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Sample records for pueraria montana community

  1. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  2. Ovularia puerariae Sawada is the hyphomycetous anamorph of a new Marasmius species on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Roland; Lee, I-Shu; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2013-01-01

    An arthroconidial hyphomycete on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae), originally described by Sawada in 1959 as Ovularia puerariae, was rediscovered. This anamorph is connected to an unknown Marasmius teleomorph belonging to section Globulares, which develops on the same living leaves. Ultrastructure and LSU rDNA sequence analysis of the anamorph confirm this connection. The fungus does not have only a unique biology among agarics, comparable only to Mycena citricolor, but also has the potential for application as a control agent of kudzu. During comparison with similar anamorph genera, Illosporium graminicola was found to be a synonym for Beniowskia sphaeroidea.

  3. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  4. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  5. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) Invasion Doubles Emissions of Nitric Oxide, a Precursor to Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Wu, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plants can increase rates of nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, fluxes of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluxes of the ozone precursor nitric oxide (NO). Invasion by the nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) across millions of hectares in the southeastern United States could be contributing to increased ozone concentrations. Ozone formation in the Southeast is broadly limited by atmospheric NO concentrations, so perturbations to the N cycle by kudzu have the potential to increase ozone concentrations in the region. At three sites in Madison County, Georgia, kudzu invasion increased rates of net N mineralization by up to an order of magnitude and rates of net nitrification and soil pools of NO3- and NO2- by up to 500%. Emissions of NO from soils invaded by kudzu averaged 2.81 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1, significantly higher than emissions from soil dominated by native vegetation, which averaged 1.24 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1. Emissions of N2O display a trend towards increasing under kudzu invasion, but N2O emissions at these sites were three orders of magnitude smaller than emissions of NO. Atmospheric chemical modeling suggests that these higher NO emissions could increase ozone concentrations in the region by up to 2 ppb. We propose that kudzu invasion in the southeastern United States represents a novel threat to air quality and could increase the frequency with which federal ozone standards are exceeded.

  6. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Jonathan E; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm(-2) h(-1)). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control.

  7. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Jonathan E.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm−2 h−1). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control. PMID:20479252

  8. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant

    PubMed Central

    Kartzinel, Tyler R.; Hamrick, J. L.; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W.; Quigley, Bryan G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study investigated how genets are spatially distributed within and among discrete patches of the invasive vine kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, in the United States. It was expected that ramets of genets would be spatially clustered within patches, and that an increase in the number of genets within a patch would be associated with a decrease in the average size of each genet. Methods Six discrete kudzu patches were sampled across 2 years, and 1257 samples were genotyped at 21 polymorphic allozyme loci. Variation in genotypic and genetic diversity among patches was quantified and patterns of genet interdigitation were analysed. Key Results Substantial genotypic and genetic variation occurred within and among patches. As few as ten overlapping genets spanned up to 68 m2 in one patch, while >90 % of samples were genetically unique in another patch. Genotypic diversity within patches increased as mean clone size decreased, although spatially widespread genets did not preclude interdigitation. Eight genets were shared across ≥2 patches, suggesting that vegetative dispersal can occur among patches. Conclusions Genetically unique kudzu vines are highly interdigitated. Multiple vegetative propagules have become established in spatially discrete patches, probably through the movement of highway construction or maintenance machinery. The results suggest that common methods for controlling invasive vines (e.g. mowing) may inadvertently increase genotypic diversity. Thus, understanding

  9. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor.

  10. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  11. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  12. Parsing polyphyletic Pueraria: Delimiting distinct evolutionary lineages through phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Cagle, William

    2016-11-01

    Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere).

  13. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  14. You grow where you're planted: Community building in Colstrip, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David Ramsey

    The expansion of energy production in the 1970s resulted in the construction of large extraction and power production facilities in many parts of the American West. Boomtowns almost always accompanied these enterprises. Colstrip, Montana, became the focus of a wide variety of social and environmental controversies when the Montana Power Company began strip mining operations and power plant construction in the early 1970s. Nevertheless, a sense of community attachment in Colstrip has steadily grown. Increased participation in public affairs, often in response to challenges made to the community, has accompanied the integration of Colstrip's residents in the non-economic environments of families, churches, recreation, and school-related activities. Researchers in the 1970s and early '80s often took the view that rapid development disrupts long-standing patterns of community attachment and integration. Using a model derived from Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft-Gesell schaft continuum, these researchers undertook to demonstrate the folly of the energy companies' activities. The decline of community has frequently appeared as a theme in sociology and history. Yet the venerable but erroneous and largely sentimental theoretical perspective used by some early social impact assessment researchers did not accurately represent the processes at work in Colstrip and places like it. I suggest that Colstrip demonstrates an evolutionary continuum, but precisely the opposite of Tonnies' proposition. The feeling of attachment and home we call community is a growth-oriented phenomenon, not a simply a passive object subject only to decline. Colstrip, where sociologists found community lacking, is now found by the historian as the model of community.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions;…

  17. A primary assessment of the endophytic bacterial community in a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana) using molecular method and cultivated isolates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Lei; Liu, Su Lin; Liu, Min; Kong, Bi He; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan Hong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids). Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9%) and Firmicutes (27.6%), the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed.

  18. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-176-1826, St. James Community Hospital, Butte, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, B.J.

    1987-08-01

    In response to a request from the Director of Nursing Service at St. James Community Hospital located in Butte, Montana, an evaluation was made of exposures to glutaraldehyde in the respiratory therapy and sigmoidoscopy departments of the hospital, where it was used in equipment sterilization. Glutaraldehyde concentrations in three breathing-zone samples were 0.25mg/cu m, 0.38mg/cu m, and below the detection level. Of six general area samples, five showed measurable concentrations ranging from 0.48 to 0.209mg/cu m. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has set a threshold-limit value of 0.7mg/cu m ceiling value for glutaraldehyde. The author concludes that no health hazard exists for glutaraldehyde in these operations. Informal interviews of technicians in the two departments did not reveal any health problems that could be attributed to glutaraldehyde exposure. Respiratory therapy equipment was cleaned in a hallway used as a passageway for other personnel. It is recommended that an improved arrangement be devised for cleaning respiratory equipment and that the area used for the purpose not be used as a hallway. The author also recommends that the ventilation system for the sigmoidoscope disinfecting operations be shared with other facilities, as it was very effective.

  19. The Story of Story Mill-A Montana Community Working to Restore Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Story Mill, a 55-acre site on the outskirts of Bozeman, Montana, has undergone several transformations in recent history. The place is virtually a “mill of stories” with respect to land use, but originally it was a wetland.

  20. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-01-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities. PMID:14594627

  1. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-11-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities.

  2. Muellerius capillaris dominates the lungworm community of bighorn sheep at the National Bison Range, Montana.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Hines, Alicia M; Archie, Elizabeth A; Hoberg, Eric P; Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Hogg, John T

    2010-07-01

    Lungworm infections are common among bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America, and the predominant species reported are Protostrongylus stilesi and P. rushi. The only records of another lungworm species, Muellerius capillaris, infecting bighorns come from South Dakota, USA. At the National Bison Range (NBR), Montana, USA we found that across six sampling periods, 100% of wild bighorn sheep surveyed were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) which appeared to be consistent with M. capillaris. By contrast, only 39% or fewer sheep were passing Protostrongylus larvae. Using molecular techniques, we positively identified the DSL from the NBR bighorns as M. capillaris. This is the first definitive record of M. capillaris infection in a free-ranging bighorn sheep population outside of South Dakota.

  3. Montana Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... fires raging in Montana and Hurricane Hector swirling in the Pacific. These two unrelated, large-scale examples of nature's fury were ... location:  United States Pacific Ocean region:  Western United States Order:  55 ...

  4. Comparison of macroinvertebrate community structure between two riffle-based sampling protocols in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Zumberge, Jeremy R.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected side-by-side from riffles at 12 stream sites in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana during 2000-2001, following protocols established by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Samples from riffles were collected following NAWQA protocols, using a sampler with 425-micron net mesh-opening size from a total area of 1.25 m2 per sample in multiple riffles. Samples also were collected following EMAP protocols, using a sampler with 500-micron net mesh-opening size from a total area of 0.72 m2 per sample in multiple riffles. The taxonomic identification and enumeration of the samples followed procedures established for each program. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure was compared between the data sets using individual metrics, a multimetric index, and multivariate analysis. Comparisons between the macroinvertebrate community structures were made after sequentially adjusting both data sets for: (1) ambiguous taxa, (2) taxonomic inconsistencies, and (3) differences in laboratory subsampling. After removal of ambiguous taxa, pair-wise differences in total taxa richness and Ephemeroptera taxa richness were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Differences between the data sets generally were not significant for richness of other taxa, tolerant taxa, semi-voltine taxa, functional feeding groups, diversity, and dominance. Sample scores calculated using the Wyoming Stream Integrity Index were not significantly different between the two data sets. After reconciling both data sets for taxonomic inconsistencies, total taxa richness and Ephemeroptera taxa richness remained significantly different between the data sets. After adjusting the data for differences in laboratory subsampling, the differences in taxa richness were no longer significant. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients and non

  5. Community Support for a Gold Cyanide Process Mine: Resident and Leader Differences in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rebecca T.; Brod, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have established that community residents and leaders differ in their support for hazardous waste facility siting in rural areas (Spies et al. 1998). We examine whether these same differences exist in rural communities that face other high-risk development decisions by analyzing resident and leader support for a proposed gold…

  6. Montana Wildfires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Montana Wildfires     View larger image ... in the early summer of 2012 has been on the destructive wildfires in Colorado, as of July 3, 2012, dozens of major wildfires were burning across the western United States, including six in ...

  7. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  8. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, H.; LeJeune, K.; Lipton, J.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source of the enrichment. In enriched areas, marked modifications to the native vegetation community structure and composition were observed. These included replacement of evergreen forest with bare unvegetated ground; species impoverishment and increased dominance by weed species in grasslands; and reductions in the vertical complexity of the habitat. Significant negative correlations existed between soil arsenic and metals concentrations and the extent of vegetative cover and the vertical diversity of plant communities. Loss of vegetative cover in the affected areas has been accompanied by reductions in their capacity to support indigenous wildlife populations.

  9. Workforce: Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Employment in Montana (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 17 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding over 96,000 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 554,456 to 651,135. The rate of growth is higher than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole. Growth will occur…

  10. Assessment of potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the Powder River and Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Feldman, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency aquatic task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. Ecological assessments, made from 2005–08 under the direction of the task group, indicated biological condition of the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the middle reaches of the Powder was lower than in the upper or lower reaches. On the basis of the 2005–08 results, sampling of the macroinvertebrate and algae communities was conducted at 18 sites on the mainstem Powder River and 6 sites on the mainstem Tongue River in 2010. Sampling-site locations were selected on a paired approach, with sites located upstream and downstream of discharge points and tributaries associated with coalbed natural gas development. Differences in biological condition among site pairs were evaluated graphically and statistically using multiple lines of evidence that included macroinvertebrate and algal community metrics (such as taxa richness, relative abundance, functional feeding groups, and tolerance) and output from observed/expected (O/E) macroinvertebrate models from Wyoming and Montana. Multiple lines of evidence indicated a decline in biological condition in the middle reaches of the Powder River, potentially indicating cumulative effects from coalbed natural gas discharges within one or more reaches between Flying E Creek and Wild Horse Creek in Wyoming. The maximum concentrations of alkalinity in the Powder River also occurred in the middle reaches. Biological condition in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River was variable, with declines between some site pairs, such as upstream and downstream of Dry Fork and Willow Creek, and increases at others, such as upstream and downstream of Beaver Creek. Biological condition at site pairs on the Tongue River showed an increase in one case

  11. Seasonal variations in the isoflavonoids of radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Sibao, Chen; Dajian, Yang; Shilin, Chen; Hongx, Xu; Chan, Albert S C

    2007-01-01

    The variations in isoflavonoid content in Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild) Ohwi, have been examined in order to determine the optimum time to harvest the herb. Total isoflavonoid contents have been analysed by a UV spectrophotometric method whilst HPLC with photodiode array detection has been used to monitor the contents of seven major individual isoflavonoids, namely, 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, genistin, formononetin-7-glucoside and daidzein. Ninety-six samples of Radix Puerariae of different ages and harvested in different months were collected and analysed. The results clearly showed that 3-year-old roots harvested in January have the highest yields of isoflavonoid compounds. Moreover, the results obtained by both methods have a strong correlation. This suggested that the simple and fast UV spectrophotometric method could be used for monitoring the phytochemical quality of Radix Puerariae.

  12. Effects of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland.

    PubMed

    Caesar-Tonthat, The Can; Espeland, Erin; Caesar, Anthony J; Sainju, Upendra M; Lartey, Robert T; Gaskin, John F

    2013-07-01

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but little is known about the effects of these fungi on soil aggregation and the microbial community structure, particularly the communities that can bind soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings in Eastern Montana that stimulate western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii): outside the ring (OUT), inside the ring (IN), and stimulated zone adjacent to the fungal fruiting bodies (SZ) to determine (1) soil aggregate proportion and stability, (2) the microbial community composition and the N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity associated with bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth, (3) the predominant culturable bacterial communities that can bind to soil adhering to wheatgrass roots, and (4) the stimulation of wheatgrass production. In bulk soil, macroaggregates (4.75-2.00 and 2.00-0.25 mm) and aggregate stability increased in SZ compared to IN and OUT. The high ratio of fungal to bacteria (fatty acid methyl ester) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in SZ compared to IN and OUT suggest high fungal biomass. A soil sedimentation assay performed on the predominant isolates from root-adhering soil indicated more soil-binding bacteria in SZ than IN and OUT; Pseudomonas fluorescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates predominated in SZ, whereas Bacillus spp. isolates predominated in IN and OUT. This study suggests that growth stimulation of wheatgrass in A. lilaceps fairy rings may be attributed to the activity of the fungus by enhancing soil aggregation of bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth and influencing the amount and functionality of specific predominant microbial communities in the wheatgrass root-adhering soil.

  13. Differentiation of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the study were to differentiate Pueraria lobata from its related species Pueraria thomsonii and to examine the raw herbal material used in manufacturing kudzu root granules using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Sixty-four raw materials of P. lobata and P. thomsonii and kudzu root-labelled granules were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography. To differentiate P. lobata from P. thomsonii, PLS-DA models using the variables selected from the entire chromatograms, genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA), puerarin alone and six selected peaks were employed. The models constructed by GA and SPA demonstrated superior classification ability and lower model's complexity as compared to the model based on the entire chromatographic matrix, whilst the model constructed by the six selected peaks was comparable to the entire chromatographic model. The model established by puerarin alone showed inferior classification ability. In addition, the PLS-DA models constructed by the entire chromatographic matrix, GA, SPA and the six selected peaks showed that four brands out of seventeen granules were mislabelled as P. lobata. In conclusion, PLS-DA is a promising procedure for differentiating Pueraria species and determining raw material used in commercial products.

  14. Challenges and Sustainability Practices of Frontier Schools in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette; Harmon, Hobart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Montana Small Schools Alliance to explore the challenges and sustainability practices of frontier schools. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students with its attendant community located in a county with five or fewer people per square mile.…

  15. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 2: Laboratory phytotoxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapustka, L.A.; Lipton, J.; Galbraith, H.; Cacela, D.; LeJeune, K.

    1995-11-01

    Vegetation communities on metal- and arsenic-contaminated uplands surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana have been eliminated or highly modified. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using site soils from the impacted areas to determine whether the soils limit the ability of plants to establish and grow. The germination and growth of alfalfa, lettuce, and wheat in impacted area soils was compared to germination and growth of the three species in reference soils. The degree of phytotoxicity was quantified using a species-endpoint toxicity score calculated on the magnitude of difference between germination and growth of plants in impacted and reference soils. The impacted soils exhibited substantial toxicity to plants: 5% of the sites were severely phytotoxic, 55% were highly phytotoxic, 10% were moderately phytotoxic, 20% were mildly phytotoxic, and 10% were nontoxic. Root growth was consistently the most affected endpoint (18 of 20 impacted soils) and reduction in root length and mass was observed. Correlation and partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the causes of phytotoxicity. Concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb and Cd were found to be positively correlated with phytotoxicity.

  16. Select mortality and cancer incidence among residents in various U.S. communities that received asbestos-contaminated vermiculite ore from Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Horton, D Kevin; Bove, Frank; Kapil, Vikas

    2008-06-01

    In response to the significantly elevated asbestosis mortality rates found in Libby, Montana, in 2000, this analysis evaluated whether other communities throughout the United States that received asbestos-contaminated vermiculite ore from Libby experienced similar excess rates of asbestos-related diseases. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated using state death certificates, and standardized incidence ratios were calculated using cancer registry records for populations living near facilities that processed or received Libby vermiculite. This analysis focused primarily on diseases that are directly associated with asbestos exposure (e.g., asbestosis; cancer of the peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and pleura, including mesothelioma; and mesothelioma). Lung cancer and cancers of the digestive system, also associated with asbestos exposure, were not included in the analysis because they have additional risk factors for which exposure information was not available. Data from 70 unique sites in 23 states were evaluated. No statistically significant excesses of asbestosis mortality similar to those in Libby were noted; however, 11 sites (plus a state with 6 pooled sites that were counted as 1 site) had excess rates of mesothelioma and cancer of the peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and pleura. Further investigation should be conducted at these sites with excess rates of mesothelioma and cancer of the peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and pleura by participating state health departments to determine whether exposure to Libby vermiculite might have been a contributing factor.

  17. Community-level social support responses in a slow-motion technological disaster: the case of Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, C Brad; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruckdeschel, John C

    2010-09-01

    Social support is an important resource for communities experiencing disasters. However, a disaster's nature (rapid- versus slow-onset, natural versus technological) may influence community-level responses. Disaster research on social support focuses primarily on rapid-onset natural disasters and, to a lesser extent, rapid-onset technological disasters. Little research has addressed slow-onset disasters. This study explores social support processes in Libby, MT, a community experiencing a "slow-motion technological disaster" due to widespread amphibole asbestos exposure. A comprehensive social support coding system was applied to focus-group and in-depth-interview transcripts. Results reveal that, although the community has a history of normative supportiveness during community and individual crises, that norm has been violated in the asbestos disaster context. Results are interpreted as a failure to achieve an "emergent altruistic community." Specifically, community-level conflict appears to interfere with previously established social support patterns. The observed phenomenon can be understood as the deterioration of a previously supportive community.

  18. Community-Level Social Support Responses in a Slow-Motion Technological Disaster: The Case of Libby, Montana

    PubMed Central

    Orom, Heather; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, C. Brad; Schwartz, Ann G.; Ruckdeschel, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for communities experiencing disasters. However, a disaster's nature (rapid- versus slow-onset, natural versus technological) may influence community-level responses. Disaster research on social support focuses primarily on rapid-onset natural disasters and, to a lesser extent, rapid-onset technological disasters. Little research has addressed slow-onset disasters. This study explores social support processes in Libby, MT, a community experiencing a “slow-motion technological disaster” due to widespread amphibole asbestos exposure. A comprehensive social support coding system was applied to focus-group and in-depth-interview transcripts. Results reveal that, although the community has a history of normative supportiveness during community and individual crises, that norm has been violated in the asbestos disaster context. Results are interpreted as a failure to achieve an “emergent altruistic community.” Specifically, community-level conflict appears to interfere with previously established social support patterns. The observed phenomenon can be understood as the deterioration of a previously supportive community. PMID:20526664

  19. Metabolic differentiations of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using ¹H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Gan; Song, Yue-Lin; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Puerariae Radix was a widely used herbal medicine. Pueraria lobata (PL) and Pueraria thomsonii (PT) were the two authorized sources of Puerariae Radix (gegen) in China. In this study, metabolic differentiations between these two species were investigated using NMR spectroscopy followed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The content of puerarin in PL and PT was also determined using quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Thirteen isoflavones were tentatively identified based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data in two species. The (1)H NMR spectra of PL and PT were obviously different. PL and PT could also be markedly discriminated from (1)H NMR spectroscopic data by PCA and PLS-DA. For the crude drug resources, isoflavones, in which puerarin is the most important one, were regarded as the reasonable markers for the discrimination of the two species. The contents of puerarin and total isoflavones in PL were quantitated much higher than those in PT. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which can provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites and achieve convenient determinations of puerarin and total isoflavones in a single run, is an efficient means for evaluating the medicinal samples and achieving a better quality control of Puerariae Radix.

  20. Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  1. Carbon and Nitrogen Levels across Forest Soil Communities Impacted by Bark Beetle and Wildfire Disturbance in Western Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. S. M.; Ballantyne, A. P.; Cooper, L. A.; Hursh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change has had extensive impacts on the forest ecosystems of the western US, namely by causing increases in mountain pine beetle numbers and wildfires. Mountain pine beetles experience higher survival rates due to milder winters, allowing for greater frequency and severity of attacks and in turn causing more widespread pine tree mortality. Meanwhile, the arid conditions created by this temperature increase have been conducive to a surge in wildfires. Although many investigations have been carried out on the soil biogeochemistry in areas hit by one or the other, no study to our knowledge has explicitly researched the compound effects of these disturbances. This study examined soil levels of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as well as the C/N ratios of pine and fir soil communities that have been affected by both beetle and fire disturbance. Our results show that no significant differences were found in the C/N ratios in response to all modes of disturbance. However, significant C losses from the O horizon, but not the M horizon, were observed following wildfire. Similarly, losses in N from just the O horizon were observed, but these were not significant. In conclusion, fire resulted in marked declines in soil C, and forests impacted by beetle infestation and fire experienced C losses similar to fire alone.

  2. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  3. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    3 Reproduction ...overtop trees and surrounding vegetation. Reproduction Kudzu reportedly reproduces readily through vegetative spread (Foresth and Innis 2004...Vegetative reproduction occurs when stems come into contact with the ground, roots will develop at stem nodes. When plants senesce or stems are broken due

  4. Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Neil R

    2007-11-01

    Recent introduction of several commercial Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) containing hangover remedies has occurred in western countries. The available data is reviewed to assess if there are any potential concerns in relationship to the development of neoplasm if these products are used chronically. The herb Pueraria has two components that are used as traditional therapies; Pueraria lobata, the root based herb and Pueraria flos, the flower based herb. Both of these herbal components have different traditional claims and constituents. Pueraria flos, which enhances acetaldehyde removal, is the traditional hangover remedy. Conversely, Pueraria lobata is a known inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and increases acetaldehyde. Pueraria lobata is being investigated for use as an aversion therapy for alcoholics due to these characteristics. Pueraria lobata is not a traditional hangover therapy yet has been accepted as the registered active component in many of these hangover products. The risk of development of acetaldehyde pathology, including neoplasms, is associated with genetic polymorphism with enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or reduced ALDH activity leading to increased acetaldehyde levels in the tissues. The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. The guidelines for Disulfiram, an ALDH2 inhibitor, provide a set of guidelines for use with the herb Pueraria lobata. Pueraria lobata appears to be an inappropriate herb for use in herbal hangover remedies as it is an inhibitor of ALDH2. The recommendations for its use should be similar to those for the ALDH2 inhibitor, Disulfiram.

  5. Rapid analysis of Radix puerariae by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching-Ching; Chan, Chi-On; Chau, Foo-Tim; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2009-03-13

    A new, rapid analytical method using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed to differentiate two species of Radix puerariae (GG), Pueraria lobata (YG) and Pueraria thomsonii (FG), and to determine the contents of puerarin, daidzin and total isoflavonoid in the samples. Five isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein were analyzed simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The total isoflavonoid content was exploited as critical parameter for successful discrimination of the two species. Scattering effect and baseline shift in the NIR spectra were corrected and the spectral features were enhanced by several pre-processing methods. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA), samples were separated successfully into two different clusters corresponding to the two GG species. Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity of the classification models were determined to evaluate the performance. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the correlation models. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the prediction models are R=0.970 for the puerarin, R=0.939 for daidzin and R=0.969 for total isoflavonoid. The outcome showed that NIRS can serve as routine screening in the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

  6. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  7. Geology of northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Arthur J.

    1919-01-01

    A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.

  8. The Montana experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dundas, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development and capabilities of the Montana geodata system are discussed. The system is entirely dependent on the state's central data processing facility which serves all agencies and is therefore restricted to batch mode processing. The computer graphics equipment is briefly described along with its application to state lands and township mapping and the production of water quality interval maps.

  9. Frontier Schools in Montana: Challenges and Sustainability Practices. A Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.; Morton, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    This study reveals the challenges confronting small, rural "frontier" schools in Montana and the practices that contribute to their sustainability. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students and its attendant community in a county with five or fewer people per square mile. The researcher…

  10. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  11. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  12. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking.

  13. Future fuels from Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-04-15

    To make America less dependent on foreign oil, Montana Governor Brain Schweitzer pushes for investment in synfuel technology. He advocates coal as the 'new fuel' for cars and believes synfuels from coal can bridge the gap between the petroleum economy of the past and the hydrogen economy of the future. He is pushing for a 'Future Fuels' project to form a public-private partnership to build 20 coal conversion, synfuel manufacturing plants. This could contribute to making the USA energy self-sufficient, more quickly than the FutureGen project, he believes.

  14. Montana geoenvironmental explorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Greg K.

    2001-01-01

    This report is the result of a multidisciplinary effort to assess relative potential for acidic, metal-rich drainage in the State of Montana; evaluate alternative GIS-based modeling strategies; and provide the statewide digital spatial data produced and compiled for the project. The CD is usable on various computer systems (Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000; MacOS 7.1 or later; many versions of UNIX and Linux; and OS/2). This report and maps are in PDF format, and the data have been provided in various GIS formats. Software for viewing the report and data is included.

  15. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Mayerle, Ronald T.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area in Montana identified a small area of substantiated resource potential for a low-grade stratabound copper occurrence along the northwest border of the area. A demonstrated barite (BaSO//4) resource of 45 tons and a demonstrated limestone resource suitable for cement production are present in the southern part of the roadless area. Limestone, silica in quartz veins, and sand and gravel deposits are known in the southern part of the area but similar deposits occur widely outside the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area.

