracyclines at reduced doses. Evidence from the literature suggests that patients with DS can achieve favorable therapeutic outcomes after receiving treatment with reduced doses of anthracyclines to minimize the potential for cardiotoxicity. Further prospective trials, along with the available evidence, would assist the design of treatment protocols for patients with pediatric leukemias and DS.

  17. ACTN3 Genotype, Athletic Status, and Life Course Physical Capability: Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature and Findings from Nine Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Tamuno; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gunnell, David; Harris, Sarah E; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Moran, Colin N; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Ring, Susan M; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Smith, George Davey; Starr, John M; Kuh, Diana; Day, Ian NM

    2011-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genotype has been associated with athletic status and muscle phenotypes, although not consistently. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published literature on athletic status and investigate its associations with physical capability in several new population-based studies. Relevant data were extracted from studies in the literature, comparing genotype frequencies between controls and sprint/power and endurance athletes. For life course physical capability, data were used from two studies of adolescents and seven studies in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research program, involving individuals aged between 53 and 90+ years. We found evidence from the published literature to support the hypothesis that in Europeans the RR genotype is more common among sprint/power athletes compared with their controls. There is currently no evidence that the X allele is advantageous to endurance athleticism. We found no association between R577X and grip strength (P = 0.09, n = 7,672 in males; P = 0.90, n = 7,839 in females), standing balance, timed get up and go, or chair rises in our studies of physical capability. The ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power athletic status in Europeans, but does not appear to be associated with objective measures of physical capability in the general population. Hum Mutat 32:1–11, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21542061

  18. AIDS-Related EBV-Associated Smooth Muscle Tumors: A Review of 64 Published Cases

    PubMed Central

    Purgina, Bibianna; Rao, Uma N. M.; Miettinen, Markku; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-01-01

    The number of reported cases of smooth muscle tumor (SMT) arising in patients with AIDS has been increasing since the mid-1990s. The aim of this study is to characterize the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathologic features, prognosis and, management of Epstein-Barr virus-related SMT (EBV-SMT) in patients with AIDS. An English language literature search identified 53 articles including 64 reported cases of EBV-SMT. The majority of these reports involved patients who were young, severely immunosuppressed, and had multifocal tumors. The central nervous system was the most common site to be involved. Histologically, tumors had smooth muscle features and were immunoreactive for muscle markers and all but two tumors demonstrated the presence of EBV by either immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and/or PCR. While mitoses and/or necrosis were used to separate leiomyoma from leiomyosarcoma, these features did not correlate with clinical outcome. Treatment included primarily resection, and less often radiotherapy, chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, EBV-SMTs appear to have variable aggressiveness and clinical outcome and may exhibit a more favorable prognosis compared to conventional leiomyosarcoma. Tumor-related death from EBV-SMT occurred in only 4 of 51 patients. PMID:21437186

  19. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  20. The fifth plot of the Carcinogenic Potency Database: results of animal bioassays published in the general literature through 1988 and by the National Toxicology Program through 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Garfinkel, G B; Rohrbach, L; Ames, B N

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the fifth plot of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) that first appeared in this journal in 1984 (1-5). We report here results of carcinogenesis bioassays published in the general literature between January 1987 and December 1988, and in technical reports of the National Toxicology Program between July 1987 and December 1989. This supplement includes results of 412 long-term, chronic experiments of 147 test compounds and reports the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 (carcinogenic potency) and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. We refer the reader to the 1984 publications (1,5,6) for a guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency, and a discussion of the sources of data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. The five plots of the database are to be used together, as results of individual experiments that were published earlier are not repeated. In all, the five plots include results of 4487 experiments on 1136 chemicals. Several analyses based on the CPDB that were published earlier are described briefly, and updated results based on all five plots are given for the following earlier analyses: the most potent TD50 value by species, reproducibility of bioassay results, positivity rates, and prediction between species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8354183

  1. Newly established stem cell transplant program: 100 days follow-up of patients and its comparison with published Indian literature

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Arora, Dinesh; Dara, Ravi C.; Dorwal, Pranav; Sood, Nitin; Misra, Ruchira; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Raina, Vimarsh; Vaid, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplantation (HPSCT) is used as a standard treatment option to improve outcome in hematological and nonhematological disorders. It is important for new HPSCT program to look at its patient outcome data and compare it with the published data to evaluate the efficacy of program. Aims: The aim was to compile and collate the patient outcome data of HPSCT and compare with published reports. Materials and Methods: Patient demographics, indications, stem cell harvest by apheresis, dose collected, infusion, engraftment, and follow-up data were collected from hospital information system from 2010 to 2013 in a tertiary care hospital. HPSCs were mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and harvests were done on the 5th day. Engraftment was decided for neutrophil when counts were 0.5 × 109/L and for platelets when counts were 20 × 109/L on two consecutive days without any transfusion support. Results: There were 133 harvests for 95 patients with various disorders; multiple myeloma was most common in autologous and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in allogeneic group. One hundred harvests were done for autologous and 33 for allogeneic HPSCT. In autologous group, of 66 patients, 60 (90.9%) received stem cell infusion at median dose of 4.63 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. Similarly, in allogeneic group, of 29 patients, 27 (93.10%) received infusion at median dose of 5.8 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. 58 (96.9%) patients and 25 (92.6%) engrafted in autologous and allogeneic group, respectively. The median time for neutrophils engraftment was 11 days in autologous group and 12 days in allogeneic group. The median time for platelet engraftment was 11.5 days in autologous group and 13 days in allogeneic group. The 100-day survival rate was 95% (n = 57) in autologous group and 77.8% (n = 21) in allogeneic group. Conclusion: This data analysis shows reasonably good results of HPSCTs with majority of patients surviving at 100-day follow

  2. Newly established stem cell transplant program: 100 days follow-up of patients and its comparison with published Indian literature

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Arora, Dinesh; Dara, Ravi C.; Dorwal, Pranav; Sood, Nitin; Misra, Ruchira; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Raina, Vimarsh; Vaid, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplantation (HPSCT) is used as a standard treatment option to improve outcome in hematological and nonhematological disorders. It is important for new HPSCT program to look at its patient outcome data and compare it with the published data to evaluate the efficacy of program. Aims: The aim was to compile and collate the patient outcome data of HPSCT and compare with published reports. Materials and Methods: Patient demographics, indications, stem cell harvest by apheresis, dose collected, infusion, engraftment, and follow-up data were collected from hospital information system from 2010 to 2013 in a tertiary care hospital. HPSCs were mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and harvests were done on the 5th day. Engraftment was decided for neutrophil when counts were 0.5 × 109/L and for platelets when counts were 20 × 109/L on two consecutive days without any transfusion support. Results: There were 133 harvests for 95 patients with various disorders; multiple myeloma was most common in autologous and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in allogeneic group. One hundred harvests were done for autologous and 33 for allogeneic HPSCT. In autologous group, of 66 patients, 60 (90.9%) received stem cell infusion at median dose of 4.63 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. Similarly, in allogeneic group, of 29 patients, 27 (93.10%) received infusion at median dose of 5.8 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. 58 (96.9%) patients and 25 (92.6%) engrafted in autologous and allogeneic group, respectively. The median time for neutrophils engraftment was 11 days in autologous group and 12 days in allogeneic group. The median time for platelet engraftment was 11.5 days in autologous group and 13 days in allogeneic group. The 100-day survival rate was 95% (n = 57) in autologous group and 77.8% (n = 21) in allogeneic group. Conclusion: This data analysis shows reasonably good results of HPSCTs with majority of patients surviving at 100-day follow-up.

  3. Powder/processing/structure relationships in WC-Co thermal spray coatings: A review of the published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers Lovelock, H. L.

    1998-09-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings based on tungsten carbide are widely used but not yet fully understood, particularly with regard to the chemical, microstructural, and phase changes that occur during spraying and their influence on properties such as wear resistance. The available literature on thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings is considerable, but it is generally difficult to synthesize all of the findings to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the subject. This is due to the many different starting powders, spray system types, spray parameters, and other variables that influence the coating structures and cause difficulties when comparing results from different workers. The purpose of this review is to identify broad trends in the powder/processing/structure relationships of WC-Co coatings, classified according to powder type and spray method. Detailed comparisons of coating microstructures, powder phase compositions and coating phase compositions as reported by different researchers are given in tabular form and discussed. The emphasis is on the phase changes that occur during spraying. This review concerns only WC-12% Co and WC-17% Co coatings, and contrasts the coatings obtained from the cast and crushed, sintered and crushed, and agglomerated and densified powder types. Properties such as hardness, wear, or corrosion resistance are not reviewed here.

  4. Selection of treatment modalities for Budd-Chiari Syndrome in China: A preliminary survey of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xing-Shun; Ren, Wei-Rong; Fan, Dai-Ming; Han, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the frequency of use of various treatment modalities for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) in China by conducting a preliminary survey of relevant literature. METHODS: All papers regarding the treatment of BCS in Chinese patients were identified by searching PubMed, Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Data regarding the number of BCS patients treated with different treatment modalities over time were collected. The proportions of BCS patients undergoing various treatment modalities were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 300 of 3005 papers initially retrieved were included. These papers included 23352 BCS patients treated with different treatment modalities. The treatment modalities include surgery (n = 8625), interventional treatment (n = 13940), surgery combined with interventional treatment (n = 363), medical therapy (n = 277), other treatments (n = 91), and no treatment (n = 56). After 2005, the number of BCS patients treated with surgery was drastically decreased, but the number of BCS patients who underwent interventional treatment was almost maintained. Shunt surgery was the most common type of surgery (n = 3610). Liver transplantation was rarely employed (n = 2). Balloon angioplasty with or without stenting was the most common type of interventional treatment (n = 13747). Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was rarely employed (n = 81). CONCLUSION: Selection of treatment modalities for BCS might be different between China and Western countries. Further work should be necessary to establish a unanimous therapeutic strategy for BCS in China. PMID:25132785

  5. Historical ambient airborne asbestos concentrations in the United States - an analysis of published and unpublished literature (1960s-2000s).

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Anders; Glynn, Meghan E; Pierce, Jennifer S; Scott, Paul K; Serrano, Samantha; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor concentrations of airborne asbestos have been measured throughout the US over time. However, a thorough review and analysis of these data has not been conducted. The purpose of this study is to characterize asbestos concentrations in ambient air by environment type (urban, rural) and by decade, using measurements collected in the absence of known asbestos emission sources. A total of 17 published and unpublished studies and datasets were identified that reported the results of 2058 samples collected from the 1960s through the 2000s across the US. Most studies did not report asbestos fiber type, and data based on different analytical methods (e.g. Phase Contrast Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, etc.) were combined in the dataset; however, only fibers ≥5 μm in length were considered. For a small subset of the measurements (n = 186, 9.0%), a conversion factor was used to convert mass-based data (e.g. ng/m(3)) to count-based values (i.e. f/cc ≥5 μm). The estimated overall mean and median ambient asbestos concentrations for the 1960s through 2000s were 0.00093 f/cc and 0.00022 f/cc, respectively. Concentrations generally increased from the 1960s through the early 1980s, after which they declined considerably. While asbestos use decreased throughout the 1970s, these results indicate that ambient concentrations peaked during the early 1980s, which suggests the possible contribution of abatement or demolition activities. Lastly, ambient asbestos concentrations were higher in urban than rural settings, which is consistent with the greater use of asbestos-containing materials in more densely populated areas.

  6. Subcutaneous Mycosis Due to Cladosporium cladosporioides and Bipolaris cynodontis from Assam, North-East India and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Nath, Reema; Barua, Shyamanta; Barman, Jahnabi; Swargiary, Pallabi; Borgohain, Mondita; Saikia, Lahari

    2015-12-01

    A large number of phaeoid fungi cause infection in humans and other animals which is characterized by the basic development of sclerotic body, dark-coloured filamentous hyphae as well as yeast-like cells in the invaded tissue. Two cases of subcutaneous mycosis in immunocompetent male patients aged 55 and 58 years attending Dermatology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Assam, north-east India, are reported. The first case was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis which was caused by Cladosporium cladosporioides. The patient clinically presented with a chronic verrucous and nodular growth of 32-year duration on the left foot and leg. Identification of the species was done by sequencing the D1/D2 region of LSU (large subunit 28S rDNA). The patient was treated with surgical resection and oral itraconazole which showed good clinical response and total regression of lesion after 9 months. The second case due to Bipolaris cynodontis presented as verrucous exophytic growth over the dorsum of the right foot of 1-year duration which was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis. The identification of the species was done by sequencing the ITS region. The patient was started with oral itraconazole but was lost to follow-up. Chromoblastomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides is rare. Bipolaris cynodontis is not yet reported as a cause of human infection. The aetiological role of this fungus was confirmed by repeated isolation of the fungus from the lesion and direct microscopy. Molecular identification methods can increase the spectrum of black moulds causing human infection in coming years. We are reporting these two cases with review of the available literature.

  7. Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, S.; Ved, Devendra Kumar; Lalitha, S.; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparṇī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparṇī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? Aim: There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Results and Conclusion: Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes

  8. Sixth plot of the carcinogenic potency database: results of animal bioassays published in the General Literature 1989 to 1990 and by the National Toxicology Program 1990 to 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Garfinkel, G B; Ames, B N; Rohrbach, L; Stern, B R; Chow, K

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents two types of information from the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): (a) the sixth chronological plot of analyses of long-term carcinogenesis bioassays, and (b) an index to chemicals in all six plots, including a summary compendium of positivity and potency for each chemical (Appendix 14). The five earlier plots of the CPDB have appeared in this journal, beginning in 1984 (1-5). Including the plot in this paper, the CPDB reports results of 5002 experiments on 1230 chemicals. This paper includes bioassay results published in the general literature between January 1989 and December 1990, and in Technical Reports of the National Toxicology Program between January 1990 and June 1993. Analyses are included on 17 chemicals tested in nonhuman primates by the Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, National Cancer Institute. This plot presents results of 531 long-term, chronic experiments of 182 test compounds and includes the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 (carcinogenic potency) and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. We refer the reader to the 1984 publications (1,6,7) for a detailed guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency, and a discussion of the sources of data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. The six plots of the CPDB are to be used together since results of individual experiments that were published earlier are not repeated. Appendix 14 is designed to facilitate access to results on all chemicals. References to the published papers that are the source of

  9. Teaching Poetry in Elementary Grades: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Theresa N.

    In order to assess current ideas, reveal their shortcomings, and suggest steps for future investigation, this review of the literature on teaching poetry discusses definitions of poetry, references on teaching poetry, teaching methods, poetic forms, experimental research, and the benefits of poetry. The paper concludes that the lack of empirical…

  10. "Getting the Point" of Literature: Relations between Processing and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Candice; Goldman, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of literary experts and novices indicate that experts engage in interpretive processes to "get the point" during their reading of literary texts but novices do not. In two studies the reading and interpretive processes of literary novices (undergraduates with no formal training in literature study) were elicited through…

  11. Focus-on-Form Instruction: A Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahani, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this literature review I have first provided an introduction in which I've clarified the meaning of focus on form issue and some debates about its advantages and disadvantages and the needed degree of focus on form in teaching structures in classroom. Then I have stated some features of focus on form and the ways that focus on form can…

  12. A Case of Primary Hepatic Lymphoma and Related Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghua; Jiang, Jinhong; Wu, Qinli; Zhang, Qiaolei; Xu, Yehui; Qu, Zhigang; Ma, Guangli; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wang, Xiaoli; Jin, Weimei; Fang, Bingmu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disease. And the clinical manifestations of this disease are nonspecific. The objective of this paper is to improve clinicians' understanding of this disease. Methods. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of a case of primary hepatic lymphoma in association with hepatitis B virus infection and reviewed the literature. Conclusion. The clinical manifestations of primary hepatic lymphoma are nonspecific. And it is easily misdiagnosed. Postoperative radiotherapy of patients with early stage was previously speculated to achieve favorable improvement. The application of targeted therapeutic drugs, chemotherapy, or combined local radiotherapy has become the first-line treatment strategy. PMID:27403354

  13. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  14. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating.

  15. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  16. Publishing Research in LIS Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to the considerable coverage of research methods and report writing, relatively little attention has been given in the professional literature to the steps that should be taken and issues which may be borne in mind by a researcher seeking to have his or her work published. By addressing ten broad questions reflecting common concerns,…

  17. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  18. Review of orthognathic surgery and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Alexander M C; Payne, Karl F B; Tahim, Arpan; Colbert, Serryth; Brennan, Peter A

    2015-04-01

    This review summarises all orthognathic and related papers published between January 2011 and December 2012 in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS). A total of 36 articles were published, a high proportion of which (78%) were full-length papers. The remainder consisted of short communications and technical notes. The topics included operative planning and postoperative outcomes, and there was a strong focus on distraction osteogenesis. There were fewer orthognathic articles published in BJOMS than articles on other subspecialties such as trauma or head and neck oncology. Only 8 (29%) of the full-length articles were prospective studies or randomised trials, which highlights a need for well-designed clinical studies in orthognathic research.

  19. Relation between Time Perspective and Delay Discounting: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Ursina; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relation between delay discounting and future time perspective by reviewing how these concepts have been measured and quantified in order to assess their conceptual similarities. The extent to which the different measures are empirically related is reviewed by describing studies that have assessed both constructs…

  20. A clinician's review of the WHI-related literature.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2004-01-01

    When the monitoring board of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) canceled the estrogen-progestin arm of the study in July 2002, the effect was immediate and dramatic, as several million postmenopausal women with the full agreement of their physicians ceased taking combined hormone therapy. Soon thereafter the manufacturers of conjugated equine estrogens felt compelled to publicize a drastic restriction of the indications for their product. Little notice, except in the medical literature, was given to the continuation of the other treatment arms of the WHI, nor did the rather small (however significant) increases in risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer resulting from combined therapy receive widespread serious analysis. In this article, special attention is given to the population sampling involved in setting up the WHI, arm by arm, with full discussion of how these samplings compare with those in other studies--HERS, ERA, WEST, etc. All studies are scrutinized in terms of treatment regimens, follow-up, confounding factors, particularly statins and aspirin, and high drop-out rates in order to discover possible reasons for the results in the WHI for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the combined-therapy arm and slightly disappointing results for breast cancer. Each of the two main sections of the article, Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer, concludes with a detailed summation of points derived from the often contrasting results of the various studies, which can be used in counseling patients.

  1. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  2. Asbestos-related diseases in Thailand and review literature.

    PubMed

    Subhannachart, Ponglada; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat

    2012-08-01

    Asbestos is a harmful substance that can cause both malignancy and non-malignancy in humans. Although it has been used in Thailand for several years, few cases of asbestos-related diseases were reported. Concerning about high consumption and long exposure of asbestos in the country, the incurable but preventable diseases caused by asbestos will be the health problem in the near future. The authors presented 2 cases with asbestos-related diseases, one diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma and the other as asbestosis.

  3. Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Denton E.; And Others

    This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…

  4. Literature and the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katahira, Jenifer

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Methods Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Results Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. Conclusions While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands

  6. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the

  7. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature.

    PubMed

    Reinking, Mark F

    2007-08-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as "shin splints" has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities - medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology - which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention.

  8. Mind the Gap! A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Variation in Published Cost-Effectiveness Estimates within and between Countries

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christian E. H.; Lord, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Published cost-effectiveness estimates can vary considerably, both within and between countries. Despite extensive discussion, little is known empirically about factors relating to these variations. Objectives. To use multilevel statistical modeling to integrate cost-effectiveness estimates from published economic evaluations to investigate potential causes of variation. Methods. Cost-effectiveness studies of statins for cardiovascular disease prevention were identified by systematic review. Estimates of incremental costs and effects were extracted from reported base case, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses, with estimates grouped in studies and in countries. Three bivariate models were developed: a cross-classified model to accommodate data from multinational studies, a hierarchical model with multinational data allocated to a single category at country level, and a hierarchical model excluding multinational data. Covariates at different levels were drawn from a long list of factors suggested in the literature. Results. We found 67 studies reporting 2094 cost-effectiveness estimates relating to 23 countries (6 studies reporting for more than 1 country). Data and study-level covariates included patient characteristics, intervention and comparator cost, and some study methods (e.g., discount rates and time horizon). After adjusting for these factors, the proportion of variation attributable to countries was negligible in the cross-classified model but moderate in the hierarchical models (14%−19% of total variance). Country-level variables that improved the fit of the hierarchical models included measures of income and health care finance, health care resources, and population risks. Conclusions. Our analysis suggested that variability in published cost-effectiveness estimates is related more to differences in study methods than to differences in national context. Multinational studies were associated with much lower country-level variation than single

  9. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  10. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed.

  11. Interventions to Prevent Child Marriage Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Lee-Rife, Susan; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Child marriage, defined as marriage before the age of 18 years, is a human rights violation that can have lasting adverse educational and economic impacts. The objective of this review was to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decease child marriage in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was used, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Eleven high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Six found positive results in decreasing the proportion married or increasing age at marriage, one had both positive and negative findings, and four had no statistical impact on the proportion married or age at marriage. There is wide range of high-quality, impactful interventions included in this review which can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to eradicate marriage, a current target of the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the cultural factors that promote child marriage, the diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the cultural context of the target population.

  12. Interventions to Prevent Child Marriage Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Lee-Rife, Susan; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Child marriage, defined as marriage before the age of 18 years, is a human rights violation that can have lasting adverse educational and economic impacts. The objective of this review was to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decease child marriage in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was used, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Eleven high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Six found positive results in decreasing the proportion married or increasing age at marriage, one had both positive and negative findings, and four had no statistical impact on the proportion married or age at marriage. There is wide range of high-quality, impactful interventions included in this review which can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to eradicate marriage, a current target of the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the cultural factors that promote child marriage, the diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the cultural context of the target population. PMID:27562449

  13. The Design of a Literature File in Aircraft-Related Environmental Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hody, George L.

    The U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) is often required to make specialized measurements and perform applied research in aircraft-related areas of environmental medicine. Rapid access to the periodical literature is essential for the completion of many of these projects. A growing file of reprints from the periodical literature is…

  14. Maintaining the trust of physicians and the public in the medical literature: report of a task force on scientific publishing of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shane, Elizabeth; Civitelli, Roberto; Delmas, Pierre D; Drezner, Marc; Eisman, John A; Lindsay, Robert; Lorenzo, Joseph; Miller, Paul; Ralston, Stuart; Reid, Ian; Siris, Ethel

    2007-11-01

    In 2006, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research and the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research convened a task force to consider whether and how to change our editorial policies to assure complete and unbiased reporting of clinical trials. We invited editors of journals that publish research on osteoporosis and disorders of bone and mineral metabolism and presidents of related societies to participate. The task force was charged to consider whether journals should (1) adopt the Principles for Protecting Integrity in the Conduct and Reporting of Clinical Trials published in 2006 by the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) and should (2) require authors and sponsors of industry-funded clinical trials to provide a jointly signed letter that states that the authors had full access to all the data and analyses on which the manuscript was based. The AAMC Principles recommend that multicenter trials should designate a Lead Investigator, Steering Committee, and Publication and Analysis (P&A) Committee, which should consist of a majority of academic investigators who are not sponsor employees. The P&A Committee should have the right to access any data generated during a study and to conduct its own statistical analyses. A majority of task force members voted to support the AAMC Principles, to require a letter jointly signed by academic investigators and industry sponsor stating that the authors had access to the data on which the submission was based, and to recommend adoption of these requirements to their respective societies and journals. Broad-based adoption of the AAMC Principles and requirement of a jointly signed attestation of data access by journals that publish clinical trials in diseases of bone and mineral metabolism should improve the position of academic clinical investigators in their interactions with industry and other funding sources.

  15. Identifying Liver Cancer and Its Relations with Diseases, Drugs, and Genes: A Literature-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min

    2016-01-01

    In biomedicine, scientific literature is a valuable source for knowledge discovery. Mining knowledge from textual data has become an ever important task as the volume of scientific literature is growing unprecedentedly. In this paper, we propose a framework for examining a certain disease based on existing information provided by scientific literature. Disease-related entities that include diseases, drugs, and genes are systematically extracted and analyzed using a three-level network-based approach. A paper-entity network and an entity co-occurrence network (macro-level) are explored and used to construct six entity specific networks (meso-level). Important diseases, drugs, and genes as well as salient entity relations (micro-level) are identified from these networks. Results obtained from the literature-based literature mining can serve to assist clinical applications. PMID:27195695

  16. The great East Japan earthquake disaster: a compilation of published literature on health needs and relief activities, march 2011-september 2012.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Murray, Virginia; Hodgson, Susan

    2013-05-13

    Objective To provide an overview of the health needs following the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and the lessons identified. Methods The relevant of peer review and grey literature articles in English and Japanese, and books in Japanese, published from March 2011 to September 2012 were searched. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and HMIC were searched for journal articles in English, CiNii for those in Japanese, and Amazon.co.jp. for books. Descriptions of the health needs at the time of the disaster were identified using search terms and relevant articles were reviewed. Findings 85 English articles, 246 Japanese articles and 13 books were identified, the majority of which were experience/activity reports. Regarding health care needs, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were reported to be the greatest burden from the early stages of the disaster. Loss of medication and medical records appeared to worsen the situation. Many sub-acute symptoms were attributed to the contaminated sludge of the tsunamis and the poor living environment at the evacuation centres. Particularly vulnerable groups were identified as the elderly, those with mental health illnesses and the disabled. Although the response of the rescue activities was prompt, it sometimes failed to meet the on-site needs due to the lack of communication and coordination. Conclusion The lessons identified from this mega-disaster highlighted the specific health needs of the vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly and those with non-communicable diseases. Further research is needed so that the lessons identified can be incorporated into future contingency plans in Japan and elsewhere.

  17. Interventions to Prevent Unintended and Repeat Pregnancy Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J; Kalamar, Amanda M; Thompson, Terri-Ann; Upadhyay, Ushma D

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, particularly unintended pregnancy, can have lasting social, economic, and health outcomes. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease unintended and repeat pregnancy among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched for all languages for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as unpacking systematic reviews. Selected articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Nine reported statistically significant declines in pregnancy rates (five cash transfer programs, one education curriculum, two life-skills curricula, and a provision of contraception intervention), seven reported increases in contraceptive use (three provision of contraception interventions, two life-skills curricula, a peer education program, and a mass media campaign), two reported decreases in sexual activity (a cash transfer program and an education and life-skills curriculum), and two reported an increase in age of sexual debut (both cash transfer programs). The selected high quality, effective interventions included in this review can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease unintended pregnancy during young adulthood. Additionally, this review can assist with avoiding investments in interventions that failed to produce significant impact on the intended outcomes. The diversity of successful high-quality interventions, implemented in a range of venues, with a diversity of young people, suggests that there are multiple strategies that can work to prevent unintended pregnancy. PMID:27562452

  18. Interventions to Prevent Unintended and Repeat Pregnancy Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J; Kalamar, Amanda M; Thompson, Terri-Ann; Upadhyay, Ushma D

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, particularly unintended pregnancy, can have lasting social, economic, and health outcomes. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease unintended and repeat pregnancy among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched for all languages for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as unpacking systematic reviews. Selected articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Nine reported statistically significant declines in pregnancy rates (five cash transfer programs, one education curriculum, two life-skills curricula, and a provision of contraception intervention), seven reported increases in contraceptive use (three provision of contraception interventions, two life-skills curricula, a peer education program, and a mass media campaign), two reported decreases in sexual activity (a cash transfer program and an education and life-skills curriculum), and two reported an increase in age of sexual debut (both cash transfer programs). The selected high quality, effective interventions included in this review can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease unintended pregnancy during young adulthood. Additionally, this review can assist with avoiding investments in interventions that failed to produce significant impact on the intended outcomes. The diversity of successful high-quality interventions, implemented in a range of venues, with a diversity of young people, suggests that there are multiple strategies that can work to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  19. The great East Japan earthquake disaster: a compilation of published literature on health needs and relief activities, march 2011-september 2012.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Murray, Virginia; Hodgson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the health needs following the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and the lessons identified. Methods The relevant of peer review and grey literature articles in English and Japanese, and books in Japanese, published from March 2011 to September 2012 were searched. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and HMIC were searched for journal articles in English, CiNii for those in Japanese, and Amazon.co.jp. for books. Descriptions of the health needs at the time of the disaster were identified using search terms and relevant articles were reviewed. Findings 85 English articles, 246 Japanese articles and 13 books were identified, the majority of which were experience/activity reports. Regarding health care needs, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were reported to be the greatest burden from the early stages of the disaster. Loss of medication and medical records appeared to worsen the situation. Many sub-acute symptoms were attributed to the contaminated sludge of the tsunamis and the poor living environment at the evacuation centres. Particularly vulnerable groups were identified as the elderly, those with mental health illnesses and the disabled. Although the response of the rescue activities was prompt, it sometimes failed to meet the on-site needs due to the lack of communication and coordination. Conclusion The lessons identified from this mega-disaster highlighted the specific health needs of the vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly and those with non-communicable diseases. Further research is needed so that the lessons identified can be incorporated into future contingency plans in Japan and elsewhere. PMID:23787732

  20. Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): Results ofanimal bioassays published in the general literature through 1997 and bythe National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Lois Swirsky; Manley, Neela B.; Slone, Thomas H.; Rohrbach,Lars; Garfinkel, Georganne Backman

    2005-04-08

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a systematic and unifying resource that standardizes the results of chronic, long-term animal cancer tests which have been conducted since the 1950s. The analyses include sufficient information on each experiment to permit research into many areas of carcinogenesis. Both qualitative and quantitative information is reported on positive and negative experiments that meet a set of inclusion criteria. A measure of carcinogenic potency, TD50 (daily dose rate in mg/kg body weight/day to induce tumors in half of test animals that would have remained tumor-free at zero dose), is estimated for each tissue-tumor combination reported. This article is the ninth publication of a chronological plot of the CPDB; it presents results on 560 experiments of 188 chemicals in mice, rats, and hamsters from 185 publications in the general literature updated through 1997, and from 15 Reports of the National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998. The test agents cover a wide variety of uses and chemical classes. The CPDB Web Site(http://potency.berkeley.edu/) presents the combined database of all published plots in a variety of formats as well as summary tables by chemical and by target organ, supplemental materials on dosing and survival, a detailed guide to using the plot formats, and documentation of methods and publications. The overall CPDB, including the results in this article, presents easily accessible results of 6153 experiments on 1485 chemicals from 1426 papers and 429 NCI/NTP (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology program) Technical Reports. A tab-separated format of the full CPDB for reading the data into spreadsheets or database applications is available on the Web Site.

  1. The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: a Compilation of Published Literature on Health Needs and Relief Activities, March 2011-September 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Murray, Virginia; Hodgson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the health needs following the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and the lessons identified. Methods The relevant of peer review and grey literature articles in English and Japanese, and books in Japanese, published from March 2011 to September 2012 were searched. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and HMIC were searched for journal articles in English, CiNii for those in Japanese, and Amazon.co.jp. for books. Descriptions of the health needs at the time of the disaster were identified using search terms and relevant articles were reviewed. Findings 85 English articles, 246 Japanese articles and 13 books were identified, the majority of which were experience/activity reports. Regarding health care needs, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were reported to be the greatest burden from the early stages of the disaster. Loss of medication and medical records appeared to worsen the situation. Many sub-acute symptoms were attributed to the contaminated sludge of the tsunamis and the poor living environment at the evacuation centres. Particularly vulnerable groups were identified as the elderly, those with mental health illnesses and the disabled. Although the response of the rescue activities was prompt, it sometimes failed to meet the on-site needs due to the lack of communication and coordination. Conclusion The lessons identified from this mega-disaster highlighted the specific health needs of the vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly and those with non-communicable diseases. Further research is needed so that the lessons identified can be incorporated into future contingency plans in Japan and elsewhere. PMID:23787732

  2. Genetic Variants in the Folate Pathway and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects: A Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ti; Lou, Jiao; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Jing; Zou, Li; Sun, Yu; Lu, Xuzai; Liu, Li; Miao, Xiaoping; Xiong, Guanglian

    2013-01-01

    Background Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are among the most prevalent and most severe congenital malformations worldwide. Polymorphisms in key genes involving the folate pathway have been reported to be associated with the risk of NTDs. However, the results from these published studies are conflicting. We surveyed the literature (1996–2011) and performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to provide empirical evidence on the association. Methods and Findings We investigated the effects of 5 genetic variants from 47 study populations, for a total of 85 case-control comparisons MTHFR C677T (42 studies; 4374 cases, 7232 controls), MTHFR A1298C (22 studies; 2602 cases, 4070 controls), MTR A2756G (9 studies; 843 cases, 1006 controls), MTRR A66G (8 studies; 703 cases, 1572 controls), and RFC-1 A80G (4 studies; 1107 cases, 1585 controls). We found a convincing evidence of dominant effects of MTHFR C677T (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.07–1.42) and suggestive evidence of RFC-1 A80G (OR 1.55; 95%CI 1.24–1.92). However, we found no significant effects of MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G in risk of NTDs in dominant, recessive or in allelic models. Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly suggested a significant association of the variant MTHFR C677T and a suggestive association of RFC-1 A80G with increased risk of NTDs. However, other variants involved in folate pathway do not demonstrate any evidence for a significant marginal association on susceptibility to NTDs. PMID:23593147

  3. [Identification and origin of Brazilian journals related to public or collective health issues, published from 1998 to 2003].

