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Sample records for pueraria montana community

  1. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  2. Ovularia puerariae Sawada is the hyphomycetous anamorph of a new Marasmius species on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Roland; Lee, I-Shu; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2013-01-01

    An arthroconidial hyphomycete on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae), originally described by Sawada in 1959 as Ovularia puerariae, was rediscovered. This anamorph is connected to an unknown Marasmius teleomorph belonging to section Globulares, which develops on the same living leaves. Ultrastructure and LSU rDNA sequence analysis of the anamorph confirm this connection. The fungus does not have only a unique biology among agarics, comparable only to Mycena citricolor, but also has the potential for application as a control agent of kudzu. During comparison with similar anamorph genera, Illosporium graminicola was found to be a synonym for Beniowskia sphaeroidea. PMID:23360973

  3. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  4. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  5. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) Invasion Doubles Emissions of Nitric Oxide, a Precursor to Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Wu, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plants can increase rates of nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, fluxes of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluxes of the ozone precursor nitric oxide (NO). Invasion by the nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) across millions of hectares in the southeastern United States could be contributing to increased ozone concentrations. Ozone formation in the Southeast is broadly limited by atmospheric NO concentrations, so perturbations to the N cycle by kudzu have the potential to increase ozone concentrations in the region. At three sites in Madison County, Georgia, kudzu invasion increased rates of net N mineralization by up to an order of magnitude and rates of net nitrification and soil pools of NO3- and NO2- by up to 500%. Emissions of NO from soils invaded by kudzu averaged 2.81 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1, significantly higher than emissions from soil dominated by native vegetation, which averaged 1.24 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1. Emissions of N2O display a trend towards increasing under kudzu invasion, but N2O emissions at these sites were three orders of magnitude smaller than emissions of NO. Atmospheric chemical modeling suggests that these higher NO emissions could increase ozone concentrations in the region by up to 2 ppb. We propose that kudzu invasion in the southeastern United States represents a novel threat to air quality and could increase the frequency with which federal ozone standards are exceeded.

  6. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant

    PubMed Central

    Kartzinel, Tyler R.; Hamrick, J. L.; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W.; Quigley, Bryan G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study investigated how genets are spatially distributed within and among discrete patches of the invasive vine kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, in the United States. It was expected that ramets of genets would be spatially clustered within patches, and that an increase in the number of genets within a patch would be associated with a decrease in the average size of each genet. Methods Six discrete kudzu patches were sampled across 2 years, and 1257 samples were genotyped at 21 polymorphic allozyme loci. Variation in genotypic and genetic diversity among patches was quantified and patterns of genet interdigitation were analysed. Key Results Substantial genotypic and genetic variation occurred within and among patches. As few as ten overlapping genets spanned up to 68 m2 in one patch, while >90 % of samples were genetically unique in another patch. Genotypic diversity within patches increased as mean clone size decreased, although spatially widespread genets did not preclude interdigitation. Eight genets were shared across ≥2 patches, suggesting that vegetative dispersal can occur among patches. Conclusions Genetically unique kudzu vines are highly interdigitated. Multiple vegetative propagules have become established in spatially discrete patches, probably through the movement of highway construction or maintenance machinery. The results suggest that common methods for controlling invasive vines (e.g. mowing) may inadvertently increase genotypic diversity. Thus, understanding

  7. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Jonathan E; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm(-2) h(-1)). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control.

  8. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor. PMID:16841218

  9. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor.

  10. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  11. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii. PMID:17202681

  12. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  13. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  14. Relationship between Participation in 4-H and Community Leadership in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Frick, Martin; Steele, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of 4-H on former members generally use alumni as one cohort. In rural states, such as Montana, it is important to understand the impact of 4-H on alumni in these rural areas and the role 4-H plays in community involvement. The study reported here sought to determine the perception of current community leaders in rural Montana…

  15. Parsing polyphyletic Pueraria: Delimiting distinct evolutionary lineages through phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Cagle, William

    2016-11-01

    Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere). PMID:27495827

  16. You grow where you're planted: Community building in Colstrip, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David Ramsey

    The expansion of energy production in the 1970s resulted in the construction of large extraction and power production facilities in many parts of the American West. Boomtowns almost always accompanied these enterprises. Colstrip, Montana, became the focus of a wide variety of social and environmental controversies when the Montana Power Company began strip mining operations and power plant construction in the early 1970s. Nevertheless, a sense of community attachment in Colstrip has steadily grown. Increased participation in public affairs, often in response to challenges made to the community, has accompanied the integration of Colstrip's residents in the non-economic environments of families, churches, recreation, and school-related activities. Researchers in the 1970s and early '80s often took the view that rapid development disrupts long-standing patterns of community attachment and integration. Using a model derived from Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft-Gesell schaft continuum, these researchers undertook to demonstrate the folly of the energy companies' activities. The decline of community has frequently appeared as a theme in sociology and history. Yet the venerable but erroneous and largely sentimental theoretical perspective used by some early social impact assessment researchers did not accurately represent the processes at work in Colstrip and places like it. I suggest that Colstrip demonstrates an evolutionary continuum, but precisely the opposite of Tonnies' proposition. The feeling of attachment and home we call community is a growth-oriented phenomenon, not a simply a passive object subject only to decline. Colstrip, where sociologists found community lacking, is now found by the historian as the model of community.

  17. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions; developments…

  18. A primary assessment of the endophytic bacterial community in a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana) using molecular method and cultivated isolates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Lei; Liu, Su Lin; Liu, Min; Kong, Bi He; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan Hong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids). Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9%) and Firmicutes (27.6%), the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed.

  19. A primary assessment of the endophytic bacterial community in a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana) using molecular method and cultivated isolates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao Lei; Liu, Su Lin; Liu, Min; Kong, Bi He; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan Hong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids). Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9%) and Firmicutes (27.6%), the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed. PMID:24948927

  20. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-01-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities. PMID:14594627

  1. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26525177

  2. Differentiating Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix using HPTLC coupled with multivariate classification analyses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2014-07-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR), the root of Pueraria lobata, is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Puerariae Thomsonii Radix (PTR), the root of Pueraria thomsonii, is a closely related species to PLR and has been used as a PLR substitute in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare the classification accuracy of high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with that of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in differentiating PLR from PTR. The Matlab functions were used to facilitate the digitalisation and pre-processing of the HPTLC plates. Seven multivariate classification methods were evaluated for the two chromatographic methods. The results demonstrated that the HPTLC classification models were comparable to the UPLC classification models. In particular, k-nearest neighbours, partial least square-discriminant analysis, principal component analysis-discriminant analysis and support vector machine-discriminant analysis showed the highest rate of correct species classification, whilst the lowest classification rate was obtained from soft independent modelling of class analogy. In conclusion, HPTLC combined with multivariate analysis is a promising technique for the quality control and differentiation of PLR and PTR. PMID:24631955

  3. Comparison of macroinvertebrate community structure between two riffle-based sampling protocols in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Zumberge, Jeremy R.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected side-by-side from riffles at 12 stream sites in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana during 2000-2001, following protocols established by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Samples from riffles were collected following NAWQA protocols, using a sampler with 425-micron net mesh-opening size from a total area of 1.25 m2 per sample in multiple riffles. Samples also were collected following EMAP protocols, using a sampler with 500-micron net mesh-opening size from a total area of 0.72 m2 per sample in multiple riffles. The taxonomic identification and enumeration of the samples followed procedures established for each program. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure was compared between the data sets using individual metrics, a multimetric index, and multivariate analysis. Comparisons between the macroinvertebrate community structures were made after sequentially adjusting both data sets for: (1) ambiguous taxa, (2) taxonomic inconsistencies, and (3) differences in laboratory subsampling. After removal of ambiguous taxa, pair-wise differences in total taxa richness and Ephemeroptera taxa richness were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Differences between the data sets generally were not significant for richness of other taxa, tolerant taxa, semi-voltine taxa, functional feeding groups, diversity, and dominance. Sample scores calculated using the Wyoming Stream Integrity Index were not significantly different between the two data sets. After reconciling both data sets for taxonomic inconsistencies, total taxa richness and Ephemeroptera taxa richness remained significantly different between the data sets. After adjusting the data for differences in laboratory subsampling, the differences in taxa richness were no longer significant. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients and non

  4. Community Support for a Gold Cyanide Process Mine: Resident and Leader Differences in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rebecca T.; Brod, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have established that community residents and leaders differ in their support for hazardous waste facility siting in rural areas (Spies et al. 1998). We examine whether these same differences exist in rural communities that face other high-risk development decisions by analyzing resident and leader support for a proposed gold…

  5. Montana project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreibelbis, Ryland; Affens, David W.; Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.

    1999-08-01

    A Piper Malibu aircraft crashed on April 11, 1998 near Kalispell, Montana. After more than a month of visual searching, the official search was suspended and the missing pilot's family turned to private resources and NASA to continue the search. This paper details the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue Mission's participation in the follow-on search effort.

  6. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, H.; LeJeune, K.; Lipton, J.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source of the enrichment. In enriched areas, marked modifications to the native vegetation community structure and composition were observed. These included replacement of evergreen forest with bare unvegetated ground; species impoverishment and increased dominance by weed species in grasslands; and reductions in the vertical complexity of the habitat. Significant negative correlations existed between soil arsenic and metals concentrations and the extent of vegetative cover and the vertical diversity of plant communities. Loss of vegetative cover in the affected areas has been accompanied by reductions in their capacity to support indigenous wildlife populations.