  16. Floods of May 1981 in west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.; Fassler, John W.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in west-central Montana during May 22-23, 1981, as a result of a series of rainstorms. Flooding was particularly severe in the communities of East Helena, Belt, and Deer Lodge. Although no lives were lost, total flood damages were estimated by the Montana Disaster Emergency Services Division to be in excess of $30 million. Peak discharges were determined at 75 sites in the flooded area. At 25 sites the May 1981 peak discharge exceeded the computed 100-year frequency flood, and at 29 sites, where previous flow records are available, the May 1981 peak discharge exceeded the previous peak of record. (USGS)

  17. Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal

  18. Hepatotoxicity of tubers of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa) in rats.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Nagwani; Mohan, Kumar; Royana, Singh; Yamini, Tripathi B

    2010-04-01

    Methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) (PTME) has been tested for hepatoxicity in rats. In acute study, PTME (100-400 mg/100 g BW, given orally) showed LD(50) at 227.5 mg. For sub-chronic study, its repeated doses (5-100 mg/100 g BW, for 30 days), significantly increased hepatic enzymes in blood, sinusoidal congestion, disruption of central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocellular necrosis in liver in dose dependent manner, with increase in NO, iNOS and ROS levels. In a kinetic study (single dose 227.5 mg/100 g BW), there was sequential decrease in GSH and enhanced NO suggesting free-radical generation as the primary cause of cell damage. It is concluded that the higher dosing of PTME or its continuous use for longer period (even in low doses) is hepatotoxicity by inducing oxidative stress.

  19. Proteome analysis of Pueraria mirifica tubers collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-06-01

    Pueraria mirifica-derived tuberous powder has been long-term consumed in Thailand as female hormone-replacement traditional remedies. The protein profiles of tubers collected in different seasons were evaluated. Phenol extraction, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry were employed for tuberous proteome analysis. Out of the 322 proteins detected, over 59% were functionally classified as being involved in metabolism. The rest proteins were involved in defense, protein synthesis, cell structure, transportation, stress, storage, and also unidentified function. The proteins were found to be differentially expressed with respect to harvest season. Importantly, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone synthase, cytochrome p450, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in the biosynthesis pathway of bioactive isoflavonoids, were most abundantly expressed in the summer-collected tubers. This is the first report on the proteomic patterns in P. mirifica tubers in relevant with seasonal variation. The study enlights the understanding of variance isoflavonoid production in P. mirifica tubers.

  20. Isolation of radiolabeled isoflavones from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-09-10

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled (14)C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 microCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 microCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently (14)C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies.

  1. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract from Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Sookvanichsilp, N; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Boonleang, C

    2008-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica and its extracts are widely used as the ingredient(s) in many rejuvenating products. Up to now, the extract of P. mirifica roots that has been used in most studies, is the alcoholic extract. In the present study, we investigated the estrogenic activity using uterotropic and MCF-7 cell proliferation models of the dichloromethane extract as well as the water extract which was obtained from partitioning the ethanolic extract. The results indicated that among the three extracts, i.e. the ethanolic extract (PM1), the water extract (PM2) and dichloromethane extract (PM3), PM3 exhibited the most potent estrogenic activity in both models, followed by PM1. The extracts produced uterotropic activity associated with the increase of water content while uterotropic activity of 17beta-estradiol was related to the increase of muscle mass. The two isoflavonoids, genistein and daidzein, were not the major active phytoestrogens involving the estrogenic activity of these extracts.

  2. Isolation of Radiolabeled Isoflavones from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 μCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 μCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently 14C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies PMID:18690681

  3. MADISON ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Lambeth, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Madison Roadless Area in the Madison Range of southwestern Montana was made. The Madison Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of about 93,000 tons of sillimanite rock at the Placer Creek deposit and of about 83,000 tons of asbestos rock at the Karst deposit. The roadless area also has areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential; much of the phosphate is in thin deeply buried beds. An area near the south edge of the roadless area has a probable resource potential for copper and silver. The concentration of uranium-rich stream-sediment samples in the southwest part of the roadless area suggests that a further attempt to identify the source rocks might be justified.

  4. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  5. Effects of agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but nothing is known about soil aggregation and the microbial community structure of the stimulated zone, particularly the communities that can bind to soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus li...

  6. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  7. Metabolism of Isoflavones Found in the Pueraria thomsonii Flower by Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Itoh, Kikuji

    2011-01-01

    Isoflavones contained in the root and flower of Kudzu (Pueraria lobata and related species) are suggested to be the critical component for its effects. Although metabolism of soy isoflavones has been well studied, the composition of isoflavones found in Kudzu is completely different from that of soy isoflavones. In the present study, we investigated whether isoflavones found in the flower of Pueraria thomsonii, a species of Kudzu, were metabolized by human fecal microbiota and murine small intestinal enzymes. Among 5 glycosidic isoflavones of the Pueraria thomsonii flower, tectorigenin 7-O-xylosylglucoside, tectoridin, genistin and glycitin were completely hydrolyzed by a homogenate of germfree mouse small intestine without contribution of bacteria. Released aglycones were not further metabolized, except that up to half of glycitein disappeared. Mouse small intestinal enzymes did not metabolize 6-hydroxygenistein 6,7-di-O-glucoside. Isoflavone aglycones as well as 6-hydroxygenistein 6,7-di-O-glucoside were highly metabolized by most of the human fecal suspensions. Metabolites were not detected with the present analytical methods in most cases. Although further investigations of the pharmacokinetics of Pueraria thomsonii flower isoflavones are needed, the results of the present study indicate active metabolism of Pueraria thomsonii flower isoflavones in the human intestine.

  8. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of the wild Pueraria mirifica by vaginal cornification assay.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Kitsamai, Yosaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of tuberous samples of phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica collected from 25 of 76 provinces in Thailand by vaginal cornification assay. Tuberous powders were prepared and administered to ovariectomized rats for 14 consecutive days at dosages of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg BW respectively, and were compared with a daily treatment with 2 mg/kg BW 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Rats treated with 10 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica showed no vaginal cornification. Treatment with 100 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from 13 out of 25 plant samples resulted in development of vaginal cornification. The cell count percentages of the vaginal smeared cells for the treatment with the 2 plant samples that exhibited the fastest vaginal cornification revealed large variation in their estrogenic activities. Treatment with 1,000 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from all plant samples produced vaginal cornification with the mean value for the period (day) of first appearance of cornified cells being 4.08 days compared to 2 days with 2 mg/kg BW E(2). The overall appearance period (day) of cornified cells during the treatment and post-treatment period with 1,000 mg/kg BW per day Pueraria mirifica was shorter than treatment with 2 mg/kg BW E(2). The results demonstrate that the plant population shows differential estrogenic activity as evaluated by vaginal cornification assay.

  9. Use of benthic invertebrate community structure and the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal-contaminated sediment in the upper Clark Fork River, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, T.J.; Kemble, N.E.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Fairchild, J.F. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-12-01

    The upper Clark Fork River, above Flathead River, is contaminated with large amounts of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn ores from past mining activities. The contaminated area extends from the Butte and Anaconda area to at least 230 km downstream to Milltown Reservoir. Both the upper Clark Fork River and Milltown Reservoir have been designated as US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites because of metal-contaminated bottom sediments. The authors evaluated the impacts of past mining activities on the Clark Fork River ecosystem using benthic invertebrate community assessment, residue chemistry, and toxicity testing. Oligochaeta and Chironomidae generally accounted for over 90% of the benthic invertebrate community in the soft sediment depositional areas. Taxa of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae were predominantly pollution tolerant. Higher numbers of Chironomidae genera were present at stations with higher concentrations of metals in sediment identified as toxic by the amphipod Hyalella azteca in 28-d exposures. Frequency of mouthpart deformities in genera of Chironomidae was low and did not correspond to concentrations of metals in sediment. Total abundance of organisms/m[sup 2] did not correspond to concentrations of metals in the sediment samples. Chemical analyses, laboratory toxicity tests, and benthic community evaluations all provide evidence of metal-induced degradation to aquatic communities in both the reservoir and the river. Using a weight-of-evidence approach--the Sediment Quality Triad--provided good concurrence among measures of benthic community structure, sediment chemistry, and laboratory toxicity.

  10. Use of benthic invertebrate community structure and the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal-contaminated sediment in the upper Clark Fork River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canfield, Timothy J.; Kemble, Nile E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dwyer, F. James; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Fairchild, James F.

    1994-01-01

    The upper Clark Fork River, above Flathead River, is contaminated with large amounts of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn ores from past mining activities. The contaminated area extends from the Butte and Anaconda area to at least 230 km downstream to Milltown Reservoir. Both the upper Clark Fork River and Milltown Reservoir have been designated as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites because of metal-contaminated bottom sediments. We evaluated the impacts of past mining activities on the Clark Fork River ecosystem using benthic invertebrate community assessment, residue chemistry, and toxicity testing. Oligochaeta and Chironomidae generally accounted for over 90% of the benthic invertebrate community in the soft sediment depositional areas. Taxa of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae were predominantly pollution tolerant. Higher numbers of Chironomidae genera were present at stations with higher concentrations of metals in sediment identified as toxic by the amphipod Hyalella azteca in 28-d exposures. Frequency of mouthpart deformities in genera of Chironomidae was low and did not correspond to concentrations of metals in sediment. Total abundance of organisms/m2 did not correspond to concentrations of metals in the sediment samples. Chemical analyses, laboratory toxicity tests, and benthic community evaluations all provide evidence of metal-induced degradation to aquatic communities in both the reservoir and the river. Using a weight-of-evidence approach-the Sediment Quality Triad - provided good concurrence among measures of benthic community structure, sediment chemistry, and laboratory toxicity.

  11. 68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 as Sutton's New Grand Theatre, had a seating capacity of 2,175. In its heyday, this theater attracted the most famous acts of vaudville, opera, and theater. The upper stories are built of yellow painted brick, with terra-cotta applied in a stone pattern on the ground floor. The entrance has been modernized with a wall of glass bricks. On the north side of the theater is a four story building which provided a side entrance to the theater and had storefronts, with apartments above. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  12. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  13. Pueraria tuberosa: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Pandit, Subrata; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2014-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC is a perennial herb commonly known as 'vidarikanda', distributed throughout south east Asia. The plant's tuber is widely used in ethanomedicine as well as in traditional systems of medicine, particularly in ayurveda. It has been used in various ayurvedic formulations as restorative tonic, antiaging, spermatogenic and immune booster and has been recommended for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, fertility disorders, menopausal syndrome, sexual debility and spermatorrhoea. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, mostly isoflavonoids such as puerarin, genistein, daidzein, tuberosin and so on have been identified in the tuber. In vivo and in vitro studies have provided the support against traditional demands of the tuber as spermatogenic, immune booster, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and brain tonic. However, further studies are required to define the active phytochemical compositions and to validate its clinical utilisation in the herbal formulations for human uses. This review provides an overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. tuberosa. This review also provides plausible hypotheses about how various isoflavones particularly puerarin, genistein and daidzein, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the therapeutic potential against a wide range of ailments.

  14. Pueraria mirifica leaves, an alternative potential isoflavonoid source.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the major leaf isoflavonoid contents of Pueraria mirifica from three different cultivars (PM-III, PM-IV, and PM-V) using reverse RP-HPLC analysis. The proportions and net levels of puerarin, daidzin, genistin, and daidzein in P. mirifica leaves were found to depend on the plant cultivar and to correlate with cultivation temperature and rainfall amount. The crude leaf-extracts were tested using the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay with both human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ). Their estrogenic activity was higher when determined by the YES system containing hERβ than that with hERα and was also higher when the Δsnq2 than the wildtype yeast was employed. The results open the possibility of selecting and cultivating certain P. mirifica cultivars at a farm scale to produce a sufficient supply of leaf material to act as a starting source for the commercial scale extraction of these major isoflavonoids.

  15. A genomic approach to isoflavone biosynthesis in kudzu (Pueraria lobata).

    PubMed

    He, XianZhi; Blount, Jack W; Ge, Shujun; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    Roots of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) are a rich source of isoflavone O- and C-glycosides. Although O-glycosylation of (iso)flavonoids has been well characterized at the molecular level, no plant isoflavonoid C-glycosyltransferase genes have yet been isolated. To address the biosynthesis of kudzu isoflavonoids, we generated 6,365 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a subtraction cDNA library constructed using RNA from roots that differentially accumulate puerarin. The ESTs were clustered into 722 TCs and 3,913 singletons, from which 15 family I glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were identified. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression patterns of these UGTs with isoflavone synthase (IFS) in a range of tissues identified UGTs with potential functions in isoflavone glycosylation. The open reading frames of these UGTs were expressed in E. coli for functional analysis, and one was shown to preferentially glycosylate isoflavones at the 7-O-position. In addition, ESTs corresponding to chalcone synthase, chalcone reductase, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and 2-hydroxyisoflavanone dehydratase were identified. Recombinant CHI proteins had high activities with both 6'-deoxy- and 6'-hydroxy chalcones, typical of Type II CHIs. Establishment of this EST database and identification of genes associated with kudzu isoflavone biosynthesis and glycosylation provide a new resource for metabolic engineering of bioactive kudzu isoflavones.

  16. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  17. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina’s next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  18. Batch foam fractionation of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine retting solution.

    PubMed

    Eiamwat, J; Loha, V; Prokop, A; Tanner, R D

    1998-01-01

    The aqueous protein solution from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine retting broth, without the addition of other surfactants, was foam-fractionated in a vertical tubular column with multiple sampling ports. Time-varying trajectories of the total protein levels were determined to describe the protein behavior at six positions along the 1-m column. The lowest two trajectories of this batch process represented a loss of proteins from the bulk liquid and tended to merge and decay together in time; the other trajectories displayed a gain in proteins in the foam phase. These upper column port protein concentration trajectories generally increased in time up to 45 mm, followed by a decrease, reflecting the removal of proteins from the column ports. The foam became dryer as it passed up the column to the top port. The protein concentration was about 5-8x higher in the top port foam than in the initial bulk solution, mainly as a result of liquid drainage from the foam along the column axis. This concentration increase in the collected foam was dependent on the initial pH of the bulk solution. The mol-wt profile of the proteins in the concentrated foam effluent was determined by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. An analysis of the gel electropherograms indicated that the most abundant proteins could be cellulases and pectinases.

  19. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  20. Corrections in Montana: A Consultation on Corrections in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Helena.

    The findings and recommendations of a two-day conference on the civil and human rights of inmates of Montana's correctional institutions are contained in this report. The views of private citizens and experts from local, state, and federal organizations are presented in edited form under seven subject headings: existing prison reform legislation,…

  1. Macrocyclic trichothecenes are undetectable in kudzu (Pueraria montana) plants treated with a high-producing isolate of Myrothecium verrucaria.

    PubMed

    Abbas, H K; Tak, H; Boyette, C D; Shier, W T; Jarvis, B B

    2001-09-01

    Myrothecium verrucaria was found to be an effective pathogen against kudzu grown in the greenhouse and the field. M. verrucaria produced large amounts of macrocyclic trichothecenes when cultured on solid rice medium, including epiroridin E (16.8 mg/g crude extract), epiisororidin E (1 mg/g), roridin E (8.7 mg/g), roridin H (31.3 mg/g), trichoverrin A (0.6 mg/g), trichoverrin B (0.1 mg/g), verrucarin A (37.4 mg/g), and verrucarin J (2.2 mg/g). Most of these toxins were also isolated from M. verrucaria spores and mycelia grown on potato dextrose agar medium, including epiroridin E (32.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (28.6 mg/g), roridin E (0 mg/g), roridin H (60 mg/g), trichoverrin A (1.3 mg/g), trichoverrin B (1.8 mg/g), verrucarin A (13.8 mg/g), and verrucarin J (131 mg/g). When M. verrucaria was cultured on liquid media, the numbers but not the amounts of toxins decreased. Only epiroridin E (28.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (29.6 mg/g), verrucarin B (195 mg/g) and verrucarin J (52.6 mg/g) were measured when the fungus was cultured on cornsteep medium. On soyflour-cornmeal broth M. verrucaria produced several toxins, including epiroridin E (58.1 mg/g), epiisororidin E (5.8 mg/g), verrucarin B (29.9 mg/g) and verrucarin J (32 mg/g). In contrast, no macrocyclic trichothecenes were detected by HPLC analysis of plant tissues of kudzu, sicklepod, and soybean treated with aqueous suspensions of M. verrucaria spores formulated with a surfactant. Chloroform-methanol extracts of kudzu leaves and stems treated with M. verrucaria spores were less cytotoxic to four cultured mammalian cell lines than the corresponding extracts from control plants. Purified macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarin A and T-2 toxin) were very cytotoxic to the same cell lines (< or = 2 ng/ml). These results show that neither intact macrocyclic trichothecenes nor toxic metabolites could be detected in plant tissues after treatment with M. verrucaria spores. These results argue for both safety and efficacy for the use of M. verrucaria in biological control of kudzu and other noxious weeds, and support proceeding to animal feeding trials for further evaluation of safety.

  2. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Montana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Montana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  4. Montana Rural Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Ralph, Comp.

    The material in this K-8 curriculum guide is designed to provide classroom professionals in rural Montana schools with some guidance as to when to introduce and develop concepts in each subject area. It is intended to be a guide, not a rule book or complete course of study. For each subject area and for each grade level, topics are coded as I…

  5. Who Will Teach Montana's Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Dori Burns

    Montana is experiencing three types of teacher shortages, each requiring different intervention strategies. These situations include shortages in specific subject areas, most notably in music, special education, and foreign languages, followed closely by guidance and library; many job openings, caused by rapid enrollment growth, a large number of…

  6. An evidence-based systematic review of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Dam, Chi; D'Auria, Denise; Giese, Nicole; Isaac, Richard; LeBlanc, Yvonne; Rusie, Erica; Weissner, Wendy; Windsor, Regina C

    2015-03-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  7. Extraction technology of isoflavone from Dabie Mountain's Pueraria lobata and determination of its reducing power.

    PubMed

    Renshu, Huang; Huili, He; Jiaojiao, Fang; Yuanjun, Ren

    2014-11-01

    In order to determine the optimum extracting process of the isoflavone from Dabie Mountain's Pueraria lobata and its reducing power, a 5-level, 4-factor Box-Behnken center-united experiment was conducted on the basis of single factor experiment. The Box-Behnken experiment analyzed and optimized the processing conditions by response surface methodology, and determined the reducing power of the Pueraria Isoflavone's extract under the optimum conditions. The results showed that the extraction rate of the Pueraria Isoflavone was 24.87%, of which the relative error was only 0.4% compared with the predicted value of 24.77%, under the optimum conditions of ethanol concentration 7.5%, liquid-to-solid ratio17.50 mL/g, treatment temperature 94.30°C, treatment time 47.36 min. The experiment also concluded that response surface methodology was suitable for the regression analysis of isoflavone's extraction rate and parameter optimization; the reducing power of Pueraria Isoflavone's EC50 value was 0.098 mg/mL.

  8. Marigolds for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolbaugh, Walt; Dunkel, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Describes a collaborative science research project designed to help build strong school and community relationships. Participating students joined with university scientists on a yearlong agriculturally-based research project to study the effect of marigolds on nematode management. (KHR)

  9. Smoke over Montana and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    California was not the only western state affected by fire during the last weekend of July. Parts of Montana and Wyoming were covered by a thick pall of smoke on July 30, 2000. This true-color image was captured by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). It is much easier to distinguish smoke from cloud in the color SeaWiFS imagery than the black and white Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. However, GOES provides almost continuous coverage (animation of Sequoia National Forest fire) and has thermal infrared bands (Extensive Fires in the Western U.S.) which detect the heat from fires. On Monday July 31, 2000, eight fires covering 105,000 acres were burning in Montana, and three fires covering 12,000 acres were burning in Wyoming. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  11. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcspadden, W. R.; Stewart, D. H.; Kuwada, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Drilling the first geothermal well in Montana presented many challenges, not only in securing materials and planning strategies for drilling the wildcat well but also in addressing the environmental, legal, and institutional issues raised by the request for permission to explore a resource which lacked legal definition. The Marysville Geothermal Project was to investigate a dry hot rock heat anomaly. The well was drilled to a total depth of 6790 feet and many fractured water bearing zones were encountered below 1800 feet.

  12. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  13. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  14. Helminth parasites of spotted sandpipers, Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes), from Belize, Texas, and Montana.

    PubMed

    Canaris, Albert G; Kinsella, John M; Didyk, Andy S

    2009-12-01

    In total, 70 spotted sandpipers, Actitis macularius, were examined for helminth parasites; 47 from Belize, 18 from Texas, and 5 from Montana. The compound communities consisted of 10 species of helminths for Belize, 5 for Texas, and 6 for Montana, for a total of 17 different species. The most prevalent and abundant helminths for Belize were 3 microphallid trematodes, Paramaritremopsis solielangi, Levinseniella carteretensis, and Microphallus kinsellai; for Texas, the cestodes Kowalewskiella cingulifera and Choanotaenia cayennensis; and for Montana, the cestodes Anomotaenia hypoleuci and K. cingulifera. The cestode K. cingulifera was the only species recorded from all 3 localities. The cestode A. hypoleuci was the only specialist. Characteristics for helminth compound communities from the 3 localities were similar in terms of low mean species richness, medium diversity, and in uneven parasite distribution. Infracommunities were species poor for all 3 localities. For the Belize sample, only 6 of the 47 hosts harbored as many as 3 helminth species, and only 1 harbored more, at 5 species. Only 1 host harbored as many as 3 species in the sample from Texas, and a single host harbored a high of 4 species for Montana. There were no significant differences for mean species richness or mean abundance among the 3 localities. There were no significant differences for species richness or mean abundance between the combined freshwater sample from Texas and Montana and the marine sample from Belize. There were no significant positive or negative associations between pairs of helminth species.

  15. An Environmental Education Plan for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John Y.

    The purpose of this dissertation was to develop an environmental education master plan for implementing environmental education programs into the schools of Montana. The process used to develop the plan consisted of the following steps: (1) to examine environmental education plans from other states; (2) to determine what Montana educators felt…

  16. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Montana. 81.417 Section 81.417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.417 Montana. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  17. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  18. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  19. 76 FR 12857 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana...

  20. 77 FR 58022 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana...

  1. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment... Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana proposes...

  2. 76 FR 30010 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana...

  3. Isoflavonoids production in callus culture of Pueraria tuberosa, the Indian kudzu.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Kamlesh; Goyal, Shaily; Ramawat, K G

    2006-12-01

    Isoflavonoid contents of different plant parts and callus tissues of the Indian Kudzu, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.ex.Willd.) DC are presented. The initial cultures were slow growing, associated with browning of the tissues. The production of four isoflavonoids (puerarin, genistin, genistein and daidzein) in the callus cultures of P. tuberosa was studied by manipulating the plant growth regulators and sucrose concentration in the medium. Organogenesis was not recorded in callus on any of these treatments. Tuber and stem accumulated puerarin, a glycoside of daidzein, at high amounts, 0.65% and 0.054% respectively. However, the daidzein content of the callus tissues grown on Murashige and Skoog medium containing BA (20.9 microM) and sucrose (60 gl(-1)) was significantly higher (0.056%) than in vivo plant material (0.02%) and other comparable culture systems like Genista and Pueraria lobata.

  4. Montana Statewide Education Profile: K-12 Public Schools, School Year 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Dori B.; Lamson, Joe; Love, Catherine; Quinlan, Madalyn

    This is Montana's first education profile. The measures in the profile, and the information they contain, provide a clear picture of education in the state. Public school education is provided by more than 460 school districts in this, the U.S.'s fourth largest state in terms of land. With only a few large communities, more than two-thirds of the…

  5. Engineers without Borders at Montana State University: Student-Led Engagement and Transnational Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Otto R.; Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The Montana State University student chapter of Engineers Without Borders USA is a student-managed partnership with the people of Khwisero, Kenya. The primary mission, to bring potable water and clean sanitation facilities to 61 primary schools and the surrounding communities of Khwisero, necessitates a long-term commitment to collaboration and…

  6. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Hye Mi; Oh, Myung Sook; Jang, Dae Sik; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by wound-healing and transwell migration assays. PFE reduced the protein and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in endometriotic cells. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was activated by PFE treatment, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, significantly inhibited PFE-inhibited cell migration in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, PFE significantly suppressed endometriotic lesion formation in a mouse model. These data suggest that Pueraria flower is a potential anti-endometriotic agent for the inhibition of endometriotic cell adhesion, migration, and MMP expression. PMID:28264481

  7. GALLATIN DIVIDE ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Gallatin Divide Roadless Area in the Gallatin Range of southwestern Montana was made. The area has probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for phosphate rock, but most of the phosphate beds are thin, discontinuous, low grade, and deeply buried. Petrified wood is abundant but is scattered and of poor quality. Oil and gas resources are unlikely because possible productive structures are small and deeply eroded. The roadless area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  8. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  10. A Report on Traffic Safety and Montana's Children. 1999 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report looks at major problems, available data, and some solutions for Montana's children as passengers in and drivers of vehicles on Montana's roads and highways. The report also presents information about adults' roles and responsibilities for preventing traffic accidents and protecting children. Facts presented in the…

  11. Montana Institute for Effective Teaching of American Indian Children (Missoula, Montana, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This guide presents 11 American Indian study units developed by Montana teachers. Nine units are intended for intermediate or middle-school grades; two are suitable for prekindergarten through primary grades. The units contain information about various American Indian tribes, but focus on tribes of Montana. Many lessons include writing and…

  12. Case Study of a Service-Learning Partnership: Montana Tech and the Montana State Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amtmann, John; Evans, Roberta; Powers, Jack

    2002-01-01

    As a service learning project, Montana Tech students deliver a wellness program for older inmates in Montana State Prison. Outcomes identified in student interviews included improved interpersonal skills (tact, diplomacy, communication, assertiveness) and opportunities to apply knowledge. Students recognized the value of the program for…

  13. A Report on Teen Pregnancy in Montana. 1996/97 Montana Special Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief "Kids Count" report explores the impact of and factors that bear on teen pregnancy in Montana and ways to prevent teen pregnancy. Statistics and summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) live births to women under age 20, 1990-95; (2) Montana's unmarried teen births as compared to neighboring states; (3) number of…

  14. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Guthrie, S; Xie, C Y; Mai, K; Lee, D Y; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1996-06-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion. This study was conducted to test the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route. An alcohol-preferring rat model, the selectively-bred P line of rats, was used for the study. All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids. Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments. When administered orally, none of these compounds affected the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Therefore, the reversal of alcohol preference produced by these compounds may be mediated via the CNS. Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

  15. Phenolic compounds from Pueraria lobata protect PC12 cells against Aβ-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-hyeok; Hong, Seong Su; Shin, Yu Su; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Park, So-Young; Lee, Dongho

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc-soluble extract of Pueraria lobata based on the inhibition of Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells resulted in the isolation of four known active compounds, genistein (8), biochanin A (9), sissotrin (10), and puerol B (11). Of these, genistein (8) and biochanin A (9) exhibited potent neuroprotective effects with ED(50) values of 33.7 and 27.8 μM, respectively. In addition, a new coumestan, 2-(α,α-dimethylallyl)coumestrol (1) was isolated and characterized, but proved to be inactive, as were additional seven known compounds. The structure of new compound 1 was determined using spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Estimated water use in Montana in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Johnson, Dave R.