    PubMed

    Rummler, Guido; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of contents regarding Brazilian scientific journals related to public or collective health reflects peculiar aspects of this field's reach and its interfaces with several other fields. A bibliometric survey was conducted with five databases, including catalogs and sites, aimed at identifying journals related to the public/collective health field and published from 1998 to 2003, while identifying the geographic location of the respective institutions. A total of 118 titles were initially identified, subsequently reduced to 83 journals when indicators of these bases were confronted and matched, 66 of which were published in the last five years. Some 57.6% of the institutions responsible for these journals are located in the Southeast of Brazil; 16.7% in the South; 13.6% in the Central West; 10.6% in the Northeast; and 1.5% in the North. The results are displayed in a summary chart according to journal title, ISSN, name of the institution in charge, and respective regional location. PMID:15300297

  4. Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health - How are Studies being Designed and Reported?: An Update on Current Practice in the Published Literature between 2005 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Deborah; Bridges, John F P; Hauber, Brett; Cameron, Ruthanne; Donnalley, Lauren; Fyie, Ken; Johnson, F Reed

    2010-12-01

    Despite the increased popularity of conjoint analysis in health outcomes research, little is known about what specific methods are being used for the design and reporting of these studies. This variation in method type and reporting quality sometimes makes it difficult to assess substantive findings. This review identifies and describes recent applications of conjoint analysis based on a systematic review of conjoint analysis in the health literature. We focus on significant unanswered questions for which there is neither compelling empirical evidence nor agreement among researchers.We searched multiple electronic databases to identify English-language articles of conjoint analysis applications in human health studies published since 2005 through to July 2008. Two independent reviewers completed the detailed data extraction, including descriptive information, methodological details on survey type, experimental design, survey format, attributes and levels, sample size, number of conjoint scenarios per respondent, and analysis methods. Review articles and methods studies were excluded. The detailed extraction form was piloted to identify key elements to be included in the database using a standardized taxonomy.We identified 79 conjoint analysis articles that met the inclusion criteria. The number of applied studies increased substantially over time in a broad range of clinical applications, cancer being the most frequent. Most used a discrete-choice survey format (71%), with the number of attributes ranging from 3 to 16. Most surveys included 6 attributes, and 73% presented 7-15 scenarios to each respondent. Sample size varied substantially (minimum = 13, maximum = 1258), with most studies (38%) including between 100 and 300 respondents. Cost was included as an attribute to estimate willingness to pay in approximately 40% of the articles across all years.Conjoint analysis in health has expanded to include a broad range of applications and methodological

  5. Women, Anger Expression, Relational and Health Consequences: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Kristin L.

    Women's anger expression style has been the focus of several recent studies and has been demonstrated to have deleterious effects on emotional and physical health. The purpose of this study was to review the empirical literature for women's anger expression style and related health and relational consequences. The study reviewed emotion induction,…

  6. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html.

  7. Using Semantic Association to Extend and Infer Literature-Oriented Relativity Between Terms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Jie; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Yongzhuang; Chu, Yanshuo; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Relative terms often appear together in the literature. Methods have been presented for weighting relativity of pairwise terms by their co-occurring literature and inferring new relationship. Terms in the literature are also in the directed acyclic graph of ontologies, such as Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology. Therefore, semantic association between terms may help for establishing relativities between terms in literature. However, current methods do not use these associations. In this paper, an adjusted R-scaled score (ARSS) based on information content (ARSSIC) method is introduced to infer new relationship between terms. First, set inclusion relationship between terms of ontology was exploited to extend relationships between these terms and literature. Next, the ARSS method was presented to measure relativity between terms across ontologies according to these extensional relationships. Then, the ARSSIC method using ratios of information shared of term's ancestors was designed to infer new relationship between terms across ontologies. The result of the experiment shows that ARSS identified more pairs of statistically significant terms based on corresponding gene sets than other methods. And the high average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.9293) shows that ARSSIC achieved a high true positive rate and a low false positive rate. Data is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/ARSSIC/.

  8. Using Semantic Association to Extend and Infer Literature-Oriented Relativity Between Terms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Jie; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Yongzhuang; Chu, Yanshuo; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Relative terms often appear together in the literature. Methods have been presented for weighting relativity of pairwise terms by their co-occurring literature and inferring new relationship. Terms in the literature are also in the directed acyclic graph of ontologies, such as Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology. Therefore, semantic association between terms may help for establishing relativities between terms in literature. However, current methods do not use these associations. In this paper, an adjusted R-scaled score (ARSS) based on information content (ARSSIC) method is introduced to infer new relationship between terms. First, set inclusion relationship between terms of ontology was exploited to extend relationships between these terms and literature. Next, the ARSS method was presented to measure relativity between terms across ontologies according to these extensional relationships. Then, the ARSSIC method using ratios of information shared of term's ancestors was designed to infer new relationship between terms across ontologies. The result of the experiment shows that ARSS identified more pairs of statistically significant terms based on corresponding gene sets than other methods. And the high average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.9293) shows that ARSSIC achieved a high true positive rate and a low false positive rate. Data is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/ARSSIC/. PMID:26684460

  9. dbPEC: a comprehensive literature-based database for preeclampsia related genes and phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Alper; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Schuster, Jessica; Dewan, Andrew T.; Padbury, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common causes of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the world. We built a Database for Preeclampsia (dbPEC) consisting of the clinical features, concurrent conditions, published literature and genes associated with Preeclampsia. We included gene sets associated with severity, concurrent conditions, tissue sources and networks. The published scientific literature is the primary repository for all information documenting human disease. We used semantic data mining to retrieve and extract the articles pertaining to preeclampsia-associated genes and performed manual curation. We deposited the articles, genes, preeclampsia phenotypes and other supporting information into the dbPEC. It is publicly available and freely accessible. Previously, we developed a database for preterm birth (dbPTB) using a similar approach. Using the gene sets in dbPTB, we were able to successfully analyze a genome-wide study of preterm birth including 4000 women and children. We identified important genes and pathways associated with preterm birth that were not otherwise demonstrable using genome-wide approaches. dbPEC serves not only as a resources for genes and articles associated with preeclampsia, it is a robust source of gene sets to analyze a wide range of high-throughput data for gene set enrichment analysis. Database URL: http://ptbdb.cs.brown.edu/dbpec/ PMID:26946289

  10. dbPEC: a comprehensive literature-based database for preeclampsia related genes and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Alper; Triche, Elizabeth W; Schuster, Jessica; Dewan, Andrew T; Padbury, James F

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common causes of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the world. We built a Database for Preeclampsia (dbPEC) consisting of the clinical features, concurrent conditions, published literature and genes associated with Preeclampsia. We included gene sets associated with severity, concurrent conditions, tissue sources and networks. The published scientific literature is the primary repository for all information documenting human disease. We used semantic data mining to retrieve and extract the articles pertaining to preeclampsia-associated genes and performed manual curation. We deposited the articles, genes, preeclampsia phenotypes and other supporting information into the dbPEC. It is publicly available and freely accessible. Previously, we developed a database for preterm birth (dbPTB) using a similar approach. Using the gene sets in dbPTB, we were able to successfully analyze a genome-wide study of preterm birth including 4000 women and children. We identified important genes and pathways associated with preterm birth that were not otherwise demonstrable using genome-wide approaches. dbPEC serves not only as a resources for genes and articles associated with preeclampsia, it is a robust source of gene sets to analyze a wide range of high-throughput data for gene set enrichment analysis. Database URL: http://ptbdb.cs.brown.edu/dbpec/. PMID:26946289

  11. Publishers' Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EPL Management Team

    2008-12-01

    We would like to thank all our contributors, subscribers, reviewers, and readers for their interest in EPL during 2008. You each play an invaluable role in the promotion, prestige, development and success of the journal and therefore your continued support is greatly appreciated. The Directors' vision for EPL to become a leading home for global physics letters, to offer rapid publication of ground-breaking physics results from the international community, and to provide the broadest coverage of physics research, is beginning to take shape as increased submissions, reduced acceptance rates, raised scientific quality, rapid publication, and greater visibility amongst the community are achieved. The latest published articles will continue to be freely available for 30 days from their on-line publication. Those articles highlighted by the Co-Editors in 2008 will remain free-to-all for the entire of 2009. We invite you to visit the website regularly (http://www.epljournal.org) to stay up-to-date with the journal's latest developments and to read the most recent articles. Our most recent opportunity publicized on the EPL website and in the CERN SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) messages is below: Open Access Opportunity for Authors of Experimental and Theoretical HEP Articles EPL is delighted to offer open access free of charge to all authors submitting experimental and theoretical letters in PACS codes 10 and 20. This offer will remain open until the SCOAP3 agreement at CERN takes effect. Authors submitting any article to EPL will continue to be offered the opportunity to make their published letter open access for a one-off payment. However, with effect from 1 November 2008, any author who submits work related to subject areas within PACS 10 and 20 will benefit from open access at no charge, meaning their published article will be available free to all readers, forever. ``Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields'' and

  12. Vitamin D supplementation and health-related quality of life: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michelle R; Senior, Peter A; Mager, Diana R

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are highly prevalent worldwide and thought to potentiate a variety of chronic disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and depression. Routine vitamin D supplementation is often needed to meet vitamin D requirements. Little is known regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on quality of life. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature regarding quality-of-life outcomes from vitamin D supplementation in healthy and clinical populations. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, where quality-of-life outcomes were reported, were selected from Medline and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria were English language articles available online (published between 1950 and May 2014), primary research articles, studies conducted on human beings, and treatment/supplementation with vitamin D. Articles were excluded if they involved topical vitamin D application or implicit cotreatment with other vitamins (eg, multivitamins). Articles selected for review were examined for process and methodologic quality using validated methodologies. A total of 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for review. Interventions were highly variable in terms of study population (eg, healthy/diseased, children/elderly, and baseline vitamin D status) vitamin D dose, and duration of follow-up. Vitamin D supplementation ranged from 400 IU/day for an average of 7.1 years, to a single 300, 000 IU dose. The main tools used to capture quality of life were adaptations of validated, questionnaires (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item questionnaire and EuroQOL five dimension questionnaire). Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with significant changes in quality of life. Studies that reported changes in quality of life as a result of vitamin D supplementation were in clinical populations on short-term vitamin D. Most articles reviewed displayed poor methodologic quality (eg, no randomization

  13. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  14. Relational Reasoning and Its Manifestations in the Educational Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within otherwise unconnected information, is regarded as central to human learning and cognition and as particularly critical for those functioning in today's information age. However, the literature on this foundational ability is currently housed within a range of domains of…

  15. Decreasing suprapubic tube-related injuries: results of case series and comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Andrew J; Travis, Michelle; Watne, Reed E; Lasser, Michael; Ellsworth, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Bowel-related injuries are known complications of suprapubic tube (SPT) catheterization placement. A literature review was conducted to determine identifiable risk factors for bowel injury. Results on the analysis of 25 cases are presented along with a proposed algorithm to aid in choosing between open, percutaneous, and image-guided methods of placement. PMID:24716375

  16. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  17. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

  18. [Perforation of the small intestine caused by metastasis from primary lung cancer: report of two cases and the discussion of 48 cases published in the Japanese literature].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Narita, Yusuke; Hida, Naoya; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Kunikane, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koshiro

    2007-05-01

    Case 1 was a 62-year-old man who had performance status (PS) of 1 and stage IIIB adenocarcinoma of the lung. Because he showed progressive disease after induction chemoradiotherapy, he started to receive best supportive care alone. Three months after initial diagnosis, he complained of abdominal pain. As a result of computed tomography of the abdomen. He was diagnosed with abdominal pain probably caused by ileal perforation. An operation was undertaken and the surgical findings showed perforation by small intestine metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. After the operation, he survived more than ten months. Case 2 was a 54-year-old man who had a PS of 3 and stage IV large cell carcinoma. After chemotherapy and sequential cranial radiotherapy, he developed anemia of unknown cause. He also complained of an abdominal pain during hospitalization and digestive tract perforation was diagnosed by a CT scan of the abdomen. He underwent surgery and the surgical findings showed a metastasis of large cell carcinoma in the small intestine. He died in a hospice two months after the operation. In the Japanese literature from 1983 to 2006. 48 operated cases with perforation caused by small intestine metastasis of lung cancer have been reported in full-length papers. Although the postoperative median survival time was 48 days, only one surgery-related death occurred. Patients who had a history of prior cancer treatment before surgery tended to achieve more prolonged survival compared to those who had not cancer treatment, probably due to poor PS. The preoperative PS may be one important prognostic factor in these patients.

  19. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Bayer, Angela M; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, are prevalent among adolescents and can have lasting adverse health consequences. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease STI transmission and related risky behaviors among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Three reported declines in STI diagnoses, three reported declines in STI symptoms, six showed declines in risky sexual behavior, seven reported increases in abstinence, 11 found increases in condom use, and five reported increases in health care utilization. There is a wide range of rigorously evaluated high-quality interventions included in this review that can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease the spread of STIs, including HIV. With the recent advent of biomarkers, researchers can use a gold standard measure to assess intervention impact. The diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the context, age range, and gender of the target population. PMID:27562450

  20. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Bayer, Angela M; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, are prevalent among adolescents and can have lasting adverse health consequences. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease STI transmission and related risky behaviors among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Three reported declines in STI diagnoses, three reported declines in STI symptoms, six showed declines in risky sexual behavior, seven reported increases in abstinence, 11 found increases in condom use, and five reported increases in health care utilization. There is a wide range of rigorously evaluated high-quality interventions included in this review that can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease the spread of STIs, including HIV. With the recent advent of biomarkers, researchers can use a gold standard measure to assess intervention impact. The diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the context, age range, and gender of the target population.

  1. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  2. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug–disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed from http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr. The online CD-REST demonstration system is available at http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL: http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr; http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html PMID:27016700

  3. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Marjorie L.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Moore, Dirk F.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In response to a recent ecologic study of UV exposure and endometrial cancer incidence, we present the epidemiologic evidence on the relation between intake of vitamin D and its metabolically related nutrient, calcium, and the occurrence of endometrial cancer. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of vitamin D and calcium in relation to endometrial cancer, including peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to May 2007. Random and fixed effects summary estimates were computed. Results Pooled analyses of the three case-control studies of dietary vitamin D and endometrial cancer uncovered heterogeneous results that were not significant in random or fixed effects analyses. Cut-points for the highest vitamin D intakes ranged from >244 to >476 IU/day. Qualitatively similar findings were observed for dietary calcium. Only two studies provided estimates for calcium supplements (random effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39–0.99; fixed effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, for top vs bottom category, p for heterogeneity=0.25). Conclusions The limited epidemiological evidence suggests no relation between endometrial cancer in the ranges of dietary vitamin D examined, and suggests a possible inverse association for calcium from supplements. Prospective studies, ideally including plasma 25(OH) D to estimate vitamin D input from diet and sun exposure, are needed to further explore these hypotheses. PMID:18155758

  4. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes

  5. Why Aren't E-Books Gaining More Ground in Academic Libraries? E-Book Use and Perceptions: A Review of Published Literature and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Robert

    2010-01-01

    E-books have yet to assume a significant place in academic library collections. This article focuses on extracting common themes from the literature that might help the reader better understand why e-books have not yet become the cornerstone of the academic library. Patrons do not use e-books because they find the experience of using e-books…

  6. Religiosity/spirituality and substance use in adolescence as related to positive development: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kub, Joan; Solari-Twadell, P Ann

    2013-01-01

    Positive youth development interventions are strategies to address adolescent health risk behaviors and are recommended in Healthy People 2020. Although the incorporation of spirituality into these programs has been recommended, much of the empirical literature actually addresses religiosity rather than spirituality. The purpose of our review of 36 studies published between 2007 and 2013 was to (1) examine the relationship of religiosity and/or spirituality to substance use and abuse in adolescence, (2) discuss the measurement and meaning of the concept of spirituality in contrast to religiosity in adolescence, and (3) discuss the implications of these empirical studies for the concept of positive youth development. Findings from this literature review supported earlier findings of an inverse relationship between religiosity and substance use, a lack of or inconsistent definition of spirituality and religiosity as well as limited measures to address these constructs. Recommendations from this review include dedicated work by interdisciplinary teams to address consistency in definitions and creation of consistent tools that include consideration of the stages of development included in the adolescent years. From a research and clinical perspective, an interprofessional approach to clarify the concepts of spirituality and spiritual development would not only benefit research but could inform the substance abuse prevention field. This work is essential to insure that evidence-based strategies, which include religiosity and spirituality, are developed with the goal of protecting youth and supporting positive development of adolescents. PMID:24335772

  7. Sickle Cell Trait-Related Exertional Deaths: Observations at Autopsy and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rhome L; Feig, James

    2015-08-01

    Sickle cell trait-related exertional deaths, although rare, are well-accepted in the field of forensic pathology; however, the increased risk of sudden unexpected deaths in persons with sickle cell trait undergoing strenuous physical activity may be an underappreciated acute phenomenon in the clinical realm. Herein, we report two cases of sickle cell trait-related exertional deaths of active duty military members, with a review of the literature including the pathophysiology of sickle cell trait-related deaths and current military screening guidelines.

  8. Drug-related death following release from prison: a brief review of the literature with recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Leach, D; Oliver, P

    2011-12-01

    Mortality from drug-related death is a significant contributor to the loss of life of young people in the UK. Despite attention, the high death rate from this cause continues to persist. One of the most frequently cited factors involved in drug-related death (DRD) is release from prison. This review aims to examine the published literature with a view to quantifying the risk associated with recent prison release and identifying risk factors and prevention strategies. Most deaths following release from prison are caused by overdose, usually from opioid use. The risk of death is greatest within the first week of release but, when compared with the general population, continues to be elevated for several weeks. Relative risk estimates suggest that those released from prison are up to 40 times more likely to die than similar individuals from the general population. Other than gender and an association with poor mental health, there is little in the way of robust risk factors for post-release death that could be identified from the literature. In-prison pharmacological maintenance treatment with methadone and buprenorphine has been shown to reduce the rate of heroin use, in the period immediately following release, in a small number of randomised controlled trials. It is widely recognised that continuity of care, of any form, is critical in avoiding DRDs. For problem drug users, packages of education, including information on the associated risks, treatments, and recognition of DRD after release from prison, are seen as a basic minimum requirement of the prison services. However, special protocols may be required for those drug-using prisoners who have a possibility of being released at short notice.

  9. A review of oral surgery-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Tahim, A S; Goodson, A M C; Payne, K F B; Brennan, P A

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a synopsis of all articles relating to oral surgery that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) between January 2011 and December 2012. Of the 57 published, 40 (70%) were full-length articles that predominantly focused on implantology, dentoalveolar surgery, and bisphosphonate osteonecrosis of the jaws (BONJs). In addition, a number of short communications, technical notes, and letters to the editor described rare cases, unusual complications, and novel surgical techniques.

  10. Love's Labour's Lost: Latino Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of publishing of Latino literature and journals in the U.S. Nineteenth-century Latino publishing in different geographical regions is examined and the impact of social changes on 20th-century writing is discussed. Bilingual publishing and the role of academic presses are highlighted. (MMU)

  11. Significant weight loss following clozapine use, how is it possible? A case report and review of published cases and literature relevant to the subject

    PubMed Central

    Tungaraza, Tongeji E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that clozapine is more efficacious than other antipsychotics in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a number of side effects including weight gain. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain has been linked with a number of untoward events including psychological factors such as stigma and low self-esteem, and physical factors such as metabolic syndromes and untimely death. The mechanism underlying antipsychotic (including clozapine)-induced weight gain is not clearly understood, although it is said to involve several brain areas, several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and genetic factors. To some individuals however, clozapine use is associated with significant weight loss (13.5–50% of body weight). The observed weight loss in these groups of patients has not been attributed to any underlying diagnosable physical disorders. There have been a handful cases published with this phenomenon, which seems to be contrary to what is expected when clozapine is prescribed. From the currently published cases three groups emerge – those who lost weight simply by taking clozapine, those who lost weight due to improved mental state, engaging in diet and increased exercise, and those for whom weight loss was a sign of a poor response to clozapine. A case of JX who has a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is presented. JX lost over 26% of her body weight when she was prescribed clozapine. A detailed review of other published cases is undertaken. The underlying mechanisms involving weight loss are discussed and the implications to clinicians are highlighted. Coordinated studies to examine these groups of patients may provide some insight, not only in the mechanism of clozapine-induced weight loss, but also in the better management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia involving clozapine use. PMID:27721972

  12. A Critical Review of the Empirical Literature on the Relation between Anxiety and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Laura E.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Hayward, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The current paper critically reviews the empirical literature focused on the association between puberty and anxiety. A detailed review of more than 45 empirical articles is provided. There is some evidence that among girls, but not boys, a more advanced pubertal status (controlling for age) is associated with higher reported anxiety symptoms. Also among girls, earlier pubertal timing is linked to higher anxiety scores. It is unclear whether early puberty may lead to increased anxiety or if high anxiety influences pubertal timing. With respect to hormones, there were relatively few significant associations for girls, although this literature is very small. Among boys, several studies reported positive associations between both gonadal and adrenal hormones and anxiety. The direction of effect for these finding is also unstudied. The primary limitation of the hormone-anxiety literature pertains to the absence of pubertal measures in samples of youth in which hormones are measured. The paper concludes with a comprehensive examination of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the literature and recommendations for future work. PMID:19019513

  13. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  14. Golf-related stress fractures: a structured review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Stress fractures are troublesome injuries. Sites of occurrence are activity-related and specific anatomical sites are endemic to certain sports. Little is known about stress fracture patterns in golf. Objective: A structured review of the literature was conducted to identify the occurrence and injury sites of golf-related stress fractures. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus was conducted using a combination of controlled vocabulary and truncated text words to capture all articles relevant to golf-related stress fractures. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were descriptively analyzed. Results: The search resulted in 164 articles, of which 13 met the inclusion, and reported 44 cases of golf-related stress fractures. Seven anatomical injury sites were identified with rib stress fracture being the most commonly reported. Stress fractures occurred on the golfer’s lead-side in 80% of cases. Conclusion: Golf-related stress fractures are infrequent injuries. The ribs were the most common stress fracture site, and a predilection for lead-side involvement was reported. PMID:20037694

  15. Electronic Scholarly Journal Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Robin P.; Pomerantz, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature that has led to the possible transformation of scholarly publishing through electronic distribution of journals. Discusses the concepts of scholarly communication and computer mediated communication; network delivery experiments; CD-ROM delivery projects; acceptance by the scholarly community; and research and development.…

  16. Exercise related transient abdominal pain: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) is more commonly known to athletes as a runner’s stitch. Many athletes also report shoulder tip pain (STP) associated with the ETAP. Although widely known, ETAP remains under analyzed and under reported in the medical literature. Often thought of as benign and self-limiting, ETAP has been shown to be very detrimental to the performance of many athletes from novice to elite. This case report of an elite triathlete with ETAP and subsequent review of literature, outlines the various theories about the etiology of ETAP, the epidemiology associated with it, some differentials to consider, and how chiropractic care may benefit those suffering from ETAP. PMID:20037690

  17. Preventing congenital neonatal heart block in offspring of mothers with anti-SSA/Ro and SSB/La antibodies: a review of published literature and registered clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Elkayam, Uri

    2013-09-01

    Offspring of women with anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La antibodies are believed to be at risk for congenital heart block (CHB). Whether this risk can be reduced, and what constitutes standard of care treatment is, however, unclear. The objective of this review therefore was to determine whether currently proposed standard of care treatments to avoid CHB in offspring of mothers at risk are evidence-based. To do so, we conducted a review of the literature under appropriate keywords and phrases in Medline/PubMed and Google Scholar for the years 2000-2013. Reference lists were further reviewed, and relevant manuscripts were pulled. We also reviewed www.clinicaltrials.gov for registered studies. In the absence of randomized prospective clinical trials, a meta-analysis was not feasible. We, therefore, reviewed lower evidence level studies individually. Risk of CHB actually appears more closely associated with general autoimmunity than, specifically, with SSA/Ro-SSB/La antibodies. This and other observations raise questions whether CHB is caused by passively transferred maternal autoimmunity, as is currently widely believed. Observational studies suggest the possible effectiveness of intravenous gamma globulin (IV-Ig) and hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) in reducing CHB-risk. Evidence for both is, however, inconclusive, and studies are biased in favor of hydroxychloroquine and against IV-Ig. Based on the review of the literature, current evidence of effectiveness for any treatment has to be judged as insufficient. Among the available treatment options, some considerations favor IV-Ig over hydroxychloroquine or, alternatively, suggest treatment with IV-Ig periconceptionally and into early gestation, with hydroxychloroquine added or replacing IV-Ig at approximately 10weeks gestational age. Benefits for the utilization of steroid drugs are unclear. Since no treatment can be considered as established, prevention of CHB in offspring should be considered experimental, and performed under

  18. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools. The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. Methods General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. Results We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. Conclusion The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality

  19. Publication Bias in Antipsychotic Trials: An Analysis of Efficacy Comparing the Published Literature to the US Food and Drug Administration Database

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Erick H.; Knoepflmacher, Daniel; Shapley, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background Publication bias compromises the validity of evidence-based medicine, yet a growing body of research shows that this problem is widespread. Efficacy data from drug regulatory agencies, e.g., the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), can serve as a benchmark or control against which data in journal articles can be checked. Thus one may determine whether publication bias is present and quantify the extent to which it inflates apparent drug efficacy. Methods and Findings FDA Drug Approval Packages for eight second-generation antipsychotics—aripiprazole, iloperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, risperidone long-acting injection (risperidone LAI), and ziprasidone—were used to identify a cohort of 24 FDA-registered premarketing trials. The results of these trials according to the FDA were compared with the results conveyed in corresponding journal articles. The relationship between study outcome and publication status was examined, and effect sizes derived from the two data sources were compared. Among the 24 FDA-registered trials, four (17%) were unpublished. Of these, three failed to show that the study drug had a statistical advantage over placebo, and one showed the study drug was statistically inferior to the active comparator. Among the 20 published trials, the five that were not positive, according to the FDA, showed some evidence of outcome reporting bias. However, the association between trial outcome and publication status did not reach statistical significance. Further, the apparent increase in the effect size point estimate due to publication bias was modest (8%) and not statistically significant. On the other hand, the effect size for unpublished trials (0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.39) was less than half that for the published trials (0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.54), a difference that was significant. Conclusions The magnitude of publication bias found for antipsychotics was less than that found

  20. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1) convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2) detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3) refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4) annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch. PMID:20682041

  1. Performance monitoring in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic literature review of event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Hüpen, Philippa; Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by impairments in social-emotional situations, executive functioning, and behavioral regulation. These symptoms may be related to deficits in performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to observe and evaluate one's own behavior and performance which is necessary for the regulation of future behavior. The present literature review investigated electroencephalic correlates of performance monitoring in ASD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) considered in this review included internal performance monitoring components (error-related negativity, error positivity), external performance monitoring components (feedback-related negativity, feedback-P3), and observational performance monitoring components (observer error-related negativity, observer feedback-related negativity). The majority of studies point to reduced internal performance monitoring in ASD. External performance monitoring in reward-processing paradigms, where rewards are independent of performance, seems to be intact in ASD. So far, no studies have investigated the observer error-related negativity in ASD. Available data on the observer feedback-related negativity are inconclusive, since only two studies with differential study results investigated this construct in ASD. In general, results suggest that individuals with ASD have problems with internal performance monitoring and with learning from external, abstract feedback. In contrast, the processing of external, concrete feedback seems to be largely intact in ASD.

  2. Integrative literature review: a review of literature related to geographical information systems, healthcare access, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Ann

    2008-07-29

    Differences in access to healthcare services and the resulting adverse health outcomes are major public health priorities. The Institute of Medicine and the Department of Health and Human Services have identified the need for strategies to improve access to healthcare services and to support the improvement of health outcomes. The literature documents health disparities associated with healthcare access and health outcomes from a geographic perspective. Place of residence, location of healthcare services, and geography in general are important factors in the analysis of health. Geographical information systems (GISs) are an emerging technology in the analysis of health from a geographical or location context. As a type of information technology, GISs are potentially powerful assessment tools for the investigation of healthcare access, health outcomes, and the possible resulting health disparities. Their ability to integrate health data with mapping functions allows for visualization, exploration, and modeling of health patterns. Application of GIS technology using health data can help in describing and explaining disparities in healthcare access and health outcomes. The studies reviewed demonstrated the use of GISs to investigate various aspects of healthcare access and health outcomes, including environmental variables of Lyme disease, sociodemographic variables and teen pregnancy, geographical disparities in breast cancer mortality by racial groups, PCP and AIDS prevalence, and factors of a leptospirosis disease outbreak. The literature reviewed shows effective integration and analysis of health data using GIS technology.

  3. Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain

  4. Breast-related CSF shunt complications: literature review with illustrative case.

    PubMed

    Schrot, Rudolph J; Ramos-Boudreau, Christine; Boggan, James E

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we discuss and classify breast-related ventriculoperitoneal (VP) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt complications, and provide a literature review. Shunt complications related to pre-existing breast implants comprise nearly half of the breast-related shunt complications reported thus far. We present a complication of shunt failure in a 61-year-old woman who had previously undergone mastectomies for breast cancer with implant reconstruction. Following shunting, she developed headaches, fever, and right-sided breast swelling and erythma consequent to breast implant rupture, distal shunt migration, and CSF pseudocyst. This case is unique in that it involved rupture of a breast implant from VP shunt insertion. For complication avoidance, neurosurgeons should be aware of the potential pitfalls in shunting patients with breast implants.

  5. LGscore: A method to identify disease-related genes using biological literature and Google data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    Since the genome project in 1990s, a number of studies associated with genes have been conducted and researchers have confirmed that genes are involved in disease. For this reason, the identification of the relationships between diseases and genes is important in biology. We propose a method called LGscore, which identifies disease-related genes using Google data and literature data. To implement this method, first, we construct a disease-related gene network using text-mining results. We then extract gene-gene interactions based on co-occurrences in abstract data obtained from PubMed, and calculate the weights of edges in the gene network by means of Z-scoring. The weights contain two values: the frequency and the Google search results. The frequency value is extracted from literature data, and the Google search result is obtained using Google. We assign a score to each gene through a network analysis. We assume that genes with a large number of links and numerous Google search results and frequency values are more likely to be involved in disease. For validation, we investigated the top 20 inferred genes for five different diseases using answer sets. The answer sets comprised six databases that contain information on disease-gene relationships. We identified a significant number of disease-related genes as well as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Our method was up to 40% more accurate than existing methods.

  6. Humanistic principles in relation to psychiatric nurse education: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper addresses the topic of humanistic educative principles and examines it in the context of Irish psychiatric nurse education. Humanistic or existential philosophy influences the nursing curriculum profoundly, and yet a dichotomy continues to exist in relation to the epistemological basis informing nurse education. The dichotomy is manifested broadly in relation to the notion of individual choice and statutory responsibility as regulated professional governing bodies. Humanism is based on the notion that people are born 'blank slates' only to become who they are later. McKenna would describe the humanistic theory of learning as emphasizing feelings and experiences, leading to self-awareness, personal growth and individual optimization. A review of the literature indicates there are very few empirical studies relating to the area of the humanistic principles as applied to psychiatric nurse education. Most of the literature that was initially located referred to humanistic existentialism in the field of psychology, which although provided interesting reading and relevant, to a point, did not apply specifically to psychiatric nursing education. The emphasis of this paper is psychiatric nursing education and these studies do not apply to the area under investigation.

  7. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. Results We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice

  8. Use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictors for dentistry in patients with cardiopathies. Review of the literature published in the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Serrera Figallo, María A.; Velázquez Cayón, Rocío T.; Corcuera Flores, Jose R.; Machuca Portillo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of local anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents in dentistry is thoroughly justified and is widely extended, but we cannot ignore the fact that anesthetic infiltration poses risk of complications throughout the dental treatment period. The objective of the present review is to document the reported effects the use of the local anesthetics most widely employed in dentistry, with or without association to vasoconstrictor agents may have in patients with any sort of cardiopathy. Study Design: We have searched for randomized clinical trials on the assessment of the cardiovascular effects of local anesthetics used in dentistry, without limits as regards age or sex, conducted in patients with any type of cardiopathy which were published during the last decade and were index-linked in Cochrane, Embase and Medline. Results: We have found six randomized clinical trials index-linked in Medline and Cochrane in the past ten years. These trials compare different types of anesthetics: lidocaine 2%, mepivacaine 2%, prilocaine 2% , associated or not to different vasoconstrictor concentrations such as adrenaline or felypressin. The cardiopathies affecting the patients included in the different trials range from hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrythmias, chronic coronary disease to heart transplantation. Conclusions: The use of anesthetics associated to vasoconstrictor agents is justified in the case of patients with cardiopathies (once we get over the period in which any type of dental manipulation is contraindicated) and in controlled hypertensive patients. In any case, we must be very careful with the choice and execution of the anesthetic technique, being it possible to use a dose between 1.8 and 3.6 ml, on a general basis. Further studies are necessary to establish the effects of these drugs on severe hypertensive patients or in patients with other more advanced cardiopathies. Key words:Vasoconstrictor agents, epinephrine/adverse effects

  9. Impact of Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients and caregivers: literature review.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Katy; Wild, Diane; Nixon, Annabel; Verdian, Lara; Cramer, Joyce A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to evaluate the impact of LGS on the HRQL of children with LGS and their caregivers. The literature search revealed that there is limited published research on the impact of LGS on the HRQL of the child or caregiver. LGS has a major physical impact on a child, with a high frequency of seizures, and a high rate of seizure-related injuries. It interferes with all aspects of the child's intellectual and social development. The patient, and also his/her entire family are affected. Caring for a child with LGS is described as a 'burden', with increased anxiety about injury from seizures as well as the strain associated with providing continuous care. Overall, there is a lack of research on LGS, specifically the extent of the impact of LGS on the HRQL of the child and caregiver is under-explored.