  7. Workforce: Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Employment in Montana (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 17 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding over 96,000 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 554,456 to 651,135. The rate of growth is higher than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole. Growth will occur…

  8. Assessment of potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the Powder River and Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Feldman, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency aquatic task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. Ecological assessments, made from 2005–08 under the direction of the task group, indicated biological condition of the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the middle reaches of the Powder was lower than in the upper or lower reaches. On the basis of the 2005–08 results, sampling of the macroinvertebrate and algae communities was conducted at 18 sites on the mainstem Powder River and 6 sites on the mainstem Tongue River in 2010. Sampling-site locations were selected on a paired approach, with sites located upstream and downstream of discharge points and tributaries associated with coalbed natural gas development. Differences in biological condition among site pairs were evaluated graphically and statistically using multiple lines of evidence that included macroinvertebrate and algal community metrics (such as taxa richness, relative abundance, functional feeding groups, and tolerance) and output from observed/expected (O/E) macroinvertebrate models from Wyoming and Montana. Multiple lines of evidence indicated a decline in biological condition in the middle reaches of the Powder River, potentially indicating cumulative effects from coalbed natural gas discharges within one or more reaches between Flying E Creek and Wild Horse Creek in Wyoming. The maximum concentrations of alkalinity in the Powder River also occurred in the middle reaches. Biological condition in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River was variable, with declines between some site pairs, such as upstream and downstream of Dry Fork and Willow Creek, and increases at others, such as upstream and downstream of Beaver Creek. Biological condition at site pairs on the Tongue River showed an increase in one case

  9. Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Neil R

    2007-11-01

    Recent introduction of several commercial Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) containing hangover remedies has occurred in western countries. The available data is reviewed to assess if there are any potential concerns in relationship to the development of neoplasm if these products are used chronically. The herb Pueraria has two components that are used as traditional therapies; Pueraria lobata, the root based herb and Pueraria flos, the flower based herb. Both of these herbal components have different traditional claims and constituents. Pueraria flos, which enhances acetaldehyde removal, is the traditional hangover remedy. Conversely, Pueraria lobata is a known inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and increases acetaldehyde. Pueraria lobata is being investigated for use as an aversion therapy for alcoholics due to these characteristics. Pueraria lobata is not a traditional hangover therapy yet has been accepted as the registered active component in many of these hangover products. The risk of development of acetaldehyde pathology, including neoplasms, is associated with genetic polymorphism with enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or reduced ALDH activity leading to increased acetaldehyde levels in the tissues. The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. The guidelines for Disulfiram, an ALDH2 inhibitor, provide a set of guidelines for use with the herb Pueraria lobata. Pueraria lobata appears to be an inappropriate herb for use in herbal hangover remedies as it is an inhibitor of ALDH2. The recommendations for its use should be similar to those for the ALDH2 inhibitor, Disulfiram.

  10. Effects of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland.

    PubMed

    Caesar-Tonthat, The Can; Espeland, Erin; Caesar, Anthony J; Sainju, Upendra M; Lartey, Robert T; Gaskin, John F

    2013-07-01

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but little is known about the effects of these fungi on soil aggregation and the microbial community structure, particularly the communities that can bind soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings in Eastern Montana that stimulate western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii): outside the ring (OUT), inside the ring (IN), and stimulated zone adjacent to the fungal fruiting bodies (SZ) to determine (1) soil aggregate proportion and stability, (2) the microbial community composition and the N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity associated with bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth, (3) the predominant culturable bacterial communities that can bind to soil adhering to wheatgrass roots, and (4) the stimulation of wheatgrass production. In bulk soil, macroaggregates (4.75-2.00 and 2.00-0.25 mm) and aggregate stability increased in SZ compared to IN and OUT. The high ratio of fungal to bacteria (fatty acid methyl ester) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in SZ compared to IN and OUT suggest high fungal biomass. A soil sedimentation assay performed on the predominant isolates from root-adhering soil indicated more soil-binding bacteria in SZ than IN and OUT; Pseudomonas fluorescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates predominated in SZ, whereas Bacillus spp. isolates predominated in IN and OUT. This study suggests that growth stimulation of wheatgrass in A. lilaceps fairy rings may be attributed to the activity of the fungus by enhancing soil aggregation of bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth and influencing the amount and functionality of specific predominant microbial communities in the wheatgrass root-adhering soil.

  11. Effects of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland.

    PubMed

    Caesar-Tonthat, The Can; Espeland, Erin; Caesar, Anthony J; Sainju, Upendra M; Lartey, Robert T; Gaskin, John F

    2013-07-01

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but little is known about the effects of these fungi on soil aggregation and the microbial community structure, particularly the communities that can bind soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings in Eastern Montana that stimulate western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii): outside the ring (OUT), inside the ring (IN), and stimulated zone adjacent to the fungal fruiting bodies (SZ) to determine (1) soil aggregate proportion and stability, (2) the microbial community composition and the N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity associated with bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth, (3) the predominant culturable bacterial communities that can bind to soil adhering to wheatgrass roots, and (4) the stimulation of wheatgrass production. In bulk soil, macroaggregates (4.75-2.00 and 2.00-0.25 mm) and aggregate stability increased in SZ compared to IN and OUT. The high ratio of fungal to bacteria (fatty acid methyl ester) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in SZ compared to IN and OUT suggest high fungal biomass. A soil sedimentation assay performed on the predominant isolates from root-adhering soil indicated more soil-binding bacteria in SZ than IN and OUT; Pseudomonas fluorescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates predominated in SZ, whereas Bacillus spp. isolates predominated in IN and OUT. This study suggests that growth stimulation of wheatgrass in A. lilaceps fairy rings may be attributed to the activity of the fungus by enhancing soil aggregation of bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth and influencing the amount and functionality of specific predominant microbial communities in the wheatgrass root-adhering soil. PMID:23455430

  12. Challenges and Sustainability Practices of Frontier Schools in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette; Harmon, Hobart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Montana Small Schools Alliance to explore the challenges and sustainability practices of frontier schools. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students with its attendant community located in a county with five or fewer people per square mile.…

  13. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  14. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 2: Laboratory phytotoxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapustka, L.A.; Lipton, J.; Galbraith, H.; Cacela, D.; LeJeune, K.

    1995-11-01

    Vegetation communities on metal- and arsenic-contaminated uplands surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana have been eliminated or highly modified. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using site soils from the impacted areas to determine whether the soils limit the ability of plants to establish and grow. The germination and growth of alfalfa, lettuce, and wheat in impacted area soils was compared to germination and growth of the three species in reference soils. The degree of phytotoxicity was quantified using a species-endpoint toxicity score calculated on the magnitude of difference between germination and growth of plants in impacted and reference soils. The impacted soils exhibited substantial toxicity to plants: 5% of the sites were severely phytotoxic, 55% were highly phytotoxic, 10% were moderately phytotoxic, 20% were mildly phytotoxic, and 10% were nontoxic. Root growth was consistently the most affected endpoint (18 of 20 impacted soils) and reduction in root length and mass was observed. Correlation and partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the causes of phytotoxicity. Concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb and Cd were found to be positively correlated with phytotoxicity.

  15. Community-Level Social Support Responses in a Slow-Motion Technological Disaster: The Case of Libby, Montana

    PubMed Central

    Orom, Heather; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, C. Brad; Schwartz, Ann G.; Ruckdeschel, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for communities experiencing disasters. However, a disaster's nature (rapid- versus slow-onset, natural versus technological) may influence community-level responses. Disaster research on social support focuses primarily on rapid-onset natural disasters and, to a lesser extent, rapid-onset technological disasters. Little research has addressed slow-onset disasters. This study explores social support processes in Libby, MT, a community experiencing a “slow-motion technological disaster” due to widespread amphibole asbestos exposure. A comprehensive social support coding system was applied to focus-group and in-depth-interview transcripts. Results reveal that, although the community has a history of normative supportiveness during community and individual crises, that norm has been violated in the asbestos disaster context. Results are interpreted as a failure to achieve an “emergent altruistic community.” Specifically, community-level conflict appears to interfere with previously established social support patterns. The observed phenomenon can be understood as the deterioration of a previously supportive community. PMID:20526664

  16. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking. PMID:25745227

  17. Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  18. Isolation of Radiolabeled Isoflavones from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 μCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 μCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently 14C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies PMID:18690681

  19. Proteome analysis of Pueraria mirifica tubers collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-06-01

    Pueraria mirifica-derived tuberous powder has been long-term consumed in Thailand as female hormone-replacement traditional remedies. The protein profiles of tubers collected in different seasons were evaluated. Phenol extraction, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry were employed for tuberous proteome analysis. Out of the 322 proteins detected, over 59% were functionally classified as being involved in metabolism. The rest proteins were involved in defense, protein synthesis, cell structure, transportation, stress, storage, and also unidentified function. The proteins were found to be differentially expressed with respect to harvest season. Importantly, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone synthase, cytochrome p450, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in the biosynthesis pathway of bioactive isoflavonoids, were most abundantly expressed in the summer-collected tubers. This is the first report on the proteomic patterns in P. mirifica tubers in relevant with seasonal variation. The study enlights the understanding of variance isoflavonoid production in P. mirifica tubers. PMID:26940377

  20. Carbon and Nitrogen Levels across Forest Soil Communities Impacted by Bark Beetle and Wildfire Disturbance in Western Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. S. M.; Ballantyne, A. P.; Cooper, L. A.; Hursh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change has had extensive impacts on the forest ecosystems of the western US, namely by causing increases in mountain pine beetle numbers and wildfires. Mountain pine beetles experience higher survival rates due to milder winters, allowing for greater frequency and severity of attacks and in turn causing more widespread pine tree mortality. Meanwhile, the arid conditions created by this temperature increase have been conducive to a surge in wildfires. Although many investigations have been carried out on the soil biogeochemistry in areas hit by one or the other, no study to our knowledge has explicitly researched the compound effects of these disturbances. This study examined soil levels of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as well as the C/N ratios of pine and fir soil communities that have been affected by both beetle and fire disturbance. Our results show that no significant differences were found in the C/N ratios in response to all modes of disturbance. However, significant C losses from the O horizon, but not the M horizon, were observed following wildfire. Similarly, losses in N from just the O horizon were observed, but these were not significant. In conclusion, fire resulted in marked declines in soil C, and forests impacted by beetle infestation and fire experienced C losses similar to fire alone.