    2004-01-01

    The future health and economic welfare of Montana's population is dependent on a continuing supply of fresh water. Montana's finite water resources are being stressed by increasing water withdrawals and instream-flow requirements. Various water managers in Montana need comprehensive, current, and detailed water-use data to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. This report summarizes selected water-use data for all of Montana's counties and stream basins to help meet those needs. In 2000, the citizens of Montana withdrew and used about 10,749 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water from Montana's streams and aquifers. Withdrawals from surface water were about 10,477 Mgal/d and withdrawals from ground water were about 272 Mgal/d. Agricultural irrigation accounted for about 10,378 Mgal/d or about 96.5 percent of total withdrawals for all uses. Withdrawals for public supply were about 136 Mgal/d, self-supplied domestic withdrawals were about 23 Mgal/d, self-supplied industrial withdrawals were about 61 Mgal/d, withdrawals for thermoelectric power generation were about 110 Mgal/d, and withdrawals for livestock were about 41 Mgal/d. Total consumptive use of water in 2000 was about 2,370 Mgal/d, of which about 2,220 Mgal/d (93.6 percent) was for agricultural irrigation. Instream uses of water included hydroelectric power generation and maintenance of instream flows for conservation of wildlife and aquatic life, and for public recreational purposes. In 2000, about 74,486 Mgal/d was used at hydroelectric plants for generation of about 11,591 gigawatt-hours of electricity. Evaporation from large water bodies, although not a classified water use, accounts for a large loss of water in some parts of the State. Net evaporation from Montana's 60 largest reservoirs and regulated lakes averaged about 891 Mgal/d.

  17. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  18. Montana Library Laws, Rules, and Public Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Library, Helena.

    Chapter 1 of this handbook of Montana library laws, rules, and public library standards contains excerpts from the Constitution of Montana, including articles on property tax exemptions, educational goals and duties, and code of ethics. Montana library laws covering the following areas are presented in Chapter 2: publication and updating of the…

  19. Board of Regents' Montana University System (MUS) Strategic Plan 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana University System, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Montana University System Strategic Plan is the primary planning document of the Board of Regents. The Plan sets forth an agenda for higher education in Montana by delineating the strategic directions, goals, and objectives that guide the Montana University System (MUS). In July 2006, after several years of study, public dialogue, and internal…

  20. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 μM. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species.

  1. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  2. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-03-05

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products.

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Montana. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Minarik, R.J.; McCulloch, R.B.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. Montana's 1991 nonfuel mineral production value was $590 million, an increase of 3% from that of 1990. Gains in the production value of portland cement, copper, and gold more than offset the decrease in values of molybdenum, platinum-group metals, silver, crushed stone, and zinc. Metallic minerals-copper, gold, iron ore, lead, molybdenum, platinum-group metals, silver, and zinc-accounted for more than 82% of Montana's total nonfuel mineral production value. The State ranked 17th nationally in value compared with 19th in 1990.

  4. 75 FR 55713 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby, MT PM2.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ..., avoiding the use of profanity or personal threats. h. Make sure to submit your comments by the comment.... Background Libby, Montana, a small rural community, is located in Lincoln County in the northwestern part of... determined that in light of their small contribution to PM 2.5 nonattainment, existing federal...

  5. The Northern Cheyenne Tribe and Energy Development in Southeastern Montana. Volume I: Social, Cultural, and Economic Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Jean; And Others

    Although there are no easy answers to the economic problems faced by the Northern Cheyenne in Southeast Montana, any economic development plans should stress long-term tribal self-sufficiency, serve community needs, and consider the Cheyenne culture. Differentiation theory is appropriate for understanding the local rural area and the special place…

  6. 75 FR 36436 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009. SUPPLEMENTARY... Plains Region, Montana Area Office, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine the boundaries...

  7. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  8. Blackfeet Community Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030643, the Blackfeet Tribe is authorized to discharge from its Blackfoot Community Water Treatment Plant in Glacier County, Montana, to an unnamed intermittent stream which flows to Two Medicine River.

  9. 75 FR 81112 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... having land uses similar to the approved postmining land use of the disturbed area, including such... Service (NRCS) Practice Standards for Montana: Channel Bank Vegetation (322), Critical Area Planting (342... maintaining comparable unmined land in the surrounding area would not be considered prohibited...

  10. Montana Health Education Curriculum Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This guide is intended to serve administrators, curriculum directors, and teachers as a resource to develop or enhance the existing health education curriculum. After two introductory chapters that provide an overview of the Montana health education curriculum and its 10 content areas, the document provides guidelines for high school, junior high,…

  11. 78 FR 63911 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...'') under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana... subchapter 10 to incorporate rule changes regarding a new expedited coal prospecting permitting process. This... www.regulations.gov and do the following. Click on the ``Advanced Docket Search'' button on the...

  12. Directory of Indian Education Programs in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This directory compiles information on Montana agencies, schools, colleges, and programs concerned with American Indian education. The first section covers educational agencies, associations, and resources. A brief annotated bibliography describes 10 books for educators. Contact information is provided for the Board of Public Education, the…

  13. 77 FR 73965 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Section 503(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule;...

  14. Making FPS Research Fun in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetzner, Kate

    1991-01-01

    Gifted and talented fifth and sixth grade students participating in Montana's Future Problem Solving Program are developing their information retrieval skills as they use electronic equipment to retrieve research literature and use a hypercard authoring system to record and manipulate their findings. (JDD)

  15. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  16. Glauconite from the precambrian belt series, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Goldich, S.S.; Thomas, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  17. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  18. Coach Education Online: The Montana Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Coach education is important, but expensive--both in cost and time to public and private athletic programs. To provide basic coach education to coaches, new, innovative, inexpensive approaches must be developed. Joint efforts between state high school associations and colleges and universities can meet those needs. The "Montana approach"…

  19. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  20. Public Education Policy Issues in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitz, Randy, Ed.; Chambers, Keith, Ed.

    This document contains articles that address six major issues affecting Montana public education. The issues were selected by an advisory group comprised of representatives from professional education organizations, state agencies, the legislature, and business. Each of the articles, written by members of the advisory group, contains an executive…

  1. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  2. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  3. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  4. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  5. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…

  6. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: A Statewide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Furshong, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) is a staff development program created to stem school violence. Program components include summer institutes, site teams, ongoing technical assistance, interagency cooperation, program evaluation, information dissemination, and governance by the MBI council. MBI has expanded to include nearly 100 Montana…

  7. Montana Curriculum Guidelines for Distributive Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    These distributive education curriculum guidelines are intended to provide Montana teachers with teaching information for 11 units. Units cover introduction to marketing and distributive education, human relations and communications, operations and control, processes involved in buying for resale, merchandise handling, sales promotion, sales and…

  8. Made in Montana: Entrepreneurial Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetting, Marsha A.; Muggli, Gayle Y.

    1988-01-01

    Reports results from a survey of 13 Montana home economists who each started a small business. Information is included on types of businesses the women had started, income, personal characteristics, reasons for starting a business, its impact on family concerns, marketing, obstacles to success, and resources. (CH)

  9. Intestinal bacteria activate estrogenic effect of main constituents puerarin and daidzin of Pueraria thunbergiana.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Jieun; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-12-01

    To understand the relationship between the metabolites and estrogenic activity of the main isoflavones puerarin and daidzin of the rhizome of Pueraria thunbergiana (PT, family Leguminosae), PT and its isoflavones were transformed by human intestinal bacteria and their estrogenic effects were investigated. All human fecal specimens hydrolyzed puerarin and daidzin to daidzein, but their hydrolyzing activities varied depending on the individuals. All intestinal bacteria isolated from human also hydrolyzed daidzin to daidzein, but a few bacteria transformed puerarin to daidzein. When the estrogenic effect of PT, puerarin and daidzin was compared with those of their metabolites, the metabolites more potently increased proliferation of MCF-7 cells than PT, puerarin and daidzin. The metabolite daidzein also potently increased estrogen-response c-fos mRNA and PR protein expressions. These findings suggest that intestinal bacteria, which can hydrolyze puerarin and/or daidzin, may activate a potent estrogenic activity of PT.

  10. Comparative analysis of the chemical constituents of two varieties of Pueraria candollei.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Putalun, Waraporn; Udomsin, Orapin; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2011-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to determine the contents of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol in the tubers of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica and P. candollei var. candollei. The linear detection ranges were 0.78-25.00 μg/mL for miroestrol and 1.56-25.00 μg/mL for deoxymiroestrol. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 0.78 μg/mL, respectively, for miroestrol and 0.78 and 1.56 μg/mL, respectively, for deoxymiroestrol. Our results suggest that both varieties of P. candollei can produce miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol and that the developed HPLC method can be applied for quality control of plants and their products.

  11. Production of isoflavonoids in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2009-01-01

    Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica (Airy Shaw & Suvat.) Niyomdham was investigated for callus induction using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. After 8 weeks of culture, 66-100% of leaf or stem explants formed calli. Calli from stem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) gave the maximum of shoot induction (16%) and the highest level of total isoflavonoids [(50.39 +/- 7.06) mg/g dry wt], which was 7-fold higher than that of the native tuber [(7.04 +/- 0.29) mg/g dry wt]. These results suggest that addition of TDZ to the culture medium markedly enhances the production of isoflavonoids in calli induced from stem explants of P. candollei var. mirifica.

  12. A glycoside flavonoid in Kudzu (Pueraria lobata): identification, quantification, and determination of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching S; Carrier, Danielle J; Beitle, Robert R; Howard, Luke R; Lay, Jackson O; Liyanage, Rohana; Clausen, Edgar C

    2005-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) foliage has been touted as a possible energy crop. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the methanolic kudzu foliage extracts confirmed the presence of robinin (kaempferol-3-O-robinoside-7-O-rhamnoside). Robinin accounted for 0.65 +/- 0.16% (dry basis) of kudzu biomass. Fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) was employed to fractionate robinin from the crude extract. The antioxidant capacity of robinin was evaluated by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The ORAC values of pure standard were compared with those of the extract fractions. One milligram of the FPLC-fractionated robinin generated an ORAC value of 5.15 +/- 2.00 micromol/mg of Trolox, whereas 1 mg of pure robinin generated an ORAC value of 12.34 +/- 0.45 micromol/mg of Trolox. Because of its antioxidant properties, robinin may be a flavonoid worth extracting prior to energy production.

  13. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis.

  14. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix.

    PubMed

    Xiaoming, Wang; Ling, Lei; Jinghang, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results showed that FPR had not only in vitro antioxidant activities, but also an in vivo anti-fatigue activity in mice. FPR possessed superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in in vitro experimental studies. In vivo experimental studies, FPR could evidently extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, inhibit the increase of blood lactic acid (BLA), decrease serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, promote increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of mice after swimming. The results provided an important basis for developing the FPR as a novel antioxidant and anti-fatigue compound.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  16. Consumption of Pueraria flower extract reduces body mass index via a decrease in the visceral fat area in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Takano, Akira; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, kudzu is a familiar plant, well-known as an ingredient in the Japanese-style confections kudzu-kiri and kudzu-mochi. In this study, we focused on the flower of kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii) and conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of Pueraria thomsonii flower extract (PFE) on obesity using obese Japanese males and females (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Eighty-one obese subjects were randomly divided into three groups and consumed test food containing 300 mg of PFE, 200 mg of PFE, and a placebo over 12 weeks. The results indicate that PFE intake reduces BMI and decreases, the visceral fat area, but not the subcutaneous fat area. In addition, the decrease in visceral fat area showed no sexual dimorphism. Consequently, we propose that PFE intake expresses its BMI reduction effects via a decrease in visceral fat area.

  17. 75 FR 53687 - Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation; Notice...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Southern Montana Electric Generation &...

  18. 76 FR 53880 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... at 420 Barrett Street, Dillon, Montana (MT 59725). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Patty Bates, Committee Coordinator, Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, 420 Barrett Street, Dillon, MT 59725, (406)...

  19. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  20. Seismic reflection study of Flathead Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wold, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    A seismic reflection survey of Flathead Lake, Montana, was carried out in 1970 to study the geologic structure underlying the lake. Approximately 200 km of track lines were surveyed resulting in about 140 km of useable data (Fig. 1). A one cu. in. air gun was used as the energy source. Navigation was by a series of theodolite sitings of the boat from pairs of shore-based control points. 

  1. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  2. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R. A.; Johns, W. M.; Flood, R. E.; Hawley, K. T.; Wackwitz, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed band 7 ERTS-1 lineament map covering western Montana and northern Idaho has been prepared and is being evaluated by direct comparison with geologic maps, by statistical plots of lineaments and known faults, and by field checking. Lineament patterns apparent in the Idaho and Boulder batholiths do not correspond to any known geologic structures. A band 5 mosaic of Montana and adjacent areas has been laid and a lineament annotation prepared for comparison with the band 7 map. All work to date indicates that ERTS-1 imagery is very useful for revealing patterns of high-angle faults, though much less useful for mapping rock units and patterns of low-angle faults. Large-scale mosaics of U-2 photographs of three test sites have been prepared for annotation and comparison with ERTS-1 maps. Mapping of Quaternary deposits in the Glacial Lake Missoula basin using U-2 color infrared transparencies has been successful resulting in the discovery of some deposits not previously mapped. Detailed work has been done for Test Site 354 D using ERTS-1 imagery; criteria for recognition of several rock types have been found. Photogeologic mapping for southeastern Montana suggest Wasatch deposits where none shown of geologic map.

  4. 2015 Graduation and Dropout Report. Graduation Matters Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In today's economy, a quality public education is the key to economic prosperity for young people. When Superintendent of Public Instruction Denise Juneau took office in 2009, there were 2,272 public school students who dropped out of school, and Montana had a dropout rate of five percent. For a state with a school population as small as Montana,…

  5. Indian Education for All: Essential Understandings Regarding Montana Indians. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the year 1999, OPI [Montana Office of Public Instruction] brought together representatives from all the tribes in Montana and created 7 Essential Understandings. These are some of the major issues all tribes have in common. They form the basis for all of our curriculum efforts and initiatives. There is great diversity among the 12 tribal…

  6. Successful Strategies for Providing Online Credit Recovery in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazelle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This report examines common strategies used by six Montana schools that had high student passing rates in online credit recovery courses offered by the Montana Digital Academy (MTDA) in the 2013/14 school year. The study is based on analysis of interviews conducted with school-based facilitators who oversee the implementation of the online MTDA…

  7. Montana Schools of Promise: Addressing Equity in American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Dugi, Rosemarie; Schmitz, Stevie

    2016-01-01

    The American Indian presence in Montana enriches the state's culture. Educationally, however, there are gross disparities between academic performance of American Indian students when compared with the student population as a whole and with various ethnic/cultural subgroups. Montana's educational data mirror the Bureau of Indian Education national…

  8. 77 FR 54556 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...-54557] [FR Doc No: 2012-21809] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Central Montana... the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the committee is to improve...

  9. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  10. 76 FR 43259 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... in Billings, Montana. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and... Grad Montana Hotel and Convention Center, 5500 Midland Road, Billings, MT. Written comments should be sent to Babete Anderson, Custer National Forest, 1310 Main Street, Billings, MT 59105. Comments...

  11. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  12. Unravelling the Patchwork: Procedures Manual for Rural Montana Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan; And Others

    Designed to assist rural Montana schools in establishing and maintaining library-media centers, this procedures manual presents basic and specific information on all phases of operating a small school library. The first three chapters set forth the major responsibilities of the school librarian, Montana standards for school library personnel, and…

  13. 75 FR 57287 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  14. 77 FR 13621 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  15. 76 FR 76178 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (701) 227-7730 or (406) 896-5009,...

  16. 77 FR 62527 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  17. 76 FR 41821 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  18. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  19. 76 FR 29006 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009. Persons who use...

  20. 78 FR 64531 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009,...

  1. 77 FR 64125 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  2. 77 FR 38321 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  3. 77 FR 34402 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  4. 78 FR 29155 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  5. 77 FR 38320 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  6. 76 FR 70163 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  7. 78 FR 66379 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5123 or (406)...

  8. 77 FR 34401 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  9. 77 FR 13620 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Blaise..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009, bloderme@blm.gov . Persons...

  10. 77 FR 12075 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Blaise..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009, bloderme@blm.gov . Persons...

  11. 77 FR 31033 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  12. 77 FR 34402 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Blaise..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009, bloderme@blm.gov . Persons...

  13. 76 FR 44946 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  14. 76 FR 17443 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  15. 77 FR 34063 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Thomas..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5125 or (406) 896-5009, tlaakso@blm.gov . Persons who...

  16. 77 FR 12075 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  17. 75 FR 53334 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406... Bureau of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to...

  18. 78 FR 20354 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY... of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will..., Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, Central Montana District...

  19. Resource Sharing in Montana: A Study of Interlibrary Loan and Alternatives for a Montana Union Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    This study recommends a variety of actions to create and maintain a Montana union catalog (MONCAT) for more effective usage of in-state resources and library funds. Specifically, it advocates (1) merger of existing COM, machine readable bibliographic records, and OCLC tapes into a single microform catalog; (2) acceptance of only machine readable…

  20. A Report on the Health of Montana's Infants. 1996 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report reviews principal adverse birth outcomes that affect the status of infants in Montana, including infant mortality and low birth weight. Statistics and brief summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) infant mortality (on the decline since 1989); (2) low birth rate (remaining steady from 1988 through 1992); (3)…

  1. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  2. Mangiferin from Pueraria tuberosa reduces inflammation via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Bulugonda, Ramakrishna K.; kumar, Kotha Anil; Gangappa, D.; Beeda, Harshavardhan; Philip, Gundala Harold; Muralidhara Rao, Dowlathabad; Faisal, Syed M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated the role of phyto-constituents in modulating inflammatory responses. Mangiferin isolated from Mangifera indica is known to induce potent anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity is not properly understood. In this study we have isolated Mangiferin from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PT-Mangiferin) and analysed the mechanism of its potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line and in a carrageenan induced air pouch model. PT-Mangiferin was non-toxic to primary cells but showed significant toxicity and apoptotic effect on cancerous cells. It significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (COX-2, iNOS and TNF-α) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Further, it has also reduced the generation of ROS and inhibited LPS induced NF-kB translocation in these cells. Additionally, PT-Mangiferin significantly reduced inflammation in a mouse air pouch model by inhibiting the infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils and reducing the production of cytokines. These effects were mediated via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome complex and its downstream signalling molecules. Taken together these results suggest that PT-Mangiferin is potent anti-inflammatory compound that reduces inflammation and holds promise in development of herbal based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in future. PMID:28218280

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa

    PubMed Central

    Anilkumar, Kotha; Reddy, Gorla V.; Azad, Rajaram; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Srivastava, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor isolated from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa, in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β) both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties. PMID:28243356

  4. Identification of isoflavone glycosides in Pueraria lobata cultures by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Reppert, Adam; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, D Ray; Barnes, Stephen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Isoflavones in the methanolic extracts of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) callus, suspension and root cultures were compared in order to develop an experimental system in which puerarin (daidzein 8-C-glucoside) and other isoflavones could be synthesised in vitro. Quantitative variation of puerarin and other known isoflavones was estimated in kudzu culture extracts using HPLC-UV. The highest and lowest amounts of puerarin (14.56 and 0.33 mg/g) were present in in vitro root cultures and leaf tissue-derived callus cultures, respectively. A total of 48 isoflavone metabolites were detected in extracts of kudzu root cultures by HPLC-MS/MS, and the structures of 33 of them were tentatively assigned. Amongst these, 12 isoflavone C-glycosides were identified. Hydroxyderivatives of puerarin in several isomeric forms were detected, some of which have not been previously reported in kudzu root. The molecular weights, interpretation of characteristic fragment ions obtained from HPLC-MS/MS and comparison with reported data allowed the putative identification of the isoflavone metabolites.

  5. Characterization of kudzu (Pueraria spp.) resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Stephen A; Mailhot, Daniel J; Gevens, Amanda J; Marois, Jim J; Wright, David L; Harmon, Carrie L; Harmon, Philip F

    2010-09-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria spp.) is an accessory host for soybean rust (SBR) (caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi) that is widespread throughout the southeastern United States. An expanded survey of kudzu sites was conducted in 2008 to determine the proportion of natural resistance in the north-Florida kudzu population. Of the 139 sites evaluated, approximately 18% were found to be free of SBR infection, while 23% had reduced sporulation. Ten accessions of kudzu from north-central Florida were characterized for their response to challenge by a single isolate of P. pachyrhizi under laboratory conditions. Three outcomes were observed: tan lesions with profuse sporulation (susceptible); reddish-brown lesions with delayed, reduced sporulation (resistant); and an immune response in which no lesions developed (immune). Of the 10 accessions, 6 were susceptible, 3 were immune, and 1 was resistant. Cytological examination revealed that resistant interactions were typified by early onset of a multicell hypersensitive response (HR) while typical immune interactions were the result of cell wall depositions that blocked penetration in combination with early onset of the HR. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the extent of colonization. After 15 days, there was 10-fold less P. pachyrhizi DNA present in resistant compared with susceptible kudzu, while the amount of P. pachyrhizi DNA present in the immune kudzu was below the detection level. Susceptible kudzu had approximately half the amount of P. pachyrhizi DNA present when compared with a susceptible soybean cultivar.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light.

  7. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  8. Genetic variation in Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae), an introduced, clonal, invasive plant of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pappert, R A; Hamrick, J L; Donovan, L A

    2000-09-01

    Pueraria lobata (kudzu), a clonal, leguminous vine, is invading the southeastern United States at a rate of 50 000 ha per year. Genetic variability and clonal diversity were measured in 20 southeastern U.S. populations using 14 allozyme loci. Within its U.S. range, 92.9% of the loci were polymorphic and overall genetic diversity was 0.290. Such high levels of genetic diversity are consistent with its history of multiple introductions over an extended period of time. The average proportions of polymorphic loci and genetic diversity within populations were 55.7% (range = 28.6-85.7%) and 0.213 (range = 0.114-0.317), respectively. The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was similar to species with equivalent life history characters (G(ST) = 0.199). No regional patterns of variation were seen. The number of putative genotypes in each population ranged from 2 to 26. Mean genotypic diversity was 0.694, ranging from 0.223 to 0.955. Such high levels of genotypic diversity indicate that local sites are often colonized by several propagules (most likely seeds) and/or that sexual reproduction occurs within populations after establishment. An excess of heterozygosity was observed in populations with few unique genets, implying that selection for highly heterozygous individuals may occur in populations of P. lobata.

  9. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5α-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein.

  10. Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of a Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Vine Extract in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Yokota, Yukihiro; Tang, Hanjun; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Postmenopausal diabetes is exacerbated by estrogen deficiency. Ovariectomized (OVX) animal models can be used to develop strategies for preventing or treating postmenopausal symptoms. We previously found that a diet containing kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine ethanol extract (PVEE) suppressed weight gain in OVX mice. Therefore, this study further elucidated how PVEE affected OVX mice. Ten-week-old OVX or sham-operated mice were fed diets containing either no PVEE (control) or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) PVEE for 8 wk, 5 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) PVEE for 24 wk, or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) puerarin (daidzein-8-C-glucoside), a major isoflavone present in PVEE, for 10 wk. The effects of puerarin on glucose tolerance were also tested in OVX mice. The experimental diets were not associated with any abnormalities in any mice tested in the present study. Weight gain and serum glucose levels were increased in OVX mice and these effects were significantly attenuated in OVX mice that consumed PVEE (5 or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1)) or puerarin. Puerarin-treated OVX mice also showed reduced serum glucose levels following administration of 1,000 mg•kg(-1) glucose. These results suggested that puerarin contributed to PVEE-mediated improvements in glucose metabolism in OVX mice. Although further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying these observations, PVEE and puerarin could provide effective approaches to the amelioration of postmenopausal diabetes.

  11. Free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and an outbreak of inflammatory bowel disease along the Clark Fork River in Plains, Montana.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Ellen S

    2012-10-01

    Nine individuals with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease grew up or lived in Plains, Montana, a 1,200-person community adjacent to the Clark Fork River near herds of free ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. This inflammatory bowel disease outbreak is similar to others that have occurred along rivers contaminated by animal feces.

  12. Human Jamestown canyon virus infection --- Montana, 2009.

    PubMed

    2011-05-27

    Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen belonging to the California serogroup of bunyaviruses. Although JCV is widely distributed throughout temperate North America, reports of human JCV infection in the United States are rare. This is the first report of human JCV infection detected in Montana, one of only 15 cases reported in the United States since 2004, when JCV became reportable. On May 26, 2009, a man aged 51 years with no travel history outside of Montana went to a local emergency department immediately following onset of fever, severe frontal headache, dizziness, left-sided numbness, and tingling. His blood pressure was elevated. Stroke was ruled out, oxygen was administered, medication was prescribed for hypertension, and the patient was sent home. One week later, the patient visited his primary-care physician complaining of continued neurologic symptoms consistent with acute febrile encephalitis and recent mosquito bites. Although West Nile virus (WNV) disease was diagnosed based on detection of WNV-immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies, subsequent testing indicated that the WNV antibodies were from a past infection and that his illness was caused by JCV. The final diagnosis of JCV infection was based on positive JCV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results and a fourfold rise in paired sample JCV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titers. This finding represents a previously unrecognized risk for JCV infection in Montana; clinicians should consider JCV infection when assessing patients for suspected arboviral infections.

  13. ABSAROKA PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; Bannister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource appraisal of the Absaroka Primitive Area, Montana indicates a probable resource potential for copper-molybdenum and gold in parts of the area. An area favorable for the occurrence of early Tertiary porphyry-type copper-molybdenum and associated gold deposits lies northwest of Cooke City, along the Cooke City structural sag in the Beartooth uplift. An area favorable for stratabound gold deposits of the Homestake type is in the western part of the area, in and around the Jardine-Crevice Mountain mining district and in lower Hellroaring Creek valley. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the primitive area.

  14. SELWAY-BITTERROOT WILDERNESS, IDAHO AND MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toth, Margo I.; Zilka, Nicholas T.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource studies of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness in Idaho County, Idaho, and Missoula and Ravalli Counties, Montana, were carried out. Four areas with probable and one small area of substantiated mineral-resource potential were recognized. The areas of the Running Creek, Painted Rocks, and Whistling Pig plutons of Tertiary age have probable resource potential for molybdenum, although detailed geochemical sampling and surface investigations failed to recognize mineralized systems at the surface. Randomly distributed breccia zones along a fault in the vicinity of the Cliff mine have a substantiated potential for small silver-copper-lead resources.

  15. CHARLES M. RUSSELL WILDLIFE REFUGE, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Dudley D.; Miller, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Charles M. Russell Wildlife Refuge in Montana indicates that parts of the area have demonstrated resources of low-rank coal and bentonite in areas of substantiated potential and all of the area is assigned a probable resource potential for oil and gas because it is underlain by sedimentary strata known to contain hydrocarbons in other areas. Potential hydrocarbon accumulations, including both oil and gas, are difficult to delineate because of the absence of subsurface control points within the refuge. Geophysical surveys and directional drilling along the fringes of the wildlife refuge would aid in refining resource estimates for organic fuels. 1 ref.