  10. Toward a Technology of Derived Stimulus Relations: An Analysis of Articles Published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," 1992-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Every article on stimulus equivalence or derived stimulus relations published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" was evaluated in terms of characteristics that are relevant to the development of applied technologies: the type of participants, settings, procedure automated vs. tabletop), stimuli, and stimulus sensory modality; types of…

  11. Why publish?

    PubMed

    Waugaman, W R

    1991-10-01

    The following article encourages student nurse anesthetists to publish knowledge learned from clinical and educational experiences; however, the same philosophy and advice applies to all nurse anesthetists. Dr. Waugaman presented the information in this article to more than 700 students who attended a Student Luncheon on August 6. The luncheon was among many special activities held for students during the 58th AANA Annual Meeting in Nashville, August 3-8, 1991. For more information on submitting manuscripts to the AANA Journal, please refer to "Information for Authors," published in each issue of the AANA Journal, and the February 1991 article titled "A style change for the AANA Journal," authored by Michael A. Fiedler, CRNA, MS, and E. Jane McCarthy, CRNA, PhD.

  12. A review of TMJ-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Tahim, A S; Goodson, A M C; Payne, K F B; Brennan, P A

    2015-03-01

    This review summarises the articles relating to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) between January 2011 and December 2012. In total 24 papers were published. Of these, 16 (67%) were full-length articles, which included prospective, retrospective, and laboratory-based studies as well as reviews. The remaining 8 papers were short communications, technical notes, and letters to the editor, which report on, amongst other things, unusual cases, rare complications, and novel surgical techniques.

  13. Social support and HIV-related risk behaviors: a systematic review of the global literature.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-02-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  14. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/ PMID:23325628

  15. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/

  16. Issues in Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues related to electronic publishing. Topics include writing; reading; production, distribution, and commerce; copyright and ownership of intellectual property; archival storage; technical obsolescence; control of content; equality of access; and cultural changes. (Author/LRW)

  17. Publisher's Announcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scriven, Neil

    2003-12-01

    We are delighted to announce that the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General for 2004 will be Professor Carl M Bender of Washington University, St. Louis. Carl will, with the help of his world class editorial board, maintain standards of scientific rigour whilst ensuring that research published is of the highest importance. Carl attained his first degree in physics at Cornell University before studying for his PhD at Harvard. He later worked at The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and at MIT before assuming his current position at Washington University, St Louis. He has been a visiting professor at Technion, Haifa, and Imperial College, London and a scientific consultant for Los Alamos National Laboratory. His main expertise is in using classical applied mathematics to solve a broad range of problems in high-energy theoretical physics and mathematical physics. Since the publication of his book Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, written with Steven Orszag, he has been regarded as an expert on the subject of asymptotic analysis and perturbative methods. `Carl publishes his own internationally-important research in the journal and has been an invaluable, energetic member of the Editorial Board for some time' said Professor Ed Corrigan, Carl's predecessor as Editor, `he will be an excellent Editor-in-Chief'. Our grateful thanks and best wishes go to Professor Corrigan who has done a magnificent job for the journal during his five-year tenure.

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature. [Once-through Cycle and Plutonium Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included.

  19. [Work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Mikołajewska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Studies of some chronic conditions and some health risk factors in physiotherapists suggest that work-related stress and burn- out may have a significant but underestimated impact on their health status and productivity. This paper presents the author's attempt to review current knowledge of work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists. This review was aimed at explor- ing the relationship between causes, consequences and ways of prevention of work-related stress and burnout in this occupa- tional group. Searching PubMed, PEDro and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition was conducted in July 2014, with no starting date limitation and with specified keywords. The literature on work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists has investigated their relationship with a large number of causes, consequences, and ways of prevention. Based on the research re- viewed, the conclusion can be drawn that further strategies to increase awareness among the management staff and health profes- sionals about the importance of prevention and stress management are required to decrease the prevalence of aforementioned pathologies. It was stressed that the majority of components of these strategies still require to be confirmed by future studies.

  20. What is known on angiogenesis-related rare diseases? A systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Caso, Luis; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from pre-existing ones, is essential during ontogenetic development and is related to many important physio-pathological processes in the adult. In fact, a persistent and deregulated angiogenesis is a required event for many diseases and pathological situations, including cancer progression and metastasis. Some rare diseases are also angiogenesis-related pathologies. However, there is a lack of an exhaustive review on the topic. The main purpose of this work is to carry out a systematic review of literature to determine what (and how much) scientific information concerning angiogenesis-related rare diseases can be extracted from available sources. After exhaustive searches in bibliographic databases, preselected data were filtered by selecting only those articles on rare diseases with an Orpha number hosted in the Orphanet web. The selected bibliographic references were further curated manually. With the 187 selected references, a critical reading and analysis was carried out allowing for an identification and classification of angiogenesis-related rare diseases, the involved genes and the drugs available for their treatment, all on the basis of the information available in Orphanet database. PMID:22882737

  1. BSQA: integrated text mining using entity relation semantics extracted from biological literature of insects.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Li, Yanen; Khetani, Radhika; Sanders, Barry; Lu, Yue; Ling, Xu; Zhai, Chengxiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2010-07-01

    Text mining is one promising way of extracting information automatically from the vast biological literature. To maximize its potential, the knowledge encoded in the text should be translated to some semantic representation such as entities and relations, which could be analyzed by machines. But large-scale practical systems for this purpose are rare. We present BeeSpace question/answering (BSQA) system that performs integrated text mining for insect biology, covering diverse aspects from molecular interactions of genes to insect behavior. BSQA recognizes a number of entities and relations in Medline documents about the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. For any text query, BSQA exploits entity annotation of retrieved documents to identify important concepts in different categories. By utilizing the extracted relations, BSQA is also able to answer many biologically motivated questions, from simple ones such as, which anatomical part is a gene expressed in, to more complex ones involving multiple types of relations. BSQA is freely available at http://www.beespace.uiuc.edu/QuestionAnswer.

  2. Overview of literature and information on "khat-related" mortality: a call for recognition of the issue and further research.

    PubMed

    Corkery, John M; Schifano, Fabrizio; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Ghodse, A Hamid; Tonia, Thomy; Naidoo, Vinesha; Button, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    During the past 20 years or so, more has become known about the properties of khat, its pharmacology, physiological and psychological effects on humans. However, at the same time its reputation of social and recreational use in traditional contexts has hindered the dissemination of knowledge about its detrimental effects in terms of mortality. This paper focuses on this particular deficit and adds to the knowledge-base by reviewing the scant literature that does exist on mortality associated with the trade and use of khat. We sought all peer-reviewed papers relating to deaths associated with khat. From an initial list of 111, we identified 15 items meeting our selection criteria. Examination of these revealed 61 further relevant items. These were supplemented with published reports, newspaper and other media reports. A conceptual framework was then developed for classifying mortality associated with each stage of the plant's journey from its cultivation, transportation, consumption, to its effects on the human body. The model is demonstrated with concrete examples drawn from the above sources. These highlight a number of issues for which more substantive statistical data are needed, including population-based studies of the physiological and psychological determinants of khat-related fatalities. Khat-consuming communities, and health professionals charged with their care should be more aware of the physiological and psychological effects of khat, together with the risks for morbidity and mortality associated with its use. There is also a need for information to be collected at international and national levels on other causes of death associated with khat cultivation, transportation, and trade. Both these dimensions need to be understood. PMID:22194080

  3. Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): results of animal bioassays published in the general literature in 1993 to 1994 and by the National Toxicology Program in 1995 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Rohrbach, L

    1999-08-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a systematic and unifying analysis of results of chronic, long-term cancer tests. This paper presents a supplemental plot of the CPDB, including 513 experiments on 157 test compounds published in the general literature in 1993 and 1994 and in Technical Reports of the National Toxicology Program in 1995 and 1996. The plot standardizes the experimental results (whether positive or negative for carcinogenicity), including qualitative data on strain, sex, route of compound administration, target organ, histopathology, and author's opinion and reference to the published paper, as well as quantitative data on carcinogenic potency, statistical significance, tumor incidence, dose-response curve shape, length of experiment, duration of dosing, and dose rate. A numerical description of carcinogenic potency, the TD(subscript)50(/subscript), is estimated for each set of tumor incidence data reported. When added to the data published earlier, the CPDB now includes results of 5,620 experiments on 1,372 chemicals that have been reported in 1,250 published papers and 414 National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program Technical Reports. The plot presented here includes detailed analyses of 25 chemicals tested in monkeys for up to 32 years by the National Cancer Institute. Half the rodent carcinogens that were tested in monkeys were not carcinogenic, despite usually strong evidence of carcinogenicity in rodents and/or humans. Our analysis of possible explanatory factors indicates that this result is due in part to the fact that the monkey studies lacked power to detect an effect compared to standard rodent bioassays. Factors that contributed to the lack of power are the small number of animals on test; a stop-exposure protocol for model rodent carcinogens; in a few cases, toxic doses that resulted in stoppage of dosing or termination of the experiment; and in a few cases, low doses administered to monkeys or early termination of the

  4. Curriculum Guide: Irish Literature and Related Arts, Grades 11 and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Ione M.

    Developed to meet the needs and interests of eleventh and twelfth grade inner city students who demand that literature be relevant to life, this curriculum guide provides material for a minicourse in Irish literature that aims at a comprehensive exposure to Irish culture through Irish literature, historical accounts, music, and art. It contains…

  5. Backbiting and bloodshed in books: short-term effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Ridge, Robert; Stevens, McKay; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura

    2012-03-01

    The current research consisted of two studies examining the effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature. In both studies, participants read one of two stories (containing physical or relational aggression), and then participated in one of two tasks to measure aggression. In Study 1, participants who read the physical aggression story were subsequently more physically aggressive than those who read the relational aggression story. Conversely, in Study 2, participants who read the relational aggression story were subsequently more relationally aggressive than those who read the physical aggression story. Combined, these results show evidence for specific effects of reading aggressive content in literature.

  6. Heath Beliefs of UK South Asians Related to Lifestyle Diseases: A Review of Qualitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. Methods. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. Results. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. Conclusions. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals. PMID:23476751

  7. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Young, J.R.; Lu, An

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  8. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related to Schistosoma mansoni Infection: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Karla Sawada; Kikuchi, Luciana; Chagas, Aline Lopes; Tanigawa, Ryan Yukimatsu; Paranaguá-Vezozzo, Denise Cerqueira; Pfiffer, Túlio; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Carrilho, Flair José

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Schistosomiasis is a major chronic disease of humans in endemic regions, and infected individuals may develop a spectrum of pathology, including hepatic fibrosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and portal hypertension. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered the fifth most common cancer in the world, and there is limited and controversial evidence suggesting that Schistosoma mansoni infection may be a possible risk factor for HCC. The aim of this study was to report a case series of patients with HCC and S. mansoni infection and to conduct a literature review on the topic. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2015, an institutional database was screened retrospectively to identify patients with HCC and S. mansoni infection at a single center in the Department of Gastroenterology of University of São Paulo School of Medicine and Hospital das Clínicas, Brazil. Results: Seven cases were included. The mean age of patients was 62.1±10.3 years; six (85.7%) were male and one (14.3%) was female. All cases had positive epidemiology, coming from endemic areas of S. mansoni infection in Brazil, and four (57.1%) had previous complications (upper gastrointestinal bleeding) related to portal hypertension or surgery intervention (splenectomy) performed more than 10 years before the HCC diagnosis. Nontumoral portal vein thrombosis was identified in five (71.4%) patients. All patients had negative serology for HCV, and four (57.1%) had positivity of HBVcore antibodies without evidence of viral replication. According to BCLC staging, one (14.3%) patient was BCLC A and received TACE instead of RFA because HCC size was >30 mm; three (42.8%) BCLC B patients received sorafenib instead of local regional treatment due to the presence of nontumoral TPV. During follow-up, all patients developed tumoral progression and died. Conclusions: It remains unclear if S. mansoni infection alone has carcinogenic potential. The available literature indicates that S. Mansoni, in the

  10. PRRT2-related disorders: further PKD and ICCA cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Becker, Felicitas; Schubert, Julian; Striano, Pasquale; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Liukkonen, Elina; Gaily, Eija; Gerloff, Christian; Müller, Stephan; Heußinger, Nicole; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Robbiano, Angela; Polvi, Anne; Zittel, Simone; von Oertzen, Tim J; Rostasy, Kevin; Schöls, Ludger; Warner, Tom; Münchau, Alexander; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Zara, Federico; Lerche, Holger; Weber, Yvonne G

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies reported mutations in the gene encoding the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) to be causative for paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), PKD combined with infantile seizures (ICCA), and benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS). PRRT2 is a presynaptic protein which seems to play an important role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. PKD is the most common form of paroxysmal movement disorder characterized by recurrent brief involuntary hyperkinesias triggered by sudden movements. Here, we sequenced PRRT2 in 14 sporadic and 8 familial PKD and ICCA cases of Caucasian origin and identified three novel mutations (c.919C>T/p.Gln307, c.388delG/p.Ala130Profs 46, c.884G>A/p.Arg295Gln) predicting two truncated proteins and one probably damaging point mutation. A review of all published cases is also included. PRRT2 mutations occur more frequently in familial forms of PRRT2-related syndromes (80-100 %) than in sporadic cases (33-46 %) suggesting further heterogeneity in the latter. PRRT2 mutations were rarely described in other forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias deviating from classical PKD, as we report here in one ICCA family without kinesigenic triggers. Mutations are exclusively found in two exons of the PRRT2 gene at a high rate across all syndromes and with one major mutation (c.649dupC) in a mutational hotspot of nine cytosines, which is responsible for 57 % of all cases in all phenotypes. We therefore propose that genetic analysis rapidly performed in early stages of the disease is highly cost-effective and can help to avoid further unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. PMID:23299620

  11. Power Relations in Creating and Distributing Official Knowledge in Children's Literature: "Historical Picture of Taiwan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lin-Miao

    2014-01-01

    With a specific focus on power relations in creating and distributing knowledge in society, this study examines the government-published children's series "Historical Picture of Taiwan" produced in Taiwan in the Martial Law era (1949-1987) to uncover ideological assumptions and persuasions permeating both linguistic and visual…

  12. Results of literature search on dielectric properties and electron interaction phenomena related to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, J. A.; Burke, E. A.; Frederickson, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the literature search was to determine the required material properties and electron interaction parameters needed for modeling charge buildup and breakdown in insulators. A brief overview of the results of the literature search is given. A partial list of the references covered is included in a bibliography. Although inorganic insulators were also considered in the search, coverage is limited to the organics, primarily Kapton and Teflon.

  13. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, S.; Pederson, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.
DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files.
STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.


Keywords: adolescence; smoking initiation; psychosocial factors PMID:10093176

  14. Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  15. The Mouse that Roared? Article Publishing in Undergraduate Sociology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckberg, Douglas; Marx, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores article production by the entire population of US undergraduate sociology departments. The available literature suggests that undergraduate programs publish little, that this is concentrated among relatively few--mainly liberal arts--departments, and that publication rates are increasing. We argue There are reasons to expect…

  16. Community-academic partnerships in HIV-related research: a systematic literature review of theory and practice

    PubMed Central

    Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research

  17. Health-related QOL in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Doll, Helen; Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of emphasis on health-related QOL (HR-QOL) changes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to examine the use of HR-QOL instruments to evaluate acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, so as to form recommendations for future research.A literature search of papers published between 1966 and July 2003 identified more than 300 articles that used acute exacerbation of CB or COPD as the search term. However, only 21 of these studies employed HR-QOL measures as predictors of outcome or in the assessment of the impact, evolution or treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD or CB. A variety of HR-QOL measures were used, both generic and disease specific. The disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), devised for patients with stable CB and with a recall period of 1-12 months, was the most widely used measure, with the Chronic Respiratory disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Baseline and Transitional Dyspnoea Index (BDI, TDI) being the only other disease-specific measures used. Most measures, both generic and disease specific, performed adequately when used during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD and indicated poor HR-QOL during acute exacerbation, which improved on resolution of the exacerbation. Relationships were evident between HR-QOL during an acute exacerbation and various outcomes, including post-exacerbation functional status, hospital re- admission for acute exacerbation or COPD, and mortality. There is a need for studies of treatments for acute exacerbation of CB or COPD to include an appropriate HR-QOL instrument to aid in the stratification of patients so as to target the right treatment to the right patient group. While a new instrument could be developed to measure HR-QOL during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, currently available disease-specific measures such as the CRQ and the SGRQ appear to be acceptable to patients during acute

  18. New Media Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Ian

    The media industry is the fastest growing business in the world today; additional leisure time, coupled with increasingly global distribution, has created large international markets for information and entertainment. The United Kingdom is relatively strong in the three main areas concerned with new media publishing: information technology,…

  19. Wellness Curricula to Improve the Health of Children and Youth: A Review and Synthesis of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Heidi; Eccles, Karena

    2008-01-01

    Alberta Education is currently considering options for enhancing health and learning outcomes of students and is exploring opportunities to develop new wellness-related curriculum. This literature review is a component of this exploratory process that will inform curriculum development and was undertaken to: (1) provide a comprehensive review of…

  20. Quality of life in age-related macular degeneration: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jan; Bradley, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background The Age-related Macular Degeneration Alliance International commissioned a review of the literature on quality of life (QoL) in macular degeneration (MD) with a view to increasing awareness of MD, reducing its impact and improving services for people with MD worldwide. Method A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases, conference proceedings and key journal hand search checks. The resulting 'White Paper' was posted on the AMD Alliance website and is reproduced here. Review MD is a chronic, largely untreatable eye condition which leads to loss of central vision needed for tasks such as reading, watching TV, driving, recognising faces. It is the most common cause of blindness in the Western world. Shock of diagnosis, coupled with lack of information and support are a common experience. Incidence of depression is twice that found in the community-dwelling elderly, fuelled by functional decline and loss of leisure activities. Some people feel suicidal. MD threatens independence, especially when comorbidity exacerbates functional limitations. Rehabilitation, including low vision aid (LVA) provision and training, peer support and education, can improve functional and psychological outcomes but many people do not receive services likely to benefit them. Medical treatments, suitable for only a small minority of people with MD, can improve vision but most limit progress of MD, at least for a time, rather than cure. The White Paper considers difficulties associated with inappropriate use of health status measures and misinterpretation of utility values as QoL measures: evidence suggests they have poor validity in MD. Conclusion There is considerable evidence for the major damage done to QoL by MD which is underestimated by health status and utility measures. Medical treatments are limited to a small proportion of people. However, much can be done to improve QoL by early diagnosis of MD with good communication of prognosis and continuing support

  1. Prone Position-Related Meralgia Paresthetica after Lumbar Spinal Surgery : A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jun

    2008-01-01

    Lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy occurring during spinal surgery is frequently related to iliac bone graft harvesting, but meralgia paresthetica (MP) can result from the patient being in the prone position. Prone position-related MP is not an uncommon complication after posterior spine surgery but there are only few reports in the literature on this subject. It is usually overlooked because of its mild symptoms and self-limiting course, or patients and physicians may misunderstand the persistence of lower extremity symptoms in the early postoperative period to be a reflection of poor surgical outcome. The authors report a case of prone position-related MP after posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the L3-4 and reviewed the literature with discussion on the incidence, pathogenesis, and possible risk factors related to this entity. PMID:19137086

  2. A Review of the Recent Literature Relating to the Training of Medical Students in Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Mark J.

    1985-01-01

    A review of literature on attitudes toward alcoholism, measurement of increased knowledge about alcoholism, the status of training in alcoholism, descriptions of alcoholism training programs, and methodological approaches to assessing such programs is presented. The focus of training, it is argued, should be on experiential/clinical approaches.…

  3. Factors Related to the Employment of Visually Impaired Persons: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Yvonne H. H.; van Lierop, Brigitte A. G.; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans J. N.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to increase understanding of the factors that influence the labor force participation of persons who are visually impaired. Labor force participation was associated with many factors, such as communication training and education. Future research should focus on high-quality studies of labor…

  4. Environmental criteria for human comfort. A study of the related literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    The data presented has for the most part been extracted from existing in-house and memoranda reports. The variables considered are motion, noise, temperature and pressure. The report is broken down into chapters for each of the environmental variables and criteria proposed based on the existing literature.

  5. Word Processing and Writing in Elementary Classrooms: A Critical Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Literature on word processing (WP) and writing in elementary classrooms is reviewed. Five propositions are constructed to provide a schema for understanding what is known and needs to be learned about young writers and WP. WP's effects on students' composing processes, written products, attitudes, and keyboarding/systems skills are considered.…

  6. Relating Literature and Culture: Putting Theory into Practice at the Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Sylvie Debevec

    This paper suggests that the entire undergraduate foreign language (FL) curriculum needs to be rethought to integrate language, literature, and culture from the beginning through the advanced levels. It proposes a curriculum that is organized around sociocultural and sociohistorical values, attitudes, and issues and gives preference to literary…

  7. Opinions of Literature Teachers Related to Academic Training, In-Service Training and Organizational Socialization Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Arslan Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    One of the utmost important functions of Turkish Education system is to teach Turkish Language at pre-schools, elementary schools, junior high schools and higher education institutions effectively. In this respect, at high schools which comprise the secondary schools, it is clear that Turkish Language and Literature teachers have paramount roles.…

  8. Open access: implications for scholarly publishing and medical libraries

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper reviews and analyzes the evolution of the open access (OA) publishing movement and its impact on the traditional scholarly publishing model. Procedures: A literature survey and analysis of definitions of OA, problems with the current publishing model, historical developments, funding agency responses, stakeholder viewpoints, and implications for scientific libraries and publishing are performed. Findings: The Internet's transformation of information access has fueled interest in reshaping what many see as a dysfunctional, high-cost system of scholarly publishing. For years, librarians alone advocated for change, until relatively recently when interest in OA and related initiatives spread to the scientific community, governmental groups, funding agencies, publishers, and the general public. Conclusions: Most stakeholders acknowledge that change in the publishing landscape is inevitable, but heated debate continues over what form this transformation will take. The most frequently discussed remedies for the troubled current system are the “green” road (self-archiving articles published in non-OA journals) and the “gold” road (publishing in OA journals). Both movements will likely intensify, with a multiplicity of models and initiatives coexisting for some time. PMID:16888657

  9. The Future of Scholarly Journal Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles; Greenhalgh, Clare; Rowland, Fytton

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the recent literature on scholarly publishing and its conversion to the electronic medium. Presents results of a questionnaire survey of the United Kingdom-based scholarly publishing industry. Results suggest publishers are moving quickly towards use of the Internet as a major medium for distribution, though they do not expect an early…

  10. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  11. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial. PMID:27009931

  12. Concepts and definitions for “supportive care,” “best supportive care,” “palliative care,” and “hospice care” in the published literature, dictionaries, and textbooks

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; De La Cruz, Maxine; Mori, Masanori; Parsons, Henrique A.; Kwon, Jung Hye; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Kim, Sun Hyun; Dev, Rony; Hutchins, Ronald; Liem, Christiana; Kang, Duck-Hee; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Commonly used terms such as “supportive care,” “best supportive care,” “palliative care,” and “hospice care” were rarely and inconsistently defined in the palliative oncology literature. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to further identify concepts and definitions for these terms. Methods We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and CINAHL for published peer-reviewed articles from 1948 to 2011 that conceptualized, defined, or examined these terms. Two researchers independently reviewed each citation for inclusion and then extracted the concepts/definitions when available. Dictionaries/textbooks were also searched. Results Nine of 32 “SC/BSC,” 25 of 182 “PC,” and 12 of 42 “HC” articles focused on providing a conceptual framework/definition. Common concepts for all three terms were symptom control and quality-of-life for patients with life-limiting illness. “SC” focused more on patients on active treatment compared to other categories (9/9 vs. 8/37) and less often involved interdisciplinary care (4/9 vs. 31/37). In contrast, “HC” focused more on volunteers (6/12 vs. 6/34), bereavement care (9/12 vs. 7/34), and community care (9/12 vs. 6/34). Both “PC” and “SC/BSC” were applicable earlier in the disease trajectory (16/34 vs. 0/9). We found 13, 24, and 17 different definitions for “SC/BSC,” “PC,” and “HC,” respectively. “SC/BSC” was the most variably defined, ranging from symptom management during cancer therapy to survivorship care. Dictionaries/textbooks showed similar findings. Conclusion We identified defining concepts for “SC/BSC,” “PC,” and “HC” and developed a preliminary conceptual framework unifying these terms along the continuum of care to help build consensus toward standardized definitions. PMID:22936493

  13. A Method of Extracting Sentences Related to Protein Interaction from Literature using a Structure Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Yoshikazu; Munna, Md. Ahaduzzaman; Ohkawa, Takenao

    Because a protein expresses its function through interaction with other substrates, it is vital to create a database of protein interaction. Since the total volume of information on protein interaction is described in terms of thousands of literatures, it is nearly impossible to extract all this information manually. Although extraction systems for interaction information based on the template matching method have already been developed, it is not possible to match all the sentences with interaction information due to the extent of sentence complexity. We propose a method of extracting sentences with interaction information independent of sentence structure. In a protein-compound complex structure, the interacting residue is near to its partner. The distance between them can be calculated by using the structure data in the PDB database, with a short distance indicating that the sentences associated with them might describe the interaction information. In a free-protein structure, the distance cannot be calculated because the coordinates of the protein's partner are not registered in the structure data. Hence, we use the homology protein structure data, which is complexed with the protein's parter. The proposed method was applied to seven literatures written about protein-compound complexes and four literatures written about free proteins, obtaining F-measures of 71% and 72%, respectively.

  14. Prevalence of Skin and Skin-Related Diseases in the Rochester Epidemiology Project and a Comparison with Other Published Prevalence Studies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-01-01

    In Olmsted County, Minn., USA, reliable, population-based epidemiologic research studies can be performed because of a unique medical records linkage system, the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP). Our objective was to summarize the epidemiologic data describing the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP and to compare the findings with those from other studies worldwide. Retrospectively, we reviewed the results of population-based REP studies reporting the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases over more than 4 decades and compared them to other published prevalences globally. Prevalences from the REP reported per 100,000 persons were as follows: hidradenitis suppurativa, 130.0; psoriasis, 700.0; psoriatic arthritis in 1992, 100.0, and in 2000, 160.0; Behçet disease, 5.2; scleroderma, 13.8; dermatomyositis, 21.42; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), from 30.5 to 122.0 suspected SLE, 32.8; combined SLE, 41.8; discoid lupus erythematosus, 27.6, and cutaneous lupus erythematosus, 70.4 and 73.2 (from 2 studies). Many of the population-based prevalences of specific skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP are different from those estimated globally. Suggested reasons for disparity in the prevalences globally may include differences in the type of reported prevalence, study methodology, geographic areas, ethnic groups, age distribution, and socioeconomic status. PMID:27011206

  15. Evaluating health-related quality of life in type 1 diabetes: a systematic literature review of utilities for adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Palmer, Jayne; Bae, Jay P; Boye, Kristina S; Norrbacka, Kirsi; Hunt, Barnaby; Valentine, William J

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition associated with micro- and macrovascular complications that have a notable impact on health-related quality of life, the magnitude of which can be quantified via the use of utility values. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify and compare published health state utility values for adults with type 1 diabetes both, with and without diabetes-related complications. Methods Literature searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were performed to identify English language studies on adults with type 1 diabetes, published from 2000 onward, reporting utility values for patients with or without diabetes-related complications or assessing the impact of changes in HbA1c or body mass index on quality of life. For inclusion, studies were required to report utilities elicited using validated methods. Results A total of 20 studies were included in the final review that included utility values elicited using the EuroQuol five dimensions questionnaire (n=9), 15D questionnaire (n=2), Quality of Well-Being scale (n=4), time trade-off (n=3), and standard gamble (n=2) methods. For patients with no complications, reported utility values ranged from 0.90 to 0.98. Complications including stroke (reported disutility range, −0.105 to −0.291), neuropathy (range, −0.055 to −0.358), and blindness (range, −0.132 to −0.208) were associated with the largest decrements in utility values. The magnitude of utility values and utility decrements was influenced by the assessment method used. Conclusion Complications lead to impaired health-related quality of life in patients with type 1 diabetes, the magnitude of which is influenced by the method used to determine utilities. There is currently a lack of utility data for certain complications of type 1 diabetes, meaning that many economic evaluations have relied on a combination of type 1 and type 2 diabetes utilities

  16. Understanding the Value of Law Related and Civic Education for Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Jeffrey W.

    Research in law-related education (LRE) and related fields is reviewed in this report. For the past two decades, researchers consistently have reported that law-related curricula and instruction make a positive impact on youth when compared to traditional approaches to teaching and learning law, civics, and government. The overall conclusion is…

  17. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  18. Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: relate of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Cabral, Francisco; Pereira, Larissa Vilela; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira; Alves, Venâncio; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Adenomas with neuroendocrine differentiation are defined as neuroendocrine neoplasms, and they are rarely found in the head and neck. Objective: To describe two cases of a middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, with a literature review. Case Report: Patient 1 was a 41-year-old woman who presented with a 3-year history of left aural fullness associated with ipsilateral “hammer beating” tinnitus. Patient 2 was a 41-year-old male who presented with unilateral conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: Adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of the middle ear is a rare entity, but it should be considered in patients with tinnitus, aural fullness, and a retrotympanic mass and remembered as a diferential diagnosis of tympanic paraganglioma. PMID:25992031

  19. Death Due to an Unusual Angio-Seal-Related Complication: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, Cristian; Sablone, Sara; Carnevale, Aldo

    2016-09-01

    Angio-SealTM is a vascular closure device (VCD) that can be applied to the femoral artery following cardiac catheterization to achieve hemostasis. Although it has been demonstrated to be superior to conventional manual pressure and to reduce time to hemostasis and patient ambulation, the use of this VCD is not without its complications. In this report, we describe the case of a 55-year-old man who died due to an extremely rare event that occurred several hours after the deployment of an Angio-SealTM VCD: acute complete transverse laceration of the femoral artery that occurred because of the particular fragility of the vessel due to an unrecognized and asymptomatic arteriosclerotic disease. Few data are available in the literature about the incidence of such events, and much more remains to be done to determine how to prevent and manage its occurrence.

  20. 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Joo; Kim, Sang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders. PMID:26090077

  1. Technical, economical, and climate-related aspects of biochar production technologies: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sebastian; Glaser, Bruno; Quicker, Peter

    2011-11-15

    For the development of commercial biochar projects, reliable data on biochar production technologies is needed. For this purpose, peer-reviewed scientific articles on carbonization technologies (pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal carbonization, and flash carbonization) have been analyzed. Valuable information is provided by papers on pyrolysis processes, less information is available on gasification processes, and few papers about hydrothermal and flash carbonization technologies were identified. A wide range of data on the costs of char production (between 51 US$ per tonne pyrolysis biochar from yard waste and 386 US$ per tonne retort charcoal) and on the GHG balance of biochar systems (between -1054 kg CO(2)e and +123 kg CO(2)e per t dry biomass feedstock) have been published. More data from pilot projects are needed to improve the evaluation of biochar production technologies. Additional research on the influence of biochar application on surface albedo, atmospheric soot concentration, and yield responses is necessary to assess the entire climate impact of biochar systems. Above all, further field trials on the ability of different technologies to produce chars for agricultural soils and carbon sequestration are essential for future technology evaluation. PMID:21961528

  2. Individual-Level Factors in Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Review of the Literature on the Relation of Individual-Level Health Behavior Constructs and Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Bennett, Alyssa; Zaiter, Marie; Marshall, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Compliance with colorectal cancer screening recommendations requires considerable conscious effort on the part of the individual patient, making an individual's decisions about engagement in screening an important contributor to compliance or noncompliance. The objective of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of individual-level behavior theories and their associated constructs in accounting for engagement in colorectal cancer screening behavior. We reviewed the literature examining constructs from formal models of individual-level health behavior as factors associated with compliance with screening for colorectal cancer. All published studies examining one or more constructs from the health belief model, theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, or social cognitive theory and their relation to screening behavior or behavioral intentions were included in the analysis. By and large, results of studies supported the theory-based predictions for the influence of constructs on cancer screening behavior. However, the evidence base for many of these relations, especially for models other than the health belief model, is quite limited. Suggestions are made for future research on individual-level determinants of colorectal cancer screening. PMID:21954045

  3. PCDD/F and related compounds in solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vehlow, Jürgen; Bergfeldt, Britta; Hunsinger, Hans

    2006-10-01

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) from waste incineration into the air have been a major focus of interest during the last two decades. An integrated approach to clean waste disposal has to take the occurrence of PCDD/F in all residues into account. This paper compiles published data on concentration ranges of PCDD/F and the related compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated benzenes and phenols, as well as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in solid residues from waste incineration in grate furnaces and their development since 1985. A short description of inertization processes for PCDD/F loaded materials is added.