  1. Screening and isolation of potential lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors from five Chinese medicinal herbs: Soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Yang, Xiaojing; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yuchi; Liu, Chunming

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and severe disability worldwide. Flavonoids have been extensively used in the treatment of ischemic stroke by reducing lactate dehydrogenase levels and thereby enhancing blood perfusion to the ischemic region. Here, we used ultrafiltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry for the rapid screening and identification of flavonoids from five Chinese medicinal herbs: soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali. Using PC12 cells as a suitable in vitro model of toxicity, cell viability was quantitated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results showed that the extracts of soybean and the six major components, namely, acetyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidiain, glycitin, genistin, and acetylcitin; the extract of R. pueraria and its main component daidzein; the extract of F. pueraria and its three major components, tectorigenin, tectoridin, and tectorigenin-7-O-xylosylglucosid; and the extract of R. belamcandae and its main component, tectoridin, were strong lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Also, the components of R. astragali showed no bioactivity. These findings indicate that the ultrafltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry method could be utilized in rapid screening and separation of bioactive compounds from a complex matrix. PMID:27059876

  2. 76 FR 53880 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...Pursuant to the authorities in the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) and under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393) the Beaverhead- Deerlodge National Forest's Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet on Wednesday, September 14, 2011, from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m., in Dillon, Montana. The purpose of the meeting is to......

  3. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4'-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4'-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4'-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  4. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  5. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  6. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  7. Frontier Schools in Montana: Challenges and Sustainability Practices. A Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.; Morton, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    This study reveals the challenges confronting small, rural "frontier" schools in Montana and the practices that contribute to their sustainability. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students and its attendant community in a county with five or fewer people per square mile. The researcher surveyed…

  8. Enrollment in Higher Education Institutions in the State of Montana, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul C.

    Data on fall 1978 enrollment in higher education in Montana are summarized and compared with the previous year. Institutions in the Montana state university system, private colleges, and community colleges are included, as are graduate students. Enrollments in noncredit courses are not included in the tables, but are footnoted. Analyses include:…

  9. The Montana experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dundas, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development and capabilities of the Montana geodata system are discussed. The system is entirely dependent on the state's central data processing facility which serves all agencies and is therefore restricted to batch mode processing. The computer graphics equipment is briefly described along with its application to state lands and township mapping and the production of water quality interval maps.

  10. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  11. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  12. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  13. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  14. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract. PMID:26677717

  15. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  16. Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal

  17. Future fuels from Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-04-15

    To make America less dependent on foreign oil, Montana Governor Brain Schweitzer pushes for investment in synfuel technology. He advocates coal as the 'new fuel' for cars and believes synfuels from coal can bridge the gap between the petroleum economy of the past and the hydrogen economy of the future. He is pushing for a 'Future Fuels' project to form a public-private partnership to build 20 coal conversion, synfuel manufacturing plants. This could contribute to making the USA energy self-sufficient, more quickly than the FutureGen project, he believes.

  18. Montana geoenvironmental explorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Greg K.

    2001-01-01

    This report is the result of a multidisciplinary effort to assess relative potential for acidic, metal-rich drainage in the State of Montana; evaluate alternative GIS-based modeling strategies; and provide the statewide digital spatial data produced and compiled for the project. The CD is usable on various computer systems (Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000; MacOS 7.1 or later; many versions of UNIX and Linux; and OS/2). This report and maps are in PDF format, and the data have been provided in various GIS formats. Software for viewing the report and data is included.

  19. Effects of agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but nothing is known about soil aggregation and the microbial community structure of the stimulated zone, particularly the communities that can bind to soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus li...

  20. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  1. Use of benthic invertebrate community structure and the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal-contaminated sediment in the upper Clark Fork River, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, T.J.; Kemble, N.E.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Fairchild, J.F. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-12-01

    The upper Clark Fork River, above Flathead River, is contaminated with large amounts of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn ores from past mining activities. The contaminated area extends from the Butte and Anaconda area to at least 230 km downstream to Milltown Reservoir. Both the upper Clark Fork River and Milltown Reservoir have been designated as US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites because of metal-contaminated bottom sediments. The authors evaluated the impacts of past mining activities on the Clark Fork River ecosystem using benthic invertebrate community assessment, residue chemistry, and toxicity testing. Oligochaeta and Chironomidae generally accounted for over 90% of the benthic invertebrate community in the soft sediment depositional areas. Taxa of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae were predominantly pollution tolerant. Higher numbers of Chironomidae genera were present at stations with higher concentrations of metals in sediment identified as toxic by the amphipod Hyalella azteca in 28-d exposures. Frequency of mouthpart deformities in genera of Chironomidae was low and did not correspond to concentrations of metals in sediment. Total abundance of organisms/m[sup 2] did not correspond to concentrations of metals in the sediment samples. Chemical analyses, laboratory toxicity tests, and benthic community evaluations all provide evidence of metal-induced degradation to aquatic communities in both the reservoir and the river. Using a weight-of-evidence approach--the Sediment Quality Triad--provided good concurrence among measures of benthic community structure, sediment chemistry, and laboratory toxicity.

  2. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  3. 68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 as Sutton's New Grand Theatre, had a seating capacity of 2,175. In its heyday, this theater attracted the most famous acts of vaudville, opera, and theater. The upper stories are built of yellow painted brick, with terra-cotta applied in a stone pattern on the ground floor. The entrance has been modernized with a wall of glass bricks. On the north side of the theater is a four story building which provided a side entrance to the theater and had storefronts, with apartments above. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  5. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata. PMID:27097408

  6. [Rapid discriminant analysis of sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix based on vertical and horizontal surfaces].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Du, Min; Pan, Xiao-ning; Zhao, Na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) was used as rapid analysis method to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. NIR spectra of the cross-sectional and longitudinal selection of samples were acquired. Principal component analysis was conducted. The samples were randomly selected. The different pretreatment methods were compared. Discriminant models were established for every type of spectra to calculate the recognition rate. The orthogonal test and nonparametric test were used to test data normality. The result showed that absorbance values of different sections were different due to the different structure, and the raw spectra were analyzed by PCA method. The result founded that the cumulative contribution rate was arrived at 99.2% while the PC numbers were arrived at 3. The pretreatment method based on the MSC + 1D + Savitzky-Golay was the best to establish the model. For the 50 models constructed with cross-section and longitudinal spectra and total spectra, the recognition rate were (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (95.3 ± 0.65)%, respectively, and no difference was observed. The NIR method could be used to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. PMID:26591520

  7. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 μM. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species. PMID:26669106

  8. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-01-01

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products. PMID:25751785

  9. Montana Rural Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Ralph, Comp.

    The material in this K-8 curriculum guide is designed to provide classroom professionals in rural Montana schools with some guidance as to when to introduce and develop concepts in each subject area. It is intended to be a guide, not a rule book or complete course of study. For each subject area and for each grade level, topics are coded as I…

  10. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  11. Symbiotic N 2 -Fixation Estimated by the (15) N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m(2) of (15)N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  12. Marigolds for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolbaugh, Walt; Dunkel, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Describes a collaborative science research project designed to help build strong school and community relationships. Participating students joined with university scientists on a yearlong agriculturally-based research project to study the effect of marigolds on nematode management. (KHR)

  13. A Report on Teen Pregnancy in Montana. 1996/97 Montana Special Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief "Kids Count" report explores the impact of and factors that bear on teen pregnancy in Montana and ways to prevent teen pregnancy. Statistics and summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) live births to women under age 20, 1990-95; (2) Montana's unmarried teen births as compared to neighboring states; (3) number of Montana teen…

  14. Nutrient consumption and production of isoflavones in bioreactor cultures of Pueraria lobata (Willd).

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Li, L

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports the successful culture of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) suspension cells in a bioreactor. In vitro culture of this Chinese herb has potential as an alternative production method for industrial applications. Calli of P. lobata obtained from leaf explants were cultured in a 5.0 L bioreactor for two weeks. During this period, the pH of the medium declined from 5.8 to 4.5. By the end of the run about 70% of the sugars and reducing sugars and about 50% of nitrate was consumed. Almost 70% of inorganic phosphate and about 80% of the iron was exhausted. The bioreactor results indicated an isoflavone yield of 328.9 microg/ml, with an increase of about 1.77 fold. The yield of puerarin increased about 2.42 fold and reached 73.4 microg/ml in the bioreactor culture. PMID:17915773

  15. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  16. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  17. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcspadden, W. R.; Stewart, D. H.; Kuwada, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Drilling the first geothermal well in Montana presented many challenges, not only in securing materials and planning strategies for drilling the wildcat well but also in addressing the environmental, legal, and institutional issues raised by the request for permission to explore a resource which lacked legal definition. The Marysville Geothermal Project was to investigate a dry hot rock heat anomaly. The well was drilled to a total depth of 6790 feet and many fractured water bearing zones were encountered below 1800 feet.

  18. Helminth parasites of spotted sandpipers, Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes), from Belize, Texas, and Montana.

    PubMed

    Canaris, Albert G; Kinsella, John M; Didyk, Andy S

    2009-12-01

    In total, 70 spotted sandpipers, Actitis macularius, were examined for helminth parasites; 47 from Belize, 18 from Texas, and 5 from Montana. The compound communities consisted of 10 species of helminths for Belize, 5 for Texas, and 6 for Montana, for a total of 17 different species. The most prevalent and abundant helminths for Belize were 3 microphallid trematodes, Paramaritremopsis solielangi, Levinseniella carteretensis, and Microphallus kinsellai; for Texas, the cestodes Kowalewskiella cingulifera and Choanotaenia cayennensis; and for Montana, the cestodes Anomotaenia hypoleuci and K. cingulifera. The cestode K. cingulifera was the only species recorded from all 3 localities. The cestode A. hypoleuci was the only specialist. Characteristics for helminth compound communities from the 3 localities were similar in terms of low mean species richness, medium diversity, and in uneven parasite distribution. Infracommunities were species poor for all 3 localities. For the Belize sample, only 6 of the 47 hosts harbored as many as 3 helminth species, and only 1 harbored more, at 5 species. Only 1 host harbored as many as 3 species in the sample from Texas, and a single host harbored a high of 4 species for Montana. There were no significant differences for mean species richness or mean abundance among the 3 localities. There were no significant differences for species richness or mean abundance between the combined freshwater sample from Texas and Montana and the marine sample from Belize. There were no significant positive or negative associations between pairs of helminth species.