  16. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  17. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  18. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  19. Effect of invader litter chemistries on soil organic matter compositions: consequences of Polygonum cuspidatum and Pueraria lobata invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharayil, N.; Tamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fixation during photosynthesis forms the precursor of all organic carbon in soil and the predominant source of energy that drives soil microbial processes; hence the molecular identity of the fixed carbon could influence the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). Due to their high resource acquisition and resource use efficiencies, some invasive plants can input disproportionately high quantities of litter that are qualitatively distinctive, and this could influence the accrual of organic carbon and overall carbon cycling in invaded habitats. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. Japanese knotweed produces low litter abundant in polyphenols which selectively hinders microbially mediated decomposition and re-synthesis; whereas kudzu produces low C:N, high quality litter that can stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 5-cm intervals and from inside and outside 15 to 20 year old stands of the invasive species. The novelty of our study was that both of our study species were invading into soils of contrasting substrate qualities relative to the invading litter quality. The molecular composition of carbon in the soils and the degradation stage of the SOM were assessed with a biomarker approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the source of biomolecules (plant or microbes). Stability of SOM fractions was assessed through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, serving as a proxy of biological degradation, followed by stable isotope analysis. Fungal communities dominated the uppermost soils under knotweed whereas kudzu litter suppressed fungal biomass in the top 10-cm. In constrast, increase in active microbial biomass C

  20. Breccia dikes from the Beaverhead Impact structure, southwest Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, P. S.; Hougen, S. B.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    While shatter cones are generally accepted as indicators of meteorite impact, older petrologic features are not widely recognized in the geologic community. Breccia dikes are one such feature. They are found in many large impact structures occurring over an area at least as extensively as shatter cones. Breccia dikes will survive moderate degrees of metamorphism and tectonism, unlike many other microscopic features (shocked quartz grains, high-pressure polymorphs, etc.) and even large-scale features such as annular or bowl-shaped topographic features. Thus, they are important diagnostic criteria, especially for large, poorly preserved impact structures. The Beaverhead Impact structure is a recently discovered, deeply eroded impact structure in southwestern Montana. The remains of the structure are delineated by the occurrence of shatter cones, found in an area greater than 200 sq km, occurring within the Cabin thrust plate, part of the Cretaceous Sevier fold and thrust system. The distribution of shatter cones is further truncated by Tertiary normal faults. The present remains represent an allochthonous fragment of a larger structure.

  1. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-04-30

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified--namely, puerarin (160 mg per g of extract), genistin (3.7 mg/g), daidzein (2.6 mg/g), daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g), genistein (0.2 mg/g), and formononetin (0.16 mg/g). None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract. Plasma daidzin concentration-time curves determined in hamsters administered various doses of pure daidzin or RP extract by i.p.injection indicate that the crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound. Reconstruction of the dose-response effects for pure and crude daidzin using bioavailable daidzin rather than administered dose gives a single curve. Synthetic daidzin added to the RP extract acquires the bioavailability of the endogenous daidzin that exists naturally in the extract. These results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

  2. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent.

  3. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Hughes, Timothy C; Hao, Xiaojuan; Mei, Danping; Tan, Tianwei

    2011-08-01

    Monomeric and epichlorohydrin polymerized β-CD functionalized monoliths were prepared for the rapid isolation and purification of the isoflavonoid puerarin, a well-known traditional Chinese drug, from a crude extract of Radix puerariae (root of the plant Pueraria lobata). Two copolymers poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(IEM-co-MMA-co-EDMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) were developed as facile, highly reactive and versatile monolithic matrix. SEM characterization demonstrated that the modified monoliths had homogenous porous structure and morphology. The success of the chemical modification of the monolithic matrix was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state (13) C NMR and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that polymeric β-CD modified monoliths had better separation and selectivity for puerarin, recovering puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and a yield of 93% (m%). Compared with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA), poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) monolithic matrix had higher reactivity, which significantly improved the β-CD ligand density and thus the selectivity of the monoliths. Puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and with a yield of 89% (m%) was recovered on the monolith.

  4. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    PubMed

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  5. Montana's 1988 fuelwood harvest. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, W.H.

    1990-10-01

    The report highlights the 1988 harvest of fuelwood in Montana by Commercial fuelwood harvesters and those cutting for home consumption. It lists a directory of commercial fuelwood harvesters and describes the methods of data collection and compilation.

  6. 77 FR 52309 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Headquarters, 420 Barrett Street, Dillon, Montana. Please call ahead to (406) 683-3900 to facilitate entry into... Barrett Street, Dillon, MT 59725, or by email to pbates@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to (406) 683-3944....

  7. 1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow County Courthouse (1910-1912) is on the left. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  9. 76 FR 44032 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... beginning on April 4, 2011, and continuing, is of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major... Montana have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Big Horn, Blaine,...

  10. National uranium resource evaluation, Kalispell Quadrangle, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Fleshman, B.R.; Siegmund, B.L.

    1982-03-01

    The Kalispell Quadrangle, Montana, was evaluated using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program for the purpose of identifying and delineating areas containing geologic environments favorable for uranium deposits. Reconnaissance and detailed investigations included the evaluation of reported uranium occurrences, geochemical sampling, and field evaluation of hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment anomalies. Results of the investigations indicate that two areas have potential for uranium deposits in or related to plutonic rocks. Both areas contain peralkaline plutonic rocks and are possibly spatially and genetically related to a larger alkaline-ultramafic complex. The nonradioactive plutonic rocks of the Bobtail stock are possibly related to this larger complex but are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits. Precambrian volcanic and metasedimentary rocks outside areas containing polymetallic vein-type silver-lead-zinc enrichment are also considered unfavorable for uranium deposits. Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks and Quaternary deposits are also unfavorable.

  11. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  12. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

  13. TEN LAKES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whipple, James W.; Hamilton, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Ten Lakes Wilderness Study Area, Montana, was conducted. Areas of probable or substantiated mineral potential were found surrounding zones of past mining activity east of Independence Peak where copper-bearing veins are hosted by basaltic lava flows. Three mines contain demonstrated or inferred resources, and there are numerous prospects. Other areas of probable resource potential include an area on Sinclair Creek with copper occurrences similar to those of the Independence Peak area, an area including Gilbralter Ridge where lead and zinc veins are hosted by sedimentary rocks, two areas where zinc-copper occurrences are related to metadiorite sills, and two areas that contain stratabound copper occurrences. The areas with copper and lead-zinc veins may also be of interest for deeply buried mineralized systems, as the veins may be the surface expression of plutons at relatively shallow depths.

  14. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic maps of four test sites were compiled at 1/250,000. Band 7 prints enlarged to 1/500,000 scale are the best for the purpose, and negative prints provide a valuable supplement. More than 100 mapped lineaments represent most of the major faults of the area and a large number of suspected faults, including many of northeast trend. Under ideal conditions dip slopes may be recognized, laccoliths outlined, and axial traces drawn for narrow, plunging folds. Use of ERTS-1 imagery will greatly facilitate construction of a needed tectonic map of Montana. From ERTS-1 imagery alone, it was possible to identify up-turned undivided Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata and to map the boundaries of mountain glaciation, intermontane basins, a volcanic field, and an area of granitic rocks. It was also possible to outline clay pans associated with bentonite. However, widespread recognition of gross rock types will be difficult.

  15. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  16. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  17. 76 FR 31579 - Designation for the State of Georgia and State of Montana Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...) and the Montana Department of Agriculture (Montana) to provide official services under the United... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the State of Georgia and...

  18. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  19. 77 FR 35061 - Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula, Montana; Notice of Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula, Montana... former workers of Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, Montana (subject...

  20. 77 FR 42509 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Montana has completed an... funerary objects may contact the University of Montana. Repatriation of the human remains and...

  1. 77 FR 46109 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ..., Billings, Montana, on September 4, 2012. DATES: Protests of the survey must be filed before September 4... Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER..., 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  2. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana..., 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Josh Alexander, Cadastral Surveyor, Branch of Cadastral Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive,...

  3. 75 FR 31812 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406...: May 27, 2010. James D. Claflin, Chief Cadastral Surveyor, Division of Resources. BILLING CODE...

  4. 76 FR 37372 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Toth, Cadastral Surveyor, Branch of Cadastral Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive,...

  5. 75 FR 41881 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5121 or (406) 896- 5009. SUPPLEMENTARY..., Division of Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  6. 77 FR 46109 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana, on September 4... Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin Montoya, Cadastral Surveyor, Branch of Cadastral Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings,...

  7. 75 FR 48722 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406...: August 4, 2010. James D. Claflin, Chief Cadastral Surveyor, Division of Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  8. 76 FR 44947 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana, on August 26... Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin Montoya, Cadastral Surveyor, Branch of Cadastral Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings,...

  9. Montana Standards and Guidelines for Career and Vocational/Technical Education. Summer 2002 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This document presents Montana's standards and guidelines for career and vocational/technical education (CVTE). The guide begins with a directory of Montana's key CVTE personnel and specialists. Part 1 presents the federal and state definitions of CVTE and provides an overview of Montana's system for delivering CVTE and its philosophy regarding…

  10. 76 FR 28065 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena... repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, that meets the... Territory, between 1884 and 1886. In 1892, Allen loaned it to the Montana Historical Society....

  11. 30 CFR 926.15 - Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Montana regulatory program..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MONTANA § 926.15 Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments. The following is a list of the...

  12. 30 CFR 926.15 - Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Montana regulatory program..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MONTANA § 926.15 Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments. The following is a list of the...

  13. 76 FR 37372 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Notification of a Public Meeting; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Wildlife Refuge (CMR NWR). The surface is protected by an overlapping withdrawal. This notice gives an... the Montana State Director, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana...

  14. 30 CFR 926.15 - Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Montana regulatory program..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MONTANA § 926.15 Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments. The following is a list of the...

  15. 30 CFR 926.15 - Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Montana regulatory program..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MONTANA § 926.15 Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments. The following is a list of the...

  16. Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses school fall Enrollment of Montana based on race/ethnicity for the 2003-2004 school year. Sections include: (1) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity Overview; and (2) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity-2003-04 School Year. Fall enrollment data are collected by school, grade, gender, and race/ethnicity…

  17. Suppression of BSEP and MRP2 in mouse liver by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol isolated from Pueraria candollei.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-11-15

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are highly active phytoestrogens isolated from the tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (Leguminosae). Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on the mRNAs of BSEP and MRP2 genes involved in bile salt transportation, in C57BL/6 mice were investigated. In contrast to estradiol, miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expression of BSEP and MRP2 mRNA in both male and female mice. The results suggest for the first time that the use of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol-containing products as alternative medicines or health supplements should be concerned according to their effects on key genes that regulate the bile salt export pump, which could result in the risk of hepatotoxicity and intrahepatic cholestasis.

  18. Holocene vegetational history of the Kootenai River Valley, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Richard N.; Rutter, N. W.; Valastro, S.

    1983-09-01

    Pollen records in the Kootenai and Fisher River drainages in western Montana reveal a fivezone sequence of Holocene vegetation change. Deposition of Glacier Peak Ash-Layer G (ca. 10,540 ± 660 yr B.P.) in the lowermost sediments (clay intermixed with pebbles) at Tepee Lake gives a minimum date for the initiation of sedimentation. Initial vegetation on the newly deglaciated terrain was dominated by Pinus (probably white bark pine) with small amounts of Gramineae, Picea and Abies, reflecting a relatively cool, moist macroclimate. Two vegetation units appear to contribute to Pollen Zone II (ca. 11,000-7100 yr B.P.): arboreal communities with pines, along with Pseudotsuga or Larix, or both, and treeless vegetation dominated by Artemisia. Pollen Zone II represents an overall warmer macroclimate than occurred upon ice withdrawal. After ca. 7100 yr B.P. (Pollen Zone III) diploxylon pines became a major pollen contributor near both Tepee Lake and McKillop Creek Pond, indicating an expansion of xerophytic forest ( P. contorta and P. ponderosa) along with an increase in the prominence of Pseudotsuga menziesii or Larix occidentalis, or both. Artemisia briefly expanded coverage near Tepee Lake concomitant with the Mazama ashfall ca. 6700 yr B.P. A short-term climatic trend with more available water began after ca. 4000 yr B.P. as Abies (probably A. grandis) along with Picea engelmannii became a more regular component of the forest surrounding both sites. Emergence of the modern macroclimate is indicated primarily with the first regular appearance of Tsuga heterophylla in the pollen record by ca. 2700 yr B.P., synchronous with the development of western hemlock forest within the same latitudes in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington.

  19. Oral toxicological studies of pueraria flower extract: acute toxicity study in mice and subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akira; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kinjo, Junei

    2013-11-01

    Kudzu has been widely used as an herbal medicine in China. The root of the kudzu is also well known as an antipyretic and analgesic in treatment of the common cold, while its flower has been used to treat alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse, and dysentery. Pueraria flower extract (PFE) is a hot water extract derived from the flower of the kudzu, Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae), oral intake of which exhibits anti-obesity properties in mice and humans. In this study, we conducted acute and subchronic toxicity studies for an evaluation of safety. In the acute study, PFE (5 g/kg body weight) was orally administered to ddY mice. For 14 d after administration, no deaths or abnormal changes were observed in general signs, body weight (BW), or food consumption, and no abnormal findings were observed in the major organs and tissues of either males or females at necropsy. The oral LD50 of PFE was therefore estimated to be higher than 5 g/kg BW. In the subchronic study, PFE was mixed into the diet in place of powdered CRF-1 and administered at concentrations of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.5%, and 5.0% to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 d. No mortality or toxicological changes were observed during the experimental period. Blood biochemical, hematological, and urinary parameters revealed no toxicologically significant changes. Furthermore, no anatomical or histopathological changes due to PFE were observed. The no-observed adverse-effect-level of PFE was thus estimated to be 5.0% in the diet (male: 3.0 g/kg BW/d; female: 3.5 g/kg BW/d).

  20. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  1. Utilizing Paraeducators as Links to Their Communities: A Training Package for Use with Teacher/Paraeducator Teams and in the Pre-Service Training of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanson, Michael J.; Peterson, Michael D.; Sampson, Marsha; Hoagland, Tina

    To deliver training and continuing education for education personnel in a large rural state, Montana has decentralized its Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (CSPD) by forming five regional councils. The Montana Center on Disabilities developed a statewide training program for using paraeducators as liaisons to communities to enhance…

  2. Archean collisional tectonics in SW Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Mogk, D.; Rickmond, D.; Salt, K.; Clark, M.; Mueller, P.; Lafrenze, D.; Wooden, J.; Henry, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean continental crust of SW Montana evolved through alternating cycles of stable platform sedimentation followed by crustal thickening through collisional tectonics. The ancient sialic crust in the Beartooth Mountains served as the nucleus for accretion of younger terranes to the west. The oldest orogenic cycle recognized in the Beartooth Mountains involves a 3.4 Ga old supracrustal sequence which was metamorphosed in the granulite facies (T=700-800/sup 0/C, P=6Kb, 35/sup 0/C/Km); deep burial is interpreted as the result of collisional tectonic thickening. The second orogenic cycle is subduction related and has produced 2.8 Ga old andesites, 2.75 Ga old calc-alkaline intrusives, upper amphibolite grade metamorphism, transcurrent faulting (in the North Snowy Block and Yankee Jim canyon at 2.8 Ga) and nappe emplacement. In the central Beartooths post-orogenic granites intrude pelitic schists (T=600/sup 0/C, P=8Kb, 25/sup 0/C/Km). West of the Beartooths the basement consists of 2.75-2.70 Ga old, tectonically telescoped coarse clastics (Gallatin, Madison Ranges) and stable platform sequences (Gravelly, Tobacco Root, Ruby Ranges). Nappe formation and granulite-migmatite (700-750/sup 0/C) associations are common, suggesting deep burial through tectonic thickening. A later-kinematic mesozonal (8Kb) qtz diorite-granodiorite batholithic complex is present in the northern Madison Range. Quartzofeldspathic paragneisses in the westernmost Archean basement are derived from either a continental or island arc source.

  3. Heat pump systems for Spring Creek, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Engen, I.A.

    1982-03-01

    The use of ground water heat pump systems for space heating in the new town of Spring Creek, Montana, is reviewed in this report. The available information, together with a review of manufacturers' specifications and guidelines, indicates ground water heat pump systems can be competitive with comparable electric space conditioning systems, if electricity cost approaches $0.02/kWh. Due to the low water temperature, large volumes of water will be required to carry the peak heat load and district-type supply systems may not be feasible for single-family residential developments. Due to the large water production rates, shallow depth of the reservoir, and proximity of a large surface reservoir, additional reservoir evaluation seems appropriate; obtaining competent hydrological consultation is recommended. If ground water heat pump systems are used in the development care must be exercised in equipment selection; the requirement for cooling capacity at the site is negligible compared to heating load. Some heat pumps designed for southern climates may not provide adequate heating performance on water below 60/sup 0/F.

  4. The Montana earthquake of June 27, 1925

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardee, J.T.

    1927-01-01

    The earthquake of June 27, 1925, in Montana caused considerable damage within an area of 600 square miles or more, the center of which is in latitude 46° 5' N. and longitude 111° 20' W., a short distance southeast of Lombard. It was a seismic disturbance of the first order of magnitude, but, owing to the hour at which it occurred and to other fortunate circumstances, no lives were lost and no fires broke out. The shock was startling throughout an area extending 75 miles or more in all directions from the epicenter and was sensible to persons within an area of 310,000 square miles. Within the epicentral area brick buildings suffered severely, rocks fell from cliffs, cracks opened in the ground, and the inhabitants experienced the usual symptoms of illness and emotions of alarm. Isoseismals drawn according to the Rossi-Forel scale show a wide indentation at the south due to a rapid decline of intensity in the volcanic area of Snake River Plain and Yellowstone Park.

  5. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, I.M.; Fields, R.W.; Fountain, D.M.; Moore, J.N.; Qamar, A.I.; Silverman, A.J.; Thompson, G.R.; Chadwick, R.A.; Custer, S.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-08-01

    The Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits. This evaluation was conducted using methods and criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, mapping, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were performed in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and HSSR data were evaluated and followup studies of these anomalies and most of the previously known uranium occurrences were conducted. Detailed gravity profiling was done in the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin Basin and the Madison and Paradise Valleys. Also, selected well waters were analyzed. Eight areas are considered favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. They include the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin basin, the Madison and Paradise Valleys, and five areas underlain by Cretaceous fluvial and marginal-marine sandstones. Other environments within the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits when judged by the program criteria. A few environments were not evaluated due to inaccessibility and/or prior knowledge of unfavorable criteria.

  6. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Samaropoulou, Sofia; Bareka, Pepy; Kamari, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae) is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and Fritillaria montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of Fritillaria epirotica is also investigated, while for Fritillaria montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species. PMID:28123688

  7. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones, saponins and flavones in Flos Puerariae by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Tan, Yao; Qu, Jialin; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Yuan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) method is established for the rapid analysis of isoflavones, saponins and flavones in 16 samples originated from the flowers of Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii. A total of 25 isoflavones, 13 saponins and 3 flavones were identified by co-chromatography of sample extract with authentic standards and comparing the retention time, UV spectra, characteristic molecular ions and fragment ions with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS/MS determination along with Mass Fragment software. Moreover, the method was validated for the simultaneous quantification of 29 components. The samples from two Pueraria flowers significantly differed in the quality and quantity of isoflavones, saponins and flavones, which allows the possibility of showing their chemical distinctness, and may be useful in their standardization and quality control. Dataset obtained from UPLC-MS was processed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between both Pueraria flowers.

  8. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract  in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Hye Mi; Oh, Myung Sook; Jang, Dae Sik; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-02-28

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by woundhealing and transwell migration assays. PFE reduced the protein and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in endometriotic cells. Moreover, extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was activated by PFE treatment, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, significantly inhibited PFE-inhibited cell migration in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, PFE significantly suppressed endometriotic lesion formation in a mouse model. These data suggest that Pueraria flower is a potential anti-endometriotic agent for the inhibition of endometriotic cell adhesion, migration, and MMP expression.

  9. Fascioloidiasis in game-ranched elk from Montana.

    PubMed

    Hood, B R; Rognlie, M C; Knapp, S E

    1997-10-01

    The distribution of Fascioloides magna in game-ranched elk and the potential for spread of the parasite through movement of infected animals was examined in Montana (USA). Fecal samples (n = 448) collected from captive elk on 29 game ranches were examined for eggs of F. magna by fecal sedimentation. Eggs were detected in elk on 5 ranches. This suggests that F. magna has been translocated by infected game-ranched elk. The wide distribution of snail intermediate hosts for F. magna in Montana indicates a potential to spread the parasite to other captive cervids domestic livestock or free-ranging wildlife.

  10. Methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in western Montana based on data through water year 2009: Chapter G in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    All of the data used to calculate basin characteristics were derived from publicly available data sources and are available through the U.S. Geological Survey Streamstats program (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) for Montana. The primary purpose of the Montana StreamStats application is to provide estimates of basin characteristics and streamflow characteristics for user-selected ungaged sites on Montana streams. The regional regression equations presented in this report have been loaded to the Montana StreamStats application and can be used to derive streamflow characteristics for ungaged sites.

  11. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  12. Plant water status relationships among major floodplain sites of the Flathead River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, L.C.; Hinckley, T.M.; Scott, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Water status measurements of dominant species from major floodplain plant community types of the North Fork Flathead River, Montana were used to test the accuracy of site moisture gradient relationships postulated from floristic ordinations and site water balance estimates. Analysis of variance tests showed significant differences among the average predawn xylem pressure potential (ψp) of species in several community types. However, additional analyses failed to indicate a significant degree of association between averaged predawn Yp measurements and either floristic ordination or site water balance results. Sixty eight percent of 22 trials comparing the diurnal average ψp of the same species in different community types on the same day were less negative for a species in the wetter community types as predicted by floristic ordinations. Similarly, 64% of the trials indicated that the diurnal average stomatal conductance was higher for a species in the wetter type. These results suggest that although a floodplain moisture gradient exists, it alone does not limit the distribution of floodplain plant communities in the North Fork.

  13. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in Radix Puerariae using microwave-assisted extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Q W; Li, G H; Yang, F Q; Wang, Y; Li, Y C; Wang, Y T

    2010-01-29

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Operational conditions of MAE were optimized by central composite design (CCD). The optimized result was 65% ethanol as extraction solvent, 17mL of extraction volume, 100 degrees C of extraction temperature and 2min of hold time. A Zorbax SB C(18) (50mmx4.6mm I.D., 1.8microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. The chromatographic peaks of 14 investigated compounds in samples were successfully identified by comparing their retention time, UV spectra and TOF mass data with the reference substances. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.9997) within the test ranges. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 1.77% and 2.88%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, respectively. The result indicated that MAE and UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS system might provide a rapid method for the quality control of Radix Puerariae.

  14. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Swan Valley Conservation Area as a unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the Swan Valley Conservation Area on August 6, 2012,...

  15. Hydrogen Futures Park at the University of Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R Paul

    2010-11-18

    The Hydrogen Futures Park at the University of Montana, was conceived and presented as a premier, paradigm-shifting plan to foster the creation of a sustainable, platinum, LEED-certified college campus providing technical, safety and across the curriculum energy education and training.

  16. Wilderness Institute School of Forestry, University of Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    Describes one of the various environmental studies programs offered at the University of Montana. Focuses on the school of forestry's Wilderness Institute which deals with wilderness preservation and management. Deals with the institute's responses to changes in wilderness issues, student interests, and information technology. (TW)

  17. The Funding Book: Rural Supported Employment Resources for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ. Affiliated Rural Inst., Missoula.

    This guide provides information on funding resources for supported employment in Montana. Supported employment provides individuals with severe disabilities the tools necessary to enter into an integrated work setting at a competitive wage. Supported employment generally consists of the professional expertise of a job coach, job development…

  18. Race, Hunger, and Poverty on Montana Indian Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brod, Rodney L.; Miller, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a quantitative analytic procedure, logistic regression, to search for and identify critical attributes of race, highlighting the characteristics of American Indians that underlie poverty on Montana's seven reservations, with their varied tribal affiliations. Implications are drawn for the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations,…

  19. 76 FR 30094 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Forest Service Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The meeting is open...

  20. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Montana. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  1. Regional assemblages of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Montana canola fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fi...

  2. Montana Kids Count Data Book and County Profiles, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This Kids Count report is the second to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Montana's children. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) low birthweight; (2) infant mortality; (3) child death; (4) teen violent death; (5) Medicaid participation; (6) school enrollment; (7) public school enrollment in Chapter 1…

  3. Montana Kids Count Data Book and County Profiles, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This Kids Count publication is the first to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Montana's children. The statistical portrait is based on 13 indicators of well-being: (1) low birthweight rate; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) teen violent death rate; (5) percent of public school enrollment in Chapter 1 programs; (6)…

  4. Attraction and Retention of Students at the University of Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corak, Kitty

    Reasons that students enter or leave the University of Montana (UM) were studied in fall 1983. Consideration was given to first-term freshmen of traditional age, slightly older students (under age 25), transfer students, dropouts, and students who persisted at the university for 1 academic year. In study phase 1, attention was directed to…

  5. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  6. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  7. Handbook for Faculty and Staff of Eastern Montana College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Montana Coll., Billings.

    Eastern Montana College is a comprehensive state college. The faculty handbook discusses: (1) organization and administration of the college; (2) responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty advisors; (3) committee composition and function; (4) faculty organization and regulations; (5) academic regulations; (6) campus policies; and (7)…

  8. Geology of the Limestone Hills, Broadwater County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward Thompson

    1950-01-01

    The Limestone Hills, a natural topographic unit having an area of about 16 square miles, are situated a few miles west and southwest of Townsend, Broadwater County, Montana. They are composed of pre-Cambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks i

  9. 75 FR 15411 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Monday April 19, 2010, from 1 p.m. until 4 p.m., in Dillon, Montana. The purpose of the meeting is to review funding proposals for Title II funding. DATES: Monday, April 19, 2010, from 1 p.m. until 4...

  10. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-L13200000-EL0000-P; MTM 97988] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the coal reserves in the lands... by application (LBA) filed by Signal Peak Energy LLC. The Federal coal resource to be...

  11. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the coal reserves in the lands... lease by application (LBA) filed by Signal Peak Energy LLC. The Federal coal resource to be...