  4. [Nursing minimum data sets (NMDS) - a literature review relating to objective and data elements].

    PubMed

    Ranegger, Renate; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2014-12-01

    Hintergrund: Um den prognostizierten Wandel im Pflegebereich begleiten zu können, wird seit langem die Forderung nach einer einheitlichen Datenbasis gestellt, auf deren Grundlage Pflegedaten von Leistungsanbietern transparent abgebildet werden können. In Österreich fehlt bis dato eine Empfehlung, welche Pflegedaten als «Basisdaten» dokumentiert werden müssen, wodurch eine nationale Vergleichbarkeit von Pflegedaten erschwert wird. Internationale Entwicklungen von Nursing Minimum Data Sets (NMDS) weisen darauf hin, dass Pflegedaten adäquat abgebildet werden können. Ziel der vorgestellten systematischen Literaturanalyse ist es, den aktuellen Wissensstand über NMDS zu erheben und eine strukturierte Beschreibung von NMDS zu entwickeln, welche vor allem die erfassten Datenelemente und die zugehörigen Zielsetzungen der NMDS-Verwendung dokumentieren kann. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 70 Publikationen zum Thema NMDS in die Literaturübersicht eingeschlossen. Die Analyse der vorgestellten acht NMDS ergab sechs zentrale Zielsetzungen und sechs übergeordnete Datenelemente. Zu den identifizierten sechs Zielsetzungen gehören: Beschreibung der Pflegepraxis, Verteilung finanzieller Mittel, Benchmarking, Personaleinsatzplanung, Trendanalysen und Qualitätssicherung. Die identifizierten sechs Datenelemente umfassen betriebliche Daten, demografische Daten, Pflegediagnosen, -interventionen, -ergebnisse (Qualitätsindikatoren) und Pflegeintensität (klinische Daten). Diskussion: Es hat sich gezeigt, dass kein klarer Zusammenhang zwischen den Zielsetzungen und Datenelementen der untersuchten minimalen Pflegedatensätzen vorliegt.

  5. [Effective interventions to prevent health damage related to ultraviolet exposure: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Haroutunian, Laetitia; Léon, Christophe; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on health promotion interventions designed to prevent health damage caused by natural ultraviolet (UV) exposure. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed using a specific method including a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified using scientific databases. We found a large number of promising programmes. Briefly, some interventions based on environmental changes and provision of shade were considered to be promising. Health education programmes delivered at school have been proven to be effective in various settings, from nursery school to college. Some parentbased interventions designed to promote children's sun protection behaviours have been shown to be relevant. Appearance-based actions, using for instance photoaging information, may be effective. Finally, some multi-component interventions in community settings appear to be promising. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of outcome measures and the general quality of the documents reviewed. Furthermore, most interventions are poorly described in the reviews. The present study should therefore be considered to be a first step that needs to be completed by a more detailed description of the promising interventions and of their transposition to the French context. PMID:26751922

  6. [Primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults in Mexico: national characteristics and the relation to international literature].

    PubMed

    Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations.

  7. Drug-related problems in hospitals: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Krähenbühl-Melcher, Anita; Schlienger, Raymond; Lampert, Markus; Haschke, Manuel; Drewe, Jürgen; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Problems associated with pharmacotherapy (in particular, medication errors and adverse drug events) are frequent and are associated with increased costs for treatment. Analysis of original publications published between 1990 and 2005 on the topics of medication errors and/or adverse drug events in hospitalised patients, focusing on the frequency of, risk factors for and avoidance of such problems associated with pharmacotherapy, indicated that medication errors occurred in a mean of 5.7% of all episodes of drug administration, but with a high variability among the 35 studies retrieved. This variability was explained by the methods by which medication errors were detected (systematic screening of patients versus chart review or spontaneous reporting) and by the way drugs were administered (intravenously administered drugs are associated with the highest error frequencies). Errors occurred throughout the whole medication process, with administration errors accounting for more than half of all errors. Important risk factors included insufficient pharmacological knowledge of health professionals, errors in the patient charts or documentation by nurses and inadequate pharmacy services.Adverse events or reactions, on the other hand, affected 6.1 patients per 100 hospitalised and also showed a high variability among the 46 studies retrieved. This variability could also be explained by the different methods of assessment of the frequency of adverse drug events or reactions, as well as by the different wards on which the studies were performed. Important risk factors for adverse drug events or reactions included polypharmacy, female sex, drugs with a narrow therapeutic range, renal elimination of drugs, age >65 years and use of anticoagulants or diuretics. Since medication errors are strong risk factors for preventable adverse drug events or reactions, strategies have to be put in place for their reduction. Such strategies include ensuring that all persons involved in the

  8. Cosmic electrons. [literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The published literature on cosmic electrons is summarized. The primary and secondary sources of cosmic electrons are discussed, and the propagation of the electrons in the interstellar medium is studied with respect to energy loss mechanisms, age distributions, and spectral modifications during flight. Various portions of the electron and positron spectra are then considered in relation to problems of astrophysics. New information is presented on such topics as the origin of low-energy positrons, the decay kinematics of the pi-mu-e process, the application of age distributions for nuclear cosmic rays to cosmic electrons, and the possibility of nonidentical sources for cosmic electrons and protons.

  9. An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Quan, Changqin; Wang, Meng; Ren, Fuji

    2014-01-01

    The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1) Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2) Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1) on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus) showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method.

  10. Disasters related to droughts and public health - a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Alpino, Tais Ariza; de Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, the history of droughts has been marked by constant social and health tragedies, with estimates of up to 3 million deaths from the early 19th century until the late 20th century. There is a record of nearly 32,000 events related to the above and more than 96 million people were affected between 1991 and 2010. Although droughts have historically brought disasters to Brazil, which was noted in the scientific expeditions of Arthur Neiva and Belisario Penna that documented these droughts, there have not been many studies on them. The objective of this paper is to present a revision of the scientific articles related to droughts and public health. The following databases were used: PubMed, the Preparation and Response to Disasters Portal from BVS and the Capes Periodical Portal. The descriptors drought and health were used to search titles and summaries of articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Among the repercussions related to health that were discovered: malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, mental health problems, issues relating to water and air quality and commitments made concerning access to health services. As there is a trend for more intense droughts and a scarcity of water until 2030, there is an urgent need for more research and studies in these areas. PMID:26960093

  11. Pedagogical Ethics: A Review of the Literature for Public Relations and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…

  12. A Selected List of Films Related to Black Literature. WCTE Service Bulletin No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, David C., Comp.; Davis, Madeline, Comp.

    The 29 entries listed in this document cover a variety of topics and include titles of films (listed alphabetically) and titles of literary items--prose and poetry--related to film topics (listed by reading level). Some of the film topics are ancient Africans, heritage of slavery, the city in winter, diary of a Harlem family, discovering the music…

  13. No Gene Is an Island: Analogical Relations between Science and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Frank L.

    Arguing that scientific facts and insights can be used analogically to clarify literary analysis at specific moments, this paper presents a number of such facts and their analogical relationship to several literary passages. The examples cited relate the first and second laws of thermodynamics to scenes from "King Lear," rigid bodies in motion to…

  14. The sensitivity of laboratory tests assessing driving related skills to dose-related impairment of alcohol: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. PMID:26802474

  15. Temporal Relations between Sleep Problems and both Traumatic Event Exposure and PTSD: A Critical Review of the Empirical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Babson, Kimberly A.; Feldner, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the interrelations among traumatic event exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sleep problems. A wealth of research has examined the associations among these factors and there is an emerging literature focused on how sleep problems relate to both traumatic event exposure and PTSD across time. The current review provides a detailed analysis of studies pertaining to the temporal patterning of sleep problems and traumatic event-related factors (e.g., traumatic event exposure, PTSD) and draws conclusions regarding the current state of this literature. Research coalesces to suggest (1) exposure to a traumatic event can interfere with sleep, (2) PTSD is related to the development of self-reported sleep problems, but evidence is less clear regarding objective indices of sleep, and (3) limited evidence suggests sleep problems may interfere with recovery from elevated posttraumatic stress levels. Future research now needs to focus on understanding mechanisms involved in these patterns to inform the prevention and treatment of comorbid sleep problems and PTSD. PMID:19716676

  16. The Reporting Quality of Acupuncture-Related Infections in Korean Literature: A Systematic Review of Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Kang, Jung Won; Park, Wan-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe intervention when it is administered in appropriate clinical setting by well-educated and experienced practitioners. In this study, we reviewed observational studies on adverse events (AEs) or complications relevant to acupuncture practice in Korean literature for assessing their reporting quality and suggested recommendations for future ones on acupuncture-related infections. Method. Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Korean studies Information Service System, DBpia, National Digital Science Library, and Korean National Assembly Library were searched until May 2015. Combination of keywords including "acupuncture" and "infection" were used for searching databases. Result. A total of 23 studies from 2,739 literature articles were identified from electronic database searching until May 2015. From this review, we found that most case studies did not report enough information for judging causality between acupuncture and the AEs (or complications) as well as appropriateness of the acupuncture practice. In addition, acupuncture experts rarely participated in the reporting of these AEs (or complications). Conclusion. Based on these limitations, we suggest a tentative recommendation for future case studies on acupuncture-related infection. We hope that this recommendation would contribute to the improvement of the reporting quality of acupuncture-related AEs (or complications) in the future.

  17. Catheter-related bacteremia caused by Agrobacterium radiobacter in a cancer patient: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Paphitou, N I; Rolston, K V I

    2003-12-01

    Agrobacteria are a group of phytopathogenic organisms widely distributed in soil; they are now recognized as rare human pathogens affecting mostly immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to Agrobacterium radiobacter in a neutropenic patient and describe the clinical presentations, treatment strategies and outcome of Agrobacterium infections based on our experience and a literature review. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of these organisms appear to be quite variable and collective susceptibility data derived from this and previous reports are provided.

  18. Monitoring style of coping with cancer related threats: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roussi, Pagona; Miller, Suzanne M

    2014-10-01

    Building on the Cognitive-Social Health Information-Processing model, this paper provides a theoretically guided review of monitoring (i.e., attend to and amplify) cancer-related threats. Specifically, the goals of the review are to examine whether individuals high on monitoring are characterized by specific cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to cancer-related health threats than individuals low on monitoring and the implications of these cognitive-affective responses for patient-centered outcomes, including patient-physician communication, decision-making and the development of interventions to promote adherence and adjustment. A total of 74 reports were found, based on 63 studies, 13 of which were intervention studies. The results suggest that although individuals high on monitoring are more knowledgeable about health threats, they are less satisfied with the information provided. Further, they tend to be characterized by greater perceived risk, more negative beliefs, and greater value of health-related information and experience more negative affective outcomes. Finally, individuals high on monitoring tend to be more demanding of the health providers in terms of desire for more information and emotional support, are more assertive during decision-making discussions, and subsequently experience more decisional regret. Psychoeducational interventions improve outcomes when the level and type of information provided is consistent with the individual's monitoring style and the demands of the specific health threat. Implications for patient-centered outcomes, in terms of tailoring of interventions, patient-provider communication, and decision-making, are discussed. PMID:24488543

  19. Mycorrhizal Stimulation of Leaf Gas Exchange in Relation to Root Colonization, Shoot Size, Leaf Phosphorus and Nitrogen: A Quantitative Analysis of the Literature Using Meta-Regression.

    PubMed

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Saxton, Arnold M

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER), stomatal conductance (g s), and transpiration rate (E) has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of g s and E (28 and 26%, respectively). CER has been over twice as sensitive as g s and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for g s and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations. PMID:27524989

  20. Mycorrhizal Stimulation of Leaf Gas Exchange in Relation to Root Colonization, Shoot Size, Leaf Phosphorus and Nitrogen: A Quantitative Analysis of the Literature Using Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Augé, Robert M.; Toler, Heather D.; Saxton, Arnold M.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of gs and E (28 and 26%, respectively). CER has been over twice as sensitive as gs and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for gs and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations. PMID:27524989

  1. Job satisfaction of nurse teachers: a literature review. Part II: Effects and related factors.

    PubMed

    Gui, Li; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the effects and related factors of nurse teachers' job satisfaction. Much of the research to date has focused on the factors of job satisfaction with recent studies providing some evidence about its predictors. However, little research has focused on the effects of job satisfaction on individual nurse teachers or from an organizational or student perspective despite the growing global shortage of nurse teachers. The challenge and potential direction of research are discussed and it is argued that there is a need to establish a comprehensive model of job satisfaction and measure the impact of nurse teachers' job satisfaction from the perspective of key stakeholders.

  2. Embracing Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Electronic publishing is the grandest revolution in the capture and dissemination of academic and professional knowledge since Caxton developed the printing press. This article examines electronic publishing, describes different electronic publishing scenarios (authors' cooperative, consolidator/retailer/agent oligopsony, publisher oligopoly), and…

  3. Health-related quality of life in diabetic patients with foot ulcers: literature review.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Donna; Trepman, Elly; Embil, John M

    2005-01-01

    Foot ulcers are a common, serious, and costly complication of diabetes, preceding 84% of lower extremity amputations in diabetic patients and increasing the risk of death by 2.4-fold over diabetic patients without ulcers. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is worse among individuals with diabetes than individuals without diabetes, and complications of diabetes, including foot ulcers, have a major negative effect on HRQOL. Diabetic foot ulcers are associated with reduced mobility and deficits related to activities of daily living that adversely affect HRQOL. Qualitative studies have confirmed clinical observations that diabetic foot ulcers have a huge negative psychological and social effect, including reduction in social activities, increased family tensions for patients and their caregivers (spouses or partners), limited employment, and financial hardship. Quantitative studies confirm the findings of qualitative studies that diabetic foot ulcers exert a negative effect on physical functioning, psychological status, and social situation. Recent advances include the development and validation of disease-specific HRQOL surveys for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. Disease-specific surveys may improve the evaluation of HRQOL as a function of ulcer healing, the effect of different treatment methods on HRQOL, and the relationship between treatment-specific HRQOL, patient compliance, and treatment efficacy.

  4. A Review and Clarification of the Terms "holistic," "configural," and "relational" in the Face Perception Literature.

    PubMed

    Piepers, Daniel W; Robbins, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the human face is processed differently from other objects. However there is a lack of consensus on what is meant by a wide array of terms used to describe this "special" face processing (e.g., holistic and configural) and the perceptually relevant information within a face (e.g., relational properties and configuration). This paper will review existing models of holistic/configural processing, discuss how they differ from one another conceptually, and review the wide variety of measures used to tap into these concepts. In general we favor a model where holistic processing of a face includes some or all of the interrelations between features and has separate coding for features. However, some aspects of the model remain unclear. We propose the use of moving faces as a way of clarifying what types of information are included in the holistic representation of a face.

  5. Lupus-related myelopathy: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Provenzale, J; Bouldin, T W

    1992-01-01

    Transverse myelopathy is an uncommon complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Three patients with SLE are reported who developed transverse myelopathy, including the neuropathological findings in one patient on whom necropsy was performed. Paraparesis was present in all three cases, but definite sensory changes were present in only one patient. In two patients, the CSF findings were remarkable for elevated protein and depressed glucose concentrations. Microscopic examination of the brain demonstrated small, scattered foci of recent necrosis consistent with microinfarctions. Striking abnormalities were found in the spinal cord at all levels, including multiple foci of vacuolar spongy degeneration in the peripheral white matter, as well as ballooning of myelin sheaths, swollen axons, myelin pallor, and loss of glial nuclei. The pathological findings in previously reported cases of SLE-related transverse myelopathy are reviewed, and the possible pathogenesis of the findings in our case are discussed. Images PMID:1402976

  6. Motion-related vascular abnormalities at the craniocervical junction: illustrative case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Neil, Jayson A; Mazur, Marcus D; Park, Min S; Couldwell, William T; Taussky, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    The craniocervical junction (CCJ) functions within a complicated regional anatomy necessary to protect and support vital neurovascular structures. In select instances, vascular pathology can be attributed to this complicated interplay of motion and structure found within this narrow space. The authors report 3 cases of complex vascular pathology related to motion at the CCJ and detail the management of these cases. Two cases involved posterior circulation vascular compression syndromes, and one case involved a vascular anomaly and its relation to aneurysm formation and rupture. The patient in Case 1 was a 66-year-old man with a history of syncopal episodes resulting from the bilateral vertebral artery becoming occluded when he rotated his head. Successful microsurgical decompression at the skull base resulted in patent bilateral vertebral artery V3 segments upon head movement in all directions. The patient in Case 2 was a 53-year-old woman who underwent elective resection of a right temporal meningioma and who experienced postoperative drowsiness, dysphagia, and mild right-arm ataxia. Subsequent MRI demonstrated bilateral posterior inferior cerebel-lar artery (PICA) strokes. Cerebral angiography showed a single PICA, of extradural origin, supplying both cerebellar hemispheres. The PICA exhibited dynamic extradural compression when the patient rotated her head; the bilateral PICA strokes were due to head rotation during surgical positioning. In Case 3, a 37-year-old woman found unconscious in her home had diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and evidence of a right PICA aneurysm. A right far-lateral craniectomy was performed for aneurysm clipping, and she was found to have a dissecting aneurysm with an associated PICA originating extradurally. There was a shearing phenomenon of the extradural PICA along the dura of the foramen magnum, and this microtraumatic stress imposed on the vessel resulted in a dissecting aneurysm. This series of complex and unusual cases

  7. Pages from the Desktop: Desktop Publishing Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1994-01-01

    Discusses changes that have made desktop publishing appealing and reasonably priced. Hardware, software, and printer options for getting started and moving on, typeface developments, and the key characteristics of desktop publishing are described. The author's notes on 33 articles from the personal computing literature from January-March 1994 are…

  8. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  9. Immunoglobulin G4–related sclerosing disease of the paranasal sinuses: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) related sclerosing disease (RSD) of the paranasal sinuses is a rare lesion of dense lymphoplasmacytic tissue, with a high proportion of IgG4+ plasma cells. We presented a rare case of IgG4-RSD with isolated involvement of the paranasal sinuses in the absence of multiorgan involvement. Methods: A case report and comprehensive literature review. Results: To our knowledge, only 11 cases of IgG4-RSD with paranasal sinus involvement have been reported. Patients with IgG4-RSD commonly present with epistaxis and symptoms that mimic chronic rhinosinusitis, e.g., rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, and facial pressure. On imaging, an expansive and erosive process is described. Surgery provides tissue for immunohistologic evaluation; however, there is a paucity of evidence about the direct extent of surgical resection or medical therapies. Postoperative steroids were typically started, although the regimen was not standardized. Conclusion: Few cases of paranasal sinus IgG4-RSD have been reported in the literature. Evidence-based recommendations regarding treatment and surveillance of paranasal sinus IgG4-RSD are lacking; however, most reports describe systemic steroids as the mainstay of treatment. This single subject analysis, with a review of previously reported cases adds to the expanding body of data related to this rare disorder.

  10. Could oxytocin administration during labor contribute to autism and related behavioral disorders?--A look at the literature.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Roy U Rojas

    2004-01-01

    This literature review summarizes recent potential evidence, most of which is at the molecular/mechanistic level, in support of Hollander's hypothesis that excess oxytocin (OT), possibly through OT administration at birth, could contribute to the development of autistic spectrum disorders and related syndromes by proposed down regulation of the OT receptor (OTR). In this review, recent molecular evidence for OTR internalization by excess OT is related to OT's reported effects on animal social behavior, favoring social bondage, notably in sheep, voles, rats and especially mice. Adding indications for OT's capability of crossing the maternal placenta and OT's possibility of crossing an underdeveloped or stressed infantile blood brain barrier at birth, a causal connection between OT excess and behavioral disorders such as autism can be supported from a molecular perspective. Possible strategies such as a thorough statistical analysis of numerous birth records as well as molecular studies such as radiotracing using labeled OT are proposed to test this hypothesis. PMID:15288368

  11. HIV Among Indigenous peoples: A Review of the Literature on HIV-Related Behaviour Since the Beginning of the Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Aspin, Clive; Gadsden, Thomas; Reading, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    From the early days of the HIV epidemic, Indigenous peoples were identified as a population group that experiences social and economic determinants-including colonialism and racism-that increase exposure to HIV. There are now substantial disparities in HIV rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in some countries. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the evidence on HIV-related behaviors and determinants in four countries-Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States-in which Indigenous peoples share important features of colonization and marginalization. We identified 107 articles over more than 20 years. The review highlights the determinants of HIV-related behaviors including domestic violence, stigma and discrimination, and injecting drug use. Many of the factors associated with HIV risk also contribute to mistrust of health services, which in turn contributes to poor HIV and health outcomes among Indigenous peoples.

  12. Do indoor environments influence asthma and asthma-related symptoms among adults in homes?: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yu; Ismail, Noor Hassim; Jie, Xu; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2011-09-01

    This review summarizes the results of epidemiological studies focusing on the detrimental effects of home environmental factors on asthma morbidity in adults. We reviewed the literature on indoor air quality (IAQ), physical and sociodemographic factors, and asthma morbidity in homes, and identified commonly reported asthma, allergic, and respiratory symptoms involving the home environment. Reported IAQ and asthma morbidity data strongly indicated positive associations between indoor air pollution and adverse health effects in most studies. Indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke. Environmental exposure may increase an adult's risk of developing asthma and also may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Evaluation of present IAQ levels, exposure characteristics, and the role of exposure to these factors in relation to asthma morbidity is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity.

  13. The Association of HIV-Related Stigma to HIV Medication Adherence: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Shannon M; Vanable, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the quantitative literature on HIV-related stigma and medication adherence, including: (1) synthesis of the empirical evidence linking stigma to adherence, (2) examination of proposed causal mechanisms of the stigma and adherence relationship, and (3) methodological critique and guidance for future research. We reviewed 38 studies reporting either cross-sectional or prospective analyses of the association of HIV-related stigma to medication adherence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapies (ART). Although there is substantial empirical evidence linking stigma to adherence difficulties, few studies provided data on psychosocial mechanisms that may account for this relationship. Proposed mechanisms include: (a) enhanced vulnerability to mental health difficulties, (b) reduction in self-efficacy, and (c) concerns about inadvertent disclosure of HIV status. Future research should strive to assess the multiple domains of stigma, use standardized measures of adherence, and include prospective analyses to test mediating variables.

  14. Physical Activity–Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Sumrall, Jasmin C.; Patterson, Megan S.; Walsh, Shana M.; Clendennen, Stephanie C.; Hooker, Steven P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Goins, Karin V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; O’Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A.; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity–related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity–related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were “enhance infrastructure supporting walking” (n = 11) and “increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity” (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity–related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the

  15. Cancer treatment–related bone loss: a review and synthesis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M.N.; Khan, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer therapy can result in significant bone loss and increased risk of fragility fracture. Chemotherapy, aromatase inhibitors, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues contribute to increases in the rate of bone remodelling and reduce bone mineral density. Patients with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy experience an increase in the risk of fracture. New research has demonstrated the key role played by bisphosphonates in preventing declines in bone density and increases in bone remodelling. Novel antiresorptive agents targeting receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand have great potential in skeletal protection and prevention of bone loss related to cancer therapy. Early assessment of skeletal health, followed by initiation of calcium, vitamin D, and an exercise program are valuable in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. In addition, individuals at increased risk for fracture should be offered antiresorptive therapy. Early data have demonstrated that bisphosphonates are able to prevent the bone loss and increased bone remodelling associated with cancer therapy, including aromatase inhibition and androgen deprivation therapy. The present paper reviews the new research and advances in the management of bone loss associated with both cancer therapy and estrogen deficiency in the postmenopausal female. PMID:18231646

  16. Depression as a Modifying Factor in Sport-Related Concussion: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Since its third iteration in 2008, the international Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) has delineated several 'modifying factors' that have the potential to influence the management of sport-related concussions (SRC). One of these factors is co- and pre-morbidities, which includes migraines, mental health disorders, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), learning disability, and sleep disorders. Mental health disorders, and in particular, depression, have received some attention in the management of SRC and in this review we summarize the empirical evidence for its inclusion as a modifying factor. This review is divided into three main bodies of findings: (1) the incidence and prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in non-concussed and concussed athletes, with comparison made to the general population; (2) managing the post-concussion athlete and accounting for premorbid depressive symptoms; and (3) depression as a long-term effect of repetitive head trauma. Overall, it has been reported that certain subpopulations of athletes have similar or even higher rates of depressive symptoms when compared to the general population. The challenge of accounting for these baseline-depressive symptoms while managing the post-concussive athlete is stressed. And lastly, the prevalence of depression and its relationship to concussion in later-life is discussed. PMID:26567843

  17. Submacular hemorrhage in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: A synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stanescu-Segall, Dinu; Balta, Florian; Jackson, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Large submacular hemorrhage, an uncommon manifestation of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, may also occur with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Submacular hemorrhage damages photoreceptors owing to iron toxicity, fibrin meshwork contraction, and reduced nutrient flux, with subsequent macular scarring. Clinical and experimental studies support prompt treatment, as tissue damage can occur within 24 hours. Without treatment the natural history is poor, with a mean final visual acuity (VA) of 20/1600. Reported treatments include retinal pigment epithelial patch, macular translocation, pneumatic displacement, intravitreal or subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, and combinations thereof. In the absence of comparative studies, we combined eligible studies to assess the VA change before and after each treatment option. The greatest improvement occurred after combined pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, with VA improving from 20/1000 to 20/400. The best final VA occurred using combined intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator, gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, with VA improving from 20/200 to 20/100. Both treatments had an acceptable safety profile, but most studies were small, and larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine both safety and efficacy.

  18. Depression as a Modifying Factor in Sport-Related Concussion: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Since its third iteration in 2008, the international Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) has delineated several 'modifying factors' that have the potential to influence the management of sport-related concussions (SRC). One of these factors is co- and pre-morbidities, which includes migraines, mental health disorders, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), learning disability, and sleep disorders. Mental health disorders, and in particular, depression, have received some attention in the management of SRC and in this review we summarize the empirical evidence for its inclusion as a modifying factor. This review is divided into three main bodies of findings: (1) the incidence and prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in non-concussed and concussed athletes, with comparison made to the general population; (2) managing the post-concussion athlete and accounting for premorbid depressive symptoms; and (3) depression as a long-term effect of repetitive head trauma. Overall, it has been reported that certain subpopulations of athletes have similar or even higher rates of depressive symptoms when compared to the general population. The challenge of accounting for these baseline-depressive symptoms while managing the post-concussive athlete is stressed. And lastly, the prevalence of depression and its relationship to concussion in later-life is discussed.

  19. [Dysmetabolic syndrome related to HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Review of the literature and personal data].

    PubMed

    Urso, R; Croce, G F; Tubili, C; De Marco, M; La Scala, P; Luglio, D; Narciso, P

    2000-02-01

    HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with HIV-1 protease-inhibitors (PI) frequently show insulin-resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia and lipodystrophy (LD). LD has often been reported only after the beginning of PI therapy. Some authors link LD to HIV chronic infection, some others suggest that PIs increase pre-existent disturb. Preliminary data of an observational study drawn in IV day-hospital of Spallanzani Institute in Rome showed hypertriglyceridaemia in 36.4% and hyperglycaemia in 11.2% of patients treated with PI. Carr suggests that such drugs should have this lipid-increasing effect because of their inhibition of low density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein, cytoplasmic retinoic-acid binding protein type 1 and P450 3A cytochrome. This theory doesn't explain why both untreated patients and treated with only reverse transcriptase inhibitors show sometimes the same disorders. According to another hypothesis Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, through inhibition of lipoprotein-lipase, would determine high fat-storage in the adipose tissue. Cardiovascular risk factors have always to be assessed before starting a therapy with PI. Glycaemia, triglyceridaemia, cholesterolaemia have to be performed every three months during the treatment and, if necessary, C-Peptide and insulinaemia too. A treatment with lipid-lowering drugs is always recommended in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia > 500 mg/dl and/or hypercholesterolaemia LDL > 190 mg/dl in two following checks. Fibrates have proven to be effective in reducing hypertriglyceridaemia, but there is no certainty that such therapies could have good effects on the LD itself too.

  20. A Review and Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature Related to 100% Fruit Juice and Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2015-01-01

    The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. PMID:25593142

  1. A review and critical analysis of the scientific literature related to 100% fruit juice and human health.

    PubMed

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2015-01-01

    The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research.

  2. Assistive and Educational Technology Standards and Teacher Competencies in Relation to Evidence-Based Practice: Identification and Classification of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Elizabeth M.; Roush, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act mandates the application of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in U.S. education. The purpose of this study was to identify available assistive technology (AT) and educational technology (ET) literature that relates to standards and teacher competencies, and to categorize that literature in…

  3. The Role of Standardized Tests as a Means of Assessment of Young Children: A Review of Related Literature and Recommendations of Alternative Assessments for Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Stacie; Karr-Kidwell, P. J.

    An extensive review of literature related to the role of standardized tests in the assessment of young children was conducted, and recommendations were made for alternative approaches more appropriate to the assessment of young children. The first section of the paper contains a literature review that provides a brief history of standardized tests…

  4. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity indicators in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Omarova, A.; Phillips, C.J.C. . E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au

    2007-03-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between cadmium (Cd) intake and cadmium toxicity indicators by meta-analysis of literature data, in particular {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2MC), and to compare the results with the current Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) set by FAO/WHO. The literature survey identified 79 feeding trials involving 27,537 people that were suitable for extraction of cadmium intake, levels in blood and urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine. There was an exponential increase in {beta}2-microglobulin with increases in cadmium intake above 302 {mu}g/day, which corresponds to a PTWI of 3.02 {mu}g/kg of body weight, when a safety margin of 10 is included. This compares with the current level set by FAO/WHO of 7 {mu}g/kg of body weight. Cadmium in blood and urine were also positively related to cadmium intake and participants' age. There were two principal components of variation in the data set, first: cadmium intake, concentrations of cadmium in blood, urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine, and second: duration and age of exposure.

  5. Serotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in relation to periodontal status and geographic origin of individuals-a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Virginia R S.; Rego, Rodrigo O.; Nogueira, Nádia A P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Several studies have focused on the relationship among serotype distribution, ethnical status and geographic populations, and periodontal conditions. Studies that have investigated the prevalence and the distribution of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes and the relation between the different serotypes of the bacterium and periodontal status were reviewed. Material and Methods: A systematic literature search for publications regarding the distribution of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes in subgingival samples of periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy subjects by employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. Results: From the 85 studies identified in the first analysis, only 12 met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical isolates from diverse geographic populations with different periodontal conditions were evaluated. Serotypes a, b and c were largely found, and serotype c was the most prevalent. They were isolated from various periodontal conditions, including aggressive periodontitis. Conclusions: The available literature suggests that serotypes a, b, and c are globally dominant, serotypes d and e are rare, and the prevalence of the most recently identified serotype fis still unknown. It is widely accepted that distribution patterns of A. actinomycetemcomitans vary among subjects of different ethnicity and geographic regions. The correlation of different serotypes with various periodontal conditions remains unclear. Key words:Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, serotypes, periodontal disease, prevalence. PMID:24316700

  6. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.; Brady, B.H.G.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Copyright of Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Elaine; Wang, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of copyright, considers the main causes of copyright infringement in electronic publishing, discusses fair use of a copyrighted work, and suggests methods to safeguard copyrighted electronic publishing, including legislation, contracts, and technology. (Author/LRW)

  8. Darwin and his publisher.

    PubMed

    McClay, David

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's publisher John Murray played an important, if often underrated, role in bringing his theories to the public. As their letters and publishing archives show they had a friendly, business like and successful relationship. This was despite fundamental scientific and religious differences between the men. In addition to publishing Darwin, Murray also published many of the critical and supportive works and reviews which Darwin's own works excited.

  9. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa catheter-related fungemia in a patient with sickle cell disease: case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Neofytos, Dionissios; Horn, David; De Simone, Joseph A

    2007-02-01

    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly Rhodotorula rubra) is a ubiquitous, environmental, urease-positive yeast that does not ferment sugars and can assimilate various carbohydrates. Characterized by the salmon-pink to coral-red color of its colonies, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa can disseminate and cause significant disease. We present a case of sustained Rhodotorula mucilaginosa catheter-related fungemia in a patient with sickle cell anemia who refused removal of the implanted port. The patient remained clinically stable, with blood cultures persistently growing Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, despite appropriate antifungal therapy. An extensive literature review revealed a wide range of clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. Susceptibility patterns to different antifungal agents and therapeutic considerations are thoroughly discussed. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa can be a significant, recalcitrant pathogen in immunocompromised patients and prompt treatment should be instituted. PMID:17330692

  10. The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  11. The relation between child maltreatment and adolescent suicidal behavior: a systematic review and critical examination of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam B; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T; Renshaw, Keith D

    2013-06-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect-each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  12. Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts, Volumes 69A and 69B, Literature 1998, Part 1, published for Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Burkhardt, R.; Esser, U.; Hefele, H.; Heinrich, I.; Hoffmann, W.; Matas, V. R.; Schmadel, L. D.; Wielen, R.; Zech, G.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The reviewed Volumes of the AAA series record, summarize and index nearly 12000 papers covering all aspects of astronomy and space sciences, published throughout the world during the first half of the year 1998. The AAA series is the most important source of information on progress in the scientific disciplines. They have become an indispensable source of information for scientists and students involved in the Universe research.