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  20. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  1. 76 FR 12857 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana...

  2. 78 FR 10507 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    .... Montana proposes changes to the Montana Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (MSUMRA) that... conditions of approval in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions... amendment in the October 17, 2011, Federal Register (76 FR 64045). In the same document, we opened...

  3. 76 FR 30010 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana...

  4. Montana Vocational Home Economics Curriculum...Flow Charts and Learner Outcomes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman.

    This publication was designed to assist home economics teachers, school administrators, guidance counselors, and community and parent advisory groups in Montana to plan vocational home economics programs. Information included in the publication is intended to define concepts and to provide suggested learner outcomes appropriate for home economics…

  5. Engineers without Borders at Montana State University: Student-Led Engagement and Transnational Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Otto R.; Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The Montana State University student chapter of Engineers Without Borders USA is a student-managed partnership with the people of Khwisero, Kenya. The primary mission, to bring potable water and clean sanitation facilities to 61 primary schools and the surrounding communities of Khwisero, necessitates a long-term commitment to collaboration and…

  6. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  8. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-he; Chen, Hong-guang; Wu, Pan-feng; Yao, Qing; Cheng, Hong-ke; Yu, Wei; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE) on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain. PMID:26060502

  9. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3'-, 4'- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4'- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3'-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3'-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  10. Major isoflavonoid contents of the 1-year-cultivated phytoestrogen-rich herb, Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sriwatcharakul, Suttijit

    2007-10-01

    Pueraria mirifica is a tuberous plant enriched with active phytoestrogens. There is no established information about the factors influencing isoflavonoid storage in the tubers. We investigated the tuberous storage of the major isoflavonoids of 1-year-old plants. Four cultivars of P. mirifica were cultivated in the same field trial during the same period to establish a unique plant age and differentiation under the same environment and soil conditions. The tubers collected from the 1-year-old plants in the summer, rainy season and winter were submitted to an HPLC analysis with a gradient system comprising 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile. Five major isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein and genistein, were adopted as standards. P. mirifica tubers of different cultivars collected in the same season exhibited significant differences in individual and total isoflavonoid contents, showing chemovariety. P. mirifica tubers of the same cultivar collected from different seasons also exhibited significant differences in individual and total isoflavonoid contents, showing the influence of season. In conclusion, the tuberous storage of major isoflavonoids in 1-year-cultivated plants was greatly diverse and was strongly influenced by the season and plant genetics.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light. PMID:25714076

  12. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  13. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-23

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) concentration of 2.35 {mu}M. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  14. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  15. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5α-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein.

  16. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  17. 75 FR 41557 - Montana Disaster #MT-00056

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00056 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  18. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  19. A Report on Traffic Safety and Montana's Children. 1999 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report looks at major problems, available data, and some solutions for Montana's children as passengers in and drivers of vehicles on Montana's roads and highways. The report also presents information about adults' roles and responsibilities for preventing traffic accidents and protecting children. Facts presented in the…

  20. Montana's Indian Education. A University of Montana School of Journalism Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ., Missoula. School of Journalism.

    Originally presented in newspaper format, this report consists of 13 articles on American Indian education in Montana, written by journalism students at the University of Montana. The articles include: (1) "The Relentless Killing of a Culture" (David Zelio) which discusses the cultural genocide committed at boarding schools with the aim of…

  1. Case Study of a Service-Learning Partnership: Montana Tech and the Montana State Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amtmann, John; Evans, Roberta; Powers, Jack

    2002-01-01

    As a service learning project, Montana Tech students deliver a wellness program for older inmates in Montana State Prison. Outcomes identified in student interviews included improved interpersonal skills (tact, diplomacy, communication, assertiveness) and opportunities to apply knowledge. Students recognized the value of the program for…

  2. Effect of invader litter chemistries on soil organic matter compositions: consequences of Polygonum cuspidatum and Pueraria lobata invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharayil, N.; Tamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fixation during photosynthesis forms the precursor of all organic carbon in soil and the predominant source of energy that drives soil microbial processes; hence the molecular identity of the fixed carbon could influence the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). Due to their high resource acquisition and resource use efficiencies, some invasive plants can input disproportionately high quantities of litter that are qualitatively distinctive, and this could influence the accrual of organic carbon and overall carbon cycling in invaded habitats. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. Japanese knotweed produces low litter abundant in polyphenols which selectively hinders microbially mediated decomposition and re-synthesis; whereas kudzu produces low C:N, high quality litter that can stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 5-cm intervals and from inside and outside 15 to 20 year old stands of the invasive species. The novelty of our study was that both of our study species were invading into soils of contrasting substrate qualities relative to the invading litter quality. The molecular composition of carbon in the soils and the degradation stage of the SOM were assessed with a biomarker approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the source of biomolecules (plant or microbes). Stability of SOM fractions was assessed through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, serving as a proxy of biological degradation, followed by stable isotope analysis. Fungal communities dominated the uppermost soils under knotweed whereas kudzu litter suppressed fungal biomass in the top 10-cm. In constrast, increase in active microbial biomass C

  3. 76 FR 45644 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Only for the State of Montana (FEMA-1996-DR), dated 06/17/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Montana, dated 06/17/2011, is hereby amended to...

  4. 76 FR 45644 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Only for the State of Montana (FEMA-1996-DR), dated 06/17/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Montana, dated 06/17/2011, is hereby amended to include...

  5. Science Inquiry Learning in Classrooms — Montana Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brelsford, M. A.; Peters, J.; Grimberg, B. I.

    2010-04-01

    Montana's ABRC is working with rural school teachers in southwestern Montana. Astrobiology is a new and exciting subject for the teachers and its inter-disciplinary nature is very useful and rewarding for the teachers and their students.

  6. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent.

  7. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors.

    PubMed

    Asthana, S; Agarwal, T; Singothu, S; Samal, A; Banerjee, I; Pal, K; Pramanik, K; Ray, S S

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK - 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot(+) and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  8. Neurotherapeutic Effects of Pueraria mirifica Extract in Early- and Late-Stage Cognitive Impaired Rats.

    PubMed

    Anukulthanakorn, Kanya; Parhar, Ishwar S; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Kitahashi, Takashi; Watanbe, Gen; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-06-01

    We determined the neurotherapeutic effects of Pueraria mirifica extract (PME) and pure puerarin (PU) in comparison with 17β-estradiol (E2 ) in early- and late-stage cognitive impaired rats. Rats were ovariectomized (OVX), kept for 2 and 4 months to induce early- and late-stage cognitive impairment, respectively, and divided into four groups that were treated daily with (i) distilled water, (ii) 100 mg/kg of PME, (iii) 7 mg/kg of PU, and (iv) 80 µg/kg of E2 for 4 months. The estrogen deficiency symptoms of OVX rats were abrogated by treatment with E2 or PME, but not by treatment with PU. The mRNA level of genes associated with amyloid production (App and Bace1) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (Tau4) were upregulated together with the level of impaired cognition in the 2- and 4-month OVX rats. Treatment with E2 reduced the level of cognitive impairment more than that with PME and PU, and 2-month OVX rats were more responsive than 4-month OVX rats. All treatments down-regulated the Bace1 mRNA level in 2-month OVX rats, while PU and PME also decreased the App mRNA level in 2- and 4-month OVX rats, respectively. Only PU suppressed Tau4 expression in 2-month OVX rats. Thus, PME and PU elicit neurotherapeutic effects in different pathways, and earlier treatment is optimal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26915634

  9. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, S.; Agarwal, T.; Singothu, S.; Samal, A.; Banerjee, I.; Pal, K.; Pramanik, K.; Ray, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK – 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot+ and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  10. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  11. Estimated water use in Montana in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Johnson, Dave R.

    2004-01-01

    The future health and economic welfare of Montana's population is dependent on a continuing supply of fresh water. Montana's finite water resources are being stressed by increasing water withdrawals and instream-flow requirements. Various water managers in Montana need comprehensive, current, and detailed water-use data to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. This report summarizes selected water-use data for all of Montana's counties and stream basins to help meet those needs. In 2000, the citizens of Montana withdrew and used about 10,749 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water from Montana's streams and aquifers. Withdrawals from surface water were about 10,477 Mgal/d and withdrawals from ground water were about 272 Mgal/d. Agricultural irrigation accounted for about 10,378 Mgal/d or about 96.5 percent of total withdrawals for all uses. Withdrawals for public supply were about 136 Mgal/d, self-supplied domestic withdrawals were about 23 Mgal/d, self-supplied industrial withdrawals were about 61 Mgal/d, withdrawals for thermoelectric power generation were about 110 Mgal/d, and withdrawals for livestock were about 41 Mgal/d. Total consumptive use of water in 2000 was about 2,370 Mgal/d, of which about 2,220 Mgal/d (93.6 percent) was for agricultural irrigation. Instream uses of water included hydroelectric power generation and maintenance of instream flows for conservation of wildlife and aquatic life, and for public recreational purposes. In 2000, about 74,486 Mgal/d was used at hydroelectric plants for generation of about 11,591 gigawatt-hours of electricity. Evaporation from large water bodies, although not a classified water use, accounts for a large loss of water in some parts of the State. Net evaporation from Montana's 60 largest reservoirs and regulated lakes averaged about 891 Mgal/d.

  12. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Hughes, Timothy C; Hao, Xiaojuan; Mei, Danping; Tan, Tianwei

    2011-08-01

    Monomeric and epichlorohydrin polymerized β-CD functionalized monoliths were prepared for the rapid isolation and purification of the isoflavonoid puerarin, a well-known traditional Chinese drug, from a crude extract of Radix puerariae (root of the plant Pueraria lobata). Two copolymers poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(IEM-co-MMA-co-EDMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) were developed as facile, highly reactive and versatile monolithic matrix. SEM characterization demonstrated that the modified monoliths had homogenous porous structure and morphology. The success of the chemical modification of the monolithic matrix was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state (13) C NMR and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that polymeric β-CD modified monoliths had better separation and selectivity for puerarin, recovering puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and a yield of 93% (m%). Compared with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA), poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) monolithic matrix had higher reactivity, which significantly improved the β-CD ligand density and thus the selectivity of the monoliths. Puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and with a yield of 89% (m%) was recovered on the monolith.