  12. Montana Indian Law-Related Education Model Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monprode-Holt, Lorrie; And Others

    This curriculum guide, it is hoped, will become an integral part of the social studies curriculum for all Montana students. Focusing on law-related education themes and concepts, six broad-based themes are covered: responsibility, authority, privacy, justice, spirituality, and environment. These six themes are found in the sample lessons under the…

  13. Montana Partnerships for Rural Resource Teams Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This project manual from the Partnerships for Rural Resource Teams Project, a project designed to build upon the foundation of services for children and youth with deaf-blindness in Montana, opens with guiding principles of the project and a description of the types of available services. Grounded in a framework that draws upon the principles of…

  14. Campfire Stories of the Fort Belknap Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Minerva, Comp.

    This collection contains 21 brief stories told by members of the Fort Belknap (Montana) American Indian community. These tales of the Assiniboine, Sioux, and Gros Ventres include legends, ghost stories, and reminiscences of heroic deeds, traditional life, and unusual events. Recollections of the past contain descriptions of the daily life of the…

  15. Supplementation with soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex improves endurance exercise capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a proprietary blend of soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex (STPG capsule) on exercise performance in humans. Fourteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to two crossover treatments in which they consumed either four STPG capsules (STPG treatment) or placebo (P treatment) for 15 days before a 75% maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) exhaustive cycling test. Blood samples and respiratory gas were collected prior to the exercise (Pre-Ex), at 10 (Ex-10), 15 (Ex-15), 20 (Ex-20), and 25 (Ex-25) minutes during exercise, and immediately after exercise (exhaustion) to assess the blood metabolites, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy substrate utilization. The result showed that exercise time to exhaustion of the 75% (VO(2max)) exhaustive cycling test of the STPG-treated subjects was significantly greater than with the P treatment (30.99 ± 2.01 vs. 28.05 ± 1.48 minutes). The plasma lactate concentrations at Ex-20 and Ex-25 in the STPG treatment were significantly lower with STPG treatment than with P treatment (10.5 ± 0.7 vs. 11.5 ± 0.8 and 10.7 ± 0.9 vs.12.3 ± 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). Nonesterified fatty acid levels at Ex-15, Ex-20, Ex-25, and exhaustion in the STPG group (0.27 ± 0.03, 0.32 ± 0.04, 0.32 ± 0.06, and 0.37 ± 0.05 mmol/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the P treatment (0.21 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.03, and 0.25 ± 0.03 mmol/L, respectively). It was concluded that supplementation of four capsules (2 g) of STPG complex, consisting of soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin, for 15 days was effective in promoting utilization of free fatty acids and improving exhaustive cycling test performance in humans.

  16. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  17. Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  18. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  19. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  20. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD.

  1. Protection of HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate toxicity mediated by the antioxidant activity of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica extracts.

    PubMed

    Sucontphunt, Apirada; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Nimmannit, Ubonthip; Dan Dimitrijevich, S; Gracy, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration is known to be due to oxidative stress acting through a pathway involving the excessive activation of glutamate receptors. We studied the neuroprotection potential of an ethyl acetate-ethanol extract of Pueraria mirifica (P. candollei var. mirifica) root (PM extract). PM extract was evaluated for its antioxidant and neuroprotective activities against glutamate toxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 neuronal cells. The extract at concentrations of 10 and 50 μg/ml exhibited considerable antioxidant activity with significant neuroprotection, based on the microscopic observations of cell morphology and the determination of cell viability and cell number. Studies of the possible mechanisms of action indicated that the neuroprotection exerted by PM extract was related to its scavenging activity against H(2)O(2) and related reactive oxygen species. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses showed that the extract contained daidzein and genistein as identified constituents, as well as additional components with antioxidant activity. While daidzein and genistein individually and in combination were observed not to be neuroprotective, we propose that the antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of PM extract are derived from the combined properties of its constituents.

  2. Involvement of abscisic acid in ozone-induced puerarin production of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Su, Hu; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Maojun

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ozone induced a rapid increase in the levels of the sesquiterpene phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the isoflavone puerarin in suspension cell cultures of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. The observed increases in ABA and puerarin were dependent on the concentration of ozone applied to P. thomsnii cell cultures. In order to examine the role of ABA in ozone-induced puerarin production, cell suspensions were pretreated with the ABA biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone. Following ozone exposure, fluridone treatment suppressed ABA accumulation suggesting ABA was normally synthesized de novo through the carotenoid pathway. Fluridone also blocked ozone-induced puerarin production, which could be reversed through application of exogenous ABA. However, in the absence of ozone, ABA itself had no effect on puerarin accumulation in the suspension cells. Taken together, the data indicate that ozone is an efficient elicitor of puerarin production and may be particularly applicable for improving puerarin production in plant cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ABA is one factor associated with ozone-induced puerarin production in P. thomsnii cell cultures.

  3. Effect of Pueraria tuberosa DC. (Indian Kudzu) on blood pressure, fibrinolysis and oxidative stress in patients with stage 1 hypertension.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Jain, Vartika; Singh, D P

    2012-08-01

    The Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa DC.) is an important medicinal plant widely used in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. The present study is an attempt to evaluate effect of its tubers on blood pressure, coagulation parameters and antioxidant status in patients with stage 1 (primary) hypertension. In a long-term, single blinded, placebo controlled study; 15 patients with stage 1 hypertension (group 1), were administered 3 g P. tuberosa in two divided doses while another 15 patients (group II) were administered matched placebo for a period of twelve weeks. A significant fall of 25, 11 and 16 mmHg was observed in systolic (p < 0.001), diastolic (p < 0.05) and mean (p < 0.001) blood pressure, respectively at the end of the study. Along with blood pressure reduction, there was a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in plasma fibrinogen and significant enhancement of plasma fibrinolytic activity (p < 0.001) and serum total antioxidant status (p < 0.05). It was tolerated well without any untoward side effects.

  4. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Bo; Li, Chang-Fu; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    As part of the efforts to understand isoflavonoid metabolism in Pueraria lobata at the molecular level, the cDNAs encoding two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases (4CLs, designated Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2, respectively) were isolated from P. lobata roots. Sequence analysis revealed that Pl4CL1 had an N-terminal extension of twenty-one amino acid residues compared to Pl4CL2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2 fell into angiosperm Class II and Class I, respectively. Through in vitro biochemical assays, both Pl4CLs were found to have the capacity to utilize 4-coumarate and trans-cinnamate as substrates, while neither of them could convert sinapate. Pl4CL2 had a broader substrate specificity than Pl4CL1. The affinity of Pl4CL1 for 4-coumarate was 2.6-fold higher than that of Pl4CL2 (with the Km values of 3.5 µM and 9.1 µM, respectively). Combining the dataset including gene expression profiles, metabolites measurements, and biochemical properties, our results indicated that Pl4CL1, just as other angiosperm Class II 4CLs, might play a role in isoflavone biosynthesis in P. lobata, while Pl4CL2 belongs to angiosperm Class I, and may function as a housekeeping enzyme concerning lignification.

  5. Determination of the estrogenic activity of wild phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica by MCF-7 proliferation assay.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Traisup, Virasinee; Picha, Porntipa

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of tuberous samples of wild, phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica collected from 28 out of 76 provinces of Thailand by MCF-7 proliferation assay. The plant extracts were administered to MCF-7, ER alpha positive human mammary adenocarcinoma cell cultures, for 3 days at dosages of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 microg/ml and were compared with 17 beta-estradiol at concentrations of 10(-12)-10(-6) M. The mean P. mirifica population at 1 mug/ml exhibited significant proliferation. Two plant samples exhibited levels of proliferation in MCF-7 that were similar to 17beta-estradiol. The mean P. mirifica populations at 100 and 1,000 microg/ml exhibited significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7. Analysis of the estrogenic activity of puerarin, representative of major isoflavonoids in P. mirifica tubers, revealed proliferation in MCF-7 only at the highest dose (10(-6) M) that was 10(2)-10(5) times less active than 17 beta-estradiol. Puerarin and 17 beta-estradiol at concentration of 10(-12)-10(-6) M exhibited no cytotoxicity in MCF-7.

  6. Ecological assessment of streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005–06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring.The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report.The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River

  7. Cultural Resource Survey, Government Townsites Study, Fort Peck, Montana, Pickstown, South Dakota, Riverdale, North Dakota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Fort Peck, Montana ZA ’ . Plate 6: Recreation Building Fort Peck, Montana 20 Plate 7: Lutheran Church Fort Peck, Montana Poo Plate 8: Lutheran Church...Joel Barker, Chief of Archives, Federal Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado. July 27, August 13, 1979. _ Interview with Dolores Barnard...Records Center, Denver, Colorado Dolores Barnard, Librarian, State Historical Society of North Dakota Library, Bismarck, North Dakota Leonard Bingham

  8. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  9. 77 FR 43116 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... were removed from prehistoric archeological site 24MO1071 in Missoula County, MT. Metric analysis and... contact Sally Thompson, University of Montana, Anthropological Curation Facility, Department...

  10. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...--Phalaris stenoptera Hack.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L.'', ``Kudzu--Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var... gracilis (Kunth) Griffiths'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris aquatica L.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L....

  11. Floods of January 15-17, 1974, in Northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Introduction Rain and snowmelt caused several streams in northwestern Montana to flood during January 15-17, 1974. The flooding was caused by a major rainstorm that extended from Montana through Idaho and Washington. The most damage occurred in the Kootenai River drainage, centering around the town of Libby. Also unusually high flows occurred on some streams in the Clark Fork basin. Throughout the area, ice jams contributed to much of the overbank flooding. Both the towns of Troy and Libby were partly flooded, but damage was greatest in and near Libby. Flood damage was estimated to be $4.9 million. No flood fatalities were listed. Most of the smaller streams equaled or exceeded a 50-year flood. A summary of flood stages and discharges for 24 sites in the Kootenai River drainage and 8 sites in the Clark Fork drainage is tabulated. A map shows the extent of flooding in the Libby area. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  13. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  14. Petrography and petrology of Smoky Butte intrusives, Garfield County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, Robert E.

    1960-01-01

    The Smoky Butte intrusives are located in T. 18 N., R. 36 E. Garfield County, Montana on the extreme eastern edge of the petrographic province of Central Montana. They consist of dikes and plugs arranged in linear, en-echelon pattern with a northeast trend and intrude the Tullock member (Paleocene age) of the Fort Union formation. Extrusive rocks are absent. The rocks are potassium-rich volcanic types showing a disequilibrium mineral assemblage consisting of sanidine, leucite, biotite, olivine, pyroxene, magnetite plus. ilmenite, apatite, calcite, quartz, and a yellowish to dark greenish glassy groundmass. Two chemical analyses of Smoky Butte rocks show high magnesium, potassium, titanium, and phosphorous and low aluminum and sodium content. The two norm calculations show that the rocks are oversaturated with 1.3 and 3.1 per-cent excess silica. Because of the peculiar nature of the Smoky Butte rocks, descriptive names have been applied to them. They are divided into six different types. Three periods of intrusion are proposed for Smoky Butte quarry where three rock types crop out. Other evidence for multiple injection occurs in several multiple dikes. The upper contact of the intrusion is visible on a few plugs and dikes. Smoky Butte rocks show some similarities to the undersaturated potassium-rich rocks of the Highwood and Bearpaw Mountains of Montana, the rocks of the Leucite Hills of Wyoming, and the oversaturated rocks of the West Kimberly District of Australia.

  15. Precambrian basement geologic map of Montana; an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; O'Neill, J. M.; Bankey, Viki; Anderson, E.

    2004-01-01

    Newly compiled aeromagnetic anomaly data of Montana, in conjunction with the known geologic framework of basement rocks, have been combined to produce a new interpretive geologic basement map of Montana. Crystalline basement rocks compose the basement, but are exposed only in the cores of mountain ranges in southwestern Montana. Principal features deduced from the map are: (1) A prominent northeast-trending, 200-km-wide zone of spaced negative anomalies, which extends more than 700 km from southwestern Montana's Beaverhead Mountains to the Canadian border and reflects suturing of the Archean Mexican Hat Block against the Archean Wyoming Province along the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Montana Orogen (new name) at about 1.9-1.8 Ga; (2) North-northwest-trending magnetic lows in northeastern Montana, which reflect the 1.9-1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen and truncate the older Trans-Montana Zone; and (3) Subtle northwest- and west-trending negative anomalies in central and western Montana, which represent the northernmost segment of brittle-ductile transcurrent faults of the newly recognized Mesoproterozoic Trans-Rocky Mountain fault system. Structures developed in the Proterozoic provided zones of crustal weakness reactivated during younger Proterozoic and Phanerozoic igneous and tectonic activity. For example, the Trans-Montana Zone guided basement involved thrust faulting in southwestern Montana during the Sevier Orogeny. The Boulder Batholith and associated ore deposits and the linear belt of alkaline intrusions to the northeast were localized along a zone of weakness between the Missouri River suture and the Dillon shear zone of the Trans-Montana Orogen. The northwest-trending faults of Trans-Rocky Mountain system outline depocenters for sedimentary rocks in the Belt Basin. This fault system provided zones of weakness that guided Laramide uplifts during basement crustal shortening. Northwest-trending zones have been locally reactivated during Neogene basin-range extension.

  16. Stratigraphy and geologic history of the Montana group and equivalent rocks, Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, James R.; Cobban, William Aubrey

    1973-01-01

    During Late Cretaceous time a broad north-trending epicontinental sea covered much of the western interior of North America and extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. The sea was bounded on the west by a narrow, unstable, and constantly rising cordillera which extended from Central America to Alaska and which separated the sea from Pacific oceanic waters. The east margin of the sea was bounded by the low-lying stable platform of the central part of the United States.Rocks of the type Montana Group in Montana and equivalent rocks in adjacent States, which consist of eastward-pointing wedges of shallow-water marine and nonmarine strata that enclose westward-pointing wedges of fine-grained marine strata, were deposited in and marginal to this sea. These rocks range in age from middle Santonian to early Maestrichtian and represent a time span of about 14 million years. Twenty-nine distinctive ammonite zones, each with a time span of about half a million years, characterize the marine strata.Persistent beds of bentonite in the transgressive part of the Claggett and Bearpaw Shales of Montana and equivalent rocks elsewhere represent periods of explosive volcanism and perhaps concurrent subsidence along the west shore in the vicinity of the Elkhorn Mountains and the Deer Creek volcanic fields in Montana. Seaward retreat of st randlines, marked by deposition of the Telegraph Creek, Eagle, Judith River, and Fox Hills Formations in Montana and the Mesaverde Formation in Wyoming, may be attributed to uplift in near-coastal areas and to an increase in volcaniclastic rocks delivered to the sea.Rates of transgression and regression determined for the Montana Group in central Montana reveal that the strandline movement was more rapid during times of transgression. The regression of the Telegraph Creek and Eagle strandlines averaged about 50 miles per million years compared with a rate of about 95 miles per million years for the advance of the strand-line during

  17. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  18. Site Investigation Report. Volume 1. 120th Fighter Interceptor Group, Montana Air National Guard, International Airport, Great Falls, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    typical soil profile, the surface layer is approximately 7 inches thick and consists of a dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam and an underlying material of...HPLC High performance liquid chromatography HAZWRAP Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program IRP Installation Restoration Program MANG Montana Air...light brown andgrayish-brown fine sandy to silty clay loam. Total thickness of the soil ranges from 20 inches to greater than 40 inches (Soil

  19. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  20. Pueraria mirifica Exerts Estrogenic Effects in the Mammary Gland and Uterus and Promotes Mammary Carcinogenesis in Donryu Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Yoshida, Midori; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Naomi; Okuno, Takahiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N-ethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3%, and more pronouncedly, at 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA. PMID:27827907

  1. Pueraria mirifica extract and puerarin enhance proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen in primary baboon osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tiyasatkulkovit, Wacharaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Havill, Lorena M; Ford, Allen L; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-10-15

    Phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica (PM) tuberous extract is a promising candidate for the development of anti-osteoporosis drugs for postmenopausal women, but its action has never been validated in humans or in non-human primates, which are more closely related to humans than rodents. In vitro study of non-human primate osteoblasts is thus fundamental to prepare for in vivo studies of phytoestrogen effects on primate bone. This study aimed to establish a culture system of baboon primary osteoblasts and to investigate the effects of PM extract and its phytoestrogens on these cells. Primary osteoblasts from adult baboon fibulae exhibited osteoblast characteristics in regard to proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and estrogen receptor expression. They responded to 17β-estradiol by increased proliferation rate and mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, and osteocalcin. After being exposed for 48 h to 100 μg/ml PM extract, 1000 nM genistein, or 1000 nM puerarin, primary baboon osteoblasts markedly increased the rate of proliferation and mRNA levels of ALP and type I collagen without changes in Runx2, osterix, or osteocalcin expression. PM extract, genistein, and puerarin also decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio, suggesting that they could decrease osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. However, neither PM extract nor its phytoestrogens altered calcium deposition in osteoblast culture. In conclusion, we have established baboon primary osteoblast culture, which is a new tool for bone research and drug discovery. Furthermore, the present results provide substantial support for the potential of PM extract and its phytoestrogens to be developed as therapeutic agents against bone fragility.

  2. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF.

  3. Puerariae flos alleviates metabolic diseases in Western diet-loaded, spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Koshi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Onishi, Rei; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Iizuka, Seiichi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Amagaya, Sakae; Aburada, Masaki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Puerariae flos extract (PFE) has been reported to have many effects, including preventing the development of hangovers, liver protective effects, and an estrogenic effect. In addition, some papers reported that PFE is effective against metabolic diseases, with hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains unclear. For the purpose of clarifying the effect of PFE on metabolic diseases related to the accumulation of visceral fat and to determine the mechanism of such action, TSOD mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model that spontaneously develops various metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD). When TSOD mice were loaded with WTD, it was confirmed that metabolic diseases such as obesity and abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism are aggravated. In contrast, PFE treatment to TSOD-WTD mice was shown to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, alleviated the abnormal glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, as well as causing an increase in blood adiponectin. Furthermore, the suppression of liver enlargement was observed in PFE-treated mice, with suppression of fatty degeneration and anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, to clarify the mechanism of the hyperlipidemia-alleviating effects in the liver, we investigated the effect of PFE on the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. PFE was associated with a significant increase in gene expression for cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol catabolization enzyme Cyp7A1, bile salt export pump adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B11, and low-density lipoprotein receptor involved in cholesterol uptake. The above results suggest that PFE acts to alleviate the effects of various metabolic diseases based on the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, including obesity, diabetes

  4. In vivo metabolic tracking of 14C-radiolabelled isoflavones in kudzu (Pueraria lobata) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) extracts.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jonathan G; Grannan, Michael D; Lachcik, Pamela J; Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Janle, Elsa M; Weaver, Connie M; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-11-01

    Absorption, distribution and elimination of 14C-labelled isoflavone-containing extracts from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root culture and red clover (Trifolium pratense) cell culture were investigated in an in vivo rat model. The predominant isoflavones in the kudzu extract were the glycosides puerarin, daidzin and malonyl daidzin, while in the red clover extract, the major isoflavones were formononetin and its derivatives, genistein and biochanin A, with radioactivities of 3.770 and 7.256 MBq/g, respectively. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, implanted with a jugular catheter and a subcutaneous ultrafiltrate probe, were orally administered with 14C-labelled isoflavone extracts from either kudzu or clover cell cultures. Serum, interstitial fluid (ISF), urine and faeces were collected using a Culex Automated Blood Collection System for 24 h. Analysis of bone tissues revealed that radiolabel accumulated in the femur, tibia and vertebrae at 0.04, 0.03 and 0.01 % of the administered dose, respectively, in both kudzu and red clover treatments. The liver accumulated the greatest concentration of radiolabel among the tissues tested, at 1.99 and 1.54 % of the administered kudzu and red clover extracts, respectively. Serum and ISF analysis showed that both extracts were rapidly absorbed, distributed in various tissues, and largely eliminated in the urine and faeces. Urine and faeces contained 8.53 and 9.06 % of the kudzu dose, respectively, and 3.60 and 5.64 % of the red clover dose, respectively. Serum pharmacokinetics suggest that extracts from kudzu may undergo enterohepatic circulation.

  5. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair. PMID:23717015

  7. The Effect of Pueraria Lobata/Rehmannia Glutinosa and Exercise on Fatty Acid Transporters Expression in Ovariectomized Rats Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Hae Min; Kwon, Oran; Lee, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Pueraria lobata/rehmannia glutinosa (PR) and exercise have been receiving a lot of attention from postmenopausal women, as a result of the side effects of estrogen replacement therapy. However, the effects of PR and exercise on fatty acid transporters (FATPs), which play essential role in fatty acid transport, have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PR and aerobic exercise on FATP1, FABPpm and FAT/CD36 expression in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscles. [Methods] Sixty rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1)HSV; high fat diet (HFD)+sedentary+vehicle, (2)HSP; HFD+sedentary+PR, (3)HSH; HFD+sedentary+17β-estradiol, (4)HEV; HFD+exercise+vehicle, (5) HEP; HFD+exercise+PR, (6)HEH; HFD+exercise+17β-estradiol. Exercise consisted of treadmill exercise (1-4th week: 15 m/min for 30 min, 5-8th week: 18 m/min for 40 min, 5 times/week). [Results] Exercise does not alter FATP1 and FAT/CD36 gene levels in soleus and plantaris muscles. In contrast, exercise had main effect on up-regulation of FABPpm mRNA expression in both muscles. However, FABPpm level was not increased by exercise combined with treatments, indicative of no additive effects of PR or hormone on FABPpm gene expression. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry result showed that translocation of FATPs proteins to plasma membrane were higher in PR, exercise groups, and exercise combined with PR groups in both muscles. [Conclusion] These result showed that aerobic exercise and PR may help increase fat-oxidation through the induction of FABPpm, a muscle specific transporter, in OVX rat skeletal muscles. In addition, FABPpm expression is possibly regulated post-transcriptionally in exercise, or pre-translationally in PR. PMID:27757385

  8. Caring, Sharing in the Big Sky--Writer, Photographer Explore Five of Montana's Tribal Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The author travels across Montana with a former student and photographer, Anders Andersson, and says that visiting tribal colleges is the best way to really understand them. In this article, he writes about five tribal colleges in Montana: (1) Little Big Horn College (LBHC); (2) Chief Dull Knife College (CDKC); (3) Stone Child College (SCC); (4)…

  9. 75 FR 58430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT AGENCY: National... human remains and an associated funerary object in the possession of the University of Montana, Missoula... determinations in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of...

  10. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and…

  11. 78 FR 45869 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Montana; Interstate Transport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Montana... portions of a State Implementation Plan (SIP) submission from the State of Montana that are intended to... pollution abatement. These partial disapprovals will not trigger an obligation for EPA to promulgate...

  12. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  13. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... systems in Indian country, as defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151. Please see SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION, Item B... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  14. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

  15. 76 FR 758 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... other materials into air quality rules. EPA is not acting on these rule submissions. These revisions... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the Administrative Rules of Montana--Air Quality, Subchapter 7, Subchapter 16 and Subchapter...

  16. The crude extract from puerariae flower exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu, a leguminous plant, has long been used in folk medicine. In particular, its flowers are used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine for treating hangovers. We focused on the flower of Kudzu (Puerariae thomsonii), and we previously reported the antiobesity effect of Puerariae thomsonii flower extract (PFE) in humans. In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of PFE on visceral fat and hepatic lipid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. In addition, we focused on gene expression profiles to investigate the antiobesity mechanism of PFE. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD supplemented with 5% PFE for 14 days. PFE supplementation significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight. Moreover, in the histological analysis, PFE supplementation improved fatty liver. Hepatic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PFE supplementation downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. For adipose tissue, the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT and uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly upregulated. These results suggest that PFE exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT, and promoting thermogenesis in BAT.

  17. Moving from awareness to action: Advancing climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning for Idaho and Montana National Forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kershner, Jessi; Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The rugged landscapes of northern Idaho and western Montana support biodiverse ecosystems, and provide a variety of natural resources and services for human communities. However, the benefits provided by these ecosystems may be at risk as changing climate magnifies existing stressors and allows new stressors to emerge. Preparation for and response to these potential changes can be most effectively addressed through multi-stakeholder partnerships, evaluating vulnerability of important resources to climate change, and developing response and preparation strategies for managing key natural resources in a changing world. This project will support climate-smart conservation and management across forests of northern Idaho and western Montana through three main components: (1) fostering partnerships among scientists, land managers, regional landowners, conservation practitioners, and the public; (2) assessing the vulnerability of a suite of regionally important resources to climate change and other stressors; and (3) creating a portfolio of adaptation strategies and actions to help resource managers prepare for and respond to the likely impacts of climate change. The results of this project will be used to inform the upcoming land management plan revisions for national forests, helping ensure that the most effective and robust conservation and management strategies are implemented to preserve our natural resources.

  18. Algal and Water-Quality Data for the Yellowstone River and Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Streams of the Yellowstone River Basin in Montana and Wyoming were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Algal communities were sampled in 1999 in conjunction with other ecological sampling and in 2000 during synoptic sampling. Water-quality measurements related to the algal sampling included light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Sites were sampled on the main-stem Yellowstone River, major tributaries such as the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and the Bighorn River, and selected minor tributaries. Some of the data collected, such as the phytoplankton chlorophyll-a data, were referenced or summarized in previous U.S. Geological Survey reports but were not previously published in tabular form, and therefore are presented in this report, prepared in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Data presented in this report include chlorophyll-a concentrations in phytoplankton and periphyton samples, as well as light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen production data from 1999-2000.

  19. Cenozoic pull-apart basins in southwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, E.T. )

    1991-06-01

    Faults and fault zones bounding the mountain ranges of southwest Montana commonly have been described as normal faults, and the region has been considered to be a northern extension of the Basin and Range. New geologic mapping suggests, however, that Cenozoic movements along most of the zones of steep faults in southwest Montana and in east-central Idaho have been strike-slip, and the intermontane basins appear to be pull-aparts. The principal fault zones trend about north, northwest, east, and north-northeast; the north-trending zones are Cenozoic in age, but the others are of Archean ancestry and are rooted in basement rocks. These faults break the region into rhomboidal mountain blocks separated by broad basins with parallel sides. The basins are as much as 5,000 m deep, and their floors are deeply indented by centers of subsidence wherre they are crossed by major fault zones. The basins are floored by Archean or Proterozoic rocks and are filled with tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of late Oligocene to late Miocene age. The Big Hole basin and the smaller basins in upper Grasshopper Creek and Horse Prairie are interpreted to be pull-aparts between zones of east-trending right-lateral faults. The cratonic basins farther east in southwest Montana are interpreted to be basement-floored openings between mountain blocks that have been separated by subcrustal flow to the northwest. The interpretations suggest that significant accumulations of oil or gas are not likely to be found in this region.