  13. The emancipatory potential of nursing practice in relation to sexuality: a systematic literature review of nursing research 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Catriona; Nhamo-Murire, Mercy

    2016-09-01

    Nurses play a key role in the provision of services in relation to sexuality in both primary and sexual and reproductive health-care. Given the intersection of sexualities with a range of social injustices, this study reviews research on nursing practice concerning sexuality from an emancipatory/social justice perspective. A systematic review of English articles published in nursing journals appearing on the Web of Science database from 2009 to 2014 was conducted. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Analysis consisted of a descriptive phase (types and location of studies, aspects of sexualities focused on, target health users and aspects of nursing practice focused on) and a critical/emancipatory phase. In terms of practice, our analysis revealed that: barriers exist to the integration of issues relating to sexuality in nursing practice; the social location of nurses and their personal feelings regarding sexuality influence their practice; content that addresses gendered norms and media that assist in communication underpin some emancipatory practices. Few studies locate analyses of nursing practice within gendered, cultural and social norms; consider advocacy as part of the practice of nurses; or analyse the promotion of health user participation in health services and structures. The implications for emancipatory practice are drawn out. PMID:27147132

  14. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Results Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey) and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands). The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are often quite influential in

  15. A Course in Desktop Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerick, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Promotional Publications," a required course for public relations majors, which teaches the basics of desktop publishing. Outlines how the course covers the preparation of publications used as communication tools in public relations, advertising, and organizations, with an emphasis upon design, layout, and technology. (MM)

  16. Etiquette in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Publishing a scientific article in a journal with a high impact factor and a good reputation is considered prestigious among one's peer group and an essential achievement for career progression. In the drive to get their work published, researchers can forget, either intentionally or unintentionally, the ethics that should be followed in scientific publishing. In an environment where "publish or perish" rules the day, some authors might be tempted to bend or break rules. This special article is intended to raise awareness among orthodontic journal editors, authors, and readers about the types of scientific misconduct in the current publishing scenario and to provide insight into the ways these misconducts are managed by the Committee of Publishing Ethics. Case studies are presented, and various plagiarism detection software programs used by publishing companies are briefly described.

  17. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Gorin, Sergey V; Koroleva, Anna M; Kitas, George D

    2016-09-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions. PMID:27510376

  18. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Gorin, Sergey V; Koroleva, Anna M; Kitas, George D

    2016-09-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions.

  19. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions. PMID:27510376

  20. Relation between the Global Burden of Disease and Randomized Clinical Trials Conducted in Latin America Published in the Five Leading Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Perel, Pablo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ortiz, Zulma; Casas, Juan Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1990 non communicable diseases and injuries account for the majority of death and disability-adjusted life years in Latin America. We analyzed the relationship between the global burden of disease and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) conducted in Latin America that were published in the five leading medical journals. Methodology/Principal Findings We included all RCTs in humans, exclusively conducted in Latin American countries, and published in any of the following journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We described the trials and reported the number of RCTs according to the main categories of the global burden of disease. Sixty-six RCTs were identified. Communicable diseases accounted for 38 (57%) reports. Maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions accounted for 19 (29%) trials. Non-communicable diseases represent 48% of the global burden of disease but only 14% of reported trials. No trial addressed injuries despite its 18% contribution to the burden of disease in 2000. Conclusions/Significance A poor correlation between the burden of disease and RCTs publications was found. Non communicable diseases and injuries account for up to two thirds of the burden of disease in Latin America but these topics are seldom addressed in published RCTs in the selected sample of journals. Funding bodies of health research and editors should be aware of the increasing burden of non communicable diseases and injuries occurring in Latin America to ensure that this growing epidemic is not neglected in the research agenda and not affected by publication bias. PMID:18301772

  1. Autosomal recessive MFN2-related Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with diaphragmatic weakness: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Christopher A; Rabideau, Marina; Blevins, Amy; Westbrook, Marjorie Jody; Ekstein, Tali; Nykamp, Keith; Deucher, Anne; Harper, Amy; Demmer, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Pathogenic variants in the mitofusin 2 gene (MFN2) are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2) disease, which is typically characterized by axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. We report on a 7-month-old white female with hypotonia, motor delay, distal weakness, and motor/sensory axonal neuropathy in which next-generation sequencing analysis identified compound heterozygous pathogenic variants (c.2054_2069_1170del and c.392A>G) in MFN2. A review of the literature reveals that sporadic and familial cases of compound heterozygous or homozygous pathogenic MFN2 variants have been infrequently described, which indicates that MFN2 can also be inherited in a recessive manner. This case highlights several clinical findings not typically associated with MFN2 pathogenic variants, including young age of onset and rapidly progressing diaphragmatic paresis that necessitated tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation, and adds to the growing list of features identified in autosomal recessive MFN2-related CMT2. Our patient with MFN2-related CMT2 expands the clinical and mutational spectrum of individuals with autosomal recessive CMT2 and identifies a new clinical feature that warrants further observation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The relation between childhood maltreatment and self-injury: a review of the literature on conceptualization and intervention.

    PubMed

    Lang, Colleen M; Sharma-Patel, Komal

    2011-01-01

    The following article reviews literature pertaining to the association between child maltreatment and self-injury and the ways it varies according to maltreatment type. Research supporting various mediators of the relations between different maltreatment types and self-injury is summarized. Informing mediator models, dominant theories of functionality, particularly affect regulation theories, are summarized and granted empirical support. Following from explanations of its functionality, three developmental pathways (regulatory, representational/interpersonal, and reactive/neurobiological) leading from child maltreatment to self-injury are presented within an organizational model of psychopathology. Understanding the deviations in these pathways that perpetuate self-injury helps to inform intervention approaches that forge pathways perpetuating resilience instead. Three psychosocial treatments (i.e., Dialectical Behavior Therapy [DBT], Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy [TF-CBT], and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy [ACT]) were chosen for review, based upon their accumulating evidence bases, as well as upon the relevance of their core components in correcting or compensating for trauma-related developmental deviations.

  3. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable`s insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable`s condition.

  4. Trade Publishing: A Report from the Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the current condition of trade publishing and its future prospects based on interviews with editors, publishers, agents, and others. Discusses academic libraries and the future of trade publishing, including questions relating to electronic books, intellectual property, and social and economic benefits of sharing information…

  5. Endoscopic appearance of AIDS-related gastrointestinal lymphoma with c-MYC rearrangements: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shohei; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Mine, Sohtaro; Igari, Toru; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Sugihara, Jun; Honda, Haruhito; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) remains the main cause of AIDS-related deaths in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recently, rearrangement of MYC is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI)-ARL with MYC rearrangements and coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection presenting with various endoscopic findings. A 38-year-old homosexual man who presented with anemia and was diagnosed with an human immunodeficiency virus infection for the first time. GI endoscopy revealed multiple dish-like lesions, ulcerations, bloody spots, nodular masses with active bleeding in the stomach, erythematous flat lesions in the duodenum, and multiple nodular masses in the colon and rectum. Magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging showed a honeycomb-like pattern without irregular microvessels in the dish-like lesions of the stomach. Biopsy specimens from the stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma concomitant with EBV infection that was detected by high tissue EBV-polymerase chain reaction levels and Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a fusion between the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and c-MYC genes, but not between the IgH and BCL2 loci. After 1-mo of treatment with HAART and R-CHOP, endoscopic appearance improved remarkably, and the histological features of the biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of lymphoma. However, he died from multiple organ failure on the 139th day after diagnosis. The cause of his poor outcome may be related to MYC rearrangement. The GI tract involvement in ARL is rarely reported, and its endoscopic findings are various and may be different from those in non-AIDS GI lymphoma; thus, we also conducted a literature review of GI-ARL cases. PMID:23922484

  6. Endoscopic appearance of AIDS-related gastrointestinal lymphoma with c-MYC rearrangements: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shohei; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Mine, Sohtaro; Igari, Toru; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Sugihara, Jun; Honda, Haruhito; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) remains the main cause of AIDS-related deaths in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recently, rearrangement of MYC is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI)-ARL with MYC rearrangements and coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection presenting with various endoscopic findings. A 38-year-old homosexual man who presented with anemia and was diagnosed with an human immunodeficiency virus infection for the first time. GI endoscopy revealed multiple dish-like lesions, ulcerations, bloody spots, nodular masses with active bleeding in the stomach, erythematous flat lesions in the duodenum, and multiple nodular masses in the colon and rectum. Magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging showed a honeycomb-like pattern without irregular microvessels in the dish-like lesions of the stomach. Biopsy specimens from the stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma concomitant with EBV infection that was detected by high tissue EBV-polymerase chain reaction levels and Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a fusion between the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and c-MYC genes, but not between the IgH and BCL2 loci. After 1-mo of treatment with HAART and R-CHOP, endoscopic appearance improved remarkably, and the histological features of the biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of lymphoma. However, he died from multiple organ failure on the 139(th) day after diagnosis. The cause of his poor outcome may be related to MYC rearrangement. The GI tract involvement in ARL is rarely reported, and its endoscopic findings are various and may be different from those in non-AIDS GI lymphoma; thus, we also conducted a literature review of GI-ARL cases. PMID:23922484

  7. Health outcomes and related effects of using social media in chronic disease management: a literature review and analysis of affordances.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the future for social media in chronic disease management appears to be optimistic, there is limited concrete evidence indicating whether and how social media use significantly improves patient outcomes. This review examines the health outcomes and related effects of using social media, while also exploring the unique affordances underpinning these effects. Few studies have investigated social media's potential in chronic disease, but those we found indicate impact on health status and other effects are positive, with none indicating adverse events. Benefits have been reported for psychosocial management via the ability to foster support and share information; however, there is less evidence of benefits for physical condition management. We found that studies covered a very limited range of social media platforms and that there is an ongoing propensity towards reporting investigations of earlier social platforms, such as online support groups (OSG), discussion forums and message boards. Finally, it is hypothesized that for social media to form a more meaningful part of effective chronic disease management, interventions need to be tailored to the individualized needs of sufferers. The particular affordances of social media that appear salient in this regard from analysis of the literature include: identity, flexibility, structure, narration and adaptation. This review suggests further research of high methodological quality is required to investigate the affordances of social media and how these can best serve chronic disease sufferers. Evidence-based practice (EBP) using social media may then be considered.

  8. Lights, Camera, Publishing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Nina C.

    2008-01-01

    Are university presses ready for their close-up? In a nod to Hollywood, a growing number of trade publishers are producing book trailers to promote new titles. But do video teasers have a role in university-press publishing? What about longer formats? Based on an entirely unscientific poll of publicists at 25 university presses, the answer appears…

  9. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  10. Publishing in English Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judy, Stephen N., Ed.

    Intended for both newcomers to writing and experienced writers, this book presents ideas that will simplify the process of submitting and getting published, cut down on the false starts and mistakes, and provide a catalyst to the educational writer. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: "Publishing in the Elementary Language…

  11. Health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients: A bibliographic review of the literature from 1974 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Background Quality of life in patients with breast cancer is an important outcome. This paper presents an extensive overview on the topic ranging from descriptive findings to clinical trials. Methods This was a bibliographic review of the literature covering all full publications that appeared in English language biomedical journals between 1974 and 2007. The search strategy included a combination of key words 'quality of life' and 'breast cancer' or 'breast carcinoma' in titles. A total of 971 citations were identified and after exclusion of duplicates, the abstracts of 606 citations were reviewed. Of these, meetings abstracts, editorials, brief commentaries, letters, errata and dissertation abstracts and papers that appeared online and were indexed ahead of publication were also excluded. The remaining 477 papers were examined. The major findings are summarized and presented under several headings: instruments used, validation studies, measurement issues, surgical treatment, systemic therapies, quality of life as predictor of survival, psychological distress, supportive care, symptoms and sexual functioning. Results Instruments-Several valid instruments were used to measure quality of life in breast cancer patients. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast cancer specific complementary measure (EORTC QLQ-BR23) and the Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy General questionnaire (FACIT-G) and its breast cancer module (FACIT-B) were found to be the most common and well developed instruments to measure quality of life in breast cancer patients. Surgery-different surgical procedures led to relatively similar results in terms of quality of life assessments, although mastectomy patients compared to conserving surgery patients usually reported a lower body image and sexual functioning. Systemic therapies-almost all studies indicated that breast cancer patients receiving

  12. Data Sharing & Publishing at Nature Publishing Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDecar, J. C.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.; Hufton, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the research community has come to recognize that upon-request data sharing has important limitations1,2. The Nature-titled journals feel that researchers have a duty to share data without undue qualifications, in a manner that allows others to replicate and build upon their published findings. Historically, the Nature journals have been strong supporters of data deposition in communities with existing data mandates, and have required data sharing upon request in all other cases. To help address some of the limitations of upon-request data sharing, the Nature titles have strengthened their existing data policies and forged a new partnership with Scientific Data, to promote wider data sharing in discoverable, citeable and reusable forms, and to ensure that scientists get appropriate credit for sharing3. Scientific Data is a new peer-reviewed journal for descriptions of research datasets, which works with a wide of range of public data repositories4. Articles at Scientific Data may either expand on research publications at other journals or may be used to publish new datasets. The Nature Publishing Group has also signed the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles5, and Scientific Data is our first journal to include formal data citations. We are currently in the process of adding data citation support to our various journals. 1 Wicherts, J. M., Borsboom, D., Kats, J. & Molenaar, D. The poor availability of psychological research data for reanalysis. Am. Psychol. 61, 726-728, doi:10.1037/0003-066x.61.7.726 (2006). 2 Vines, T. H. et al. Mandated data archiving greatly improves access to research data. FASEB J. 27, 1304-1308, doi:10.1096/fj.12-218164 (2013). 3 Data-access practices strengthened. Nature 515, 312, doi:10.1038/515312a (2014). 4 More bang for your byte. Sci. Data 1, 140010, doi:10.1038/sdata.2014.10 (2014). 5 Data Citation Synthesis Group: Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles. (FORCE11, San Diego, CA, 2014).

  13. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  14. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols.

  15. The effectiveness of return-to-work interventions that incorporate work-focused problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Joosen, Margot C W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to return-to-work (RTW) interventions that incorporate work-related problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders. It addresses the question: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of these RTW interventions? Design Using a multiphase screening process, this systematic literature review was based on publically available peer-reviewed studies. Five electronic databases were searched: (1) Medline Current, (2) Medline In-process, (3) PsycINFO, (4) Econlit and (5) Web of Science. Setting The focus was on RTW interventions for workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Participants Workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Interventions RTW intervention included work-focused problem-solving skills. Primary and secondary outcome measures RTW rates and length of sickness absences. Results There were 4709 unique citations identified. Of these, eight articles representing a total of six studies were included in the review. In terms of bias avoidance, two of the six studies were rated as excellent, two as good and two as weak. Five studies were from the Netherlands; one was from Norway. There was variability among the studies with regard to RTW findings. Two of three studies reported significant differences in RTW rates between the intervention and control groups. One of six studies observed a significant difference in sickness absence duration between intervention and control groups. Conclusions There is limited evidence that combinations of interventions that include work-related problem-solving skills are effective in RTW outcomes. The evidence could be strengthened if future studies included more detailed examinations of intervention adherence and changes in problem-solving skills. Future studies should also examine the long-term effects of problem

  16. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palpacuer, Clément; Laviolle, Bruno; Boussageon, Rémy; Reymann, Jean Michel; Bellissant, Eric; Naudet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853) to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication. Methods and Findings Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1) health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications), (2) alcohol consumption outcomes, (3) biological outcomes, or (4) treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane’s Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs), or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF); for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population

  17. JCII Camera Museum: A unique museum that preserves and evaluates photographic artifacts, literature and artworks focusing on the Japanese phtography and related industries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Yasunori; Shirayama, Mari

    JCII Camera Museum is a unique photographic museum having three major departments, the camera museum that collects, preserves and exhibits historically valuable cameras and camera-related produts, the photo salon that collects, preserve and exhibits various original photographic films and prints, and the library that collects, preserves and appraises photo-historical literatures including magazines, industrial histories, product catalogues and scientific papers.

  18. The Relationship between Low-Income and Minority Children's Physical Activity and Academic-Related Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav

    2011-01-01

    This article explores an innovative strategy for battling the obesity epidemic. The strategy involves demonstrating to policy makers and education leaders the value of promoting physical activity in school as a way of enhancing academic-related outcomes to narrow the current achievement gap. A literature review was conducted to ascertain the…

  19. Friends and Relations: Using Literature with Social Themes, Grades 3-5. The Responsive Classroom Series #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Otis; Otis, Rebecca

    This book contains eight selections of literature for children in Grades 3-5, books which focus on themes of friendship and family. Ranging from picture books to novels, these selections are rich with possibilities for exploring topics such as loyalty, empathy, conflict, courage, fairness, responsibility, and diversity. Each selection features the…

  20. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  1. Publishing in dental education: a history and systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Scott, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of dental education and its present status as evidenced by published articles in the dental literature. The method used has been a stratified sampling review of 3 journals. The analysis of articles in the British Dental Journal (BDJ) covers 4 periods between 1903 and 1994. A separate study of more recent trends sampled the Journal of Dental Education (J Dent Educ) at 5-year intervals between 1977 and 1997 as well as all the articles published in the European Journal of Dental Education (EJDE) in 1997-98. The long-term survey (BDJ) indicated that the subject of dental education was already being seriously addressed in the early years of this century although articles were few. There was a progressive increase in the number and types of article published over the period of the analysis. Many of the issues addressed in the first half of the century were similar to controversial topics in the present day. In the analysis of recent years (J Dent Educ 1977-1997) the number of articles devoted to strictly educational subjects fell to be replaced by articles only indirectly related to dental education. No consistent pattern was discernible in the type of articles published. There was a paucity of review articles throughout the period. Research articles were proportionally higher in the middle years of the period of the study. Both in the J Dent Educ and the EJDE, the highest proportions of articles were those concerned with curriculum, teaching methods, assessment and quality issues. The paper advocates more evidence-based studies, qualitative research and systematic reviews of the dental educational literature. It concludes that there is a need and an opportunity for expansion of both the quantity and quality of published articles in dental education.

  2. The Market Child and Branded Fiction: A Synergism of Children's Literature, Consumer Culture, and New Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Diane Carver

    2009-01-01

    Market-related influences have helped to shape children's literature and the means by which it has been sold since the concept of a literature for children emerged in the 18th century. In the 20th century, the concentration of publishing for children into a small number of megacorporations, the development of synergistic marketing of multiple…

  3. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: literature review: part 1.

    PubMed

    Clemence, Bonnie J; Maneval, Rhonda E

    2014-01-01

    This is part 1 of a 2-part series of articles that report on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine the risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters. This article provides an extensive review and critique of the literature that serves to explicate what is currently known about risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT. Risk factors such as anticoagulant use, cancer, infection, hypertension, catheter tip placement, and catheter size were identified most frequently in the literature as being associated with UEDVT development. Other risk factors--such as obesity, smoking history, surgery, and presence of pain or edema--were examined in a limited number of studies and lacked consistent evidence of their impact on UEDVT development. The subsequent study that evolved from the review of the literature investigates the relationship between identified risk factors and UEDVT development. PMID:24694512

  4. Publishers, Participants All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2011-01-01

    Students need opportunities throughout the curriculum to follow their passions and publish quality work for global audiences to interact with. Social media afford the opportunity for students to contribute to the world in meaningful ways, do real work for real audiences for real purposes, find great teachers and collaborators from around the…

  5. Censorship and the Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, James J.

    1975-01-01

    "What one school or community sees as educationally effective, another might denounce as tasteless or unnecessarily abrasive or just too novel." If you've ever wondered what it's like to be a caught on the publisher's side of censorship in schools, read this article. (Editor)

  6. Statistical issues encountered in the comparison of health-related quality of life in diseased patients to published general population norms: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rose, M S; Koshman, M L; Spreng, S; Sheldon, R

    1999-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to illustrate the statistical problems encountered when comparing health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) in a diseased group to general population norms, and (2) to define age- and gender-standardized dichotomous indicator variables for each health concept and show that these indicator variables facilitate comparisons between the diseased sample and the general population. Our "diseased" group consisted of 136 sequentially consenting patients referred to the syncope clinic for assessment and treatment. Participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire before undergoing diagnostic testing. General population norms for the SF-36 are available from the responses of 2474 participants in the National Survey of Functional Health Status, conducted in 1990 in the United States. Comparison of the SF-36 in a diseased sample with general population norms is difficult, owing to skewed and unusual distributions in both groups. In addition, making comparisons within age and gender strata is difficult if the within strata sample size is small. We propose a dichotomous indicator variable for each health concept that classifies an individual as having impaired health if he or she scored lower than the 25th percentile for the appropriate age and gender general population strata. By definition, the prevalence of impaired health in the general population is 25% for all eight health concepts. Comparison between the eight health-concept variables is easy because the population norm is the same for each of them. These indicator variables are age and gender adjusted, so that even if the sample did not have the age and gender distribution as the general population, comparisons can still be made with the value of 25.

  7. Publishing a master's thesis: a guide for novice authors.

    PubMed

    Resta, Robert G; McCarthy Veach, Patricia; Charles, Sarah; Vogel, Kristen; Blase, Terri; Palmer, Christina G S

    2010-06-01

    Publication of original research, clinical experiences, and critical reviews of literature are vital to the growth of the genetic counseling field, delivery of genetic counseling services, and professional development of genetic counselors. Busy clinical schedules, lack of time and funding, and training that emphasizes clinical skills over research skills may make it difficult for new genetic counselors to turn their thesis projects into publications. This paper summarizes and elaborates upon a presentation aimed at de-mystifying the publishing process given at the 2008 National Society of Genetic Counselors Annual Education Conference. Specific topics include familiarizing prospective authors, particularly genetic counseling students, with the basics of the publication process and related ethical considerations. Former students' experiences with publishing master's theses also are described in hopes of encouraging new genetic counselors to submit for publication papers based on their thesis projects.

  8. "Negligent Publishing": Implications for University Publishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallis, Donald

    1982-01-01

    Products liability law is examined in relation to whether Carter v. Rand McNally & Co. has precedential value or is merely an unusual aberration. The case involved a secondary school student, burned carrying out an experiment in a Rand McNally textbook, who was awarded $100,000. The book was deemed a "product." (MLW)

  9. Annotated bibliography of the biomedical literature pertaining to chiropractic, pediatrics and manipulation in relation to the treatment of health conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gotlib, Allan C; Beingessner, Melanie

    1995-01-01

    Biomedical literature retrieval, both indexed and non-indexed, with respect to the application of manipulative therapy with therapeutic intent and pediatric health conditions (ages 0 to 17 years) yielded 66 discrete documents which met specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. There was one experimental study (RCT’s), 3 observational (cohort, case control) studies and 62 descriptive studies (case series, case reports, surveys, literature reviews). An independent rating panel determined consistency with a modified quality of evidence scale adopted from procedure ratings system 1 of Clinical Guidelines for Chiropractic Practice in Canada. Results indicate minimal Class 1 and Class 2 and some Class 3 evidence for a variety of pediatric conditions utilizing the application of manipulation with therapeutic intent.

  10. Distributed Publishing and HyperCite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Anne

    No one publisher or content owner can ever hope to service all of a given user's information needs. Thus a distributed system of publishing, whereby each publisher ensures that each ``knowledge pointer'' in their content links to and from all the other important knowledge pointers in given subject areas, ensures that users can go on ``information trails''. These trails become a voyage of discovery and the junction points on these trails can often be databases, which aim to provide some comprehensive cover of a subject. I shall describe Institute of Physics Publishing's efforts in this area, including our HyperCite technology, which allows users to roam the literature, backwards and forwards in time, and to experience fascinating information trails.

  11. [The analysis of the subject-matter and the structure of scientific articles related to forensic biology published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" in 1960-2010].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A; Shigeev, S V; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the analysis of the subject-matter and the structure of scientific articles related to forensic biology published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" over the period from 1960 till 2010. The sceintometric analysis made it possible to distinguish the main avenues along which forensic biology developed during its most productive period. The results of this analytical study have provided in the summarized form the entire spectrum of the main trends in the forensic biology throughout the half-century period.

  12. A Comprehensive Literature Review of Mode Deactivation Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Marsha Ann; Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article literature published on Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was reviewed in depth. Several studies were identified that used a common outcome measure of reduction of physical and sexual aggression, other risk related behaviors. Comparisons of MDT and, other standardized approaches typically used in treating aggression in juveniles,…

  13. Prepare to publish.

    PubMed

    Price, P M

    2000-01-01

    "I couldn't possibly write an article." "I don't have anything worthwhile to write about." "I am not qualified to write for publication." Do any of these statements sound familiar? This article is intended to dispel these beliefs. You can write an article. You care for the most complex patients in the health care system so you do have something worthwhile to write about. Beside correct spelling and grammar there are no special skills, certificates or diplomas required for publishing. You are qualified to write for publication. The purpose of this article is to take the mystique out of the publication process. Each step of publishing an article will be explained, from idea formation to framing your first article. Practical examples and recommendations will be presented. The essential components of the APA format necessary for Dynamics: The Official Journal of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses will be outlined and resources to assist you will be provided. PMID:11235448

  14. Prepare to publish.

    PubMed

    Price, P M

    2000-01-01

    "I couldn't possibly write an article." "I don't have anything worthwhile to write about." "I am not qualified to write for publication." Do any of these statements sound familiar? This article is intended to dispel these beliefs. You can write an article. You care for the most complex patients in the health care system so you do have something worthwhile to write about. Beside correct spelling and grammar there are no special skills, certificates or diplomas required for publishing. You are qualified to write for publication. The purpose of this article is to take the mystique out of the publication process. Each step of publishing an article will be explained, from idea formation to framing your first article. Practical examples and recommendations will be presented. The essential components of the APA format necessary for Dynamics: The Official Journal of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses will be outlined and resources to assist you will be provided.

  15. An Overview of American Publishing for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facente, Gary

    1986-01-01

    A financial survey of the American publishing scene (estimated net book sales, expenses for publishing and marketing professional books) is followed by descriptions of the editorial and marketing processes. Practices relating to contracts, imprints, distribution arrangements, and remainders are described noting changes in contemporary publishing…

  16. 9 CFR 390.2 - Published materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Agency programs, which implement the laws listed in the Delegation of Authority, 7 CFR 2.15(a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Published materials. 390.2 Section 390... § 390.2 Published materials. FSIS rules and regulations relating to its regulatory responsibilities...

  17. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  18. 9 CFR 390.2 - Published materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Agency programs, which implement the laws listed in the Delegation of Authority, 7 CFR 2.15(a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Published materials. 390.2 Section 390... § 390.2 Published materials. FSIS rules and regulations relating to its regulatory responsibilities...

  19. 9 CFR 390.2 - Published materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Agency programs, which implement the laws listed in the Delegation of Authority, 7 CFR 2.15(a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Published materials. 390.2 Section 390... § 390.2 Published materials. FSIS rules and regulations relating to its regulatory responsibilities...

  20. 9 CFR 390.2 - Published materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Agency programs, which implement the laws listed in the Delegation of Authority, 7 CFR 2.15(a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Published materials. 390.2 Section 390... § 390.2 Published materials. FSIS rules and regulations relating to its regulatory responsibilities...

  1. The Literature Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Reading, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents: the 1996/97 Texas Bluebonnet Award Master List of 19 children's books; a short essay about what she writes and why she writes it by Texas author Angela Shelf Medearis; an essay introducing Arte Publico Press in Houston, a publisher of contemporary and recovered literature by United States Hispanic authors; and the 1996/97 Texas Lone Star…

  2. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies. Methods Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection. Results An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal

  3. Updating the Trainability Tests Literature on Black-White Subgroup Differences and Reconsidering Criterion-Related Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Philip L.; Buster, Maury A.; Bobko, Philip

    2011-01-01

    A number of applied psychologists have suggested that trainability test Black-White ethnic group differences are low or relatively low (e.g., Siegel & Bergman, 1975), though data are scarce. Likewise, there are relatively few estimates of criterion-related validity for trainability tests predicting job performance (cf. Robertson & Downs, 1989). We…

  4. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  5. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  6. Generational differences of the frontline nursing workforce in relation to job satisfaction: what does the literature reveal?

    PubMed

    Saber, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of registered nurses has been found to be associated with retention, organizational commitment, workforce safety, and cost savings to health care organizations. Satisfaction of the workforce is vital because nursing turnover can be detrimental for a labor force that is growing older. However, the summation of the most important variables that are linked to job satisfaction has been difficult to discern in part because the workforce includes 3 main generations (ie, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials) with unique work values that drive their job satisfiers. This article provides a review of existing literature to examine the differences in variables that are linked to job satisfaction that exist between the generational cohorts. Differences in stress sources, need for work-life balance, and compensation are discussed. The knowledge about generationally driven variables that influence job satisfaction can help managers develop strategies to maintain a diverse nursing workforce. PMID:24168868

  7. Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in south-central Canada and north-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Fellows, David P.; Callow, J. Mike; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Natural resource managers have greatly increased the use of fire to manage grassland habitats during the past two decades in the northern Great Plains region of the United States and Canada. In support of these efforts, we have compiled this annotated bibliography to provide a condensed reference of fire literature for those managers with an interest in fire ecology. References are arranged alphabetically by author and year, numbered consecutively, and referenced by number in the author and subject indexes that follow the bibliography. The intent in compiling the bibliography and indexes is more to identify subject matter and to direct the reader to sources rather than to provide a digested interpretation of each manuscript.

  8. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    On 1 January 2004 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General (J. Phys. A). I am flattered at the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Ed Corrigan, has worked tirelessly for the last five years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements. Before accepting the position of Editor-in-Chief, I visited the office of J. Phys. A to examine the organization and to assess its strengths and weaknesses. This office is located at the Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) headquarters in Bristol. J. Phys. A has been expanding rapidly and now publishes at the rate of nearly 1000 articles (or about 14,000 pages) per year. The entire operation of the journal is conducted in a very small space---about 15 square metres! Working in this space are six highly intelligent, talented, hard working, and dedicated people: Neil Scriven, Publisher; Mike Williams, Publishing Editor; Rose Gray and Sarah Nadin, Publishing Administrators; Laura Smith and Steve Richards, Production Editors. In this small space every day about eight submitted manuscripts are downloaded from the computer or received in the post. These papers are then processed and catalogued, referees are selected, and the papers are sent out for evaluation. In this small space the referees' reports are received, publication decisions are made, and accepted articles are then published quickly by IOPP. The whole operation is amazingly efficient. Indeed, one of the great strengths of J. Phys. A is the speed at which papers are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and an editorial decision is under sixty days. (Many distinguished journals take three to five times this amount of time.) This speed of publication is an extremely strong enticement for

  9. RETRACTION: Publishers' Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    post="(Executive Editor">Graeme Watt,

    2010-06-01

    Withdrawal of the paper "Was the fine-structure constant variable over cosmological time?" by L. D. Thong, N. M. Giao, N. T. Hung and T. V. Hung (EPL, 87 (2009) 69002) This paper has been formally withdrawn on ethical grounds because the article contains extensive and repeated instances of plagiarism. EPL treats all identified evidence of plagiarism in the published articles most seriously. Such unethical behaviour will not be tolerated under any circumstance. It is unfortunate that this misconduct was not detected before going to press. My thanks to Editor colleagues from other journals for bringing this fact to my attention.

  10. Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The integrative literature review is a distinctive form of research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. Little guidance is available on how to write an integrative literature review. This article discusses how to organize and write an integrative literature review and cites examples of published integrative literature reviews…

  11. The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Hope Lynette

    Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

  12. Working postures: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Kumar, Shrawan

    2004-06-01

    Working postures are addressed in many papers in the ergonomics field but, surprisingly, scientific literature dealing with working posture itself is not common; knowledge has been elusive. This article reviews the working postures literature. Selected papers published in the English language before March 2003 including the phrase "working postures" in the title, abstract, or keywords were searched in the PubMed, Scirus, and Science Direct databases and reviewed. The literature provides evidence that working postures and musculoskeletal health are related. This relationship is supported by the overexertion, differential fatigue, and cumulative load theories of musculoskeletal injuries' precipitation. Goniometers, inclinometers, photographic techniques, electrogoniometers, and video recording systems are the means that are most often used to measure working postures. Information about working postures need to be collected and analyzed in a more systematic way in order to contribute for a deeper understanding of the relationship between working postures and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This information will help to improve the control and rehabilitation of these highly prevalent disorders.