  13. School Reorganization in Montana: A Time for Decision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinden, Ted

    In response to a Montana School Boards Association (MSBA) resolution, this report develops alternatives and recommendations on school district reorganization for submission to the Montana state legislature. The first section examines the history of school district establishment and consolidation in Montana, and points out public opposition to…

  14. Montana Library Laws, Rules, and Public Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Library, Helena.

    Chapter 1 of this handbook of Montana library laws, rules, and public library standards contains excerpts from the Constitution of Montana, including articles on property tax exemptions, educational goals and duties, and code of ethics. Montana library laws covering the following areas are presented in Chapter 2: publication and updating of the…

  15. Dillon quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzicki, A.; Krason, J.

    1981-04-01

    All geologic conditions in the Dillon quadrangle (Montana and Idaho) have been thoroughly examined, and, using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria, environments are favorable for uranium deposits along fractured zones of Precambrian Y metasediments, in the McGowan Creek Formation, and in some Tertiary sedimentary basins. A 9-m-wide quartz-bearing fractured zone in Precambrian Y quartzites near Gibbonsville contains 175 ppM uranium, probably derived from formerly overlying Challis Volcanics by supergene processes. The Mississippian McGowan Creek Formation consists of uraniferous, black, siliceous mudstone and chert. In the Melrose district it has been fractured by a low-angle fault, and uranium has been further concentrated by circulating ground water in the 2- to 6-m-thick brecciated zones that in outcrop contain 90 to 170 ppM uranium. The Wise River, northern Divide Creek, Jefferson River, Salmon River, Horse Prairie, Beaverhead River, and upper Ruby River Basins are considered favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone. Present are suitable uraniferous source rocks such as the Boulder batholith, rhyolitic flow breccia, laharic deposits, or strongly welded tuffs; permeable sediments, including most sandstones and conglomerates, providing they do not contain devitrified glass; suitable reductants such as lignite, pyrite, or low-Eh geothermal water; and uranium occurrences.

  16. From Threshers to Thrashers: In Montana, 4-H Takes a Modern Spin To Engage "Blue-Ribbon Kids."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linik, Joyce Riha

    2002-01-01

    A 4-H skateboard club in Bozeman, Montana offers kids community service and educational opportunities as well as something to do after school. Adult and college-student volunteers teach a skateboarding curriculum and help kids fix boards and design ramps. Club members have learned public speaking, fundraising, city planning, and civic involvement…

  17. Flos Puerariae Extract Prevents Myocardial Apoptosis via Attenuation Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Cheng, Hongke; Wu, Jiliang; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) suggests a direct cellular insult to myocardium. Apoptosis is considered as one of the hallmarks of DCM. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of DCM. In this study, we explored the prevention of myocardial apoptosis by crude extract from Flos Puerariae (FPE) in experimental diabetic mice. Methods Experimental diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneally injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days in C57BL/6J mice. FPE (100, 200 mg/kg) was orally administrated once a day for ten weeks. Cardiac structure changes, apoptosis, superoxide production, NADPH oxidase subunits expression (gp91phox, p47phox, and p67phox), and related regulatory factors were assessed in the heart of mice. Results Diabetic mice were characterized by high blood glucose (≥11.1 mmol/L) and reduced body weight. In the end of the experiment, aberrant myofilament structure, as well as TUNEL positive cardiac cells coupled with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression was found in diabetic mice. Moreover, ROS formation, the ratio of NADP+/NADPH and NADPH oxidase subunits expression of gp91phox and p47phox, lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, while antioxidant enzyme SOD and GSH-Px activity were reduced in the myocardial tissue of diabetic mice. In contrast, treatment with FPE resulted in a normalized glucose and weight profile. FPE administration also preserved myocardial structure and reduced apoptotic cardiac cell death in diabetic mice. The elevated markers of oxidative stress were significantly reversed by FPE supplementation. Further, FPE treatment markedly inhibited the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression, as well as suppressed JNK and P38 MAPK activation in the heart of diabetic mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrate for the first time that FPE may have therapeutic potential for STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy through preventing myocardial apoptosis via

  18. Molecular clusters size of Puerariae thomsonii radix aqueous decoction and relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Yang, Caimei; Zhang, Kuan; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2015-07-07

    The multi-component system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very complicated. The clusters are dynamic aggregates whose molecules are held together by hydrogen-bonded, Van der Waals forces or the opposite charges of particles attract each other. In this paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that molecules form clusters in Pueraria thomsonii Benth (Fenge) water decoction. Four kinds of Fenge water decoction, 0.07 g∙mL-1 (F-1), 0.1 g∙mL-1 (F-2), 0.17 g∙mL-1 (F-3), 0.35 g∙mL-1 (F-4); F-1, average diameter of molecular was about 120 nm; F-2, 195 nm; F-3, 256 nm; and F-4, 480 nm. The molecular size was shown to depend on concentration. Rabbits were given equal does of 2.8 g∙kg-1, to perfuse F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4 in volume of 80 mL, 56 mL, 33 mL, 17 mL, respectively. At 0-180 min to collect 2 mL blood from the rabbit ears middle arteries for metabolism fingerprints, the results show the particle size of molecular is smaller, the absorption of drugs is better instead. The acute blood stasis model rats were treatment with Fenge decoction of 1.5 g∙kg-1 for 14 days, the concentrations of Ang II in plasma were significantly lower in F-1 and F-2 groups than those in model group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), but there were no significantly difference in F-3 and F-4 groups than those in model group (p > 0.05). Despite the molecular aggregation is a common physical phenomenon, it influence on the kind and amount of molecule per unit volume. Molecules morphology influence on the absorption behavior of drugs in vivo therefore is to have an impact on pharmacological function.

  19. Molecular clusters size of Puerariae thomsonii radix aqueous decoction and relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Yang, Caimei; Zhang, Kuan; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    The multi-component system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very complicated. The clusters are dynamic aggregates whose molecules are held together by hydrogen-bonded, Van der Waals forces or the opposite charges of particles attract each other. In this paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that molecules form clusters in Pueraria thomsonii Benth (Fenge) water decoction. Four kinds of Fenge water decoction, 0.07 g∙mL-1 (F-1), 0.1 g∙mL-1 (F-2), 0.17 g∙mL-1 (F-3), 0.35 g∙mL-1 (F-4); F-1, average diameter of molecular was about 120 nm; F-2, 195 nm; F-3, 256 nm; and F-4, 480 nm. The molecular size was shown to depend on concentration. Rabbits were given equal does of 2.8 g∙kg-1, to perfuse F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4 in volume of 80 mL, 56 mL, 33 mL, 17 mL, respectively. At 0-180 min to collect 2 mL blood from the rabbit ears middle arteries for metabolism fingerprints, the results show the particle size of molecular is smaller, the absorption of drugs is better instead. The acute blood stasis model rats were treatment with Fenge decoction of 1.5 g∙kg-1 for 14 days, the concentrations of Ang II in plasma were significantly lower in F-1 and F-2 groups than those in model group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), but there were no significantly difference in F-3 and F-4 groups than those in model group (p > 0.05). Despite the molecular aggregation is a common physical phenomenon, it influence on the kind and amount of molecule per unit volume. Molecules morphology influence on the absorption behavior of drugs in vivo therefore is to have an impact on pharmacological function. PMID:26198223

  20. 30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land... STATE MONTANA § 926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Montana... to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency response reclamation program;...

  1. 30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land... STATE MONTANA § 926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Montana... to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency response reclamation program;...

  2. 30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land... STATE MONTANA § 926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Montana... to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency response reclamation program;...

  3. 30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land... STATE MONTANA § 926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Montana... to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency response reclamation program;...

  4. 30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE MONTANA § 926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Montana... to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency response reclamation program; organizational... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine...

  5. Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and Arnica montana.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Arnica Montana Extract is an extract of dried flowerheads of the plant, Arnica montana. Arnica Montana is a generic term used to describe a plant material derived from the dried flowers, roots, or rhizomes of A. montana. Common names for A. montana include leopard's bane, mountain tobacco, mountain snuff, and wolf's bane. Two techniques for preparing Arnica Montana Extract are hydroalcoholic maceration and gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. The composition of these extracts can include fatty acids, especially palmitic, linoleic, myristic, and linolenic acids, essential oil, triterpenic alcohols, sesquiterpene lactones, sugars, phytosterols, phenol acids, tannins, choline, inulin, phulin, arnicin, flavonoids, carotenoids, coumarins, and heavy metals. The components present in these extracts are dependent on where the plant is grown. Arnica Montana Extract was reported to be used in almost 100 cosmetic formulations across a wide range of product types, whereas Arnica Montana was reported only once. Extractions of Arnica Montana were tested and found not toxic in acute toxicity tests in rabbits, mice, and rats; they were not irritating, sensitizing, or phototoxic to mouse or guinea pig skin; and they did not produce significant ocular irritation. In an Ames test, an extract of A. montana was mutagenic, possibly related to the flavenoid content of the extract. No carcinogenicity or reproductive/developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical tests of extractions failed to elicit irritation or sensitization, yet Arnica dermatitis, a delayed type IV allergy, is reported in individuals who handle arnica flowers and may be caused by sesquiterpene lactones found in the flowers. Ingestion of A. montana-containing products has induced severe gastroenteritis, nervousness, accelerated heart rate, muscular weakness, and death. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical

  6. Montana Curriculum Guidelines for Distributive Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    These distributive education curriculum guidelines are intended to provide Montana teachers with teaching information for 11 units. Units cover introduction to marketing and distributive education, human relations and communications, operations and control, processes involved in buying for resale, merchandise handling, sales promotion, sales and…

  7. Glauconite from the Precambrian Belt Series, Montana.

    PubMed

    Gulbrandsen, R A; Goldich, S S; Thomas, H H

    1963-04-26

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  8. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...--Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is exempted from review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... to and additions of statutory definitions for ``approximate original contour,'' ``in situ coal..., Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and...