  20. Heart Butte: A Blackfeet Indian Community = Moisskitsipahpiistaki Siksikaiitsitapi Ohkanopissini.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; And Others

    A collection of photographs published by the Heart Butte Bilingual Program depicts student life in Heart Butte on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in northern Montana. Each photograph is captioned both in first-grade English and in Blackfeet. Included are Photographs of the community center, a general store, a church, the Heart Butte school, a…

  1. A Kindergarten Teacher Bringing Science to a Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Becky; Galindo, Ed; Shockey, Tod

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored professional development of educators in the NASA Summer of Innovation (SOI) program. The Idaho, Montana, and Utah (IMU-SOI) program worked with educators and students from thirteen Native American communities. The summer sessions were focused on problem based learning and…

  2. GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gates of the Mountains Wilderness and Additions, Montana, have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. This conclusion is based on detailed investigation of the geology and mineral and fossil fuel resources. Geologic structures of the area, although similar to potential petroleum-bearing structures in other parts of the Rocky Mountains overthrust belt, are open to the surface and probably could not have trapped or held hydrocarbons. Rocks that potentially could have generated petroleum have higher levels of thermal maturity than the range of oil generation but are within the range of dry natural gas generation.

  3. BIG SNOWIES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey determined that the Big Snowies Wilderness study area in Montana had little promise for the occurrence of mineral or fossil fuel resources. This assessment was based on consideration of geologic environments where minerals and fossil fuels might be expected, on geochemical and geophysical surveys of the study areas, and on examination of claims and prospects. Seismic-reflection studies across the Big Snowy anticline are recommended to better assess the nature and magnitude of offset along the faulted southern flank of the anticline. Discovery of a large offset would place strata and structures favorable for oil and gas beneath the southern part of the study areas.

  4. The Montana lobe of the Keewatin ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calhoun, F.H.H.

    1906-01-01

    The area covered by this investigation lies along the eastern front of the Montana Rockies, between longitude 108° and 113° 40', and latitude 47° 15' and 49° 30'. Over the eastern and northern part of this area the ice from the northeast deposited its drift. Over the western part the ice from the Eockies pushed down the mountain valleys and, deploying on the plain, deposited large and well-defined terminal moraines. Extending from the Canadian line to the Missouri there is a strip of country, varying greatly in width, which the ice did not cover.

  5. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  6. How Montana's deepest hole cut Mississippian carbonates underneath Precambrian belt

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.H.; Nims, R.C. )

    1992-08-03

    This paper discusses the Unocal i-B30 Federal Canyon Creek well drilled in the Montana thrust belt about 27 miles northwest of Helena to test Mississippian carbonates in a seismic structure in the footwall of the Eldorado thrust. The well penetrated more than 12,000 ft of thrusted Precambrian belt metasedimentary rocks before encountering a faulted and fractured footwall section of Cretaceous through Mississippian shales, sandstones, and carbonates. The 1-B30 well demonstrated that a more complex duplex structure was present under the Eldorado thrust and that the Madison was deeper than anticipated with a true vertical depth of 16,688 ft.

  7. MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  8. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. MIDDLE FORK OF THE JUDITH RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Hamilton, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Middle Fork of the Judith River Wilderness Study Area in Montana has several prospects containing local small inferred resources and several exposed mineral occurrences bearing silver, lead, copper, and gold along its north and west edges with no identified resource potential. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies, conducted to appraise the mineral resources of the study area, identified no other anomalous concentrations of metallic elements. A gem-quality sapphire resource, present near the east boundary, cannot be identified within the study area. The area holds little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  10. Montana: Montana Indian Country CARE Project (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mountain Indian Country CARE Project (MICCP) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. MICCP will create and coordinate the collaboration of four tribal colleges with four different tribal reservation communities.

  11. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H2O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P

  12. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  13. Agricultural land use mapping. [Pennsylvania, Montana, and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Agricultural areas were selected or analysis in southeastern Pennsylvania, north central Montana, and southern Texas. These three sites represent a broad range of soils, soil parent materials, climate, modes of agricultural operation, crops, and field sizes. In each of these three sites, ERTS-1 digital data were processed to determine the feasibility of automatically mapping agricultural land use. In Pennsylvania, forest land, cultivated land, and water were separable within a 25,000 acre area. Four classes of water were also classified and identified, using ground truth. A less complex land use pattern was analyzed in Hill County, Montana. A land use map was prepared shown alternating patterns of summer fallow and stubble fields. The location of farmsteads could be inferred, along with that of a railroad line. A river and a creek flowing into the river were discernible. Six categories of water, related to sediment content and depth, were defined in the reservoir held by the Fresno dam. These classifications were completed on a 150 square mile area. Analysis of the data from Texas is in its formative stages. A test site has been selected and a brightness map has been produced.

  14. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  15. Source rock potential of middle Cretaceous rocks in southwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S{sub 1}+S{sub 2}) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% R{sub o}. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% R{sub o}, and at Big Sky, Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% R{sub o}. At both localities, high R{sub o} values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  16. Phytoxicity of smelter-impacted soils in southwest Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Redente, Edward F; Zadeh, Holley; Paschke, Mark W

    2002-02-01

    A century of copper smelting in southwest Montana, USA, destroyed vegetation for many kilometers surrounding the Washoe Smelter. Once the vegetation was lost, exposed soils were subject to wind and water erosion, which removed topsoil and left soil surfaces paved with gravel. A greenhouse study was conducted using soils from smelter-impacted and non-smelter-impacted sites near Anaconda, Montana. Bluebunch wheatgrass, Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn., and western yarrow, Achillea lanulosa Nutt., were grown for 50 d in unamended, fertilized, or limed treatments to determine if soil fertility, pH, or trace elements were limiting plant growth on soil from the impacted site. The addition of fertilizer significantly increased plant biomass of both species in soils from impacted and nonimpacted sites when compared to unamended and limed soil. The addition of lime had no effect on plant growth. When plant growth in fertilized smelter-impacted soil was compared to unamended nonimpacted soil, significantly more plant biomass was observed in the fertilized smelter-impacted soil. Shoot and root concentrations of trace elements were higher in plants grown in impacted soil compared to nonimpacted soil. The only element that was found to occur in concentrations reported to be phytotoxic was arsenic (As). However, toxicity thresholds for As, reported in the literature, were generated in agricultural species and do not likely have application to the native perennials used in this study.

  17. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  18. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Annual peak discharge from small drainage areas is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Copper-silver deposits of the Revett Formation, Montana and Idaho: origin and resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, Thomas P.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The Revett Formation of northern Idaho and western Montana contains major stratabound copper-silver deposits near Troy, Rock Creek, and Rock Lake, Montana. To help the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) meet its goal of integrating geoscience information into the land-planning process, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently completed a compilation of regional stratigraphy and mineralogy of the Revett Formation and a mineral resource assessment of Revett-type copper-silver deposits. The USGS assessment indicates that a large area of USFS-administered land in northwestern Montana and northern Idaho may contain significant undiscovered Revett-type copper-silver deposits.

  20. The Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fiske, P.S.; Hargaves, R.B.

    1994-03-17

    The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure ({approximately} 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fragment of a large impact structure identified in the geologic record. The present evidence for impact consists of shatter cones, pseudotachylites, and planar deformation features in quartz. The age of the impact is not well constrained but is estimated to be Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (1000-500 Ma). The Beaverhead impact event must have created other features that may be preserved, elsewhere in western Montana and Idaho. These include proximal and distal ejecta (which may be misinterpreted as diamictites and/or tuff horizons) and other fragments of the crater floor containing shatter cones and pseudotachylite. A large circular gravity, magnetic and topographic anomaly, which could be the root of the impact structure, has been identified near Challis, Idaho. An enigmatic lithic tuff, identified in drill cores from the Challis area and an intraformational quartzite breccia in the Leaton Gulch area may be impact-related deposits, but no definitive evidence of shock metamorphism has been observed in these materials. The discovery of more pieces of the Beaverhead puzzle, as well as the recognition of other large impacts in the geologic record, are likely once the regional geologic community grows to accept the incidence of such events and becomes more familiar with the features of shock metamorphism in the field. To that end, the community of geologists in this area should integrate the Beaverhead structure into their research and teaching curriculum.

  1. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  2. [A simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and determination of daidzein in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing puerariae radix by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Momma, N; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple and precise method was established for the simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and the determination of daidzein in oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Puerariae Radix using high-performance liquid chromatography with tetra-n-heptylammonium bromide (THA) as an ion-pair reagent. Daidzin and puerarin were eluted within 45 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-methanol (68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase. Daidzein was eluted within 35 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-acetonitrile (72:28 or 68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase.

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total isoflavonoids in Pueraria candollei using anti-puerarin and anti-daidzin polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Morimoto, Satoshi; Putalun, Waraporn

    2010-05-01

    Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khuer) is a medicinal plant containing puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein as major isoflavonoids used for its rejuvenating and estrogenic effects. In order to analyze these compounds, a single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total isoflavonoids was developed using anti-puerarin and anti-daidzin polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). The range for calibration of isoflavonoids by ELISA was 0.05-6.25 microg/mL. Total isoflavonoid concentrations in P. candollei samples determined by the newly developed assay system showed good agreement with those analyzed by HPLC. Based on validation analysis, this analytical method by ELISA is a precise, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of total isoflavonoids in P. candollei.

  4. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  5. Extraction and isolation of potential anti-stroke compounds from flowers of Pueraria lobata guided by in vitro PC12 cell model.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Li, Senlin; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-03-24

    A simple and efficient method based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) was applied to rapidly screen and identify ligands for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the flowers of Pueraria lobata, and the compounds were assessed for anti-stroke activity using a PC12 cell model. Seven major isoflavones, kakkalide, 3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, puerarin xyloside, tectoridin, tectorigenin, and ononin, were identified as potent LDH inhibitors. A continuous online method, which consisted of microwave-assisted extraction and countercurrent chromatography (MAE-CCC), was newly developed for scaled-up production of these compounds with high purity and efficiency. This novel approach, using UFLC-MS coupled with MAE-CCC and a PC12 cell model, provided a powerful tool for screening, extraction, and separation of LDH inhibitors from complex samples, and a useful platform for the large-scale production of functional food and nutraceutical ingredients.

  6. Isolation and characterization of nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from nodules of Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) and their effect on wheat seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, G; Kundu, S; Gupta, Anand D; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gupta, Hari S

    2008-02-01

    The leguminous vine Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) is an introduction into the N. W. Himalayan region of India. Despite its value as a fodder and cover crop, little is known about the nature of the nodule microflora. In an attempt to study the nodule bacteria, we isolated and characterized three nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from surface sterilized nodules of Kudzu. Based on the sequencing of the 16 S r RNA gene, the isolates were designated as Bacillus thuringiensis KR-1, Enterobacter asburiae KR-3, and Serratia marcescens KR-4. Crystalline bodies were detected in the isolate KR-1, confirming its identity as B. thuringiensis. Under in vitro conditions, all three isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid. Other plant growth promotion attributes such as P solubilization, hydrogen cyanide production, and ammonia production varied among the isolates. All of the three isolates promoted growth and positively influenced nutrient uptake parameters of wheat seedlings.

  7. Treatment of Cyanobacterial (Microcystin) Toxicosis Using Oral Cholestyramine: Case Report of a Dog from Montana

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Kelly A.; Alroy, Karen A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Oates, Stori C.; Murray, Michael J.; Miller, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    A two and a half year old spayed female Miniature Australian Shepherd presented to a Montana veterinary clinic with acute onset of anorexia, vomiting and depression. Two days prior, the dog was exposed to an algal bloom in a community lake. Within h, the animal became lethargic and anorexic, and progressed to severe depression and vomiting. A complete blood count and serum chemistry panel suggested acute hepatitis, and a severe coagulopathy was noted clinically. Feces from the affected dog were positive for the cyanobacterial biotoxin, microcystin-LA (217 ppb). The dog was hospitalized for eight days. Supportive therapy consisted of fluids, mucosal protectants, vitamins, antibiotics, and nutritional supplements. On day five of hospitalization, a bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, was administered orally. Rapid clinical improvement was noted within 48 h of initiating oral cholestyramine therapy. At 17 days post-exposure the dog was clinically normal, and remained clinically normal at re-check, one year post-exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of canine cyanobacterial (microcystin) toxicosis. Untreated microcystin intoxication is commonly fatal, and can result in significant liver damage in surviving animals. The clinical success of this case suggests that oral administration of cholestyramine, in combination with supportive therapy, could significantly reduce hospitalization time, cost-of-care and mortality for microcystin-poisoned animals. PMID:23888515

  8. Ecology and distribution of major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Bahls, L.L.; Weber, E.E.; Jarvie, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    From 1975 through 1980, samples were collected to determine the ecology and distribution of the major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana. Altogether, 370 diatom samples and 289 concurrent water-quality samples were collected at 52 surface-water stations. Sixty-eight major diatom ecotypes were selected for identification on the basis that their percent relative abundance equalled or exceeded 10 following proportional counts of 300 to 400 frustules. Each major diatom ecotype is systematically described in terms of taxonomy and morphology, abundance, ecology, and distribution in the study area. Included are tables of 24 water-quality variables of biological significance for each ecotype. Illustrations and brief descriptions of representative specimens are included to document and facilitate identification. This information may be used to help establish water-quality criteria for the region's aquatic communities, to identify indigenous diatoms or diatom groups that are useful as water-quality indicators, and to provide a basis for an ecological classification of the various diatom associations in the study area. Many of the major diatom ecotypes are identified as having sufficiently narrow ecological amplitudes to be useful as indicators of dissolved solids, suspended sediment, and temperature. These are three of the water-quality variables most likely to be affected by surface mining and related activities. 48 references.

  9. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  10. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against hepatotoxicity via specific inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, thereby leading to anti-fibrotic effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyuan; Zheng, Ni; He, Qiaoling; Li, Rong; Zhang, Kefeng; Liang, Tao

    2013-10-15

    Recently, the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway has been investigated in the pathogenesis of hepatofibrosis, and pharmacological treatment of liver fibrosis targeted this pathway to determine its contribution to the inhibition of fibrotic development. Importantly, ethnopharmacology-derived Pueraria lobata has been reported to effectively reverse the fibrotic process in the liver. In the present study, we performed dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats to assess the benefits of puerarin (PR), which was isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), on ECM-derived hepatocytes associated with the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Our results showed that the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type III precollagen (PCIII) and type IV collagen (CIV) were significantly reduced by PR treatment, while hepatic homogenates showed decreased levels of hydroxyproline (Hyp) and collagen I (Col I). Masson's trichrome staining indicated that the DMN-induced liver fibrosis was alleviated. In addition, the protein expression levels of transforming growth factor-β l (TGF-β l), smad2, smad3, α-SMA and TIMP-1 were downregulated specifically by PR treatment, whereas the protein expression levels of smad7 and MMP-1 were upregulated. Furthermore, we evaluated the PR-mediated inhibitory effect on TGF-β1-treated proliferation and activation in a rat liver stellate cell line (HSC-T6). These data resulted in inhibition of the cell growth of HSC-T6 in a dose-dependent manner and a reduction in TβRI, smad2 and smad3 expressed proteins in the presence of PR on TGF-β1-treated HSC-T6 cells, while smad7 levels were downregulated. Taken together, these findings identify a unique effect for PR-regulation of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway in blocking fibrotic development and provide a promising strategy for hepatofibrosis treatment.

  11. Optimization Review: Lockwood Operable Unit 1 - Beall Source Area, Billings, Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lockwood Solvent Groundwater Plume Site (LSGPS) consists of two operable units (OUs) and is located on the outskirts of Billings, Montana in EPA Region 8. OU1 consists of contaminated soils and a chlorinated solvent groundwater plume associated with...

  12. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning area. Consistent with the Forest Service travel planning regulations, the resulting available public...

  13. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions.

  14. 76 FR 80447 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highways in Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Russell Street/South 3rd Street Project, located in the city of Missoula, Missoula County, Montana. Those... Decision (ROD) for the Russell Street/South 3rd Street Project. The purpose of the project is to...

  15. 76 FR 53940 - Notice of Public Meeting; Western Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... comments may be limited. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Abrams, Western Montana Resource Advisory..., e-mail david_abrams@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)...

  16. Issue Backgrounder : West of the Divide : Fish and Wildlife Projects in Western Montana.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.; Montana. Dept. of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks.

    1985-07-01

    The report describes fish and wildlife projects funded by the Bonneville Power Administration in Montana. The projects are intended to mitigate impacts on fish and wildlife by hydroelectric power development in the Columbia River Basin. (ACR)

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  18. The Use of Community-Based Support To Effect Curriculum Renewal in Rural Settings. Rural Curriculum Handbook No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Jack W.

    This report examines the use of community-based support to facilitate curriculum renewal efforts in small rural school districts. Interviews with educators from five school districts in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington describe three approaches to curriculum renewal: community-initiated approaches, state-directed reform efforts, and…

  19. Capacity Building and Community Resilience: A Pilot Analysis of Education and Employment Indicators before and after an Extension Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the effects of a quasinatural experiment in which 16 rural communities participated in public discussion, leadership training, and community visioning as part of an Extension program at Montana State University. Difference-in-differences methods reveal that key U.S. Census socioeconomic indicators either…

  20. Compilation of Water-Resources Data for Montana, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, P. B.; Berkas, W.R.; White, M.K.; Dodge, K.A.; Bailey, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Water Science Center, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and Tribal governments, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Montana each water year. This report is a compilation of Montana site-data sheets for the 2006 water year, which consists of records of stage and discharge of streams; water quality of streams and ground water; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels in wells; and precipitation data. Site-data sheets for selected stations in Canada and Wyoming also are included in this report. The data for Montana, along with data from various parts of the Nation, are included in 'Water-Resources Data for the United States, Water Year 2006', which is published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report WDR-US-2006 and is available at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wdr2006. Additional water year 2006 data collected at crest-stage gage and miscellaneous-measurement stations were collected but were not published. These data are stored in files of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center in Helena, Montana, and are available on request.

  1. Identifying priority chronic wasting disease surveillance areas for mule deer in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Gude, Justin; Anderson, N.J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that affects a variety of ungulate species including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). As of 2014, no CWD cases had been reported in free-ranging ungulates in Montana. However, nearby cases in Canada, Wyoming, and the Dakotas indicated that the disease was encroaching on Montana's borders. Mule deer are native and common throughout Montana, and they represent a significant portion of the total hunter-harvested cervids in the state. The arrival of CWD in Montana may have significant ecosystem and socioeconomic impacts as well as potential consequences for wildlife management. We used 18,879 mule deer locations from 892 individual deer collected during 1975–2011 and modeled habitat selection for 7 herds in 5 of the 7 wildlife management regions in Montana. We estimated resource selection functions (RSF) in a Bayesian framework to predict summer and winter habitat preferences for mule deer. We estimated deer abundance from flyover counts for each region, and used the RSF predictions as weights to distribute the deer across the region. We then calculated the distance to the nearest known infected herds. We predicted areas of high risk of CWD infection in mule deer as areas with densities above the median density estimate and within the lowest quartile of distances to known infected herds. We identified these areas, the southeast corner of Montana and the north-central border near Alberta and Saskatchewan, as priority areas for CWD surveillance and management efforts. 

  2. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  3. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  4. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  5. BEARTOOTH PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, MONTANA AND WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Van Noy, Ronald M.

    1984-01-01

    The Beartooth area comprises about 600 sq mi in the central part of the Beartooth Mountains in South-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming just northeast of Yellowstone National Park. A mineral-resource survey concluded that one area of probable and one of substantiated mineral-resource potential are present in the Beartooth area. Three small mining districts (Red Lodge, Stillwater, and Independence) and one possibly major district (Cooke City) adjoin the Beartooth area but lie almost entirely outside it; the northern part of the Cooke City mining district, around Goose Lake, is within the area. This area has substantiated resource potential for copper, silver, gold, and platinum-group elements. The Red Lodge mining district extends into the eastern part of the area and has a probable chrome resource potential. There is little promise for the discovery of energy resources in the area.

  6. Geophysical interpretations of the Libby thrust belt, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleinkopf, M. Dean; with sections by Harrison, Jack Edward; Stanley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretations of gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data, supplemented by results from two seismic reflection profiles and five magnetotelluric soundings, were used to study buried structure and lithology of the Libby thrust belt of northwestern Montana. The gravity anomaly data show a marked correlation with major structures. The Purcell anticlinorium and the Sylvanite anticline are very likely cored by stacks of thrust slices of dense crystalline basement rocks that account for the large gravity highs across these two structures. Gravity anomaly data for the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness show a string of four broad highs. The principal magnetic anomaly sources are igneous intrusive rocks, major fault zones, and magnetite-bearing sedimentary rocks of the Ravalli Group. The most important magnetic anomalies in the principal study area are five distinct positive anomalies associated with Cretaceous or younger cupolas and stocks.

  7. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies.

  8. Sulfate reduction in ground water of southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dockins, William S.; Olson, G.J.; McFeters, G.A.; Turbak, S.C.; Lee, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground waters in southeastern Montana were investigated to determine if sulfide production was bacterially mediated. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in 25 of 26 groundwater samples in numbers ranging from 20 to greater than 24,000 bacteria per 100 milliliters for those samples containing bacteria. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation studies indicate a biological role in sulfate reduction. However, sulfate-reducing activity as determined by use of a radioactive sulfur isotope was observed in only 1 of 16 samples. Bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction is postulated to be responsible for a major part of the sulfide produced in these ground waters. These bacteria are most likely active in the adsorbed state, possibly in subsurface microzones where environmental conditions are conducive to sulfate reduction. (USGS)

  9. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  10. SAPPHIRE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Bannister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral studies located sulfide-bearing quartz veins with demonstrated metallic mineral resources in granitic and metasedimentary rocks in several parts of the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area and contiguous roadless areas, Montana. Mines and prospects contain demonstrated resources of gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc. Gold-bearing placers occur downstream from each of these vein occurrences; most of the gold placers have a probable mineral-resource potential. A replacement body of sulfide minerals is present at the Senate mine adjacent to the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area. Around the Senate mine is an area of probable mineral-resource potential that extends into the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the study area.

  11. Geology and ore deposits of the Philipsburg quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, William Harvey; Calkins, Frank Cathcart

    1913-01-01

    Philipsburg lies about midway between the eastern and western limits of the Rocky Mountain system, if the term be used in the broad sense prevailing in the United States. In the general latitude of Montana the system as defined by American usage is bounded on the west by the Columbia River basalt plain and on the east by the Great Plains. The western limit is fairly definite, but on the east there is no very definite line between the plains and mountains; the mountains are fairly continuous west and north of the Philipsburg quadrangle, but to the east and southeast mountains alternate with broad stretches of semiarid lowland. The quadrangle therefore overlaps the line between two physiographic provinces, one characterized by isolated mountain groups, of which the Flint Creek Range is the most westerly, and the other by more continuous elevations, of which the Sapphire Mountains are an example.

  12. Large-scale geometry of Montana thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.W.; Dolberg, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    Regional plunge of a structural culmination in the Sawtooth Mountains, combined with seismic profiles and borehole data, show that the imbricated faults of the Montana Disturbed belt gather upward to merge into a duplex beneath a large thrust plate dominated by the Precambrian Belt Supergroup. The duplex formed after deposition of the Paleocene St. Mary River Formation. This thrust plate overlies the Lewis, Hoadley, El dorado, Steinbach, and related thrust faults and forms the main ranges of the Montana Rocky Mountains. The plate is shaped like a northeasterly tapering wedge; it is 3 to 4 km (10,000 to 13,000 ft) thick at its leading edge, but thickens to more than 25 km (15 mi) to the southwest. At its leading edge, the plate carries lower parts of the Belt supergroup, including the Greyson, Empire, and Spokane formations. These units and overlying parts of the Belt Supergroup thicken dramatically westward within the plate, and the older, very thick, metamorphosed Prichard Formation emerges along the Purcell and related anticlinoria. The plate forms a south-facing monocline along the Lewis and Clark line. The monocline is corrugated into a series of southeast-plunging en echelon folds of Late Cretaceous age and merges with the southern terminus of the Purcell anticlinorium. Along these folds, metamorphosed Belt strata of the plate plunge systematically beneath Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that are preserved in a regional structural depression at the foot of the monocline. Geometric constructions based on areal geology suggest that the monocline has 25 km (15 mi) of structural relief and overlies a major footwall ramp that continues northward beneath the Purcell anticlinorium. This footwall ramp corresponds to the depositional locus for the easterly tapering belt strata of the plate, suggesting a total northeasterly displacement of about 50 km (30 mi) for the plate.

  13. Early Tertiary Anaconda metamorphic core complex, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. M.; Lonn, J.D.; Lageson, D.R.; Kunk, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A sinuous zone of gently southeast-dipping low-angle Tertiary normal faults is exposed for 100 km along the eastern margins of the Anaconda and Flint Creek ranges in southwest Montana. Faults in the zone variously place Mesoproterozoic through Paleozoic sedimentary rocks on younger Tertiary granitic rocks or on sedimentary rocks older than the overlying detached rocks. Lower plate rocks are lineated and mylonitic at the main fault and, below the mylonitic front, are cut by mylonitic mesoscopic to microscopic shear zones. The upper plate consists of an imbricate stack of younger-on-older sedimentary rocks that are locally mylonitic at the main, lowermost detachment fault but are characteristically strongly brecciated or broken. Kinematic indicators in the lineated mylonite indicate tectonic transport to the east-southeast. Syntectonic sedimentary breccia and coarse conglomerate derived solely from upper plate rocks were deposited locally on top of hanging-wall rocks in low-lying areas between fault blocks and breccia zones. Muscovite occurs locally as mica fish in mylonitic quartzites at or near the main detachment. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum obtained from muscovite in one mylonitic quartzite yielded an age of 47.2 + 0.14 Ma, interpreted to be the age of mylonitization. The fault zone is interpreted as a detachment fault that bounds a metamorphic core complex, here termed the Anaconda metamorphic core complex, similar in age and character to the Bitterroot mylonite that bounds the Bitterroot metamorphic core complex along the Idaho-Montana state line 100 km to the west. The Bitterroot and Anaconda core complexes are likely components of a continuous, tectonically integrated system. Recognition of this core complex expands the region of known early Tertiary brittle-ductile crustal extension eastward into areas of profound Late Cretaceous contractile deformation characterized by complex structural interactions between the overthrust belt and Laramide basement uplifts

  14. Composition of leaf n-alkanes in three Satureja montana L. subspecies from the Balkan peninsula: ecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dodoš, Tanja; Rajčević, Nemanja; Tešević, Vele; Matevski, Vlado; Janaćković, Pedja; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of eight populations of three Satureja montana subspecies (S. montana L. subsp. pisidica (Wettst.) Šilić, S. montana L. subsp. montana, and S. montana L. subsp. variegata (Host) P. W. Ball), from central and western areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 15 n-alkane homologs with chain-lengths ranging from C21 to C35 were identified. The main n-alkane in almost all samples was n-nonacosane (C29 ), but differences in the contents of three other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. The diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters were analyzed by several statistical methods (principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test). All tests showed a high correlation between the leaf n-alkane pattern and the geographical distribution of the investigated populations, confirming the differentiation between S. montana subsp. pisidica and the other two subspecies. The S. montana subsp. variegata and S. montana subsp. montana populations are geographically closer and their differentiation according to the leaf-n-alkane patterns was not clear, even though there was some indication of discrimination between them. Moreover, most of the bioclimatic parameters related to temperature were highly correlated with the differentiation of the coastal and the continental populations.