  13. Does Insulin Explain the Relation between Maternal Obesity and Poor Lactation Outcomes? An Overview of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that obese women are at increased risk of delayed lactogenesis and short breastfeeding duration, but the underlying causal contributors remain unclear. This review summarizes the literature examining the role of insulin in lactation outcomes. Maternal obesity is a strong risk factor for insulin resistance and prediabetes, but until recently a direct role for insulin in milk production had not been elucidated. Over the past 6 y, studies in both animal models and humans have shown insulin-sensitive gene expression to be dramatically upregulated specifically during the lactation cycle. Insulin is now considered to play a direct role in lactation, including essential roles in secretory differentiation, secretory activation, and mature milk production. At the same time, emerging clinical research suggests an important association between suboptimal glucose tolerance and lactation difficulty. To develop effective interventions to support lactation success in obese women further research is needed to identify how, when, and for whom maternal insulin secretion and sensitivity affect lactation ability. PMID:26980825

  14. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  15. Why publish with AGU?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graedel, T. E.

    The most visible activity of the American Geophysical Union is its publication of scientific journals. There are eight of these: Journal of Geophysical Research—Space Physics (JGR I), Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth (JGR II), Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans and Atmospheres (JGR III), Radio Science (RS), Water Resources Research (WRR), Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics (RGSP), and the newest, Tectonics.AGU's journals have established solid reputations for scientific excellence over the years. Reputation is not sufficient to sustain a high quality journal, however, since other factors enter into an author's decision on where to publish his or her work. In this article the characteristics of AGU's journals are compared with those of its competitors, with the aim of furnishing guidance to prospective authors and a better understanding of the value of the products to purchasers.

  16. MEN 2A-related cutaneous lichen amyloidosis: report of three kindred and systematic literature review of clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Scapineli, Jessica Oliboni; Ceolin, Lucieli; Puñales, Márcia Khaled; Dora, José Miguel; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2016-10-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) may be rarely associated with cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA), a skin lesion located in the interescapular region. Here, we describe 3 MEN2A-related CLA kindred and perform a systematic review (SR) of the literature on clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of MEN2A-related CLA patients. Thirty-eight patients with MEN2A-related CLA followed at our institution were evaluated. The median age at MEN2A diagnosis in our cohort was 25 (13-41) years, 68 % were women and all harbored codon 634 RET mutations. The literature search resulted in 20 publications that contributed with 25 MEN2A families and 214 individuals. The mean age of MEN2A diagnosis was 31 ± 17 years, with 77 % women. The mean age reported by patients to initial skin lesion suggestive to CLA was 20 ± 13 years. All but two kindred harbored mutations at codon 634: C634R 7 kindred (35 %), C634Y 5 kindred (25 %), C634W 3 kindred (15 %), C634G 1 kindred (5 %), V804M 1 kindred (5 %) and S891A 1 kindred (5 %). Most interesting, the standardized CLA prevalence was higher in women (2.3/1.0, P < 0.005). The overall reported prevalence of medullary thyroid carcinoma, CLA, pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism was 94, 51, 30 and 16 %, respectively. SR of literature indicates that MEN2A-related CLA is more frequent in women and presents a high penetrance, being the second most frequent manifestation of the syndrome, preceded only by MTC.

  17. Electronic Publishing and The American Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkey, R. W.

    1999-12-01

    Electronic Publishing has created, and will continue to create, new opportunities and challenges for representing scientific work in new media and formats. The AAS will position itself to take advantage of these, both for newly created works and for improved representation of works already published. It is the view of the AAS that we hold the works that we publish in trust for our community and are obligated to protect the integrity of these works and to assure that they continue to be available to the research community. Assignment of copyright to the AAS by the author plays a central role in the preservation of the integrity and accessability of the literature published by the American Astronomical Society. In return for such assignment the AAS allows the author to freely use the work for his/her own purpose and to control the grant of permission to third parties to use such materials. The AAS retains the right to republish the work in whatever format or medium, and to retain the rights after the author's death. Specific advantages to this approach include: Assurance of the continued availability of the materials to the research and educational communities; A guarantee of the intellectual integrity of the materials in the archive; Stimulation of the development of new means of presentation or of access to the archival literature; and Provision of a uniformity of treatment for copyright issues and to relieve the individual authors of much of the administrative work.

  18. Behind the Spam: A "Spectral Analysis" of Predatory Publishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Most researchers today are bombarded with spam email solicitations from questionable scholarly publishers. These emails solicit article manuscripts, editorial board service, and even ad hoc peer reviews. These "predatory" publishers exploit the scholarly publishing process, patterning themselves after legitimate scholarly publishers yet performing little or no peer review and quickly accepting submitted manuscripts and collecting fees from submitting authors. These counterfeit publishers and journals have published much junk science — especially in the field of cosmology — threatening the integrity of the academic record. This presentation examines the current state of predatory publishing and related scams such as fake impact factors and advises researchers how to navigate scholarly publishing to best avoid predatory publishers and other scholarly publishing-related perils.

  19. New journals for publishing medical case reports.

    PubMed

    Akers, Katherine G

    2016-04-01

    Because they do not rank highly in the hierarchy of evidence and are not frequently cited, case reports describing the clinical circumstances of single patients are seldom published by medical journals. However, many clinicians argue that case reports have significant educational value, advance medical knowledge, and complement evidence-based medicine. Over the last several years, a vast number (∼160) of new peer-reviewed journals have emerged that focus on publishing case reports. These journals are typically open access and have relatively high acceptance rates. However, approximately half of the publishers of case reports journals engage in questionable or "predatory" publishing practices. Authors of case reports may benefit from greater awareness of these new publication venues as well as an ability to discriminate between reputable and non-reputable journal publishers. PMID:27076803

  20. New journals for publishing medical case reports

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Katherine G.

    2016-01-01

    Because they do not rank highly in the hierarchy of evidence and are not frequently cited, case reports describing the clinical circumstances of single patients are seldom published by medical journals. However, many clinicians argue that case reports have significant educational value, advance medical knowledge, and complement evidence-based medicine. Over the last several years, a vast number (∼160) of new peer-reviewed journals have emerged that focus on publishing case reports. These journals are typically open access and have relatively high acceptance rates. However, approximately half of the publishers of case reports journals engage in questionable or “predatory” publishing practices. Authors of case reports may benefit from greater awareness of these new publication venues as well as an ability to discriminate between reputable and non-reputable journal publishers. PMID:27076803

  1. Breast cancer, DPYD mutations and capecitabine-related ileitis: description of two cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mokrim, Maha; Aftimos, Philippe G; Errihani, Hassan; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Despite many treatment advances, metastatic breast cancer remains an incurable disease and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Europe. Capecitabine has become a standard treatment option for metastatic breast cancer, as a single agent or in combination. Hand–foot syndrome and diarrhoea are the most frequently reported side effects, while capecitabine-related ileitis is very rare. Deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity leads to severe toxicities after administration of 5-fluorouracil or its prodrugs. We report two cases of patients with metastatic breast cancer who developed ileitis after treatment with capecitabine. One patient had a DPYD gene abnormality. PMID:24748142

  2. Trust in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Hummels, H; Roosendaal, H E

    2001-11-01

    Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organizational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust: process-based trust, institutional-based trust, characteristic-based trust. In this article we will add a fourth type: values-based trust. Similarly, it is customary in scientific communication to distinguish four main communication functions: registration, archiving, certification, awareness. These types of trust and communication functions offer somewhat similar classification schemes. In this paper we will elaborate on these classification schemes with the aim to analyse possible similarities or even mapping. Such similarities will allow drawing conclusions on the development of trust in a (virtual) organisation in general and the process of scientific communication as a special kind of a (virtual) organisation in particular.

  3. Cancer Information Seeking and Cancer-Related Health Outcomes: A Scoping Review of the Health Information National Trends Survey Literature.

    PubMed

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Friedman, Daniela B

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death among adults in the United States. Only 54% of U.S. adults reported seeking cancer information in 2014. Cancer information seeking has been positively associated with cancer-related health outcomes such as screening adherence. We conducted a scoping review of studies that used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) in order to examine cancer information seeking in depth and the relationship between cancer information seeking and cancer-related health outcomes. We searched five databases and the HINTS website. The search yielded a total of 274 article titles. After review of 114 de-duplicated titles, 66 abstracts, and 50 articles, 22 studies met inclusion criteria. Cancer information seeking was the outcome in only four studies. The other 18 studies focused on a cancer-related health outcome. Cancer beliefs, health knowledge, and information seeking experience were positive predictors of cancer information seeking. Cancer-related awareness, knowledge, beliefs, preventive behaviors, and screening adherence were higher among cancer information seekers. Results from this review can inform other research study designs and primary data collection focused on specific cancer sites or aimed at populations not represented or underrepresented in the HINTS data (e.g., minority populations, those with lower socioeconomic status). PMID:27466828

  4. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided. PMID:21864336

  5. Error-related brain activity in the age of RDoC: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Anna; Dieterich, Raoul; Riesel, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The ability to detect and respond to errors is critical to successful adaptation to a changing environment. The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential (ERP) component, is a well-validated neural response to errors and reflects the error monitoring activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Additionally, the ERN is implicated in several processes key to adaptive functioning. Abnormalities in error-related brain activity have been linked to multiple forms of psychopathology and individual differences. As such, the component is likely to be useful in NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative to establish biologically-meaningful dimensions of psychological dysfunction, and currently appears as a unit of measurement in three RDoC domains: Positive Valence Systems, Negative Valence Systems, and Cognitive Systems. In this review paper, we introduce the ERN and discuss evidence related to its psychometric properties, as well as important task differences. Following this, we discuss evidence linking the ERN to clinically diverse forms of psychopathology, as well as the implications of one unit of measurement appearing in multiple RDoC dimensions. And finally, we discuss important future directions, as well as research pathways by which the ERN might be leveraged to track the ways in which dysfunctions in multiple neural systems interact to influence psychological well-being.

  6. Type 2 diabetes–related foot care knowledge and foot self-care practice interventions in the United States: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Timethia; Foster, Margaret; Spears-Lanoix, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this systematic literature review is to review published studies on foot care knowledge and foot care practice interventions as part of diabetic foot care self-management interventions. Methods Medline, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched. References from the included studies were reviewed to identify any missing studies that could be included. Only foot care knowledge and foot care practice intervention studies that focused on the person living with type 2 diabetes were included in this review. Author, study design, sample, intervention, and results were extracted. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria and were classified according to randomized controlled trial (n=9), survey design (n=13), cohort studies (n=4), cross-sectional studies (n=2), qualitative studies (n=2), and case series (n=1). Improving lower extremity complications associated with type 2 diabetes can be done through effective foot care interventions that include foot care knowledge and foot care practices. Conclusion Preventing these complications, understanding the risk factors, and having the ability to manage complications outside of the clinical encounter is an important part of a diabetes foot self-care management program. Interventions and research studies that aim to reduce lower extremity complications are still lacking. Further research is needed to test foot care interventions across multiple populations and geographic locations. PMID:26899439

  7. A Two-Year Report on the Experimental Freshman Year Program. Chapter II, A Review of Research Literature Concerning Low Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Robert J., Ed.

    This chapter, published as part of an extensive report on an experimental college program for low-achieving students, provides a comprehensive review of recent research literature related to low-achievers. Organized into several sections, the review deals with literature on identifying over-and under-achievers, factors related to achievement and…

  8. Predictors of the accuracy of quotation of references in peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature in relation to publications on the scaphoid.

    PubMed

    Buijze, G A; Weening, A A; Poolman, R W; Bhandari, M; Ring, D

    2012-02-01

    Using inaccurate quotations can propagate misleading information, which might affect the management of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of quotation inaccuracy in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid. We randomly selected 100 papers from ten orthopaedic journals. All references were retrieved in full text when available or otherwise excluded. Two observers independently rated all quotations from the selected papers by comparing the claims made by the authors with the data and expressed opinions of the reference source. A statistical analysis determined which article-related factors were predictors of quotation inaccuracy. The mean total inaccuracy rate of the 3840 verified quotes was 7.6%. There was no correlation between the rate of inaccuracy and the impact factor of the journal. Multivariable analysis identified the journal and the type of study (clinical, biomechanical, methodological, case report or review) as important predictors of the total quotation inaccuracy rate. We concluded that inaccurate quotations in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid were common and slightly more so for certain journals and certain study types. Authors, reviewers and editorial staff play an important role in reducing this inaccuracy.

  9. Broviac catheter-related bacteraemias due to unusual pathogens in children with cancer: case reports with literature review.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, E; Conte, M; Venzano, P; Garaventa, A; Viscoli, C; Barretta, M A; Pescetto, L; Tasso, L; Nantron, M; Milanaccio, C; Giacchino, R

    1997-05-01

    Among 102 episodes of intravenous catheter related bacteraemias documented between January 1989 and July 1996 in children receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation at G. Gaslini Children's Hospital, Genoa, Italy, were identified seven episodes due to unusual pathogens: Bacillus circulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacterium casei, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Comamonas acidovorans and Agrobacterium radiobacter. Susceptibility to different antibiotics of all strains are reported. In all cases catheter removal was required for culture negativization. All episodes were diagnosed in absence of granulocytopenia.

  10. A bibliography of stockwork molybdenite deposits and related topics (with an emphasis on the North American literature)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steigerwald, Celia H.; Mutschler, Felix E.; Ludington, Steve

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography of 1117 citations brings together references on stockwork molybdenite deposits and related topics in a format that can be sorted by topic and(or) geographic area. Each reference is preceded by a key, or keys, which may be read and sorted visually or by computer, The bibliography is available in two formats: (1) paper- or microfiche-hardcopy, and (2) fixed format computer reasonable magnetic tape, A FORTRAN program is provided for sorting the magnetic tape version,

  11. Staying current by searching the veterinary literature.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2011-01-01

    The body of knowledge in veterinary medicine and the biomedical sciences continues to grow logarithmically, and learning about new developments in veterinary medicine requires successful navigation of recently published literature worldwide. This article examines how veterinarians can use different types of automated services from databases and publishers to search the current and past literature, access articles, and manage references that are found.

  12. Family suffering related to war experiences: an interpretative synopsis review of the literature from a caring science perspective.

    PubMed

    Isovaara, Sten; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a synopsis review of findings from families' experiences related to combat and war events and to interpret these findings from the perspective of theories of suffering. The method used in the study was a synopsis review of 12 articles dealing with family suffering related to war or combat experiences and an interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective. Findings from the synopsis review were that the dominant part of the articles viewed suffering in general and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in particular from a medical, psychiatric or psychologically behaviouristic perspective. PTSD and other distress-related conditions were mainly described in terms of their symptoms and dealt with in terms of pathology. The interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective generated three significant themes: first, interdependence as a spiritual dimension of dependence, secondly, familial communion as sharing moral and spiritual values and thirdly, familial suffering visualized by compassion. The study's conclusion is that, from a caring science perspective, the appearance of family suffering should be comprehended in terms of expressed compassion and that any disturbance within familial communion is likely to have an emotional impact on all of the family members, as a result of their interdependence. PMID:16922977

  13. The Economics of Publishing and the Publishing of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Manna, Manfredi

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between economics and scientific journal publishing. Topics include journal pricing in economics; market power exerted by the dominant commercial publisher in economics journal publishing; academic experiments to improve scholarly communication in economics; policies of the United Kingdom Competition Commission; and…

  14. Under-reporting of work-related disorders in the workplace: a case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pransky, G; Snyder, T; Dembe, A; Himmelstein, J

    1999-01-01

    Accurate reporting of work-related conditions is necessary to monitor workplace health and safety, and to identify the interventions that are most needed. Reporting systems may be designed primarily for external agencies (OSHA or workers' compensation) or for the employer's own use. Under-reporting of workplace injuries and illnesses is common due to a variety of causes and influences. Based on previous reports, the authors were especially interested in the role of safety incentive programmes on under-reporting. Safety incentive programmes typically reward supervisors and employees for reducing workplace injury rates, and thus may unintentionally inhibit proper reporting. The authors describe a case study of several industrial facilities in order to illustrate the extent of under-reporting and the reasons for its occurrence. A questionnaire and interview survey was administered to 110 workers performing similar tasks and several managers, health, and safety personnel at each of three industrial facilities. Although less than 5% of workers had officially reported a work-related injury or illness during the past year, over 85% experienced work-related symptoms, 50% had persistent work-related problems, and 30% reported either lost time from work or work restrictions because of their ailment. Workers described several reasons for not reporting their injuries, including fear of reprisal, a belief that pain was an ordinary consequence of work activity or ageing, lack of management responsiveness after prior reports, and a desire not to lose their usual job. Interviews with management representatives revealed administrative and other barriers to reporting, stemming from their desire to attain a goal of no reported injuries, and misconceptions about requirements for recordability. The corporate and facility safety incentives appeared to have an indirect, but significant negative influence on the proper reporting of workplace injuries by workers. A variety of influences

  15. Membrane frizzled-related protein gene–related ophthalmological syndrome: 30-month follow-up of a sporadic case and review of genotype-phenotype correlation in the literature

    PubMed Central

    Leaci, Rosachiara; Zenteno, Juan C.; Casubolo, Cristina; Delfini, Elisabetta; Macaluso, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report a new sporadic case of membrane frizzled-related protein gene (MFRP)-related syndrome with a 30-month follow-up, and to review the literature for genotype-phenotype correlation in MFRP mutations. Methods A complete ophthalmological evaluation was performed at presentation and 30 months later, including best-corrected visual acuity test, slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, kinetic perimetry, electroretinography, fundus imaging (color, red-free, and autofluorescence), and morphologic-biometric analysis of the eye structures with an optical biometer, anterior-segment optical coherence tomography, retinal optical coherence tomography, and a confocal scanning laser for optic nerve head study. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes and nucleotide sequencing of the complete MFRP gene were performed. The literature on cases of posterior microphthalmos and retinitis pigmentosa associated with MFRP mutations was reviewed. Results A 33-year-old female patient presented with posterior microphthalmos, retinitis pigmentosa with patches of retinal pigmented epithelium atrophy and scarce pigment mobilization, foveoschisis, and optic nerve drusen. After 30 months, progression of rod-cone retinal degeneration was detected. One obligate carrier showed a normal eye phenotype. A homozygote mutation in the MFRP gene (c.492delC), predicting a truncated protein (P166fsX190), was identified with genetic analysis. To our knowledge, 17 cases of MFRP-related syndrome have been reported in the literature, including the patient described herein. The phenotype of the syndrome, expressivity, and age of onset varied among and within the affected families. However, all patients sharing homozygous mutation c.492delC (alternatively named c.498delC) showed a complete phenotype (including foveoschisis and optic nerve head drusen), and similar fundus characteristics. Conclusions A new sporadic case of MFRP-related syndrome is reported

  16. Implied-Consent Laws: A Review of the Literature and Examination of Current Problems and Related Statutes

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo; Vishnuvajjala, Radha

    2009-01-01

    Problem A substantial proportion of drivers arrested for DUI refuse the BAC test, thereby reducing the likelihood that they will be convicted and potentially increasing the number of highrisk multiple offenders contributing to alcohol-related crashes. Method This paper reviews the information on the current status of implied-consent laws (which impose a sanction on offenders who refuse the BAC test) in the 50 states and the other relevant traffic safety laws and policies that may influenced state refusal rates. Results Although there appears to be only a weak relationship between state refusal rates and crash rates, there is strong evidence that BAC test refusals significantly compromise the arrest, prosecution, and sentencing of DUI suspects and the overall enforcement of DUI laws in the United States. Discussion Laws and policies that may reduce the number of refusals are discussed. Impact on industry Alcohol-related crash injuries are an important cost problem for U.S. industry, because of property damage from crashes, crash injuries to employees that raise health costs, or through the reduction of time on the job resulting from a highway injury. PMID:19433199

  17. IgG4-related Lung Disease Associated with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report and a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Jinbo, Mitsutaka; Yamada, Sohsuke; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Yamasaki, Kei; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD) associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). A 73-year-old Japanese female visited our hospital for an examination following an abnormal chest X-ray in 1999. She was diagnosed with bronchiolitis and AIHA, and treatment with prednisolone was started. After seven years, she visited our department due to a cough. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated focal consolidation with ground-glass attenuations and thickened bronchial walls in the bilateral lungs. She was clinically diagnosed and treated for bronchial asthma. CT findings had shown no changes, and a lung biopsy was performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery at eleven years from the first diagnosis of AIHA. The pathological findings demonstrated the presence of peribronchovascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with stromal fibrotic changes, admixed with many IgG4-positive plasma cells. Furthermore, the patient's serum IgG4 level was high, and her CT findings did not show any obvious abnormal findings in the any organs other than the lungs. She was diagnosed with IgG4-RLD based on the findings. We believe that this case report of IgG4-RLD associated with AIHA is clinically helpful for a better understanding of these diseases, although there are five reported cases of IgG4-related disease associated with AIHA. PMID:27580552

  18. Publishing in the Next Few Years: A Commercial Publisher's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Harry J. J.

    Over the past 15 years, internet technology changed the ways of publishing tremendously. It is truly revolutionary that both fresh and historic science publications are so much easier to search and find. This revolution has not been completed and all parties involved in science publishing are continuously adjusting their activities to the new rules and opportunities. From a commercial publisher's perspective, I will extrapolate what happens today to predict what happens in the next few years with journal subscriptions, book publishing, marketing, production and other steps in the publishing process.

  19. 32 CFR 505.11 - Federal Register publishing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.11 Federal Register publishing requirements... incorporated into the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Privacy Act system of records notices are not published in the CFR....

  20. A Potential Role for Felbamate in TSC- and NF1-Related Epilepsy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishal, Natanya M.; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Tang, Ju; Crawford, John R.; Wang, Sonya G.

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl with maternal inheritance of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and paternal inheritance of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) developed intractable epilepsy at age 5. Her seizures were refractory to adequate doses of four antiepileptic medications until felbamate was initiated at age 7. She has since remained seizure-free on felbamate monotherapy. Although felbamate has multiple mechanisms of action, it is thought to have its most potent antiepileptic effects through inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Previous studies have shown that the NMDAR is altered in varying epilepsy syndromes and notably in the cortical tubers found in TSC. The aim of this paper is to examine how felbamate monotherapy was able to achieve such robust antiepileptic effects in a unique patient and possibly offer a novel therapeutic approach to patients suffering from TSC- and NF-related epilepsy. PMID:26579319

  1. Nintendo Wii related Achilles tendon rupture: first reported case and literature review of motion sensing video game injuries.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. PMID:24827648

  2. A Different Kind of Publishing; Subject Listings; Library Distributors; Publisher Index; Index to Advertisers; Best Sellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Eric; Kim, Ann; Miller, Rebecca; Ward, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    This annual supplement discusses issues related to reference books and the publishing industry. Highlights include producing reference books for the library market; a bibliography of over 1000 titles organized by categories and indicating appropriate grade levels; a descriptive list of library distributors; a publisher's index; and a list of the…

  3. Chronotype-related differences in childhood and adolescent aggression and antisocial behavior--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Sopp, Roxanne; Ambiel, David; Grünwald, Julia

    2014-02-01

    Eveningness has been found to negatively affect adolescents' sleep and daytime functioning. Furthermore, eveningness is associated with greater impulsivity than morningness. Externalizing behavior could be chronotype-related, implying that the alteration of the circadian rhythm itself is connected to aspects of emotion and emotion regulation. The present study investigated chronotype-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems, especially aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive search via web of knowledge (MEDLINE, web of science), EBSCO, Ovid, PubMed, Google Scholar and PsycINDEX using the keywords: chronotype, chronobiology, morningness, eveningness, owls and larks as well as diurnal preference to fully capture every aspect of chronotype. For aggression we used the search terms: aggression, anger, hostility, violence, anti-social behavior, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, delinquency, social adjustment and externalizing behavior. N = 13 studies were included concerning chronotype, childhood, adolescence and antisocial behavior. Results showed that children and adolescents being E-types were more affected by daytime impairments. Additionally, behavioral and emotional problems as aggression or antisocial behavior were more pronounced in E- than in M-types. Our findings support an association of eveningness and the impact of aggression on children and adolescents. Longitudinal investigations should be conducted in order to insure causality of the effects in question. In addition, the elevated vulnerability toward aggression in evening types demonstrates the need for prevention and intervention programs that educate youths in proper sleep hygiene and evoke an awareness of the consequences of a habitually diminished sleep quality.

  4. Seven Tips for Publishing Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumashiro, Kevin K.

    2004-01-01

    The publishing industry in the field of education is undergoing several profound changes. New publishers are emerging while established publishers are merging. More book series (that is, books on a certain topic that are approved and mentored by one or more established scholars in the field) are being created. Alternative paths are becoming more…

  5. Strategic Change in AAS Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Julie

    2015-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society has embarked on a process of strategic change in its publishing program. The process has incuded authors, AAS leaders, editors, publishing experts, librarians, and data scientists. This session will outline the still ongoing process and present some both upcoming and already available new AAS Publishing features and services to the global astronomy community.

  6. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  7. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in Pregnancy Complicated by the Development of Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jennifer; Bridges, Firas; Trivedi, Kiran; Vullo, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) represents a rare, but serious cause of abdominal pain. Case Here we discuss the case of a healthy multigravida female who presented at 28 weeks gestation with spontaneous RSH. Conservative management with multiple blood transfusions led to the development of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and intensive care unit admission. She was managed with noninvasive ventilatory support, gradually improved, and was weaned of ventilation. After hospital discharge, she progressed to full term and delivered a viable male infant vaginally at 37 weeks gestation. Conclusion Review of the literature demonstrates 13 cases of RSH in pregnancy, including our own. No other cases were complicated by transfusion related morbidity. RSH and TRALI are rare, but life threatening entities that can complicate pregnancy. PMID:27651980

  8. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care. PMID:24469940

  9. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  10. Effective treatment of severe pregnancy and lactation-related osteoporosis with teriparatide: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Aydin, Cevdet; Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy or lactation-related osteoporosis (PLO) is a very rare and debilitating condition which is usually diagnosed during the last trimester of the pregnancy or early postpartum period. Herein, we report a case with severe PLO and multiple vertebral compression fractures that were successfully treated with teriparatide. Twenty-three-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic two months after her first spontaneous vaginal delivery with the complaint of severe back pain. Bone mineral density was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and low T- and Z-scores were observed in lumbar vertebrae. In vertebral MRI, severe height loss was detected in thoracic (T) 5,7,10,11,12 vertebrae. After exclusion of the other possible causes of OP, she was diagnosed to have PLO and the lactation was stopped. She was treated with calcium 1000 mg/day, cholecalciferol 800 mg/day and teriparatide 20 µg/day. At the 12th and 18th month of therapy, BMD was increased by 8% and 27%, respectively, at the lumbar spine and pain was completely relieved in few months. There are pharmacological therapy modalities that can be used in PLO. Bisphosphonates are effective, but there are some concerns that they accumulate in bone and may expose fetus in subsequent pregnancies. Teriparatide is a strong candidate to be the optimal medical therapy in severe cases since it is effective and safe. PMID:25893268

  11. Teenage and Young Adult Cancer-Related Fatigue Is Prevalent, Distressing, and Neglected: It Is Time to Intervene. A Systematic Literature Review and Narrative Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sara; Grove, Sarah; Hatcher, Helen; Kuhn, Isla; Barclay, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer-related fatigue in adults has been the subject of considerable recent research, confirming its importance as a common and debilitating symptom, and establishing a number of evidence-based interventions. There has, however, been limited focus on the fatigue suffered by teenagers and young adults with cancer, a group recognized as having unique experiences and developmental needs. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to provide a comprehensive overview of studies evaluating fatigue in this younger patient group in order to guide clinical practice and future research. Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases for literature containing data relating to any aspect of fatigue in patients aged 13–24 at cancer diagnosis or treatment. Results: Sixty articles were identified, of which five described interventional clinical trials. Cancer-related fatigue was consistently one of the most prevalent, severe, and distressing symptoms, and it persisted long-term in survivors. It was associated with a number of factors, including poor sleep, depression, and chemotherapy. There was little evidence for the effectiveness of any intervention, although exercise appears to be the most promising. Importantly, fatigue was itself a significant barrier to physical and social activities. Conclusion: Cancer-related fatigue is a major and disabling problem in young cancer patients. Effective management strategies are needed to avoid compounding the dependence and social isolation of this vulnerable patient group. Future research should focus on providing evidence for the effectiveness of interventions, of which activity promotion and management of concurrent symptoms are the most promising. PMID:25852970

  12. Open Access Publishing - Strengths and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The journal crisis and the demand for free accessibility to the results of publicly funded research were the main drivers of the Open Access movement since the late 1990's. Besides many academic institutions that support the different ways of Open Access publishing, there is a growing number of publishing houses that are specialized on this new access and business model of scholarly literature. The lecture provides an overview of the different kinds of Open Access publishing, discusses the variety of underlying business models, names the advantages and potentials for researches and the public, and overcomes some objections against Open Access. Besides the increased visibility and information supply, the topic of copyrights and exploitation rights will be discussed. Furthermore, it is a central aim of the presentation to show that Open Access does not only support full peer-review, but also provides the potential for even enhanced quality assurance. The financing of business models based on open accessible literature is another important part to be outlined in the lecture.

  13. A Publisher view on the future of scholarly publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, Jose

    2015-08-01

    The journal publishing landscape is changing rapidly. With the massive move from print to online taking place at the end of the last century, we are now seeing a shift from traditional subscription based publishing model to ‘hybrid’ models and full Open Access publishing. Other major changes are taking place at the article interface level (from a static PDF to the “Article of the Future”), in data and code repository linking, in publishing data and code and hence make it citable and discoverable, and in many other subject area specific online innovations that are being introduced.Elsevier is actively involved - both in Open Access publishing, and in content innovation - in discussing, and taking the lead through many big and smaller scale initiatives. This presentation will outline Elsevier’s perspective on the future of scientific publishing with regards to these developments.