  9. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  10. Profile of the Montana Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Management Consultants of San Francisco, Inc., CA.

    Designed to provide statistical information on the socioeconomic status of Montana American Indians and to document the extent of their participation in government service programs, this statistical handbook is based on data derived from the 1970 U.S. Census, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Indian Health Service (150 state and Federal…

  11. Glauconite from the precambrian belt series, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Goldich, S.S.; Thomas, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  12. 50 CFR 32.45 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... allow hunting of deer, elk, moose, and pronghorn antelope on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State hunting regulations subject to the following conditions: 1. Moose hunting on the refuge portion of Montana moose hunt zone 334 opens October 15 and runs through the end of the State moose...

  13. 50 CFR 32.45 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unattended. B. Upland Game Hunting. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of deer, elk, moose, and pronghorn... following conditions: 1. Moose hunting on the refuge portion of Montana moose hunt zone 334 opens October 15 and runs through the end of the State moose season. 2. We restrict moose hunting to the willow...

  14. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…

  15. Directory of Indian Education Programs in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This directory compiles information on Montana agencies, schools, colleges, and programs concerned with American Indian education. The first section covers educational agencies, associations, and resources. A brief annotated bibliography describes 10 books for educators. Contact information is provided for the Board of Public Education, the…

  16. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  17. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  18. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  19. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  20. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  1. 75 FR 43476 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... certain small water treatment and other facilities areas from the 10-year revegetation responsibility... conditions of approval of the Montana program in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can... FR 40537), provided an opportunity for a public hearing or meeting on its substantive adequacy,...

  2. 77 FR 18149 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... the Montana program in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later... announced receipt of the proposed amendment in the October 17, 2011, Federal Register (200 FR 64047... Field Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building,...

  3. 76 FR 64047 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... during which you may submit written comments on the amendment, and the procedures that we will follow for the public hearing, if one is requested. DATES: We will accept written comments on this amendment....regulations.gov , you may review copies of the Montana program, this amendment, a listing of any...

  4. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... may submit written comments on the amendment, and the procedures that we will follow for the public hearing, if one is requested. DATES: We will accept written comments on this amendment until 4 p.m., m.d.t... , you may review copies of the Montana program, this amendment, a listing of any scheduled...

  5. Made in Montana: Entrepreneurial Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetting, Marsha A.; Muggli, Gayle Y.

    1988-01-01

    Reports results from a survey of 13 Montana home economists who each started a small business. Information is included on types of businesses the women had started, income, personal characteristics, reasons for starting a business, its impact on family concerns, marketing, obstacles to success, and resources. (CH)

  6. Public Education Policy Issues in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitz, Randy, Ed.; Chambers, Keith, Ed.

    This document contains articles that address six major issues affecting Montana public education. The issues were selected by an advisory group comprised of representatives from professional education organizations, state agencies, the legislature, and business. Each of the articles, written by members of the advisory group, contains an executive…

  7. Coach Education Online: The Montana Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Coach education is important, but expensive--both in cost and time to public and private athletic programs. To provide basic coach education to coaches, new, innovative, inexpensive approaches must be developed. Joint efforts between state high school associations and colleges and universities can meet those needs. The "Montana approach" is one…

  8. Montana Proprietary Schools. Staff Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Commission on Post-Secondary Education, Helena.

    The current status of proprietary school education in Montana and the relationship between state-federal agencies and proprietary schools were studied. Data and information were collected via questionnaires, meetings, personal interviews, personal observations, and input from concerned individuals. Section 2 of the report shows the present status,…

  9. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  10. Use of macroinvertebrate biological integrity parameters for biocriteria: Comparison of streams in Montana and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Volosin, J.S.; Cardwell, R.D. |

    1995-12-31

    The effectiveness of cleaning up a zinc mine on the Eagle River in Colorado is being evaluated using biocriteria, among them indices of macroinvertebrate community integrity. One of the proposed approaches to biocriteria evaluation is based on statistical analysis of specific parameters of macroinvertebrate community integrity, and it is based on the hypothesis of no statistically significant differences between reference and target sites for the parameters evaluated. The abundances of mayfly families believed to be sensitive to metals is an example of one set of criteria. To test the approach and help identify appropriate parameters, two unimpeded streams downstream of a copper/silver mine in Montana were compared to the Eagle River sites. The authors tested the hypothesis that the candidate criteria would not detect significant differences between reference and target sites in the unimpacted Montana streams, yet would detect them in an impacted stream. In the Montana streams, no statistical differences were observed between reference and target sites for six biocriteria, including abundance of Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Ephemerellidae. For the same parameters, statistical differences were observed between reference sites and some of the target sites in the Eagle River. The parameters selected richness and total macroinvertebrates, and abundances of Plecoptera, Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Ephemerellidae can be used to evaluate macroinvertebrate integrity in the Eagle River. Furthermore, a statistical approach can be used.

  11. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  12. Seismic reflection study of Flathead Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wold, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    A seismic reflection survey of Flathead Lake, Montana, was carried out in 1970 to study the geologic structure underlying the lake. Approximately 200 km of track lines were surveyed resulting in about 140 km of useable data (Fig. 1). A one cu. in. air gun was used as the energy source. Navigation was by a series of theodolite sitings of the boat from pairs of shore-based control points. 

  13. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R. A.; Johns, W. M.; Flood, R. E.; Hawley, K. T.; Wackwitz, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed band 7 ERTS-1 lineament map covering western Montana and northern Idaho has been prepared and is being evaluated by direct comparison with geologic maps, by statistical plots of lineaments and known faults, and by field checking. Lineament patterns apparent in the Idaho and Boulder batholiths do not correspond to any known geologic structures. A band 5 mosaic of Montana and adjacent areas has been laid and a lineament annotation prepared for comparison with the band 7 map. All work to date indicates that ERTS-1 imagery is very useful for revealing patterns of high-angle faults, though much less useful for mapping rock units and patterns of low-angle faults. Large-scale mosaics of U-2 photographs of three test sites have been prepared for annotation and comparison with ERTS-1 maps. Mapping of Quaternary deposits in the Glacial Lake Missoula basin using U-2 color infrared transparencies has been successful resulting in the discovery of some deposits not previously mapped. Detailed work has been done for Test Site 354 D using ERTS-1 imagery; criteria for recognition of several rock types have been found. Photogeologic mapping for southeastern Montana suggest Wasatch deposits where none shown of geologic map.

  14. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Indian Education for All: Essential Understandings Regarding Montana Indians. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the year 1999, OPI [Montana Office of Public Instruction] brought together representatives from all the tribes in Montana and created 7 Essential Understandings. These are some of the major issues all tribes have in common. They form the basis for all of our curriculum efforts and initiatives. There is great diversity among the 12 tribal…

  16. 77 FR 49780 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Columbus, Montana..., September 13, 2012 from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Columbus Fire Hall, 944 East Pike Avenue Columbus, MT 59019. Written comments may be submitted as described...

  17. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  18. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  19. 77 FR 34037 - PPL Montana, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PPL Montana, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Meeting May 31, 2012. On May 23... with PPL Montana, LLC and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes on Thursday, June 7, 2012 at...

  20. Successful Strategies for Providing Online Credit Recovery in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazelle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This report examines common strategies used by six Montana schools that had high student passing rates in online credit recovery courses offered by the Montana Digital Academy (MTDA) in the 2013/14 school year. The study is based on analysis of interviews conducted with school-based facilitators who oversee the implementation of the online MTDA…

  1. Resource Sharing in Montana: A Study of Interlibrary Loan and Alternatives for a Montana Union Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    This study recommends a variety of actions to create and maintain a Montana union catalog (MONCAT) for more effective usage of in-state resources and library funds. Specifically, it advocates (1) merger of existing COM, machine readable bibliographic records, and OCLC tapes into a single microform catalog; (2) acceptance of only machine readable…

  2. A Report on the Health of Montana's Infants. 1996 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report reviews principal adverse birth outcomes that affect the status of infants in Montana, including infant mortality and low birth weight. Statistics and brief summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) infant mortality (on the decline since 1989); (2) low birth rate (remaining steady from 1988 through 1992); (3)…

  3. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3′-, 4′- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4′- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3′-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3′-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  4. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD. PMID:25726582

  5. CHARLES M. RUSSELL WILDLIFE REFUGE, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Dudley D.; Miller, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Charles M. Russell Wildlife Refuge in Montana indicates that parts of the area have demonstrated resources of low-rank coal and bentonite in areas of substantiated potential and all of the area is assigned a probable resource potential for oil and gas because it is underlain by sedimentary strata known to contain hydrocarbons in other areas. Potential hydrocarbon accumulations, including both oil and gas, are difficult to delineate because of the absence of subsurface control points within the refuge. Geophysical surveys and directional drilling along the fringes of the wildlife refuge would aid in refining resource estimates for organic fuels. 1 ref.

  6. SELWAY-BITTERROOT WILDERNESS, IDAHO AND MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toth, Margo I.; Zilka, Nicholas T.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource studies of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness in Idaho County, Idaho, and Missoula and Ravalli Counties, Montana, were carried out. Four areas with probable and one small area of substantiated mineral-resource potential were recognized. The areas of the Running Creek, Painted Rocks, and Whistling Pig plutons of Tertiary age have probable resource potential for molybdenum, although detailed geochemical sampling and surface investigations failed to recognize mineralized systems at the surface. Randomly distributed breccia zones along a fault in the vicinity of the Cliff mine have a substantiated potential for small silver-copper-lead resources.

  7. Montana water resources research report No. 136

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This project investigated the chemistry of precipitation in the western mountain region of Montana. Of particular concern was the acid content of the snowfall. Seventy-seven snow samples were collected during the winter of 1982 and analyzed for chemical constitutents. Several of the samples indicated the presence of acid precipitation; however, in general the study areas were not being subjected to acid precipitation. Surface water samples were collected from twenty-eight lakes and streams. Chemical analyses of these water samples indicated that many of the lakes could be classified as moderately or extremely sensitive to acid precipitation, based on their respective calcium saturation index. 13 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3)…

  9. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  10. Landsat linear features in Montana plains

    SciTech Connect

    Shurr, G.W.