  15. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  16. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Western Montana College Faculty Association (Local 4323, MFT, AFT, AFL-CIO) and the Board of Regents of Higher Education, Montana University System, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ. System, Helena.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Regents of Montana University System and Western Montana College Faculty Association, an American Federation of Teachers affiliate, covering the period July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; dues deduction; dues checkoff;…

  17. A Comparison of the Content Mastery Examination for Educators (CMEE) and the Praxis I Academic Skills Assessment for Initial Certification of Montana Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette

    This comparative study was conducted in preparation for selecting a successor to the National Teachers Examination (NTE) for initial certification of Montana educators. The paper begins by discussing the background of using teacher competency tests in Montana, and examining demographic data on Montana students and certified teachers. Then, the…

  18. An investigation on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) as affected by both water soakings and hot air oven treatments.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-12-01

    This experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Thailand to investigate effects of different water-soaking durations and hot air oven treatments on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) plants. The experiment was laid in a Randomised Complete Block Design with four replications. The results showed that after tested for Electrical Conductivity (EC) values for cracking of seeds, all seeds being used were at a normal condition (with an average EC value of 28.56 microS cm(-1) g(-1)) and all seeds were ready for germination. Strength on impermeability of seeds declined after soaking in water for 10 h and onwards then the treated seeds had increased in weights. However, after treated under hot air oven, dry weights of all seeds became similar. Germination percentage of all treatments was most rapid during the first three weeks of germination period and later slowly increased with time. At day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest percentage of germination (52%) and the lowest was found with T1 (control) with 31.25%. Again at day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest mean value of plant numbers (16.38) and the lowest was found with T1 (7.28). Numbers of abnormal seedlings determined at day 63 after sowing were lowest with T2 (6.25%) and worst with T4 (20.14%). Again at day 63 after sowing, plant height was significantly tallest with T2 (3.88 cm) and the lowest was found with T4 (2.71 cm). Numbers of leaves were not significantly different among the treated plants reaching a highest value of 11.25 leaves plant(-1) for T3. It may be concluded that T2 was the best treatment for use in germinating seeds of Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth plants. Further improvements on longevity and high percentage of germination of seeds were discussed and suggested.

  19. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria in Montana, 1947-48

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Roger Warren; Klepper, M.R.; Lowell, W.R.; Honkala, F.S.; Cressman, E.R.; Bostwick, D.A.; Payne, O.A.; Ruppel, E.T.

    1952-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Montana and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, will be published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of many of the sections measured in southwestern Montana (pl. 1), is one of this series. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a companion report (McKelvey and others, 1952). Many people have taken part in this investigation. The program of which this work is a part was organized by V. E. McKelvey. J. G. Evans, J. E. Joyce, J. A. Kelleher, R. L. Konizeski, J. A. Mann, R. L. Parker, J. E Smedley, L. A. Thomas, and W. H. Wilson participated in the description of strata and collection of samples referred to in this report. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt. All the P2O5, F, V2O5, and acid-insoluble analyses were made for the Survey by the U. S. Bureau of Mines at the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory, Albany, Oreg., under the direction of S. M. Shelton and M. L. Wright. The Al2O3, Fe2O3, and loss-on-ignition analyses were about equally distributed between the Bureau of Mines and the Trace Elements Section laboratory of the Survey in Washington, D. C., under the direction of J. C. Rabbit by chemists I. Barlow, A. Caemmerer, J. Greene, N. Guttag, and E. H. Humphrey. The spectrographic analyses were made by D. M. Mortimer, of the Bureau Mines in Albany, and the oil-shale analyses were made by the Bureau of Mines Petroleum and Oil-Shale Experiment Station at Laramie, Wyo. Compilation of the data has been largely by R. P. Sheldon and F. D. Frieske. Organization of the tabular data has been largely by Anita Cozzetto.

  20. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts.

  1. Middle and upper Cambrian platform evolution and paleogeography, northwestern Montana, northern Idaho, and northeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, J.H.; Hayden, L.L.

    1987-08-01

    In western Montana, three Middle and Late Cambrian correlative Grand Cycles commence with inner detrital basal half cycles overlain by middle carbonate half cycles. Each half cycle represents up to one formation with the Park to Pilgrim, shale to carbonate transition, an example of one complete cycle. As with other regions of the Cambrian Cordilleran shelf, cycle components are closely related to paleogeographic position, producing differences that make correlation across depositional belts difficult. However, combined lithologic paleontologic, and cyclic correlations from southwestern Montana to isolated outcrops in northwestern Montana, northern Idaho, and northeastern Washington outline platform evolution and paleogeography. Early Middle Cambrian ramp deposition occurred with non-tectonic highs (Montania) in northwestern Montana and possible distally steepened ramps in northern Idaho. After eastward transgression, upward-shallowing Middle Cambrian carbonates formed algal-peritidal complexes that extended from central Montana to northeastern Washington. These complexes were influenced by clastic influx from central Idaho (Lemhi arch .), but they completely covered Montania and separated an eastern intrashale basin from the outer ramp. During the Late Cambrian, below wave base distal ramp carbonate deposition returned to northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. However, the distal ramp was separated from the intrashelf basin until Early Ordovician by the still existent but less extensive peritidal complexes. The ramp that developed over portions of the three states differed considerably from the cratonic margin in southern British Columbia, described by Aitken in 1966 and 1978, as a stationary accretionary rim on its seaward side persisting from Middle Cambrian to Middle Ordovician time.

  2. NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT): Professional Development for Montana K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Kathryn; McKenzie, D.; Des Jardins, A.; Key, J.; Kanode, C.; Willoughby, S.

    2012-05-01

    Piloted during the 2011-2012 academic year, the NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT) teacher workshop program has introduced five solar astronomy and space weather activities to over forty Montana K-12 teachers. Because many Montana schools are geographically isolated (40% of Montana students live more than 50 miles from a city) and/or serve traditionally underrepresented groups (primarily Native Americans), professional development for teachers can be costly and time consuming. However, with funding shared by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly EPO team and the Montana Space Grant Consortium, graduate student specialists are able to host the two-hour NEAT workshops on-site at the schools free of charge, and participating teachers earn two continuing education credits. Leveraging the existing catalogue of research-based NASA activities, the featured NEAT activities were chosen for their ease-of-use and applicability to Montana science standards. These include three advanced activities for older students, such as a paper plate activity for the June 5th, 2012 Transit of Venus, Kinesthetic Astronomy, and the Herschel Infrared experiment, along with two simpler activities for the younger students, such as Solar Cookies and the Electromagnetic War card game. Feedback surveys show that NEAT workshop participants were interested and engaged in the activities and planned on using the activities in their classrooms. With such positive responses, the NEAT program has been a huge success and can serve as a model for other institutions looking to increase their space public outreach and education.

  3. Predicting Disease Risk, Identifying Stakeholders, and Informing Control Strategies: A Case Study of Anthrax in Montana.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lillian R; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases that affect wildlife and livestock are challenging to manage and can lead to large-scale die-offs, economic losses, and threats to human health. The management of infectious diseases in wildlife and livestock is made easier with knowledge of disease risk across space and identifying stakeholders associated with high-risk landscapes. This study focuses on anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, risk to wildlife and livestock in Montana. There is a history of anthrax in Montana, but the spatial extent of disease risk and subsequent wildlife species at risk are not known. Our objective was to predict the potential geographic distribution of anthrax risk across Montana, identify wildlife species at risk and their distributions, and define stakeholders. We used an ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of anthrax risk. We overlaid susceptible wildlife species distributions and land ownership delineations on our risk map. We found that there was an extensive region across Montana predicted as potential anthrax risk. These potentially risky landscapes overlapped the ranges of all 6 ungulate species considered in the analysis and livestock grazing allotments, and this overlap was on public and private land for all species. Our findings suggest that there is the potential for a multi-species anthrax outbreak on multiple landscapes across Montana. Our potential anthrax risk map can be used to prioritize landscapes for surveillance and for implementing livestock vaccination programs.

  4. Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William J.; Gill, James R.

    1952-01-01

    A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many area appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two area in Montana and one area of Idaho were examine. The coal in five of these area is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 area occur in Tertiary "lake-bed" deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyroclastic sequences. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Prickly Pear Valley northeast of Helena, Montana, contained 0.013 percent uranium. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Flint Creek Valley southwest of Drummond, Montana, contained 0.006 percent uranium. All other samples of both Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale were essentially non-radioactive. No further work is planned on the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale in western Montana. A few localities in Idaho will be visited in the course of other work.

  5. Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascoe, Gary A.; Blanchet, Richard J.; Linder, Greg L.; Palawski, Don; Brumbaugh, William G.; Canfield, Tim J.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ingersoll, Chris G.; Farag, Aida M.; DalSoglio, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork River (CFR) and the benthic and terrestrial habitats further downstream in Milltown Reservoir. The risk characterization component of the process integrated results from a triad of information sources: (a) chemistry studies of environmental media to identify and quantify exposures of terrestrial and aquatic organisms to site-related contaminants; (b) ecological or population studies of terrestrial vegetation, birds, benthic communities, and fish; and (c) in situ and laboratory toxicity studies with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and plants, small mammals, amphibians, and fish exposed to contaminated surface water, sediments, wetland soils, and food sources. Trophic transfer studies were performed on waterfowl, mammals, and predatory birds using field measurement data on metals concentrations in environmental media and lower trophic food sources. Studies with sediment exposures were incorporated into the Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate risks to benthic ecology. Overall results of the wetland and terrestrial studies suggested that acute adverse biological effects were largely absent from the wetland; however, adverse effects to reproductive, growth, and physiological end points of various terrestrial and aquatic species were related to metals exposures in more highly contaminated depositional areas. Feeding studies with contaminated diet collected from the upper CFR indicated that trout are at high risk from elevated metals concentrations in surface water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates. Integration of chemical analyses with toxicological and ecological

  6. Nitrogen spatial heterogeneity influences diversity following restoration in a ponderosa pine forest, Montana.

    PubMed

    Gundale, Michael J; Metlen, Kerry L; Fiedler, Carl E; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2006-04-01

    The resource heterogeneity hypothesis (RHH) is frequently cited in the ecological literature as an important mechanism for maintaining species diversity. The RHH has rarely been evaluated in the context of restoration ecology in which a commonly cited goal is to restore diversity. In this study we focused on the spatial heterogeneity of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) following restoration treatments in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in western Montana, USA. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between understory species richness and TIN heterogeneity following mechanical thinning (thin-only), prescribed burning (burn-only), and mechanical thinning with prescribed burning (thin/burn) to discern the ecological and management implications of these restoration approaches. We employed a randomized block design, with three 9-ha replicates of each treatment and an untreated control. Within each treatment, we randomly established a 20 x 50 m (1000 m2) plot in which we measured species richness across the entire plot and in 12 1-m(2) quadrats randomly placed within each larger plot. Additionally, we measured TIN from a grid consisting of 112 soil samples (0-5 cm) in each plot and computed standard deviations as a measure of heterogeneity. We found a correlation between the net increase in species richness and the TIN standard deviations one and two years following restoration treatments, supporting RHH. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination and chi-squared analysis, we found that high and low TIN quadrats contained different understory communities in 2003 and 2004, further supporting RHH. A comparison of restoration treatments demonstrated that thin/burn and burn-only treatments created higher N heterogeneity relative to the control. We also found that within prescribed burn treatments, TIN heterogeneity was positively correlated with fine-fuel consumption, a variable reflecting burn severity. These

  7. Measured and predicted temporal changes in soil nitrate-N levels from late summer to early spring in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most soil sampling is conducted from August to November in Montana because of better soil sampling conditions and because it provides more time for growers to make fertilizer decisions prior to application. Fertilizer guidelines in Montana are based on spring nitrate-N levels in the upper 2 ft becau...

  8. I Feel Like Touching Something That's Not There; Poems by Students in Elementary & Secondary Schools of Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David, Ed.

    This book, a project of the Montana Arts Council Poets and Writers in the School program, is a collection of poems written by students in elementary and secondary schools of Montana. In addition to the poems, the book contains an essay on motivating and guiding students to write creatively, a list of resources for creative-writing teachers, an…

  9. 77 FR 74873 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Museum of the Rockies at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Museum of the Rockies at Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; and University of Wyoming, Department of Anthropology, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of...

  10. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  11. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana... limits for camping and the storage of personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in... camping on undeveloped BLM- administered public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South...

  12. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  13. Montana K-12 & School Choice Survey: What Do Voters Say about K-12 Education? Polling Paper Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The "Montana K-12 & School Choice Survey" project, commissioned by the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice and conducted by Braun Research, Inc. (BRI), measures Montana registered voters' familiarity and views on a range of K-12 education topics and school choice reforms. The author and his colleagues report response levels…

  14. 76 FR 6788 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM...-FM, Facility ID 32386, BPH-20101222ABO, From GREAT FALLS, MT, To HIGHWOOD, MT; THE MONTANA...

  15. Training the next generation of scientists: Modeling Infectious Disease and Water Quality of Montana Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Wyman, S.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences and the Barrett Foundation have established a scholarship program for undergraduate students. The Barrett Scholarship program, aware of the importance of developing research quantitative and writing skills for undergraduate students, provides scholarships to outstanding undergraduate students for environmental engineering research projects. The intent is to help retain student interest early in their undergraduate engineering careers when few of their first or second year classes have little engineering or real-world application. We focus on one Barrett research project, derived from a NSF Biodiversity and Infectious Disease grant, because of the multiple disciplines (engineering, ecology, biology) and education levels (spanning secondary to graduate) involved. In this research, students across three departments at two universities (University of Vermont, Montana State University) and one independent high school (Vermont Commons School) formed a cohesive collaboration with faculty members to identify different worm taxa of T. Tubifex. Whirling disease has had a severe impact on the native population of salmonids in the upper Madison River MT, USA, resulting in the death of most fish that contract the parasite. T. Tubifex is the intermediate host for Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease in salmonids. Samples collected from eight locations along the Madison River varied in the prevalence of whirling disease. The site-specific worm community structure has been measured and identified using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key to link worm communities to geochemical features (e.g. site elevation, slope, pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and percent of organic soil matter). Using a unique clustering algorithm, we group geochemical features to discriminate over a range of water quality gradients (i.e., “clean” to “dirty”). The link between

  16. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  17. Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Montana using L-moments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, C.

    1998-01-01

    Dimensionless precipitation-frequency curves for estimating precipitation depths having small exceedance probabilities were developed for 2-, 6-, and 24-hour storm durations for three homogeneous regions in Montana. L-moment statistics were used to help define the homogeneous regions. The generalized extreme value distribution was used to construct the frequency curves for each duration within each region. The effective record length for each duration in each region was estimated using a graphical method and was found to range from 500 years for 6-hour duration data in Region 2 to 5,100 years for 24-hour duration data in Region 3. The temporal characteristics of storms were analyzed, and methods for estimating synthetic storm hyetographs were developed. Dimensionless depth-duration data were grouped by independent duration (2,6, and 24 hours) and by region, and the beta distribution was fit to dimensionless depth data for various incremental time intervals. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to develop relations between dimensionless depths for a key, short duration - termed the kernel duration - and dimensionless depths for other durations. The regression relations were used, together with the probabilistic dimensionless depth data for the kernel duration, to calculate dimensionless depth-duration curves for exceedance probabilities from .1 to .9. Dimensionless storm hyetographs for each independent duration in each region were constructed for median value conditions based on an exceedance probability of .5.

  18. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  19. Limnological data for 12 reservoirs in Valley County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, Rodger F.

    1980-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 12 reservoirs in northeastern Montana during the late winter, spring, summer, and early fall of 1978. The resulting physical and chemical water-quality data will be useful in managing the reservoirs for use of stock watering, waterfowl propagation, fish production, and recreation. The surface areas of the reservoirs range for 0.4 to 28.1 hectares with water depths ranging from 0.25 to 6.9 meters. The chemical composition of water varied among reservoirs and with season. Specific conductance ranged from 446 to 4,020 micromhos per centimeter during the winter sampling period and from 62 to 999 micromhos per centimeter during the spring sampling period. Although a pH of 6.9 was measured at one reservoir during the winter, pH values generally ranged from 7.7 to 9.8. Under ice cover, which averaged 1.0 meter thick in late February, three reservoirs attained dissolved-oxygen concentrations above saturation. Each reservoir can be classified as having one of the following three water types: sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulfate, or calcium sodium bicarbonate. (USGS)

  20. Floods of June 4 and 12, 1976, at Culbertson, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    Runoff from rainfall caused flooding in the town of Culbertson, Montana, on June 4 and 12, 1976. Flood damage was mostly to business and residential structures within Culberston. Two small drainage contributed the peak flows, which at one site exceeded 1,200 cubic feet per second per square mile of contributing area. Flow from the Missouri River tributary No 5 at Culbertson consisted of flow through a pipe-arch at the State Highway 16 crossing and flow that overtopped the right bank of the main channel. Maximum combined pipe-arch and bypass flow for the June 12 flood was 1,30030 cubic feet per second. Flow from Diamond Creek consisted of flow through a culvert at the U.S. Highway 2 crossing west of Culbertson and flow that overtopped a road. Maximum combined culvert and bypass flow for the June 4 flood was 1,320 cubic feet per second. Failure of small dam increased the flow volume of the flood.

  1. View of north central Wyoming and southern Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana as seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River flowing northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, in the center of the picture, is impounded by a dam across the Big Horn River. A sharp contrast is clearly evident between the small rectangular crop areas along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formations appear in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the fr

  2. Reproductive ecology of Dusky Flycatchers in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Breeding ecology of Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) was studied in western Montana from May-August 1974. Dusky Flycatchers were monogamous and single-brooded although some pairs made renesting attempts after first nests failed. Length of the reproductive cycle for first nesting attempts, from arrival on the breeding grounds to fledging, was about 70 days. All nests were placed in shrubs, primarily ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) and Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), and were an average of 150 cm above the ground. Females incubated a clutch with an average of 4.0 eggs for 15-16 days, and the average nestling period was 17.5 days. Both sexes fed nestlings and fledglings, but only females brooded nestlings. Egg survival was 63.8%, hatching success was 95.4%, and nestling survival was 61.9% for an overall probability of 0.376 percent that an egg produced a fledgling. Predation was the major cause of nest failure. Dusky Flycatchers reared an average of 1.9 fledglings/pair.

  3. Structural geology of Swift reservoir culmination, Sawtooth Range, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Singdahlsen, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Northwest-trending, thrusted and folded rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age comprise the Sawtooth Range of northwestern Montana. The Sawtooth Range is a part of the northern disturbed belt and is characterized by thin-skinned deformation. Stratigraphy plays an important role in the location and character of the various thrust sheets. Major decollement surfaces include the Upper Cambrian, the top of the Devonian, and several horizons within the Mississippian. In the Swift Reservoir area, a broad culmination exposes Cambrian through Cretaceous strata in a series of imbricately stacked, west-dipping thrust sheets. The structural configuration of the culmination appears to be a compound duplex zone with structures north and south of Swift Reservoir dipping away from the culmination. Mapping of the culmination reveals vertical stacking of thrust sheets, and a lateral ramp that forms the southern boundary of the duplex. A structural high in the basement may have resulted in ramping of the thrust sheets and formation of the culmination. Deformation within the thrust sheets is controlled by structural position and by ductility contrasts between the stratigraphic units. Deformation varies widely, ranging from tight overturned folds in the Cambrian units to broad open folds and fractures within the Mississippian. Because of the variation in lithology and ductility, the most intense deformation is observed within the Cambrian units. This deformation is characterized by overturning of folds in the direction of thrust transport, and the development of small-scale kink folds, cleavage, pencil structures, and boundinage.

  4. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  5. Glacier-derived August runoff in northwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Adam; Harper, Joel T.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The second largest concentration of glaciers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains is located in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. The total glacier-covered area in this region decreased by ∼35% over the past 50 years, which has raised substantial concern about the loss of the water derived from glaciers during the summer. We used an innovative weather station design to collect in situ measurements on five remote glaciers, which are used to parameterize a regional glacier melt model. This model offered a first-order estimate of the summer meltwater production by glaciers. We find, during the normally dry month of August, glaciers in the region produce approximately 25 × 106 m3 of potential runoff. We then estimated the glacier runoff component in five gaged streams sourced from GNP basins containing glaciers. Glacier-melt contributions range from 5% in a basin only 0.12% glacierized to >90% in a basin 28.5% glacierized. Glacier loss would likely lead to lower discharges and warmer temperatures in streams draining basins >20% glacier-covered. Lower flows could even be expected in streams draining basins as little as 1.4% glacierized if glaciers were to disappear.

  6. Characterization and pharmacodynamic properties of Arnica montana complex.

    PubMed

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kočmalová, M; Pawlaczyk, I; Zaczyńska, E; Czarny, A; Uhliariková, I; Gancarz, R; Fraňová, S

    2014-08-01

    A dark brown polymeric complex was isolated from flowering parts of medicinal plant Arnica montana L. by hot alkaline extraction followed by neutralization and multi-step extractions with organic solvents. It was recovered in 5.7% yield, on GPC showed two peaks of molecular mass of 9 and 3.5kDa. The compositional analyses of Arnica complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (26%), uronic acids (12%), phenolics (1.25mM or 213mg of GAE/1g), and low protein content (∼1%). The carbohydrate moiety was rich mainly in rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan. The antitussive tests showed the reduction of the cough efforts by Arnica complex, however, its total antitussive effect was lower compared with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. The bronchodilatory activity of Arnica complex was similar to salbutamol, a classic antiasthmatic drug, and was confirmed by significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance in vivo and by considerably attenuated the amplitude of acetylcholine and histamine-induced contractions in vitro. Arnica complex did not show any cytotoxic effect on mouse fibroblast cultures and human lung cells, up to the dose of 500μg/mL.

  7. A Composite Depth Scale for Sediments from Crevice Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Skipp, G.; Honke, J.; Chapman, C.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study to derive records of past environmental change from lake sediments in the western United States, a set of cores was collected from Crevice Lake, Montana, in late February and early March 2001. Crevice Lake (latitude 45.000N, longitude 110.578W, elevation 1,713 meters) lies adjacent to the Yellowstone River at the north edge of Yellowstone National Park. The lake is more than 31 meters deep and has a surface area of 7.76 hectares. The combination of small surface area and significant depth promote anoxic bottom-water conditions that preserve annual laminations (varves) in the sediment. Three types of cores were collected through the ice. The uppermost sediments were obtained in freeze cores that preserved the sediment water interface. Two sites were cored with a 5-centimeter diameter corer. Five cores were taken with a 2-meter-long percussion piston corer. The percussion core uses a plastic core liner with an inside diameter of 9 centimeters. Coring was done at two sites. Because of the relatively large diameter of the percussion cores, samples from these cores were used for a variety of analyses including pollen, charcoal, diatoms, stable isotopes, organic and inorganic carbon, elemental analyses, and magnetic properties.

  8. Holocene faulting on the Mission fault, northwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenaa, D.A.; Klinger, R.E.; Levish, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    South of Flathead Lake, fault scarps on late Quaternary surfaces are nearly continuous for 45 km along the western flank of the Mission Range. On late Pleistocene alpine lateral moraines, scarp heights reach a maximum of 17 m. Scarp heights on post glacial Lake Missoula surfaces range from 2.6--7.2 m and maximum scarp angles range from 10[degree]--24[degree]. The stratigraphy exposed in seven trenches across the fault demonstrates that the post glacial Lake Missoula scarps resulted from at least two surface-faulting events. Larger scarp heights on late Pleistocene moraines suggests a possible third event. This yields an estimated recurrence of 4--8 kyr. Analyses of scarp profiles show that the age of the most surface faulting is middle Holocene, consistent with stratigraphic evidence found in the trenches. Rupture length and displacement imply earthquake magnitudes of 7 to 7.5. Previous studies have not identified geologic evidence of late Quaternary surface faulting in the Rocky Mountain Trench or on faults north of the Lewis and Clark line despite abundant historic seismicity in the Flathead Lake area. In addition to the Mission fault, reconnaissance studies have located late Quaternary fault scarps along portions of faults bordering Jocko and Thompson Valleys. These are the first documented late Pleistocene/Holocene faults north of the Lewis and Clark line in Montana and should greatly revise estimates of earthquake hazards in this region.

  9. Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

  10. Age of the basement rocks of southwest Montana.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, H.L.; Hedge, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rb-Sr analyses of a suite of quartzofeldspathic gneisses that are interlayered with beds of marble, quartzite, and amphibolite in the Ruby and Tobacca Root Ranges and the Gallatin River canyon of southwest Montana show that the age of metamorphism of these strata occurred about 2750 m.y. ago. The 13 samples analyzed are from rock units that have in the past been assigned stratigraphically to the Pony Group, Cherry Creek Group, and Dillion Granite Gneiss. Except for two samples of anomalous composition, the data define a linear array on an isochron diagram that has a best-fit value of 2762+- 113 m.y. Inclusion of other published data for the Tobacco Root Range yields a best-fit value of 2730+- 85 m.y. This age corresponds closely to that of the principal metamorphic-plutonic epoch of the Beartooth Mountains, to which the term 'Beartooth orogeny' has been applied. It also demonstrates that the major Precambrian metasedimentary sequences of the region are of Archean age. - Authors

  11. New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.

    1986-08-01

    Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193 bbl of oil and 3,061,522 mcf of gas, with Lakota sandstones being most productive. Lakota production occurs from a structural-stratigraphic trap in an east-west-trending channel on the axis of Clarks Fork anticline, geographically near the center of the township. Our structural reinterpretation of Clarks Fork field suggests that Elk Basin anticline is a northwest extension of the Elk Basin field anticline. The Elk Basin thrust truncates the north limb of the fold and does not strike to the northwest, as shown by earlier interpretations. They interpret a northwest-striking thrust in the center of the township as a splay off the Elk Basin thrust, and have named it the Clarks Fork thrust. The Clarks Fork anticline is located on the hanging wall of Clarks Fork thrust. Subsurface maps indicate the Clarks Fork area has not been fully developed. Stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Greybull sandstones are present in several areas of the township. Structural traps in the center and northwest portions of the township may also exist.