  14. Testing? Testing? In Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    The assumptions behind secondary school literature course tests--whether asking students to recall aspects of literary works, to relate literary works to each other, or to analyze unfamiliar literary works--are open to question. They fail to acknowledge some of the most important aspects of literature which, if properly taught, should provide a…

  15. Discovering Florida through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Liz; Smith, Martha

    Noting that a student's study of a state becomes more meaningful when children's and young adult literature is used as an enhancement, this book offers Florida-related works of literature to broaden the study of the state. The book is organized by category: history, historical fiction, biographies, plants, animals, fiction, geography, and travel.…

  16. Medical Publishing Triage – Chronicling Predatory Open Access Publishers

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This editorial examines the problem of predatory publishers and how they have negatively affected scholarly communication. Society relies on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles for public policy, legal cases, and improving the public health. Researchers need to be aware of how predatory publishers operate and need to avoid falling into their traps. The editorial examines the recent history of predatory publishers and how they have become prominent in the world of scholarly journals. PMID:25737780

  17. Paper vs. electrons. Epidemiologic publishing in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg; Frank; Fitzmaurice

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: To present the parallel histories of epidemiologic and electronic publishing and consider positive and negative factors that might affect their amalgam.METHODS: We performed a quantitative assessment of the arc of epidemiologic publication from 1966-1999, using major self-designated epidemiologic journals as a sample, and of scholarly electronic publication from 1991-1997, based on current literature review. We use an online, paperless journal as a case study, and review selected information-technology opinion in the area.RESULTS: By traditional standards, growth in epidemiologic publication has been considerable, with the addition of six new journals since 1966. In contrast, scholarly electronic publication for the period 1991-1997 grew from 27 to 2459 journals (not all exclusively online). Positive features of electronic publishing include flexibility, shortened time to publication, freedom from fixed publication date, diversity in presentation, and instant linkage to relevant material. A case study of a new online journal illustrates the substantive power of the medium. Negative factors include restriction (or unrestricted expansion) of the audience, the potential for hasty peer review, pitfalls in establishing credibility, an emphasis on style over content, technologic dependence, and additions to the information explosion. Relative cost and archiving are still debated. In assessing the pros and cons, it is important to distinguish electronic mechanisms that facilitate publication from electronic publishing, and to appreciate the difference between moving an existing journal to the electronic medium, and creating a new online journal.CONCLUSIONS: The movement from print to internet is probably inexorable, but a headlong rush may be ill-advised. Several models for dual publishing now exist, with the expectation that many, including the journals that serve epidemiology, will do so. The ultimate configuration is difficult to predict, but likely to be

  18. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  19. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  20. Access to the scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarède, Francis

    The Public Library of Science Open Letter (http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org) is a very generous initiative, but, as most similar initiatives since the advent of electronic publishing, it misses the critical aspects of electronic publishing.Ten years ago, a Publisher would be in charge of running a system called a “scientific journal.” In such a system, the presence of an Editor and peer Reviewers secures the strength of the science and the rigor of writing; the Publisher guarantees the professional quality of printing, efficient dissemination, and long-term archiving. Publishing used to be in everyone's best interest, or nearly everyone. The Publisher, because he/she is financially motivated, ensures widespread dissemination of the journal amongst libraries and individual subscribers. The interest of the Author is that the system guarantees a broad potential readership. The interest of the Reader is that a line is drawn between professionally edited literature, presumably of better quality, and gray literature or home publishing, so that he/she does not waste time going through ‘low yield’ ungraded information. The Publisher could either be a private company, an academic institution, or a scholarly society. My experience is that, when page charges and subscription rates are compounded, journals published by scholarly societies are not necessarily cheaper. The difference between these cases is not the cost of running an office with rents, wages, printing, postage, advertisement, and archiving, but that a private Publisher pays shareholders. Shareholders have the bad habit of minding their own business and, therefore, they may interfere negatively with scientific publishing. Nevertheless, while the stranglehold imposed by private Publishers on our libraries over the last 10 years by increasing subscription rates may in part be due to shareholders' greed, this is true only in part. The increases are also a consequence of the booming number of pages being

  1. Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis as a metastatic complication of hemodialysis vascular access-related sepsis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Osman Zikrullah; Kara, Ekrem; Belice, Tahir; Ayaz, Teslime; Baydur Sahin, Serap; Ozturk, Cinar; Yildirim, Safak; Metin, Yavuz; Sahutoglu, Tuncay

    2016-07-01

    Catheter and/or arteriovenous (A-V) graft-related bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Endocarditis, septic arthritis, epidural abscess, septic embolism, and osteomyelitis are the most common complications of catheter and/or A-V graft-related bacteremia; however, endogenous endophthalmitis is rarely seen. To the best of our knowledge, Enterococcus faecalis is the first case report in this population. We hereby report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis as a complication of catheter and/or A-V graft-related bacteremia in a diabetic patient, who was undergoing HD for 5 years. We also discuss the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of endogenous endophthalmitis in HD patients with a brief review of the literature. Although broad-spectrum parenteral (intravenous and intravitreal) antibiotics were used for 4 weeks, evisceration of the left eye could not be avoided. Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare but rapidly blinding complication of catheter and/or A-V graft-related bacteremia in HD patients. It can develop as a result of silent catheter and/or A-V graft infections, which may lead to recurrent bacteremia. E. faecalis should be considered as a pathogen in this population who had recent history of catheter or A-V graft procedure. PMID:26346615

  2. The Epidemiology of Occupational Heat-Related Morbidity and Mortality in the United States: A Review of the Literature and Assessment of Research Needs in a Changing Climate

    PubMed Central

    Gubernot, Diane M.; Anderson, G. Brooke; Hunting, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has experienced record-breaking summer heat. Climate change models forecast increasing U.S. temperatures and more frequent heat waves in coming years. This scoping review summarizes research findings that characterize U.S. occupational heat-related morbidity and mortality and identifies gaps in the existing research literature. Exposure to environmental heat is a significant, but overlooked, workplace hazard that has not been well-characterized or studied. The working population is diverse; job function, age, fitness level, and risk factors to heat-related illnesses vary. This review found that few studies examine or characterize the incidence of occupational heat-related illnesses and outcomes. More research on the effects of occupational heat exposure is needed to identify and implement evidence-based policies and interventions. Since heat-related health hazards at work can be anticipated before they manifest, preventive measures can be implemented before illness occurs. With no federal regulatory standards to protect workers from environmental heat exposure, and with climate change as a driver for adaptation and prevention of heat disorders, crafting policy to characterize and prevent occupational heat stress for all workers is increasingly sensible, practical, and imperative. PMID:24326903

  3. Where to publish family violence research?

    PubMed

    Moore, Todd M; Rhatigan, Deborah L; Stuart, Gregory L; Street, Amy; Farrell, Lyette E

    2004-08-01

    Family violence researchers must weigh numerous factors in deciding where to submit their work for publication. The purpose of the present study is to provide a useful guide for family violence researchers to make informed decisions about publishing their manuscripts. Through an extensive computerized literature search, 22 English-language specialty and non-specialty journals that frequently publish articles on family violence were identified. Editors or editorial staff of these journals were contacted and completed a brief questionnaire about their respective journal. Journals varied widely in types of articles accepted for publication, target audience, circulation rates, number of issues per year, and acceptance rates. Journals generally evidenced high acceptance rates following resubmission. Overall, this study identified numerous journals to serve as outlets for the theoretical and empirical efforts of family violence researchers.

  4. Further delineation of FKBP14-related Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A patient with early vascular complications and non-progressive kyphoscoliosis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dordoni, Chiara; Ciaccio, Claudia; Venturini, Marina; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Ritelli, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-08-01

    FKBP14-related Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an extremely rare recessive connective tissue disorder described for the first time in 2012 by Baumann and coworkers. The causal gene, FKBP14, encodes a member of the F506-binding family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. The paucity of patients described so far makes this disorder poorly defined at clinical level. Here, we report an additional pediatric patient, who is compound heterozygous for a recurrent and a novel FKBP14 mutation, and compare his phenotype with those available in literature. This evaluation confirms that kyphoscoliosis (either progressive or non-progressive), myopathy, joint hypermobility, and congenital hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed) are the typical features of the syndrome. Since the patient showed a severe cardiovascular event in childhood and atlantoaxial instability, this report expands the phenotype of the disorder and the allelic repertoire of FKBP14. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Further delineation of FKBP14-related Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A patient with early vascular complications and non-progressive kyphoscoliosis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dordoni, Chiara; Ciaccio, Claudia; Venturini, Marina; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Ritelli, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-08-01

    FKBP14-related Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an extremely rare recessive connective tissue disorder described for the first time in 2012 by Baumann and coworkers. The causal gene, FKBP14, encodes a member of the F506-binding family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. The paucity of patients described so far makes this disorder poorly defined at clinical level. Here, we report an additional pediatric patient, who is compound heterozygous for a recurrent and a novel FKBP14 mutation, and compare his phenotype with those available in literature. This evaluation confirms that kyphoscoliosis (either progressive or non-progressive), myopathy, joint hypermobility, and congenital hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed) are the typical features of the syndrome. Since the patient showed a severe cardiovascular event in childhood and atlantoaxial instability, this report expands the phenotype of the disorder and the allelic repertoire of FKBP14. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27149304

  6. An Update on AGU Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilst, Rob; Hanson, Brooks

    2013-07-01

    In the past year, AGU publishing has undergone substantial change, and we realize that this has caused some anxiety and concern among you, our members. As the start of a regular Eos series on issues in scientific publishing in general and AGU's content in particular, we provide here an overview and update of recent developments, with an emphasis on the partnership between AGU and Wiley. Topical entries, for instance on open access, will be published later.

  7. Research Library Publishing Services: New Options for University Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Karla L.

    2008-01-01

    A 2007 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey indicates that research libraries are rapidly developing publishing services: 65 percent of 80 responding ARL member libraries currently deliver or are in processing of planning these services. Established journal titles dominate this emerging publishing sector and are the main drivers of…

  8. Publish or Perish: The Myth and Reality of Academic Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy

    2014-01-01

    While writing for scholarly publications is considered a crucial dimension of academic work, the "publish-or-perish" system in our field has increasingly caused anxiety and induced stress among not only young academics but also more established scholars. Using my own publishing experience as a point of departure, I challenge the…

  9. 22 CFR 212.11 - Materials to be published.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Materials to be published. 212.11 Section 212... Federal Register § 212.11 Materials to be published. (a) USAID separately states and currently publishes..., descriptions of forms available or the places at which forms may be obtained, and instructions as to the...

  10. 22 CFR 212.11 - Materials to be published.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Materials to be published. 212.11 Section 212... Federal Register § 212.11 Materials to be published. (a) USAID separately states and currently publishes..., descriptions of forms available or the places at which forms may be obtained, and instructions as to the...

  11. 22 CFR 212.11 - Materials to be published.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Materials to be published. 212.11 Section 212... Federal Register § 212.11 Materials to be published. (a) USAID separately states and currently publishes..., descriptions of forms available or the places at which forms may be obtained, and instructions as to the...

  12. 22 CFR 212.11 - Materials to be published.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Materials to be published. 212.11 Section 212... Federal Register § 212.11 Materials to be published. (a) USAID separately states and currently publishes..., descriptions of forms available or the places at which forms may be obtained, and instructions as to the...

  13. Successful treatment of pediatric IgG4 related systemic disease with mycophenolate mofetil: case report and a review of the pediatric autoimmune pancreatitis literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently associated with elevated serum and tissue IgG4 levels in the adult population, but there are few reports of pediatric autoimmune pancreatitis, and even fewer reports of IgG4 related systemic disease in a pediatric population. The standard of care treatment in adults is systemic corticosteroids with resolution of symptoms in most cases; however, multiple courses of corticosteroids are occasionally required and some patients require long term corticosteroids. In these instances, steroid sparing disease modify treatments are in demand. We describe a 13-year-old girl with IgG4 related systemic disease who presented with chronic recurrent autoimmune pancreatitis resulting in surgical intervention for obstructive hyperbilirubinemia and chronic corticosteroid treatment. In addition, she developed fibrosing medianstinitis as part of her IgG4 related systemic disease. She was eventually successfully treated with mycophenolate mofetil allowing for discontinuation of corticosteroids. This is the first reported use of mycophenolate mofetil for IgG4 related pancreatitis. Although autoimmune pancreatitis as part of IgG4 related systemic disease is rarely reported in pediatrics, autoimmune pancreatitis is also characterized as idiopathic fibrosing pancreatitis. All pediatric autoimmune pancreatitis cases reported in the world medical literature were identified via a PUBMED search and are reviewed herein. Twelve reports of pediatric autoimmune pancreatitis were identified, most of which were treated with corticosteroids or surgical approaches. Most case reports failed to report IgG4 levels, so it remains unclear how commonly IgG4 related autoimmune pancreatitis occurs during childhood. Increased evaluation of IgG4 levels in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis may shed further light on the association of IgG4 with pancreatitis and the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:21205323

  14. Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Mills, S D H; Tanner, L M; Adams, J

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research confirms that food advertising affects the food preferences and behaviour of children. The impact of food advertising on adults is less clear. We conducted a systematic review exploring the effects of advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks (referred to as 'food' throughout) on food-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations. We searched seven electronic databases, grey literature sources, and references and citations of included material for experimental studies written in English investigating the effects of commercial food advertising on the food-related behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of adults aged 16 years and over. Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels of economic development will be of particular value.

  15. Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Mills, S D H; Tanner, L M; Adams, J

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research confirms that food advertising affects the food preferences and behaviour of children. The impact of food advertising on adults is less clear. We conducted a systematic review exploring the effects of advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks (referred to as 'food' throughout) on food-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations. We searched seven electronic databases, grey literature sources, and references and citations of included material for experimental studies written in English investigating the effects of commercial food advertising on the food-related behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of adults aged 16 years and over. Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels of economic development will be of particular value. PMID:23297736

  16. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor.

    PubMed

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2011-02-01

    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories.

  17. Estimates of the Continuously Publishing Core in the Scientific Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Boyack, Kevin W.; Klavans, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability of a scientist to maintain a continuous stream of publication may be important, because research requires continuity of effort. However, there is no data on what proportion of scientists manages to publish each and every year over long periods of time. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the entire Scopus database, we estimated that there are 15,153,100 publishing scientists (distinct author identifiers) in the period 1996–2011. However, only 150,608 (<1%) of them have published something in each and every year in this 16-year period (uninterrupted, continuous presence [UCP] in the literature). This small core of scientists with UCP are far more cited than others, and they account for 41.7% of all papers in the same period and 87.1% of all papers with >1000 citations in the same period. Skipping even a single year substantially affected the average citation impact. We also studied the birth and death dynamics of membership in this influential UCP core, by imputing and estimating UCP-births and UCP-deaths. We estimated that 16,877 scientists would qualify for UCP-birth in 1997 (no publication in 1996, UCP in 1997–2012) and 9,673 scientists had their UCP-death in 2010. The relative representation of authors with UCP was enriched in Medical Research, in the academic sector and in Europe/North America, while the relative representation of authors without UCP was enriched in the Social Sciences and Humanities, in industry, and in other continents. Conclusions The proportion of the scientific workforce that maintains a continuous uninterrupted stream of publications each and every year over many years is very limited, but it accounts for the lion’s share of researchers with high citation impact. This finding may have implications for the structure, stability and vulnerability of the scientific workforce. PMID:25007173

  18. Publish--Don't Perish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    This paper proposes basic guidelines for the publishing and preparation of manuscripts, with the focus on the publication of empirical research in scientific journals. It is assumed that research is complete only when the results are shared. The guidelines serve as standards, and cover all stages of publishing from the first review of literature…

  19. A Manifesto for Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While university presses grapple with the economic and technological challenges now affecting how books are published--the subject of a thousand and one AAUP conference sessions, e-mail-list debates, and news articles--discussion of "what" is published seems to have taken a back seat. And understandably so. Why obsess about content if books are…

  20. Desktop Publishing in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstyn, Joan N., Ed.

    Highlighting changes in the work of people within the university, this book presents nine essays that examine the effects of desktop publishing and electronic publishing on professors and students, librarians, and those who work at university presses and in publication departments. Essays in the book are: (1) "Introduction: The Promise of Desktop…

  1. [Actors of journal publishing in the social and medical sciences].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-04-19

    Journals published by universities take up a modest part of the scientific literature at the moment, but there are several signs and even more reasons to believe that their significance is rising. Recently, the most significant increase can be detected in social sciences. The top list of university rankings based on journal publishing activity brings into the forefront - beside some obvious favorites (Oxford, Cambridge, Chicago) - some less expected universities, as well.

  2. Desktop Publishing: Probable Effects on University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misanchuk, Earl R.

    Desktop publishing (DTP) could potentially become a powerful, relatively inexpensive tool for use in university extension activities. This paper describes and explains the characteristics of DTP and examines its effects on university extension. In addition, it outlines the kind of hardware, software, and skills needed and costs; describes new…

  3. A Newspaper Career? A Publisher's Personal Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, David J.

    In response to an eighth grade girl's questions about selecting a newspaper career, this pamphlet provides information on a number of aspects of the newspaper industry from a publisher's personal point of view. Educational requirements are discussed, emphasizing the necessity of a 4-year college degree in journalism or a related field and a solid…

  4. Publishers, Publishing and the Internet: How Journal Publishing Will Survive and Prosper in the Electronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John E.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet will change how publishers function. Publishers will need to acquire new skills in developing multimedia; become custodians of intellectual property rather than producers of printed artifacts; know copyright and contract law, especially international aspects; and work more closely with universities to deliver electronic information…

  5. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  6. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  7. The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Vincent; Haustein, Stefanie; Mongeon, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation of the scientific publishing industry has been the topic of much debate within and outside the scientific community, especially in relation to major publishers' high profit margins. However, the share of scientific output published in the journals of these major publishers, as well as its evolution over time and across various disciplines, has not yet been analyzed. This paper provides such analysis, based on 45 million documents indexed in the Web of Science over the period 1973-2013. It shows that in both natural and medical sciences (NMS) and social sciences and humanities (SSH), Reed-Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, and Taylor & Francis increased their share of the published output, especially since the advent of the digital era (mid-1990s). Combined, the top five most prolific publishers account for more than 50% of all papers published in 2013. Disciplines of the social sciences have the highest level of concentration (70% of papers from the top five publishers), while the humanities have remained relatively independent (20% from top five publishers). NMS disciplines are in between, mainly because of the strength of their scientific societies, such as the ACS in chemistry or APS in physics. The paper also examines the migration of journals between small and big publishing houses and explores the effect of publisher change on citation impact. It concludes with a discussion on the economics of scholarly publishing.

  8. Graduate Career-Making and Business Start-Up: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, Ghulam; Holden, Rick; Walmsley, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a selective review of literature on the career-related decision-making processes in terms of the transition from student to business start-up, and the nature and influence of support and guidance. Design/methodology/approach: Primarily, a critical review of a range of recently published literature…

  9. Research and Practice in K-12 Online Learning: A Review of Open Access Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Cathy S.; Barbour, Michael K.; Clark, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The literature related to online learning programs for K-12 students dates to the mid-1990s and builds upon a century of research and practice from K-12 distance education. While K-12 online learning programs have evolved and grown over the past decade, the amount of published research on virtual schooling practice and policy is limited. The…

  10. The Impact of Creative Learning Environments on Learners: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jindal-Snape, Divya; Davies, Dan; Collier, Chris; Howe, Alan; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a systematic review of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools. Despite the search yielding 210 documents, comparatively few empirical studies were published between 2005 and 2011 that addressed the review objectives. Only 18 studies included in the…

  11. Multiple Authors, Multiple Problems--Bibliometrics and the Study of Scholarly Collaboration: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsanyi, Martha A.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review examines multiple authorship relating to research on scholarly publishing within library and information science. Highlights include the history and function of collaboration; citation analysis; and the concept of authorship, including ethics of collaboration, productivity, and measures of collaboration. An appendix lists…

  12. Current Literature on Venereal Disease, 1973. Number One. Abstracts and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report presents a survey of recently published literature in the field of venereal disease. The five main topics covered are a) diagnosis and management of syphilis and other treponematoses, b) gonorrhea, c) minor venereal and related diseases, d) public health methods, and e) behavioral studies. The material in each of these sections…

  13. Children's Literature, the Home, and the Debate on Public versus Private Education, c.1760-1845

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenby, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    In Britain in the period 1760-1845 the debate on the relative merits of public (school) versus private (home) education remained unresolved and was vigorously debated in many media. It was in this same period that children's literature began to flourish: a much wider variety of books were published in much greater numbers. The new children's…

  14. Research on the Textbook Publishing Industry in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review published research literature about the publishing process and the roles of participants in this process on the textbook publishing industry in the USA. The contents of books, collected works, reports and journal articles were analysed, and summaries of the contents were then organised chronologically to…

  15. The Ethics of Reprint Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Daniel C.

    1971-01-01

    Reprint publishers have been charged with deceptive marketing tactics, high prices and needless duplication of titles which would seem to reflect a questionable code of ethics. Some possible solutions to these, poor communications, problems are given. (Author)

  16. Electronic publishing and intelligent information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europeans are now taking steps to homogenize policies and standardize procedures in electronic publishing (EP) in astronomy and space sciences. This arose from an open meeting organized in Oct. 1991 at Strasbourg Observatory (France) and another business meeting held late Mar. 1992 with the major publishers and journal editors in astronomy and space sciences. The ultimate aim of EP might be considered as the so-called 'intelligent information retrieval' (IIR) or better named 'advanced information retrieval' (AIR), taking advantage of the fact that the material to be published appears at some stage in a machine-readable form. It is obvious that the combination of desktop and electronic publishing with networking and new structuring of knowledge bases will profoundly reshape not only our ways of publishing, but also our procedures of communicating and retrieving information. It should be noted that a world-wide survey among astronomers and space scientists carried out before the October 1991 colloquium on the various packages and machines used, indicated that TEX-related packages were already in majoritarian use in our community. It has also been stressed at each meeting that the European developments should be carried out in collaboration with what is done in the US (STELLAR project, for instance). American scientists and journal editors actually attended both meetings mentioned above. The paper will offer a review of the status of electronic publishing in astronomy and its possible contribution to advanced information retrieval in this field. It will also report on recent meetings such as the 'Astronomy from Large Databases-2 (ALD-2)' conference dealing with the latest developments in networking, in data, information, and knowledge bases, as well as in the related methodologies.

  17. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  18. Children's Literature in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen A.

    Three basal reading series, levels kindergarten through grade three, were studied to categorize the types of literature each contained. The following series were analyzed: "The Headway Program" (Open Court Publishing Company), "Series r Macmillan Reading," and "Basics in Reading" (Scott, Foresman and Company). It was hypothesized that basal…

  19. [CT-findings in penetrating captive bolt injuries to the head and brain: analysis of the trauma-related CT-findings and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bula-Sternberg, J; Laniado, M; Kittner, T; Bonnaire, F; Lein, T; Bula, P

    2011-11-01

    Penetrating gunshot injuries to the head and brain are rare in Germany and the rest of Western Europe. Due to the small number of cases over here no consistent diagnostic and therapeutic standards exist in this respect. Thus these kinds of injuries present a great challenge to the attending physicians. Most of these violations are a result of a suicidal attempt or an accident. Beside violations by firearms also penetrating injuries to the head and brain due to captive bolt devices, as used in slaughtery business for the "humane" killing of animals, occur from time to time. The impact on the head differs from that caused by firearms because no projectile is leaving the barrel and the used bolt, as a fix part of the device, does not remain in the affected tissue. That implies characteristic results within the radiological imaging that might be pathbreaking for the further treatment, because the origin of such a head injury is often unknown during primary care. Consequently the knowledge of these specific findings is central to the radiologist to make the appropriate diagnosis. Based on some clinical examples the trauma-related CT-findings are introduced and a short overview of the relevant literature is also given.

  20. Literature & Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattor, Emma E.

    An effective way to teach literature to students accustomed to electronic media is to use prose and poetry as raw materials for the production of photography projects that translate print into more familiar and exciting forms. Studies confirm that "visual literacy" should be an important part of a modern student's education. "Picture reading," an…

  1. Literature Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)

  2. Women's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

  3. Literature Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  4. Distribution and Epidemiological Characteristics of Published Individual Patient Data Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinqiu; Yang, Zuyao; Di, Mengyang; Tam, Wilson Wai-san; Tang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMAs) prevail as the gold standard in clinical evaluations. We investigated the distribution and epidemiological characteristics of published IPDMA articles. Methodology/Principal Findings IPDMA articles were identified through comprehensive literature searches from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library. Two investigators independently conducted article identification, data classification and extraction. Data related to the article characteristics were collected and analyzed descriptively. A total of 829 IPDMA articles indexed until 9 August 2012 were identified. An average of 3.7 IPDMA articles was published per year. Malignant neoplasms (267 [32.2%]) and circulatory diseases (179 [21.6%]) were the most frequently occurring topics. On average, each IPDMA article included a median of 8 studies (Interquartile range, IQR 5 to 15) involving 2,563 patients (IQR 927 to 8,349). Among 829 IPDMA articles, 229 (27.6%) did not perform a systematic search to identify related studies. In total, 207 (25.0%) sought and included individual patient data (IPD) from the “grey literature”. Only 496 (59.8%) successfully obtained IPD from all identified studies. Conclusions/Significance The number of IPDMA articles exhibited an increasing trend over the past few years and mainly focused on cancer and circulatory diseases. Our data indicated that literature searches, including grey literature and data availability were inconsistent among different IPDMA articles. Possible biases may arise. Thus, decision makers should not uncritically accept all IPDMAs. PMID:24945406

  5. An examination of the factors related to dating violence perpetration among young men and women and associated theoretical explanations: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dardis, Christina M; Dixon, Kristiana J; Edwards, Katie M; Turchik, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    This article provides a review of the literature on dating violence (DV) perpetration, specifically sex similarities and differences in the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration and the utility of current theories to explain young men's and women's DV perpetration. Overall, many of the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration are similar among young men and women (e.g., witnessing interparental violence, experiencing child abuse, alcohol abuse, traditional gender roles, relationship power dynamics). However, young women's perpetration of DV is more strongly related to internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression), trait anger and hostility, and experiencing DV victimization than young men's perpetration, whereas young men's perpetration of DV is more consistently related to lower socioeconomic status and educational attainment, antisocial personality characteristics, and increased relationship length than young women's perpetration. Each theory offers insights into but does not fully account for the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration. Sociocultural theories may be useful in explaining the use of coercive control in relationships, and learning/intergenerational transmission of violence theories may be useful in explaining bidirectional couple violence. Future research should focus on integrative theories, such as in the social-ecological theory, in order to explain various forms of DV. Our understanding of young men's and young women's DV perpetration is limited by cross-sectional research designs, methodological inconsistencies, a lack of sex-specific analytic approaches, and a lack of focus on contextual factors; more multivariate and longitudinal studies are needed. Further, as DV prevention programming is often presented in mixed-sex formats, a critical understanding of sex differences and similarities in DV perpetration could ultimately refine and improve effectiveness of programming efforts aimed at reducing DV. PMID:24415138

  6. An examination of the factors related to dating violence perpetration among young men and women and associated theoretical explanations: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dardis, Christina M; Dixon, Kristiana J; Edwards, Katie M; Turchik, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    This article provides a review of the literature on dating violence (DV) perpetration, specifically sex similarities and differences in the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration and the utility of current theories to explain young men's and women's DV perpetration. Overall, many of the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration are similar among young men and women (e.g., witnessing interparental violence, experiencing child abuse, alcohol abuse, traditional gender roles, relationship power dynamics). However, young women's perpetration of DV is more strongly related to internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression), trait anger and hostility, and experiencing DV victimization than young men's perpetration, whereas young men's perpetration of DV is more consistently related to lower socioeconomic status and educational attainment, antisocial personality characteristics, and increased relationship length than young women's perpetration. Each theory offers insights into but does not fully account for the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration. Sociocultural theories may be useful in explaining the use of coercive control in relationships, and learning/intergenerational transmission of violence theories may be useful in explaining bidirectional couple violence. Future research should focus on integrative theories, such as in the social-ecological theory, in order to explain various forms of DV. Our understanding of young men's and young women's DV perpetration is limited by cross-sectional research designs, methodological inconsistencies, a lack of sex-specific analytic approaches, and a lack of focus on contextual factors; more multivariate and longitudinal studies are needed. Further, as DV prevention programming is often presented in mixed-sex formats, a critical understanding of sex differences and similarities in DV perpetration could ultimately refine and improve effectiveness of programming efforts aimed at reducing DV.

  7. African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

  8. The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era

    PubMed Central

    Larivière, Vincent; Haustein, Stefanie; Mongeon, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation of the scientific publishing industry has been the topic of much debate within and outside the scientific community, especially in relation to major publishers’ high profit margins. However, the share of scientific output published in the journals of these major publishers, as well as its evolution over time and across various disciplines, has not yet been analyzed. This paper provides such analysis, based on 45 million documents indexed in the Web of Science over the period 1973-2013. It shows that in both natural and medical sciences (NMS) and social sciences and humanities (SSH), Reed-Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, and Taylor & Francis increased their share of the published output, especially since the advent of the digital era (mid-1990s). Combined, the top five most prolific publishers account for more than 50% of all papers published in 2013. Disciplines of the social sciences have the highest level of concentration (70% of papers from the top five publishers), while the humanities have remained relatively independent (20% from top five publishers). NMS disciplines are in between, mainly because of the strength of their scientific societies, such as the ACS in chemistry or APS in physics. The paper also examines the migration of journals between small and big publishing houses and explores the effect of publisher change on citation impact. It concludes with a discussion on the economics of scholarly publishing. PMID:26061978

  9. A literature review of safety culture.

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  10. Augmenting Data with Published Results in Bayesian Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Christiaan; Klugkist, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In most research, linear regression analyses are performed without taking into account published results (i.e., reported summary statistics) of similar previous studies. Although the prior density in Bayesian linear regression could accommodate such prior knowledge, formal models for doing so are absent from the literature. The goal of this…

  11. Should surgical outcomes be published?

    PubMed

    Chou, Evelyn; Abboudi, Hamid; Shamim Khan, Mohammed; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-04-01

    Despite publishing surgical outcomes being a positive step forwards in the progression of England's healthcare system, it has no doubt been faced with criticism and reservations. This review article aims to discuss the pros and cons of publishing individual surgical outcomes, as well as the challenges faced. Publishing outcomes requires data from a number of sources such as national clinical audits, hospital episode statistics, patient-reported outcomes, registers and information from revalidation. As yet, eight surgical specialties have begun publishing their data, including cardiac (coronary artery bypass graft, valve and aortic surgery), endocrine (thyroidectomy, lobectomy, isthmusectomy), orthopaedic (hip and knee replacement), urological (full and partial nephrectomies, nephroureterectomy), colorectal (bowel tumour removal), upper gastrointestinal (stomach cancer and oesophageal cancer removal, bariatric surgery), ear, nose and throat surgery (larynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and salivary gland cancer removal), as well as vascular surgery (abdominal aortic aneurysm, carotid endarterectomy). However, not all procedures have been addressed. Despite the controversy surrounding the topic of publishing surgical outcomes, the advantages of reporting outcomes outweigh the disadvantages, and these challenges can be overcome, to create a more reliable, trustworthy and transparent NHS. Perhaps one of the main challenges has been the difficulty in collecting large amounts of clinically significant data able to quantify the performance of surgeons.

  12. How to Search, Write, Prepare and Publish the Scientific Papers in the Biomedical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology of preparation, writing and publishing scientific papers in biomedical journals. given is a concise overview of the concept and structure of the System of biomedical scientific and technical information and the way of biomedical literature retreival from worldwide biomedical databases. Described are the scientific and professional medical journals that are currently published in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also, given is the comparative review on the number and structure of papers published in indexed journals in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which are listed in the Medline database. Analyzed are three B&H journals indexed in MEDLINE database: Medical Archives (Medicinski Arhiv), Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences and Medical Gazette (Medicinki Glasnik) in 2010. The largest number of original papers was published in the Medical Archives. There is a statistically significant difference in the number of papers published by local authors in relation to international journals in favor of the Medical Archives. True, the Journal Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences does not categorize the articles and we could not make comparisons. Journal Medical Archives and Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences by percentage published the largest number of articles by authors from Sarajevo and Tuzla, the two oldest and largest university medical centers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The author believes that it is necessary to make qualitative changes in the reception and reviewing of papers for publication in biomedical journals published in Bosnia and Herzegovina which should be the responsibility of the separate scientific authority/ committee composed of experts in the field of medicine at the state level. PMID:23572850

  13. How to search, write, prepare and publish the scientific papers in the biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2011-06-01

    This article describes the methodology of preparation, writing and publishing scientific papers in biomedical journals. given is a concise overview of the concept and structure of the System of biomedical scientific and technical information and the way of biomedical literature retreival from worldwide biomedical databases. Described are the scientific and professional medical journals that are currently published in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also, given is the comparative review on the number and structure of papers published in indexed journals in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which are listed in the Medline database. Analyzed are three B&H journals indexed in MEDLINE database: Medical Archives (Medicinski Arhiv), Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences and Medical Gazette (Medicinki Glasnik) in 2010. The largest number of original papers was published in the Medical Archives. There is a statistically significant difference in the number of papers published by local authors in relation to international journals in favor of the Medical Archives. True, the Journal Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences does not categorize the articles and we could not make comparisons. Journal Medical Archives and Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences by percentage published the largest number of articles by authors from Sarajevo and Tuzla, the two oldest and largest university medical centers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The author believes that it is necessary to make qualitative changes in the reception and reviewing of papers for publication in biomedical journals published in Bosnia and Herzegovina which should be the responsibility of the separate scientific authority/ committee composed of experts in the field of medicine at the state level. PMID:23572850

  14. Literature review :

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  15. Publishers Hire PR Firm to Counter Open-Access Publishing Movement: Former Board of "Topology" Starts a Rival Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan; Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Association of American Publishers has hired a public-relations firm with a hard-hitting reputation to respond to the open-access-publishing movement, which campaigns for scientific results to be made freely available to the public. The firm, Dezenhall Resources, designs aggressive public-relations campaigns to counter activist groups. The…

  16. [Sanitary classification of publishing products].

    PubMed

    Teksheva, L M

    2001-01-01

    The natural asthenopic pattern of the process of reading shows it necessary to set sanitary standards of publishing production, namely, printing type styling and the printing quality of publications. The necessity of sanitary classification of publishing production stems from the specificity of reading the publications of different functional uses and from the physiological features of vision in different age group readers. The developed sanitary classification of printing production is based on the researches into the actual visual load while reading the publications of different types by readers of different ages.