    1983-08-01

    Multispectral scanner images obtained from satellites provide a unique regional perspective of geologic features on the earth's surface. Linear features observed on Landsat images are particularly conspicuous and can be mapped easily. In Montana, east of long. 110/sup 0/W and in adjoining parts of Canada, the Dakotas, and Wyoming, linear features have been mapped on 14 images. Black and white film products in bands 5 and 7 at a scale of 1:1,000,000 were employed. Specific linear features observed on both bands were compiled on a mosaic covering more than 90,000 mi/sup 2/ (233,000 km/sup 2/). Trends to the northwest and northeast are most common, but north-south and east-west linear features are also observed. Four separate tectonic regions of the Montana plains seem to be characterized by different populations of linear features. Published syntheses of geophysical, structural and stratigraphic data can be used to establish the geologic significance of specific linear features. Magnetic, gravity, and seimsic data suggest that linear features may reflect basement structural elements such as fault-bounded blocks. Some specific geologic structures shown on structure contour maps are marked by linear features. Paleotectonic features interpreted from stratigraphic maps have surface expression on Landsat that have not been recognized previously.

  11. Breccia dikes from the Beaverhead Impact structure, southwest Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, P. S.; Hougen, S. B.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    While shatter cones are generally accepted as indicators of meteorite impact, older petrologic features are not widely recognized in the geologic community. Breccia dikes are one such feature. They are found in many large impact structures occurring over an area at least as extensively as shatter cones. Breccia dikes will survive moderate degrees of metamorphism and tectonism, unlike many other microscopic features (shocked quartz grains, high-pressure polymorphs, etc.) and even large-scale features such as annular or bowl-shaped topographic features. Thus, they are important diagnostic criteria, especially for large, poorly preserved impact structures. The Beaverhead Impact structure is a recently discovered, deeply eroded impact structure in southwestern Montana. The remains of the structure are delineated by the occurrence of shatter cones, found in an area greater than 200 sq km, occurring within the Cabin thrust plate, part of the Cretaceous Sevier fold and thrust system. The distribution of shatter cones is further truncated by Tertiary normal faults. The present remains represent an allochthonous fragment of a larger structure.

  12. Separation and characterization of respirable amphibole fibers from Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Webber, James S; Blake, David J; Ward, Tony J; Pfau, Jean C

    2008-06-01

    The vermiculite mine in Libby, Montana, was in operation for over 70 yr and was contaminated with asbestos-like amphibole fibers. The mining, processing, and shipping of this vermiculite led to significant fiber inhalation exposure throughout the community, and residents of Libby have developed numerous pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer and mesothelioma. The present study describes the separation of Libby 6-mix into respirable and nonrespirable size fractions by means of aqueous elutriation. The elutriator, designed to separate fibers with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 microm (respirable) from larger fibers, used an upward flow rate of 3.4 x 10(- 4) cm s(-1). The resultant respirable fraction constituted only 13% of the raw Libby 6-mix mass, and less than 2% of the fibers in the elutriated fraction had aerodynamic diameters exceeding 2.5 microm. Surface area of the elutriated fibers was 5.3 m(- 2) g(-1), compared to 0.53 m(-2) g(-1) for the raw fibers. There were no detectable differences in chemical composition between the larger and smaller fibers. Such harvesting of respirable fractions will allow toxicological studies to be conducted within a controlled laboratory setting, utilizing fiber sizes that may more accurately simulate historical exposure of Libby residents' lungs. Importantly, this work describes a method that allows the use of material enriched in more uniform respirable material than raw Libby 6-mix, making comparisons with other known fiber preparations more valid on a mass basis.

  13. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Wattanasirmkit, Kingkaew; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of long-term administration of Pueraria mirifica (PM) at non-toxic doses on the ovarian function and fertility of adult female mice based on evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Female mice were divided into 4 groups (36 mice/group). Groups 1-3 were orally treated with a dose of 0 (PM-0), 10 (PM-10) or 100 mg/kg BW/day PM (PM-100), and group 4 was subcutaneously injected with 200 mug/kg BW/day of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). The treatment schedule was separated into treatment and post-treatment periods. The duration of each period was 8 weeks. The PM-10 mice exhibited regular estrous cycles, while the PM-100 and DES treatments induced prolonged estrous cycles. Although no changes were observed in the uterus and ovary weights of the mice after the PM-100 and DES treatments, hyperplasia of the uterine endothelium and a decrease in the number of growing ovarian follicles were detected. The changes in the ovarian histologies of the PM-100 and DES mice were related to reductions in the levels of LH and FSH, which subsequently caused a decrease in mating efficiency. Once the PM mice were able to copulate, they were capable of successfully becoming pregnant and mothering offspring. No abnormalities were observed in the external morphologies and reproductive organ weights of the 50-day-old offspring. In conclusion, our results suggest that long-term exposure to 100 mg/kg BW of PM has adverse effects on the mating efficiency and reproduction of adult female mice and that administration of 10 mg/kg BW of PM does not induce any changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis.

  14. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  15. Puerariae flos alleviates metabolic diseases in Western diet-loaded, spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Koshi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Onishi, Rei; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Iizuka, Seiichi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Amagaya, Sakae; Aburada, Masaki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Puerariae flos extract (PFE) has been reported to have many effects, including preventing the development of hangovers, liver protective effects, and an estrogenic effect. In addition, some papers reported that PFE is effective against metabolic diseases, with hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains unclear. For the purpose of clarifying the effect of PFE on metabolic diseases related to the accumulation of visceral fat and to determine the mechanism of such action, TSOD mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model that spontaneously develops various metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD). When TSOD mice were loaded with WTD, it was confirmed that metabolic diseases such as obesity and abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism are aggravated. In contrast, PFE treatment to TSOD-WTD mice was shown to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, alleviated the abnormal glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, as well as causing an increase in blood adiponectin. Furthermore, the suppression of liver enlargement was observed in PFE-treated mice, with suppression of fatty degeneration and anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, to clarify the mechanism of the hyperlipidemia-alleviating effects in the liver, we investigated the effect of PFE on the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. PFE was associated with a significant increase in gene expression for cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol catabolization enzyme Cyp7A1, bile salt export pump adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B11, and low-density lipoprotein receptor involved in cholesterol uptake. The above results suggest that PFE acts to alleviate the effects of various metabolic diseases based on the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, including obesity, diabetes

  16. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility. PMID:25069970

  17. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF. PMID:26935150

  18. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients. PMID:26815435

  19. Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Myoung; Yoon, Mi Sook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at 1,000 μg/mL was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or 500 μg/mL PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein β and α mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26191386

  20. The Effect of Pueraria Lobata/Rehmannia Glutinosa and Exercise on Fatty Acid Transporters Expression in Ovariectomized Rats Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Hae Min; Kwon, Oran; Lee, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Pueraria lobata/rehmannia glutinosa (PR) and exercise have been receiving a lot of attention from postmenopausal women, as a result of the side effects of estrogen replacement therapy. However, the effects of PR and exercise on fatty acid transporters (FATPs), which play essential role in fatty acid transport, have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PR and aerobic exercise on FATP1, FABPpm and FAT/CD36 expression in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscles. [Methods] Sixty rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1)HSV; high fat diet (HFD)+sedentary+vehicle, (2)HSP; HFD+sedentary+PR, (3)HSH; HFD+sedentary+17β-estradiol, (4)HEV; HFD+exercise+vehicle, (5) HEP; HFD+exercise+PR, (6)HEH; HFD+exercise+17β-estradiol. Exercise consisted of treadmill exercise (1-4th week: 15 m/min for 30 min, 5-8th week: 18 m/min for 40 min, 5 times/week). [Results] Exercise does not alter FATP1 and FAT/CD36 gene levels in soleus and plantaris muscles. In contrast, exercise had main effect on up-regulation of FABPpm mRNA expression in both muscles. However, FABPpm level was not increased by exercise combined with treatments, indicative of no additive effects of PR or hormone on FABPpm gene expression. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry result showed that translocation of FATPs proteins to plasma membrane were higher in PR, exercise groups, and exercise combined with PR groups in both muscles. [Conclusion] These result showed that aerobic exercise and PR may help increase fat-oxidation through the induction of FABPpm, a muscle specific transporter, in OVX rat skeletal muscles. In addition, FABPpm expression is possibly regulated post-transcriptionally in exercise, or pre-translationally in PR. PMID:27757385

  1. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  2. 1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow County Courthouse (1910-1912) is on the left. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  4. The Crude Extract from Puerariae Flower Exerts Antiobesity and Antifatty Liver Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu, a leguminous plant, has long been used in folk medicine. In particular, its flowers are used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine for treating hangovers. We focused on the flower of Kudzu (Puerariae thomsonii), and we previously reported the antiobesity effect of Puerariae thomsonii flower extract (PFE) in humans. In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of PFE on visceral fat and hepatic lipid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. In addition, we focused on gene expression profiles to investigate the antiobesity mechanism of PFE. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD supplemented with 5% PFE for 14 days. PFE supplementation significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight. Moreover, in the histological analysis, PFE supplementation improved fatty liver. Hepatic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PFE supplementation downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. For adipose tissue, the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT and uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly upregulated. These results suggest that PFE exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT, and promoting thermogenesis in BAT. PMID:22685484

  5. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic maps of four test sites were compiled at 1/250,000. Band 7 prints enlarged to 1/500,000 scale are the best for the purpose, and negative prints provide a valuable supplement. More than 100 mapped lineaments represent most of the major faults of the area and a large number of suspected faults, including many of northeast trend. Under ideal conditions dip slopes may be recognized, laccoliths outlined, and axial traces drawn for narrow, plunging folds. Use of ERTS-1 imagery will greatly facilitate construction of a needed tectonic map of Montana. From ERTS-1 imagery alone, it was possible to identify up-turned undivided Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata and to map the boundaries of mountain glaciation, intermontane basins, a volcanic field, and an area of granitic rocks. It was also possible to outline clay pans associated with bentonite. However, widespread recognition of gross rock types will be difficult.