  12. Upper cretaceous microbial petroleum systems in north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2007-01-01

    Methanogenesis began soon after the deposition (early-stage methanogenesis) of the Cenomanian to Campanian source sediments, and was either sustained or rejuvenated by episodic meteoric water influx until sometime in the Paleogene. Methanogenesis probably continued until CO2 and hydrogen were depleted or the pore size was compacted to below tolerance levels of the methanogens. The composition of the Montana and Colorado Group gases and coproduced formation water precludes a scenario of late-stage methanogenesis like the Antrim gas system in the Michigan basin. Some portion of the methane charge was originally dissolved in the pore waters, and subsequent reduction in hydrostatic pressure caused the methane to exsolve and migrate into local stratigraphic and structural traps. The critical moment of the microbial gas systems is this timing of exsolution rather than the time of generation (methanogenesis). Other studies suggest that the reduction in hydrostatic pressure may have been caused by multiple geologic events including the lowering of sea level in the Late Cretaceous, and subsequent uplift and erosion events, the youngest of which began about 5 Ma.

  13. Debris flows in Glacier National Park, Montana: geomorphology and hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Forrest D.; Schmid, Ginger L.

    2003-09-01

    Debris flows are one of the many active slope-forming processes within Glacier National Park, Montana. Most debris flow landforms exhibit classic morphology with a distinct failure scarp, incised channel, channel levees, and toe deposits that often develop a lobate form. The Precambrian metasediments that dominate Glacier National Park's geology weather into angular clasts that range in size from platy gravels to boulders. Classic debris flows occur in areas where the topographic expression provides a debris source from cliff faces and an accumulation of regolith, often in the form of talus slopes. Many of these debris flows have long runout zones and can travel many hundreds of meters. Often they cross hiking trails or roads, including the main east-west highway, Going-to-the-Sun Road. Debris flows impacting the road have resulted in several near fatalities, and hikers have been forced to cross active debris flows to reach safe ground. The magnitude of debris flows varies between high magnitude channel incising events and low magnitude channel filling and/or reworking events. The frequency of debris flow events is irregular and appears to be controlled by the hydrology of triggering storms and antecedent moisture conditions, not by the debris supply. As a result, debris flow magnitude is not a function of frequency, but is more closely related to the characteristics of antecedent conditions and individual storms.

  14. Social Support Functions During a Slowly-Evolving Environmental Disaster: The Case of Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Child, Jeffrey T; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Previous research concluded that victims of rapid-onset natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes) receive and provide high levels of instrumental support. However, different kinds of disasters (natural or human caused [technological, environmental, intentional/terrorism], rapid or slow onset, short or long duration) may create different stressors and thus influence the types of social support most needed and provided. We explored social support functions during an ongoing "slowly-evolving environmental disaster" in Libby, Montana due to widespread exposure to amphibole asbestos. Analyses of focus groups and in-depth interviews focused on the relative salience of support functions (emotional, informational, instrumental, and spiritual) identified as needed or provided. Dominant themes emerged around each function. Results indicated that informational support is particularly salient in this type of disaster. Although not all community members had experienced the disaster's health consequences (asbestos-related disease [ARD]), all had been affected by the disaster and had informational needs. The nature of those informational needs (e.g., medical vs. financial) varied based on experience with ARD. Experience with ARD was associated with awareness of disaster-related emotional and instrumental support needed or provided. Results have implications for future research on slowly-evolving environmental disasters and institutional and community responses to them.

  15. Characteristics of modern pollen rain and the relationship to vegetation in sagebrush-steppe environments of Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, C.; Bryant, V.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in pollen production and dispersal characteristics among plant species complicate our ability to determine direct relationships between deposited pollen and actual vegetation. In order to better understand modern pollen-vegetation relationships, we analyzed pollen from 61 samples taken from sagebrush-steppe environments across Montana and compared them with the actual vegetation composition at each site. We also determined to what degree sagebrush-steppe communities can be geographically distinguished from one another based on their pollen signature. Pollen preservation was good, especially in wetter environments, with pollen degradataion ranging from 4-15%. Diploxylon Pinus was the primary contributor to the pollen rain, even in plots where pine trees did not occur or were several kilometers from the plot. Artemisia and grass pollen are underrepresented in the soils samples, while Chenopodiaceae and Juniperus pollen are overrepresented when compared to actual vegetation composition. Insect-pollinated species are present only in very minor amounts in the soil samples, even though some (e.g., Brassica) are abundant in the plots. In general, pollen spectra show significant differences between regions, however, within each region the individual spectra are not statistically significant from one another. An understanding of modern pollen-vegetation relationships and the palynological “fingerprint” of sagebrush-steppe communities aid in climatic and ecological interpretations of fossil pollen assemblages. The data also provide important control samples for forensics studies that use pollen to geolocate an object or person to a crime scene.

  16. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  17. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 8. Montana cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the state of Montana to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which are cross-tabulated against the above, fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled; 570 households were sampled in Montana.

  18. Distribution of potential intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna in Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, A M; Rognlie, M C; Johnson, G R; Knapp, S E

    1996-03-01

    A collection of lymnaeid snails in Montana was made over a 3 year period, in conjunction with a state-wide survey of the distribution of liver flukes in Montana. Collection areas were selected based on reports of infected cattle, sheep or wildlife, and with the intent of covering all geographic regions of the state. Snails were found at all 97 of the locations chosen for collections, with lymnaeids collected at 71 of the locations. The 97 sites were located in 28 of Montana's 56 counties. Nine lymnaeid species were collected, five of which have been reported either as natural or experimental intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica or Fascioloides magna. The two snail species most widely distributed over the areas enzootic for the flukes were Lymnaea modicella and Lymanaea caperata.

  19. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  20. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  1. Impact of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica and its potent phytoestrogen miroestrol on expression of bone-specific genes in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Churikhit, Yaowared; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-12-01

    Miroestrol (MR) is a highly active phytoestrogen isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (PM). Modulatory effects of PM and MR on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) mRNAs which are bone-specific genes were investigated in ovariectomized female ICR mice. After ovariectomy, expression of OPG mRNA was suppressed but that of RANKL was induced. Estradiol benzoate (E2) recovered OPG expression to the level comparable to the sham while that of RANKL was suppressed in ovariectomized mice. PM crude extract (PME) significantly down-regulated the expression of RANKL mRNA with no change in the OPG level whereas MR elevated the expression of OPG mRNA with lowering level of RANKL mRNA, resulting in the increased OPG/RANKL ratio, and consequently lead to lowering progression of osteoporosis at molecular level. These findings revealed potential of PME and MR on bone loss prevention via increasing the ratio of OPG to RANKL (osteoformation/osteoresorption) in liver of ovariectomized mice. Therefore, using PME and MR as alternative hormone replacement therapy of E2 might be beneficial recommended due to advantageous on regulation of osteoporosis related genes.

  2. The Root Extract of Pueraria lobata and Its Main Compound, Puerarin, Prevent Obesity by Increasing the Energy Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, An Na; Kang, Seok Yong; Park, Yong-Ki; Song, Mi Young

    2017-01-01

    Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels. In addition, RP dose-dependently improved hyperglycemia, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, and prevented the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by HFD. Furthermore, RP increased the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle tissues. RP and its main component, puerarin, increased mitochondrial biogenesis and myotube hypertrophy in C2C12 cells. The present study demonstrates that RP can prevent diet-induced obesity, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle atrophy in mouse models of obesity. The mechanism responsible for the effect of RP appears to be related to the upregulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, which at the molecular level may be associated with PGC-1α and AMPK activation. PMID:28054981

  3. Discrimination of the Thai rejuvenating herbs Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea) using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Yodpetch, Woraluk; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Sukrong, Suchada

    2013-07-01

    The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea) and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea), which belong to the family Leguminosae, are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional Thai medicine. Although all of these species have an indication for rejuvenation, each differs in its medicinal properties. Two varieties of P. candollei, var. mirifica and var. candollei, affect females, whereas B. superba and M. collettii exhibit effects on males. However, the identification of these roots according to the name "Kwao Khruea" is confusing due to the similarity in their features. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was utilised to identify plant origin. The partial matK gene was amplified and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with DdeI and TaqI. The restriction fragments generated differed in number and size. To test the reliability of the method, an admixture of the different Kwao Khruea species containing equal amounts of DNA was tested. The results showed combined restriction patterns, and each species could be detected in the background of the others. The method was also used to authenticate eight different crude drugs sold as various types of Kwao Khruea in Thai markets. The results showed that the misidentification of commercial drugs remains a problem in crude drug markets. The PCR-RFLP analysis developed here provides a simple and accurate discrimination of these rejuvenating "Kwao Khruea" species.

  4. Evidence for introgression in differentiated North-American and Finnish Drosophila montana populations.

    PubMed

    Päällysaho, Seliina; Vieira, Cristina P; Hoikkala, Anneli; Vieira, Jorge

    2005-03-01

    The virilis group species Drosophila montana is widely distributed around the northern hemisphere. Here we show that it consists of at least two well differentiated populations (Finnish and North-American populations) that have been diverging for the last 0.55-0.95 My. These populations show significant chromosomal, behavioural and morphological differences, but no apparent postzygotic isolation. Evidence for introgression is found for both Finnish and North-American populations at two out of the three X-linked genes (fused, elav and su(s)) studied here. In the light of these findings, previously reported evidence for selective sweeps in D. montana populations is re-evaluated.

  5. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  6. Carbon Budget of an Alluvial Floodplain in Northwest Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appling, A.; Poole, G.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J.

    2009-12-01

    Alluvial floodplains can be substantial sources of carbon dioxide and sinks for particulate carbon, making them important players in the global aquatic carbon cycle. However, carbon budgets for large floodplains are poorly constrained, especially for floodplains with large hyporheic aquifers and high connectivity to the river channel. We synthesized the results of seven recent studies to construct a carbon budget for the Nyack Floodplain on the Middle Fork Flathead River in northwest Montana. For the whole floodplain, including river channel, hyporheic aquifer, and riparian soils and vegetation, estimated carbon losses exceed inputs by 9.1 gC m-3 yr-1. The imbalance is primarily driven by microbial and invertebrate respiration in the aquifer (8.4 and 0.3 gC m-3 yr-1, respectively). Despite the fact that these respiration rates are among the lowest reported in the literature, they dwarf other carbon inputs to the floodplain: riparian NPP is 1.8 gC m-3 yr-1; in-channel NPP is less than 0.001 gC m-3 yr-1, and riverine DOC inputs (4.8 gC m-3 yr-1) are exceeded by riverine DOC losses (5.9 gC m-3 yr-1). To begin resolving the apparent carbon imbalance, we establish a reasonable range for each flux in the carbon budget and identify key uncertainties. Our results point to the need for more research in three areas: First, we can constrain the aquifer carbon cycle by quantifying riparian soil leaching, root exudate production, and plant biomass turnover. Second, we should better understand upstream inputs of organic matter, both annually and during large episodic floods. Finally, we need to explore the interacting roles of hydrologic flowpaths, sediment texture, and buried organic matter in creating patchy habitats for microbes and invertebrates in the aquifer.

  7. Preliminary report on the Comet area, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becraft, George Earle

    1952-01-01

    Several radioactivity anomalies and a few specimens of sooty pitchblende and other uranium minerals have been found on the mine dumps of formerly productive base-and precious-metal mines along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone in the Comet area in southwestern Montana. The shear zone is from 50 to 200 feet wide and has been traced for at least 5 1/2 miles. It trends N. 80° W. across the northern part of the area and cuts the quartz monzonitic rocks of the Boulder batholith and younger silicic intrusive rocks, as well as the pre-batholitic volcanic rocks, and is in turn cut by dacite and andesite dikes. The youngest period of mineralization is represented by chalcedonic vein zones comprising one or more discontinuous stringers and veins of cryptocrystalline silica in silicified quartz monzonite and in alaskite that has not been appreciably silicified. In some places these zones contain no distinct chalcedonic veins, but are represented only by silicified quartz monzonite. These zones locally contain uranium in association with very small amounts of the following minerals: pyrite, galena, ruby silver, argentite, native silver, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and barite. At the Free Enterprise mine, uranium has been produced from a narrow chalcedonic vein that contains disseminated secondary uranium minerals and local small pods of pitchblende and from disseminated secondary uranium minerals in the adjacent quartz monzonite. Undiscovered commercial deposits of uranium ore may occur spatially associated with the base-and precious-metal deposits along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone, and chalcedonic vein zones similar to the Free Enterprise.

  8. Preliminary report on the Comet area, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becraft, George Earle

    1953-01-01

    Several radioactivity anomalies and a few specimens of sooty pitchblende and other uranium minerals have been found on the mine dumps of formerly productive base- and precious-metal mines along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone in the Comet area in southwestern Montana. The shear zone is from 50 to 200 feet wide and has been traced for at least 5? miles. It trends N. 80 ? W. across the northern part of the area and cuts the quartz monzonitic rocks of the Boulder batholith and younger silicic intrusive rocks, as well as prebatholithic volcanic rocks, and is in turn cut by dacite and andesite dikes. The youngest period of mineralization is represented by chalcedonic vein zones comprising one or more discontinuous stringers and veins of cryptocrystalline silica in silicified quartz monzonite and in alaskite that has not been appreciably silicified. In some places these zones contain no distinct chalcedonic veins but are represented only by silicified quartz monzonite. These zones locally contain uranium in association with very small amounts of pyrite, galena, ruby silver, arqentite, native silver, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and barite. At the Free Enterprise mine, uranium has been produced from a narrow chalcedonic vein that contains disseminated secondary uranium minerals and local small pods of pitchblende and also from disseminated secondary uranium ,minerals in the adjacent quartz monzonite. Undiscovered deposits of uranium ore may occur spatially associated with the base- and precious-metal deposits along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone and with chalcedonic vein zones similar to the Free Enterprise.

  9. Cyclic platform dolomites of Devonian Jefferson Formation, Montana and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary field study indicates that the Devonian Jefferson Formation in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho consists of cyclic sequences of shallow marine platformal dolomites that grade basinward into slope sediments deposited on a steepened carbonate ramp. Individual shallowing-upward, platformal cycles are 25 to < 1 m (82 to 3 ft) thick and, from top to bottom, consist of: solution-collapse breccia caps; cryptalgal dolomudstone; rare ooid dolograinstone; thin-bedded Amphipora dolowackestone; sucrosic dolostones with abundant lenticular to domal stromatoporoids; thin-bedded, fine-grained, shaly dolostones with closely spaced hardgrounds that grade upward into burrow-homogenized, irregularly bedded dolostones. Thinner cycles (< 5 m or 16 ft thick) contain fewer basal lithologies and typically consist only of cryptalgal dolomudstone with breccia caps. The 1 to 25-m thick cycles comprise larger scale sequences (30-60 m or 100-200 ft thick), in which smaller scale cycles become progressively thinner toward the top of large-scale sequences. These shallowing-upward carbonate cycles probably formed in response to glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations. Current estimates for the time span represented by the Jefferson formation (9 m.y.), divided by the number of shallowing-upward cycles, indicate that each cycle represents an average time span of 0.6 to 1.0 m.y.. This time span suggests that either: (1) average sedimentation rates were unrealistically slow during deposition of each cycle (< 0.1-3 cm/1000 years); (2) breccia caps represent long periods of subaerial exposure (> 0.5 to about 0.2 m.y.); or (3) the Jefferson Formation was deposited during a much shorter time span than previously thought.

  10. Exposure to airborne amphibole structures and health risks: Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram

    2008-10-01

    Libby, Montana is the site of a large vermiculite deposit that was mined between 1920 and 1990 to extract vermiculite for commercial applications such as insulation, gardening products, and construction materials. The Libby vermiculite deposit also contains amphibole minerals including tremolite, actinolite, richterite, and winchite. Historically, Libby mine workers experienced high exposures to amphibole structures, and, as a group, have experienced the health consequences of those occupational exposures. It has been suggested that Libby residents also have been and continue to be exposed to amphibole structures released during the vermiculite mining operations and therefore are at increased risk for disease. The Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted two epidemiological-type studies of residents living in Libby and the surrounding areas to assess these risks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected and analyzed exposure data in Libby and used those data to project risks of asbestos-associated disease for Libby residents. The EPA has placed the Libby Asbestos Site, which includes the mine and the town of Libby, on its National Priority List of hazardous waste sites in need of clean up. This article presents a review of the exposure studies conducted in Libby and an analysis of health risks based on the data collected in those studies. Libby mine workers have experienced elevated levels of asbestos-associated disease as a consequence of their occupational exposures to amphibole structures. Libby residents' exposures typically are substantially lower than mine workers' historical exposures, and the health risk projections for residents are, accordingly, substantially lower.

  11. Community and Virtual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)

  12. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... federal regulations for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Stage 2 Disinfectants and... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given...

  13. 78 FR 49510 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana AGENCY... INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published...

  14. 76 FR 76970 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR)...

  15. Online Credit Recovery: Enrollment and Passing Patterns in Montana Digital Academy Courses. REL 2016-139

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David; Frazelle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. school districts (88 percent) offer credit recovery courses or programs for students. In rural states such as Montana, online credit recovery options are especially popular because they allow schools to serve students in remote areas throughout the year, across a range of subjects, and with few additional resources (Carver & Lewis,…

  16. 75 FR 10456 - Kootenai National Forest, Fortine Ranger District, Montana; Galton Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...) Designate mountain bike use that is compatible with the Montana Wilderness Study Act; (5) Designate allowed... interface; (10) Create openings to provide big game browse; (11) Improve habitat for whitebark pine stand... would be allowed in a late season from 4/1 to 5/31 on 31 miles of designated trail leading to...

  17. 75 FR 4698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions... citations and references to federal laws and regulations, and a clarification of agricultural activities... 110 of the Clean Air Act. DATES: This rule is effective on March 30, 2010 without further...

  18. Montana Statewide Dropout and Graduate Report: 2008-2009 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the Alliance for Excellent Education (AEE), nationally one-third of students, 1.3 million each year, fail to graduate. The AEE suggests that these low rates have for too long been "obscured... by inadequate accountability systems at state and federal levels." Montana's accountability system is a case in point. Dependent on…

  19. The Roles of Principal Leadership Behaviors and Organizational Routines in Montana's Distinguished Title I Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Sean Niles

    2012-01-01

    This embedded multiple-case study addressed the lack of qualitative research on the contributions of principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines in Montana's distinguished Title I schools. This study was guided by the research question, "How do principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines contribute to the high…

  20. Characteristics and Opinions of Entering Undergraduate Students at Montana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulniak, Dennis J.

    Montana State University's (MSU) use of the Student-Outcomes Information Services (SOIS), developed jointly by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) and the College Board for surveying the characteristics and opinions of entering undergraduate students, is examined. The Entering-Student Questionnaire, one of five…

  1. Montana Proficiency Events Handbook. FHA HERO: Future Homemakers of America toward New Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Linda, Ed.; Quickenden, Sandy, Ed.

    This handbook contains directions for FHA/HERO (Future Homemakers of America/Home Economics Related Occupations) participation activities in Montana. Participation activities are local, state, and national level competitions involving students in vocational home economics programs. The handbook provides a general overview of participation…

  2. 76 FR 38116 - Foreign-Trade Zone 274, Butte, Montana, Manufacturing Authority, REC Silicon, (Polysilicon and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 274, Butte, Montana, Manufacturing Authority, REC Silicon... behalf of REC Silicon to manufacture polysilicon and silane gas under FTZ procedures within Site 1 of FTZ... Silicon's manufacturing activity, subject to the FTZ Act (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u) and the Board's...

  3. Family Supports in Montana: Region III: Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam

    Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP) is a private, nonprofit agency serving children with developmental disabilities (0-22 years) and their families in the south-central section of Montana, encompassing Billings and a Crow Indian Reservation. One of the services provided by STEP is specialized family care, to prevent placement out of…

  4. 76 FR 55643 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Divide travel planning area for wheeled and over-snow motorized vehicles. Consistent with Forest Service travel...

  5. 77 FR 61570 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement for the Blackfoot Travel... (NOI) in regard to the Blackfoot Travel Plan Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that is...

  6. 75 FR 43553 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease MTM 97827, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of competitive oil and gas lease MTM 97827, Carbon County, Montana. The lessee paid the required... agrees to new lease terms for rentals and royalties of $10 per acre and 16\\2/3\\ percent. The lessee paid... Notice. The lessee met the requirements for reinstatement of the lease per Section 31 (d) and (e) of...

  7. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  8. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  9. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.

  10. Tobacco Use Prevention Education. K-12 Lesson Plans from the Montana Model Curriculum for Health Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This publication presents K-12 tobacco use prevention lesson plans for schools in the state of Montana. Lessons for students in grades K-6 include: family connections; body tracing; smokeless tobacco; prenatal development; tobacco look-alikes; tobacco chemicals; analyzing tobacco and alcohol ads; tobacco use and the lungs; and a personal health…

  11. Where does Strip Tillage Fit in Montana and Wyoming Sugarbeet Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet in Montana and Wyoming is often grown in a two year rotation alternating with spring grains. Normally, a sugarbeet grower will make five or more passes across a field for fertilizer application, disking, plowing or ripping, leveling, mulching and hilling. The high price of diesel fuel is m...

  12. 77 FR 57863 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Montana; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... initials CEPCI mean or refer to Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index. The initials CFAC mean or refer to... grains per standard cubic foot. The initials IMPROVE mean or refer to Interagency Monitoring of Protected.... The initials MSCC mean or refer to Montana Sulphur and Chemical Company. The initials NAAQS mean...

  13. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife... Charles M. Russell and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) in Montana for public review and... the draft CCP and EIS for Charles M. Russell NWR and UL Bend NWR. On September 7, 2010, we opened a...

  14. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for Montana related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

  15. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's...

  16. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Montana § 272.1351... its hazardous waste management program. However, EPA retains the authority to exercise its inspection... this section are incorporated by reference as part of the hazardous waste management program...

  17. 75 FR 38544 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... general land laws, including the mining laws, to protect the reclamation of the Zortman- Landusky mining... in Phillips County, Montana, from settlement, sale, location, or entry under the general land laws... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public...

  18. 75 FR 55604 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... entry under the general land laws, including the United States mining laws (30 U.S.C. Ch. 2), to protect... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary...

  19. Measuring effectiveness of three postfire hillslope erosion barrier treatments, Western Montana, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After the Valley Complex Fire burned 86000ha in western Montana in 2000, two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of contour-felled log, straw wattle, and hand-dug contour tench erosion barriers installed in mitigating postfire runoff and erosion. Sixteen plots were located across a...

  20. Migrant Programs in the Northwestern States -- Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory lists services and resources available to migrant and seasonal farmworkers during their stay in the Northwestern states of Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Prepared for use by agencies working with…

  1. 76 FR 37827 - Notice of Proposed Audit Delegation Renewals for the States of Oklahoma and Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Office of Natural Resources Revenue Notice of Proposed Audit Delegation Renewals for the States of...' proposals for audit delegation renewals. SUMMARY: The States of Oklahoma and Montana (States) are requesting that the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) renew current delegations of audit...

  2. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  3. Entrepreneurship in Montana. A Handbook for Integrating Entrepreneurship into All Vocational Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ronald R.

    This handbook was developed to provide vocational education teachers in Montana with information about entreprenuership so that they can integrate the concepts into their vocational courses. The guide provides a definition of entrepreneurship and describes the syllabus for entrepreneurship (ownership, location, financing, personnel, promotion,…

  4. 76 FR 59338 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ..., modifying or operating. ARM 17.8.431(1)(b) also requires asphalt concrete plants, mineral crushers, and... contains EPA's proposed action on Montana rules relating to the permitting threshold for asphalt concrete....743(1), except for the phrase ``asphalt concrete plants and mineral crushers'' where the de...

  5. 78 FR 67392 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Interior through the BLM on a variety of planning and management issues associated with public land... and Billings Field Office manager updates, Field Office Resource Management Planning updates... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council...

  6. 78 FR 47723 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Interior through the BLM on a variety of planning and management issues associated with public land... and Billings Field Office manager updates, Field Office Resource Management Planning updates... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council...

  7. 75 FR 43199 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... updates; An update on the HiLine resource management planning effort; Presentations on BLM weed management... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Biogenic Gas Resources, North-Central Montana Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Application of a geology-based assessment methodology by the U.S. Geological Survey resulted in an estimated mean of 6,192 billion cubic feet of shallow biogenic (continuous) undiscovered gas in the North-Central Montana Province. Oil, gas, and natural gas liquids in conventional accumulations were not assessed.

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

  10. 76 FR 30306 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Montana State Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... No: 2011-12923] COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Montana State....S. Commission on Civil Rights (Commission), and the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), that a... July 27, 2011. Comments may be mailed to the Rocky Mountain Regional Office, U.S. Commission on...

  11. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

  12. Microsatellites indicate minimal barriers to mule deer Odocoileus hemionus dispersal across Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John H. Powell,; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Megan D. Higgs,; Michael R. Ebinger,; Vu, Ninh V.; Cross, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the future spread of chronic wasting disease, we conducted a genetic assessment of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus population structure across the state of Montana, USA. Individual based analyses were used to test for population structure in the absence of a priori designations of population membership across the sampling area. Samples from the states of Wyoming, Colorado and Utah were also included in the analysis to provide a geographic context to the levels of population structure observed within Montana. Results showed that mule deer across our entire study region were characterized by weak isolation by distance and a lack of spatial autocorrelation at distances > 10 km. We found evidence for contemporary male bias in dispersal, with female mule deer exhibiting higher mean individual pairwise genetic distance than males. We tested for potential homogenizing effects of past translocations within Montana, but were unable to detect a genetic signature of these events. Our results indicate high levels of connectivity among mule deer populations in Montana and suggest few, if any, detectable barriers to mule deer gene flow or chronic wasting disease transmission.

  13. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  14. Montana School Nutrition Programs Free and Reduced Price Participation Data, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a count of all students in Montana public and nonpublic schools who are eligible to receive free and reduced price benefits for meals and milk. Because the data presented in this report are frozen on December 31, there may be missing values as well as late corrections for a given year because data came in later than that date.

  15. 1972-73 Program Evaluation of the Right to Read Program of Hardin, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin School District, MT.

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Hardin, Montana, School District's Right to Read program. Short descriptions of the results of the evaluation are presented for the areas of paragraph meaning, word meaning, interest/attitude, basic approach, instructional technique, student grouping, availability and skill of reading teachers, nonclassroom…

  16. The Restructuring of the Montana University System: Phase Two. Board of Regents Resolution, July 6, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ. System, Helena. Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education.

    This report explains phase two in the restructuring of the Montana University System. In this stage the process focuses on students rather than on the institution, and on the learning process and supporting activities. Four goals are established: (1) getting in, (2) getting through, (3) getting a job, and (4) "paying the way."…

  17. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  18. 77 FR 46111 - Public Land Order No. 7792; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 109; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... for protection of water power values by Power Site Reserve No. 109. This order also opens the land to...-FQ0000; MTM 40412] Public Land Order No. 7792; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 109; Montana... withdrawal created by the Executive Order dated July 2, 1910, which established Power Site Reserve No....

  19. Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance was conducted on a National Wildlife Refuge in northeast Montana, 2005-2006, during which outbreaks of WNV in a colony of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) resulted in juvenile mortality rates of 30 and 31%. During both years, flood...

  20. 76 FR 76179 - Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6912 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...