  17. MERALGIA PARESTHETICA: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.; Salamh, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Meralgia Paresthetica (MP) is a nerve entrapment which may cause pain, paresthesias, and sensory loss within the distribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. When the differential diagnosis of lateral or anterolateral thigh pain is inconclusive, MP should be considered as a potential source. MP produces similar signs and symptoms as those associated with more common diagnoses such as lumbar spine pathology. This clinical commentary will review the most relevant literature on MP with an emphasis on recognition and management of this condition. Description of Topic with Related Evidence: The authors reviewed the most relevant published literature on MP from 1970 to 2013 located using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and Proquest. Discussion/Relation to Clinical Practice: MP still remains a diagnostic challenge since it can mimic other common diagnoses. Understanding the current literature surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of MP is essential for clinicians practicing in the outpatient environment. The consensus on the most effective non‐surgical and surgical interventions is still limited, as is the research on physical therapy interventions for this condition. Perhaps the lack of research and global consensus represents a knowledge deficit that makes MP a challenge to diagnose and successfully treat. Future collaborative studies are needed to improve the clinical diagnostics and understanding of interventions for this pathology. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24377074

  18. The location of the inferior angle of the scapula in relation to the spine in the upright position: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooperstein, Robert; Haneline, Michael; Young, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners in several of the health care professions use anatomical landmarks to identify spinal levels, both in order to enhance diagnostic accuracy and to specifically target the site of intervention. Authoritative sources usually state the upright inferior scapular angle (IAS) aligns with the spinous process (SP) of T7, but some specify the T7-8 interspace or the T8 SP. The primary goals of this study were to systematically review the relevant literature; and conduct a meta-analysis of the pooled data from retrieved studies to increase their statistical power. Electronic searching retrieved primary studies relating the IAS to a spinal level, as determined by an imaging reference standard, using combinations of these search terms: scapula, location, landmark, spinous process, thoracic vertebrae, vertebral level, palpation, and spine. Only primary studies were included; review articles and reliability studies related to scapular position but lacking spinal correlations were excluded. Eight-hundred and eighty (880) articles of interest were identified, 43 abstracts were read, 22 full text articles were inspected, and 5 survived the final cut. Each article (with one exception) was rated for quality using the QUADAS instrument. Pooling data from 5 studies resulted in normal distribution in which the upright IAS on average aligns closely with the T8 SP, range T4-T11. Since on average the IAS most closely identifies the T8 SP in the upright position, it is very likely that health professionals, both manual therapists and others, who have been diagnosing and treating patients based on the IAS = T7 SP rule (the conventional wisdom), have not been as segmentally accurate as they may have supposed. They either addressed non-intended levels, or made numeration errors in their charting. There is evidence that using the IAS is less preferred than using the vertebra prominens, and may be less preferred than using the iliac crest for identifying spinal levels Manual

  19. EDITORIAL AND PUBLISHER'S NOTE: BIPM to Publish Metrologia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Beginning in January of next year Metrologia will be published by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. This does not mean that a new journal is being created: externally the journal may have changed a little, but internally any changes will be of form rather than of substance. Metrologia was intended originally as a vehicle that would permit the metrological community to communicate progress in fundamental scientific measurements, to report original experiments and techniques in the area of secondary measurement, to review work in specialist fields and to disseminate the decisions of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures. The promotion of these activities remains the central objective of editorial policy. The separation from our friends in Springer-Verlag is one we view with some regret and not a little trepidation. On the days when things were not going well in the editorial office at the BIPM it was always a source of comfort to remember the willingness and professionalism with which our colleagues at Springer-Verlag supported the production and distribution of the journal. For some time, however, it has been felt at the BIPM that the Bureau should take direct responsibility for all aspects of Metrologia. This feeling led to discussions on the future of the journal and in June to the decision to separate. For those of us at the BIPM, the change represents an occasion to review the activities and priorities of the journal and so to revivify it. Our hope is to retain the best features of the existing Metrologia and to add to them others which will both expand the readership and bring to the journal a yet greater fraction of the finest articles on the topic of precise measurement. Publisher's Note The first issue of Metrologia was published in 1965. That issue, as have been all others since, was published by Springer-Verlag "under the Auspices of the International Committee for Weights and Measures". This phrase is the public expression of what

  20. Pondering the Printz Award. The Michael L. Printz Award for Excellence in Young Adult Literature; The Making of a Printz; The Truth about Trueman: An Interview with Terry Trueman; "Beautiful"..."Fresh"..."Distinguished" Books: Teen Readers Take on the 2002 Printz Awards; Soap Box: A Young Adult Publisher Speaks Out about Winning the Printz Award; Retro Mock Printz: The Best of the Best of Young Adult Literature from the VOYA Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Peter; Halls, Kelly Milner; Horne, Claire; Roxburgh, Stephen; Cornish, Sarah; Jones, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Includes six articles that discuss the Michael L. Printz award for excellence in young adult literature, established by the Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) of the American Library Association (ALA). Highlights include a list of winners for the past three years; quality versus popularity; and perspectives from authors, teens, and…

  1. The Future of Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In these times of financial crisis, much of the discussion about scholarly publishing has focused on budgets, the switch to electronic formats, and the future of the monograph. Throughout, however, university presses have continued to bring out important scholarship that is the mainstay of academe. "The Chronicle Review" asked a group of editors…

  2. [Publishing models in medical journals].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2012-02-01

    Medical journals are published by scientific societies, universities, publishing agencies and other for-profit or non-profit organizations. The traditional way to cover the expenses in printed journals has been a "subscribers pay" model. The rise of electronic versions in the internet, either together with the printed version or replacing it entirely, plus a progressive adherence to an "open access" for electronic versions, has created financial difficulties. Therefore, the "authors pay" model has been added. Both models can be subsidized by commercial or institutional advertising, but still a main source for financing relies either in subscriptions or in authors' payments. A small source of income that helps to cover publishing costs is a "charge for manuscript reception", currently applied by several journals. Those authors whose work has institutional or external support can use their grants to cover any charges, but the situation is more difficult for those who do not have such support. Since 1872, Sociedad Médica de Santiago-Chilean Society of Internal Medicine, owner and publisher of Revista Médica de Chile, has employed the "subscribers pay" model, subsidized by commercial advertising and temporary sponsors (Chilean government and others). The printed journal is reproduced in an open access electronic version, in www.scielo.cl. The increasing cost of both publications systems demands a time for reflection.

  3. Library Networks and Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Lee D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a description of present and proposed plans and strategies of OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) and their relationship to electronic publishing. FirstSearch (end-user access to secondary information), GUIDON (electronic journals online) and FastDoc (document delivery) are emphasized. (JKP)

  4. Government Publishing: Past to Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter; Relyea, Harold C.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of government publishing that focuses on the United States national government. Documents the shift from paper to electronic publication and discusses implications. Highlights include public availability and access, propaganda, policy, workshops on information dissemination, preservation of electronic resources, and the…

  5. Automatic Publishing of Library Bulletins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inbal, Moshe

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer to publish library bulletins that list recent accessions of technical reports according to the subject classification scheme of NTIS/SRIM (National Technical Information Service's Scientific Reports in Microfiche). The codes file, the four computer program functions, and costs/economy are discussed. (JD)

  6. Publishing a Master’s Thesis: A Guide for Novice Authors

    PubMed Central

    Resta, Robert G.; McCarthy Veach, Patricia; Charles, Sarah; Vogel, Kristen; Blase, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Publication of original research, clinical experiences, and critical reviews of literature are vital to the growth of the genetic counseling field, delivery of genetic counseling services, and professional development of genetic counselors. Busy clinical schedules, lack of time and funding, and training that emphasizes clinical skills over research skills may make it difficult for new genetic counselors to turn their thesis projects into publications. This paper summarizes and elaborates upon a presentation aimed at de-mystifying the publishing process given at the 2008 National Society of Genetic Counselors Annual Education Conference. Specific topics include familiarizing prospective authors, particularly genetic counseling students, with the basics of the publication process and related ethical considerations. Former students’ experiences with publishing master’s theses also are described in hopes of encouraging new genetic counselors to submit for publication papers based on their thesis projects. PMID:20076994

  7. Antidepressant efficacy of agomelatine: meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies

    PubMed Central

    Sparshatt, Anna; Varma, Seema; Olofinjana, Olubanke

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review published and unpublished efficacy studies of agomelatine in people with depression. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Literature search (Pubmed, Embase, Medline), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, European Medicines Agency (EMA) regulatory file for agomelatine, manufacturers of agomelatine (Servier). Eligibility criteria Double blind randomised placebo and comparator controlled trials of agomelatine in depression with standard depression rating scales. Data synthesis Studies were pooled by using a random effects model with DerSimonian and Laird weights for comparisons with placebo and comparator antidepressant. The primary efficacy measure (change in rating scale score) was summarised with standardised mean difference (SMD; a measure of effect size) and secondary outcome measures with relative risks. All results were presented with 95% confidence intervals. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by visual inspection of funnel plots and by the I2 statistic. Moderators of effect were explored by meta-regression. Results We identified 20 trials with 7460 participants meeting inclusion criteria (11 in the published literature, four from the European Medicines Agency file, and five from the manufacturer). Almost all studies used the 17 item Hamilton depression rating scale (score 0-50). Agomelatine was significantly more effective than placebo with an effect size (SMD) of 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.35) and relative risk of response 1.25 (1.11 to 1.4). Compared with other antidepressants, agomelatine showed equal efficacy (SMD 0.00, −0.09 to 0.10). Significant heterogeneity was uncovered in most analyses, though risk of bias was low. Published studies were more likely than unpublished studies to have results that suggested advantages for agomelatine. Conclusions Agomelatine is an effective antidepressant with similar efficacy to standard antidepressants. Published trials generally had

  8. A Comprehensive Survey of Retracted Articles from the Scholarly Literature

    PubMed Central

    Grieneisen, Michael L.; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of retracted scholarly articles has risen precipitously in recent years. Past surveys of the retracted literature each limited their scope to articles in PubMed, though many retracted articles are not indexed in PubMed. To understand the scope and characteristics of retracted articles across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines, we surveyed 42 of the largest bibliographic databases for major scholarly fields and publisher websites to identify retracted articles. This study examines various trends among them. Results We found, 4,449 scholarly publications retracted from 1928–2011. Unlike Math, Physics, Engineering and Social Sciences, the percentages of retractions in Medicine, Life Science and Chemistry exceeded their percentages among Web of Science (WoS) records. Retractions due to alleged publishing misconduct (47%) outnumbered those due to alleged research misconduct (20%) or questionable data/interpretations (42%). This total exceeds 100% since multiple justifications were listed in some retraction notices. Retraction/WoS record ratios vary among author affiliation countries. Though widespread, only miniscule percentages of publications for individual years, countries, journals, or disciplines have been retracted. Fifteen prolific individuals accounted for more than half of all retractions due to alleged research misconduct, and strongly influenced all retraction characteristics. The number of articles retracted per year increased by a factor of 19.06 from 2001 to 2010, though excluding repeat offenders and adjusting for growth of the published literature decreases it to a factor of 11.36. Conclusions Retracted articles occur across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines. Most retracted articles do not contain flawed data; and the authors of most retracted articles have not been accused of research misconduct. Despite recent increases, the proportion of published scholarly literature affected by retraction remains very small

  9. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  10. The Trend towards Self-Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Pat

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the self-publishing trend in Canada. Topics addressed include changes in the publishing industry, desktop publishing, quality control, printing, publicity, reviews, marketing, and the future of self-publishing. Two sidebars discuss vanity presses and self-publishing and libraries. (32 references) (LRW)

  11. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues and their…

  12. Pearls for Publishing Papers: Tips and Tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ashique, Karalikkattil T; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    With the stringent regulations from various academic bodies making it desirable for a post graduate resident to have submitted an original article prior to appearance for their exams or those working in teaching institutions to have published articles to claim credit for applying for promotions and private practitioners to increase their visibility on the academic front, paper, everyone is on a publishing spree. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the processes involved in publication; approaching it in a systematic and practical manner, incorporating some tips and tricks. This collection of pearls is aimed to serve as a beginner's guide to scientific writing and publications. The pearls cover assorted topics like- benefits of publications, collecting resources, various tools available and technical processes related to how a manuscript is processed. PMID:26955091

  13. Publishing priorities of biomedical research funders

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the publishing priorities, especially in relation to open access, of 10 UK biomedical research funders. Design Semistructured interviews. Setting 10 UK biomedical research funders. Participants 12 employees with responsibility for research management at 10 UK biomedical research funders; a purposive sample to represent a range of backgrounds and organisation types. Conclusions Publicly funded and large biomedical research funders are committed to open access publishing and are pleased with recent developments which have stimulated growth in this area. Smaller charitable funders are supportive of the aims of open access, but are concerned about the practical implications for their budgets and their funded researchers. Across the board, biomedical research funders are turning their attention to other priorities for sharing research outputs, including data, protocols and negative results. Further work is required to understand how smaller funders, including charitable funders, can support open access. PMID:24154520

  14. Pearls for Publishing Papers: Tips and Tricks.

    PubMed

    Ashique, Karalikkattil T; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    With the stringent regulations from various academic bodies making it desirable for a post graduate resident to have submitted an original article prior to appearance for their exams or those working in teaching institutions to have published articles to claim credit for applying for promotions and private practitioners to increase their visibility on the academic front, paper, everyone is on a publishing spree. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the processes involved in publication; approaching it in a systematic and practical manner, incorporating some tips and tricks. This collection of pearls is aimed to serve as a beginner's guide to scientific writing and publications. The pearls cover assorted topics like- benefits of publications, collecting resources, various tools available and technical processes related to how a manuscript is processed.

  15. Using One's Own Professional Activities to Promote Research and Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores issues related to teacher educators publishing in journals. They do so for obvious reasons such as tenure, career advancement, personal satisfaction and university prestige. In order to offer an extra means of helping teacher educators achieve these publishing goals, the paper explores how using one's own professional…

  16. Increasing Students' Perceptions of Being Valued through the Study of Multicultural Literature and Analysis of Diversity Related Issues in a Regular Level Sophomore English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goughnour, Martha Jean

    2013-01-01

    The action research project report was created to remedy a lack of multicultural literature within the regular level sophomore English class and to assist regular level sophomore students' connection to their reading. The teacher-researcher also examined her students' own ethnic backgrounds, cultures, religions, economic status, gender, and/or…

  17. Approaches to Writing Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners: A Discussion of Recent Research and Practice Literature in Relation to Nationwide Standards on Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panofsky,Carolyn; Pacheco, Maria; Smith, Sara; Santos, Janet; Fogelman, Chad; Harrington, Margaret; Kenney, Erica

    2005-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) in today's U.S. middle schools and high schools face significant challenges from state writing assessments, and data suggest that they do not fare well. This paper seeks to uncover some of the reasons by posing the question: What is the available research base and practice literature to help teachers prepare ELLs…

  18. LITERATURE FORENSICS? DOOR TO WHAT WAS KNOWN BUT NOW FORGOTTEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Science's all-consuming drive to make new discoveries often risks losing sight of what was already known at one time - that which already exists in the published literature. Inadequate attention to the published literature and insufficient time devoted to its mining and synthesis...

  19. Literature searches on Ayurveda: An update

    PubMed Central

    Aggithaya, Madhur G.; Narahari, Saravu R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The journals that publish on Ayurveda are increasingly indexed by popular medical databases in recent years. However, many Eastern journals are not indexed biomedical journal databases such as PubMed. Literature searches for Ayurveda continue to be challenging due to the nonavailability of active, unbiased dedicated databases for Ayurvedic literature. In 2010, authors identified 46 databases that can be used for systematic search of Ayurvedic papers and theses. This update reviewed our previous recommendation and identified current and relevant databases. Aims: To update on Ayurveda literature search and strategy to retrieve maximum publications. Methods: Author used psoriasis as an example to search previously listed databases and identify new. The population, intervention, control, and outcome table included keywords related to psoriasis and Ayurvedic terminologies for skin diseases. Current citation update status, search results, and search options of previous databases were assessed. Eight search strategies were developed. Hundred and five journals, both biomedical and Ayurveda, which publish on Ayurveda, were identified. Variability in databases was explored to identify bias in journal citation. Results: Five among 46 databases are now relevant – AYUSH research portal, Annotated Bibliography of Indian Medicine, Digital Helpline for Ayurveda Research Articles (DHARA), PubMed, and Directory of Open Access Journals. Search options in these databases are not uniform, and only PubMed allows complex search strategy. “The Researches in Ayurveda” and “Ayurvedic Research Database” (ARD) are important grey resources for hand searching. About 44/105 (41.5%) journals publishing Ayurvedic studies are not indexed in any database. Only 11/105 (10.4%) exclusive Ayurveda journals are indexed in PubMed. Conclusion: AYUSH research portal and DHARA are two major portals after 2010. It is mandatory to search PubMed and four other databases because all five

  20. From Hard to Reach to How to Reach: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Hard-to-Reach Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boag-Munroe, Gill; Evangelou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature relating to hard-to-reach families which has been published over the last 12 years in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia. The purpose of the review was twofold: to gain insights to understandings of the term "hard-to-reach" within these services--education, health and social--which might be aiming to…

  1. The Quest for the Social Self in Afro-American Literature from Alain Locke to Ralph Ellison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Brian

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates, through five literary works published between 1927 and 1952, how the optimistic view of the relation between cultural heritage and social change espoused during the Harlem Renaissance developed into a more pessimistic and paradoxical, but ultimately more aesthetically feasible, vision for Afro-American literature. (DMM)

  2. Lysimeter literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Electronic Publishing: The New Roles of CDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bonnarell, F.; Dubois, P.; Egret, D.; Fernique, P.; Jasniewicz, G.; Lesteven, S.; Monier, R.; Ochsenbein, F.; Wenger, M.

    The Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) has dealt with bibliographic information for many years. References of publications, published observational data related to astronomical objects, data tables, nomenclature, have been homogenized and organized into information retrieval systems.: SIMBAD, the reference database for the identification and bibliography of astronomical objects; the catalogue service and the ViezieR Catalogue Browser for data table; the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Astronomical Object, which is now maintained by the CDS. Evolution in recent years has brought the data centers closer to the publishing process. General standards for astronomy, for the description of references and of data tables, have been proposed and implemented. Data tables from research papers are now directly published in electronic form and distributed on-line by the data centers. The emergence of fully electronic publications paves the way to innovative new services, linking the journals to other sources of information (data bases, tables, images, data archives), and making use of new methods for information retrieval.

  4. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools. IEQ Strategies[TM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Joan M.; Angell, William J.

    This report presents detailed results from a survey and critical review of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, particularly California schools. The findings: (1) identify the most commonly reported building-related health symtoms involving…

  5. R. Burkhardt, U. Esser, H. Hefele, I. Heinrich, W. Hoffmann, V. R. Matas, L. D. Schmadel, R. Wielen and G. Zech (eds.), Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts, Volumes 69A and 69B, Literature 1998, Part 1, published for Astronomisches Rechen-Institut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleczek, J.

    1999-07-01

    The reviewed Volumes of the AAA series record, summarize and index nearly 12 000 papers covering all aspects of astronomy and space sciences, published throughout the world during the first half of the year 1998. The AAA series is the most important source of information on progress in the scientific disciplines. They have become an indispensable source of information for scientists and students involved in the Universe research.

  6. A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-11-01

    As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.

  7. Publishing Aviation Research: An Interdisciplinary Review of Scholarly Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Lawrence J.; Kaps, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    An ERIC search and key informant interviews were used to identify 26 journals that regularly publish aviation-related articles. The journals are in four categories: transportation management and economics, travel and tourism, aviation law, and interdisciplinary. (SK)

  8. Letter to the Editor Reply to commentary by G. Sikri and S. Dua on the article "Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms in hypoxia-related genes and susceptibility to acute high-altitude pulmonary edema" published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (3): 11562-11572 to the letter published in Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15904-15905.

    PubMed

    Wu, L J

    2016-03-24

    The object in this study was a Han Chinese population in Lhasa, with 3658 m in altitude from Chengdu, which has 505 m in altitude by air. Within 24 to 48 h before the subjects arrived in the plateau, they completed a basic situation questionnaire, under the guidance of medical staff. Within 24 to 48 h after they reached the plateau, the subjects completed an acute plateau disease questionnaire. The diagnostic standard of HAPE and the diagnosis of acute plateau disease were adopted by the Lake Louise diagnostic standards in 1991 and the Chinese Medical Association promulgated the domestic diagnostic criteria on the Third National Plateau Medical Academic Seminar. Other diseases that cause acute symptoms of altitude sickness, such as plateau pulmonary edema, plateau cerebral edema, acute respiratory infections and neurosis, were excluded. According to the Lake Louise standard, questionnaire and symptom score values >3 points were diagnosed as HAPE. According to the national standard, the questionnaire and symptom score values >5 points were diagnosed as HAPE. At the present, morbidity of HAPE remains relatively high in China. The research shows that usually in the case of not taking preventive measures, according to the factors such as altitude, speed, and time of arrival, the incidence of HAPE is 30% to 90%. Epidemiological survey shows that HAPE happens at an altitude of 2500 m above the plateau. And an altitude of 3000 m above the plateau of China is occupied 1/6 of the total land area, the population of permanent residents is more than sixty million. We detected the 200 cases who adapted to plateau and the 106 cases of patients with HAPE susceptibility genes SNP locus, and got the key SNP loci of HAPE susceptibility genes. We maked the corresponding gene chip diagnostic kits.

  9. Letter to the Editor Reply to commentary by G. Sikri and S. Dua on the article "Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms in hypoxia-related genes and susceptibility to acute high-altitude pulmonary edema" published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (3): 11562-11572 to the letter published in Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15904-15905.

    PubMed

    Wu, L J

    2016-01-01

    The object in this study was a Han Chinese population in Lhasa, with 3658 m in altitude from Chengdu, which has 505 m in altitude by air. Within 24 to 48 h before the subjects arrived in the plateau, they completed a basic situation questionnaire, under the guidance of medical staff. Within 24 to 48 h after they reached the plateau, the subjects completed an acute plateau disease questionnaire. The diagnostic standard of HAPE and the diagnosis of acute plateau disease were adopted by the Lake Louise diagnostic standards in 1991 and the Chinese Medical Association promulgated the domestic diagnostic criteria on the Third National Plateau Medical Academic Seminar. Other diseases that cause acute symptoms of altitude sickness, such as plateau pulmonary edema, plateau cerebral edema, acute respiratory infections and neurosis, were excluded. According to the Lake Louise standard, questionnaire and symptom score values >3 points were diagnosed as HAPE. According to the national standard, the questionnaire and symptom score values >5 points were diagnosed as HAPE. At the present, morbidity of HAPE remains relatively high in China. The research shows that usually in the case of not taking preventive measures, according to the factors such as altitude, speed, and time of arrival, the incidence of HAPE is 30% to 90%. Epidemiological survey shows that HAPE happens at an altitude of 2500 m above the plateau. And an altitude of 3000 m above the plateau of China is occupied 1/6 of the total land area, the population of permanent residents is more than sixty million. We detected the 200 cases who adapted to plateau and the 106 cases of patients with HAPE susceptibility genes SNP locus, and got the key SNP loci of HAPE susceptibility genes. We maked the corresponding gene chip diagnostic kits. PMID:27050977

  10. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...

  11. [Nursing audit: systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Dias, Teresa Cristina Lyporage; Santos, José Luís Guedes dos; Cordenuzzi, Onélia da Costa Pedro; Prochnow, Adelina Giacomelli

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the scientific production about audit in nursing, published in national papers, between 1998 and 2008. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, with articles being searched in the databases LILACS and SciELO, from the key words: audit, nursing, quality health care and nursing supervision. The sample consisted of ten works. The analyzed publications describe the main distortions and non-conformities found in nursing records, relating them mainly with the quality of nursing care and with the financial damage to the institutions. The publications also include the administrative role of the nurse, especially her/his leadership role in the team of nursing; and nursing audit as an educational process. PMID:22460497

  12. The Once and Future Publishing Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okerson, Ann; Holzman, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The report explores the revitalization of library publishing and its possible future, and examines elements that influence the success and sustainability of library publishing initiatives. The authors trace the history of library publishing and factors that have transformed the publishing landscape, and describe several significant library-press…

  13. How to Publish without Financially Perishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Rodney P.; Savage, Arline; Simkin, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Publication agreements vary by publisher and sometimes by contract as well. A number of such agreements now also include indemnity clauses. "Indemnifying a publisher" means agreeing to pay for any loss, damage, or liability incurred by the publisher, or it can mean that the publisher has the right to claim reimbursement for its loss, damage, or…

  14. Self-Published Books: An Empirical "Snapshot"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jana; Fulton, Bruce; Helm, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    The number of books published by authors using fee-based publication services, such as Lulu and AuthorHouse, is overtaking the number of books published by mainstream publishers, according to Bowker's 2009 annual data. Little empirical research exists on self-published books. This article presents the results of an investigation of a random sample…

  15. Writing and Publishing: The Librarian's Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever considered writing or reviewing for the library community? Are you interested in publishing a book on your favorite author or hobby? Do you need to write and publish for tenure? If so, "Writing and Publishing" is for you. Practical how-to guidance covering fiction, poetry, children's books/magazines, self-publishing, literary agents,…

  16. [The literature of diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2014-09-28

    This analysis is based on papers published in periodicals, in the period 1975-2013 with title words referring to diagnosis or therapy. The literature of both topics is growing dynamically and in an ever accelerating pace. At the same time, the two topics appear to get more and more separated, except for a part of the German-language literature. The share of therapy-oriented literature is increasing and its citation rate is higher, although 9 of the 10 most cited papers are from the topic of diagnostics. The Hungarian literature (papers having at least one Hungarian author) appeared to be proportional and balanced.

  17. Publish or Practice? An Examination of Librarians' Contributions to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, S. Craig; Ni, Chaoqun; Tsou, Andrew; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines authorship of LIS literature in the context of practitioner and non-practitioner production of published research. For this study, 4,827 peer-reviewed articles from twenty LIS journals published between 1956 and 2011 were examined to determine the percentage of articles written by practitioners. The study identified a…

  18. E-Publishing's Impact on Learning in an Inclusive Sixth Grade Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, James

    2008-01-01

    This study combined the use of student authored books and the use of children's literature with a process created by Conden and McGuffee (2001) described as e-publishing, which uses students authoring book software called RealeWriter. The purpose of the study was to determine if e-publishing assistive technology impacted learning in a social…

  19. JGR to publish LPSC Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AGU will publish the Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), organized by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), as a special supplement to the Red section of the Journal of Geophysical Research. The conference, being held this week in Houston, Tex., is sponsored by LPI, the Johnson Space Center, and AGU. The present 39-member board of JGR-Red associate editors will be expanded to account for the handling of the increased number of papers in petrology and geochemistry.William Boynton has accepted a 1-year special assignment as Proceedings Editor and will work in concert with JGR-Red Editor Thomas Ahrens. In addition, the regular JGR-Red board of associate editors has been expanded to include Boynton, Michael J. Drake, Richard A.F. Grieve, John F. Kerridge, Guenter W. Lugmair, James Papike, Robert O. Pepin, and Heinrich Wönke.

  20. EPA's Response to "Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment" Published by the National Research Council of the National Academies (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On May 21, 2010, the updated EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments report was released for external peer review and public comment. This report was renamed after interagency comments from the original report title of E...

  1. Chicano Literature: An Introduction and an Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Carlota Cardenas de

    Preceding this annotated bibliography of Chicano literature is a section discussing the derivation of the word "Chicano," an explanation of the language of Chicano literature, Chicano publishers and intended audience, and the subjects and styles of Chicano literature. The bibliography is divided according to novels, short story collections,…

  2. Changing Patterns of Limnology Literature, 1966-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milby, T. H.

    Literature citations were analyzed to identify periodical literature used in the field of limnology. Journals published in four different countries during 1976 were selected as source journals of cited literature. The results of this analysis were compared to those of a similar study conducted in 1968 using conference proceedings as source…

  3. Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  4. Development of an item bank for food parenting practices based on published instruments and reports from Canadian and US parents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Pham, Truc; Watts, Allison W; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C

    2016-08-01

    Research to understand how parents influence their children's dietary intake and eating behaviors has expanded in the past decades and a growing number of instruments are available to assess food parenting practices. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on how constructs should be defined or operationalized, making comparison of results across studies difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice item bank with items from published scales and supplement with parenting practices that parents report using. Items from published scales were identified from two published systematic reviews along with an additional systematic review conducted for this study. Parents (n = 135) with children 5-12 years old from the US and Canada, stratified to represent the demographic distribution of each country, were recruited to participate in an online semi-qualitative survey on food parenting. Published items and parent responses were coded using the same framework to reduce the number of items into representative concepts using a binning and winnowing process. The literature contributed 1392 items and parents contributed 1985 items, which were reduced to 262 different food parenting concepts (26% exclusive from literature, 12% exclusive from parents, and 62% represented in both). Food parenting practices related to 'Structure of Food Environment' and 'Behavioral and Educational' were emphasized more by parent responses, while practices related to 'Consistency of Feeding Environment' and 'Emotional Regulation' were more represented among published items. The resulting food parenting item bank should next be calibrated with item response modeling for scientists to use in the future. PMID:27131416

  5. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa A; Greig, Judy D

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  6. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa A; Greig, Judy D

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health.

  7. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  8. Methodological and Content Review of Lesbian-, Gay-, and Bisexual-Related Articles in Counseling Journals: 1990-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julia C.; Ingram, Kathleen M.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Mindes, Erica J.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the reduction of overt heterosexist biases in the psychological literature, questions exist about the content and methodology of articles on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues in the counseling literature. This study provides a content and methodological analysis of 119 LGB-related articles that were published in eight major…

  9. Supernumerary teeth: literature review.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V; Chidzonga, M M

    2001-01-01

    A review of the literature on supernumerary teeth in general and supernumerary molars in particular was carried out on prevalence, aetiology, complications and the treatment of supernumerary teeth. Additional teeth are relatively common and are usually of simple conical shape (supernumerary teeth) but may resemble teeth of the normal size and shape. The aim of this review is to provide reference material for dental practitioners in Zimbabwe. PMID:11961855

  10. Stress injury of the acromion: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Atul Kumar; Negromonte, Francisco Pires; Skaf, Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of stress injury of the acromion related to golf practicing in a 40-year-old male. Fractures of the scapula are unusual, with stress injury of the acromion being even rarer. The probable mechanism would be a strong contraction of posterior fibers of the deltoid during golf swing. There are few published reports of similar injuries, and to our knowledge, this is the first to demonstrate its features by magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:23412322

  11. Perspective: Interactive material property databases through aggregation of literature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Ram; Sparks, Taylor D.

    2016-05-01

    Searchable, interactive, databases of material properties, particularly those relating to functional materials (magnetics, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, etc.) are curiously missing from discussions of machine-learning and other data-driven methods for advancing new materials discovery. Here we discuss the manual aggregation of experimental data from the published literature for the creation of interactive databases that allow the original experimental data as well additional metadata to be visualized in an interactive manner. The databases described involve materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and for the electrodes of Li-ion batteries. The data can be subject to machine-learning, accelerating the discovery of new materials.

  12. The influence of culture on the oral health-related beliefs and behaviours of elderly chinese immigrants: a meta-synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, André; MacEntee, Michael I; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, Ross; Graf, Peter; Hornby, Kathryn; Kobayashi, Karen; Wong, Sabrina T

    2013-03-01

    Neglect of the mouth can lead to impairment, disability, and discomfort; as a result, it can have a negative impact on quality of life in old age. Some minority groups in North America shoulder a disproportionate burden of dental impairment compared to people of European origins, possibly because of different cultural beliefs and a distrust of Western oral healthcare. This paper explores these factors in elderly Chinese immigrants through a meta-synthesis of selected literature that reveals a dynamic interplay of traditional Chinese beliefs about oral health, immigration, and structural factors mediating access to Western dentistry. It also identifies several conceptual issues and gaps in knowledge, offers avenues of research including the cross-cultural application of two recent models of oral health, and discusses various strategies for improving access to dental services for minority populations.

  13. IgG4-related disease presenting as a lung mass and weight loss: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Kevin; Cohen, Paul; Kwon, Jeff S; Kaufman, David A

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of IgG4-related lung disease presenting as a lung mass with associated weight loss. IgG4-related disease is a systemic sclerosing disorder that causes fibrotic, often tumor-like manifestations that variably effect different organ systems. The clinical presentation of IgG4-related disease is protean. Timely recognition and diagnosis requires awareness on the part of clinicians and pathologists to the variable manifestations of this newly recognized disorder. We offer a concise review of the pulmonary manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of IgG4-related lung disease. PMID:27222780

  14. Bradford's Law and the Literature of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of separate data on the literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture, and the world literature of agricultural economics and rural socilogy, in relation to Bradford's law. (8 references) (Author/SJ)

  15. Thrombotic manifestations in SAPHO syndrome. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carranco-Medina, Tatiana Elizabeth; Hidalgo-Calleja, Cristina; Calero-Paniagua, Ismael; Sánchez-González, María Dolores; Quesada-Moreno, Alba; Usategui-Martín, Ricardo; Pérez-Garrido, Laura; Gómez-Castro, Susana; Montilla-Morales, Carlos Alberto; Martínez-González, Olga; Del Pino-Montes, Javier

    2015-01-01

    SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome is a cluster of osteo-cutaneous manifestations that can lead to serious complications such as thrombosis of the subclavian vein or superior vena cava, mainly in patients with significant inflammatory involvement of the anterior-chest-wall. The objective of this study was to review the cases published in the medical literature related with the presence of thrombotic complications in patients diagnosed with SAPHO syndrome and to try to determine their possible pathogenic mechanism and risk factors. We analyzed 11 published reports of isolated clinical cases or case series, a total of 144 patients, which described a total of 15 cases of venous thrombosis. The clinical characteristics of these patients, evaluated to determine whether they meet the ASAS criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis, is analyzed the need for early diagnosis and treatment is highlighted.

  16. Effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based interventions to impact weight-related behaviours in African American children and youth: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S

    2014-10-01

    This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments.

  17. Philadelphia Printing and Publishing, 1876-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Thomas M.

    1976-01-01

    Two Philadelphia printing histories, both reflecting the relationship of printing to publishing, are examined in this article: the manufacture by the publisher of his own product and the development and commercialization of the photomechanical halftone process. (Author)

  18. Electronic Publishing and Library Technical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aveney, Brian

    1984-01-01

    Trends in electronic editions, on-demand publishing, and online publishing are reviewed and their potential effects on library services and organization are discussed, including library material selection, acquisitions, cataloging, serials, circulation, and home printers. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  19. Textbook Publishing: The Political and Economic Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on the political and economic realities surrounding textbook publishing. A discussion of the publishing industry includes an examination of industry decision makers and the influence of profit. State textbook adoption policies are also explored. (IAH)

  20. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M.; Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H.; Stewart, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.