  6. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  7. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

  8. FLINT CREEK RANGE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Flint Creek Range Wilderness study area, Montana shows the presence of mineral deposits. By far the most important are low-grade, potentially large, contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits. A large stockwork molybdenum deposit is probably low in grade. The areas of these tungsten and molybdenum deposits have substantiated mineral-resource potential. A multimillion ton phosphate-rock deposit occurs in an area of substantiated resource potential in the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the south-central part of the study area. Deposits of massive quartz, perhaps suitable for smelter flux, a demonstrated resource. Small scattered silver- and gold-bearing veins are present, but no resource potential was identified.

  9. Major extinctions of land-dwelling vertebrates at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, eastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, P.M. ); Fastovsky, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    A large database recording species of terrestrial vertebrates present in formations above and below the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary in eastern Montana was assembled by J.D. Archibald and L.J. Bryant. Division of the species in this database into freshwater and land-dwelling vertebrate assemblages reveals that the K-T vertebrate extinction was concentrated in land-dwelling forms. In data corrected for the effects of rare taxa, 90% of the species in the freshwater assemblage survived into the Tertiary, but only 12% of the land-dwelling forms survived. The pattern of differential extinction of terrestrial vertebrates in eastern Montana may be in large part the result of the dependence of land-based communities on primary productivity. This is in contrast to the riverine communities, which may derive much of their organic carbon from detritus. The pattern of extinction and survival is compatible with the hypothesis of an asteroid impact after which there was a temporary cessation of primary, photosynthetic productivity.

  10. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  11. 75 FR 47026 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... INFORMATION: This survey was executed at the request of the Program Manager, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Montana Area Office, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine the boundaries...

  12. 30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section 926.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 926.20 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana Abandoned Mine...

  13. 30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section 926.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 926.20 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana Abandoned Mine...

  14. 30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section 926.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 926.20 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana Abandoned Mine...

  15. 30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section 926.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 926.20 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana Abandoned Mine...

  16. Montana Standards and Guidelines for Career and Vocational/Technical Education. Summer 2002 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This document presents Montana's standards and guidelines for career and vocational/technical education (CVTE). The guide begins with a directory of Montana's key CVTE personnel and specialists. Part 1 presents the federal and state definitions of CVTE and provides an overview of Montana's system for delivering CVTE and its philosophy regarding…

  17. 76 FR 28065 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena... repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, that meets the... Territory, between 1884 and 1886. In 1892, Allen loaned it to the Montana Historical Society....

  18. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  19. 30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 926.20 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana Abandoned Mine Land... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section 926.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  20. Hypothermia-related mortality--Montana, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    2007-04-20

    Hypothermia, defined as a core body temperature of <95 degrees F (35 degrees C), occurs in persons exposed to excessive cold. Although hypothermia can be fatal, it also is preventable. Risk factors for death from hypothermia include advanced age, substance abuse, altered mental status, and increased contact with substances that promote heat loss, such as water. Montana has an intensely cold and long winter. In December, the average daily minimum temperature is approximately 18.0 degrees F (-7.7 degrees C) and can remain at that level until March. For the entire year in Montana, the average daily minimum temperature is 35.9 degrees F (2.2 degrees C). During the period 1999-2004, Montana had the second highest (after Alaska) average annual hypothermia-related mortality rate (1.08 deaths per 100,000 population) in the United States, approximately five times greater than the U.S. rate overall. This report describes three examples of case reports of hypothermia-related deaths in Montana during 2005-2006, summarizes hypothermia-related mortality in the state during 1999-2004 (the most recent period for which annual data were available), and discusses hypothermia risk factors and prevention measures. Enhanced education and intervention strategies, particularly targeted to older adults, might reduce the number of deaths from hypothermia in Montana. PMID:17443122

  1. Comparative polytene chromosome maps of D. montana and D. virilis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Päällysaho, Seliina; Vieira, Cristina P; Hoikkala, Anneli; Vieira, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Chromosomal inversion polymorphism was characterized in Finnish Drosophila montana populations. A total of 14 polymorphic inversions were observed in Finnish D. montana of which nine had not been described before. The number of polymorphic inversions in each chromosome was not significantly different from that expected, assuming equal chance of occurrence in the euchromatic genome. There was, however, no correlation between the number of polymorphic inversions and that of fixed inversions in each chromosome. Therefore, a simple neutral model does not explain the evolutionary dynamics of inversions. Furthermore, in contrast to results obtained by others, no significant correlation was found between the two transposable elements (TEs) Penelope and Ulysses and inversion breakpoints in D. montana. This result suggests that these TEs were not involved in the creation of the polymorphic inversions seen in D. montana. A comparative analysis of D. montana and Drosophila virilis polytene chromosomes 4 and 5 was performed with D. virilis bacteriophage P1 clones, thus completing the comparative studies of the two species. PMID:16906413

  2. Archean collisional tectonics in SW Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Mogk, D.; Rickmond, D.; Salt, K.; Clark, M.; Mueller, P.; Lafrenze, D.; Wooden, J.; Henry, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean continental crust of SW Montana evolved through alternating cycles of stable platform sedimentation followed by crustal thickening through collisional tectonics. The ancient sialic crust in the Beartooth Mountains served as the nucleus for accretion of younger terranes to the west. The oldest orogenic cycle recognized in the Beartooth Mountains involves a 3.4 Ga old supracrustal sequence which was metamorphosed in the granulite facies (T=700-800/sup 0/C, P=6Kb, 35/sup 0/C/Km); deep burial is interpreted as the result of collisional tectonic thickening. The second orogenic cycle is subduction related and has produced 2.8 Ga old andesites, 2.75 Ga old calc-alkaline intrusives, upper amphibolite grade metamorphism, transcurrent faulting (in the North Snowy Block and Yankee Jim canyon at 2.8 Ga) and nappe emplacement. In the central Beartooths post-orogenic granites intrude pelitic schists (T=600/sup 0/C, P=8Kb, 25/sup 0/C/Km). West of the Beartooths the basement consists of 2.75-2.70 Ga old, tectonically telescoped coarse clastics (Gallatin, Madison Ranges) and stable platform sequences (Gravelly, Tobacco Root, Ruby Ranges). Nappe formation and granulite-migmatite (700-750/sup 0/C) associations are common, suggesting deep burial through tectonic thickening. A later-kinematic mesozonal (8Kb) qtz diorite-granodiorite batholithic complex is present in the northern Madison Range. Quartzofeldspathic paragneisses in the westernmost Archean basement are derived from either a continental or island arc source.

  3. Foreland structure - Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    Analysis of public drilling records from the AMOCO Beartooth Number 1 and 1 A sidetrack boreholes (SW1/4, SE1/4, Section 19, T.8 S., R.20 E., Carbon County, Montana) continues. Several additional inferences are made about this large foreland structure, and subsequent interpretation of the structural model of the northeast corner of the Beartooth Mountain Block and structural relationship with the Big Horn Basin. The structure is described as a large recumbent to sub-horizontal, synclinal fold with the overturned upper limb out diagonally by the Beartooth Thrust or Thrust Zone and a complex thrust fault zone below the Beartooth Thrust. The single recorded dip angle and direction of the Beartooth Thrust at depth was 19 degrees to the northwest(?). The dipmeter dip angle on the Beartooth Thrust, 19 degrees, validates foreland structural theory of decreasing dip angles at a vertical depth of 8,232 feet (2,509 m), in the Precambrian crystalline basement. The northwest dip direction may be attributable to secondary structural folding. The record of northwest, southeast, and southwest dip of bedding surfaces and faults in sections of the overturned upper limb, in both boreholes, suggests possible, less intense secondary folding, after thrust fault deformation. Given the overall geometry of this large foreland structure, there is little doubt that the average direction of maximum principal stress (sigma 1) was oriented in a northeast - southwest direction.

  4. The Montana earthquake of June 27, 1925

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardee, J.T.

    1927-01-01

    The earthquake of June 27, 1925, in Montana caused considerable damage within an area of 600 square miles or more, the center of which is in latitude 46° 5' N. and longitude 111° 20' W., a short distance southeast of Lombard. It was a seismic disturbance of the first order of magnitude, but, owing to the hour at which it occurred and to other fortunate circumstances, no lives were lost and no fires broke out. The shock was startling throughout an area extending 75 miles or more in all directions from the epicenter and was sensible to persons within an area of 310,000 square miles. Within the epicentral area brick buildings suffered severely, rocks fell from cliffs, cracks opened in the ground, and the inhabitants experienced the usual symptoms of illness and emotions of alarm. Isoseismals drawn according to the Rossi-Forel scale show a wide indentation at the south due to a rapid decline of intensity in the volcanic area of Snake River Plain and Yellowstone Park.

  5. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  6. The Application of Dynamic Time Warping to the Quality Evaluation of Radix Puerariae thomsonii: Correcting Retention Time Shift in the Chromatographic Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Long; Wang, Xiaofei; Bing, Shan; Wang, Li; Li, Hua

    2015-07-01

    The application of dynamic time warping (DTW) to the correction of retention time shift in chromatographic fingerprints of Radix Puerariae thomsonii (RPT) was studied. The fingerprints of 27 RPT samples were established with their entire chromatograms. Because there is retention time shift in the obtained fingerprints, the quality of these samples cannot be correctly evaluated by applying similarity estimation and principal component analysis (PCA) to the unaligned fingerprints. Hence, the fingerprints were aligned by using DTW method. After alignment, the retention time shift was corrected satisfactorily and the quality of these RPT samples was correctly evaluated. It is demonstrated that DTW is a practical method for aligning the chromatographic fingerprints of RPT samples. The combination of similarity estimation, PCA and DTW is shown to be a promising method for evaluating the quality of herbal medicines.

  7. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes. PMID:17390809

  8. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  9. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  10. Campfire Stories of the Fort Belknap Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Minerva, Comp.

    This collection contains 21 brief stories told by members of the Fort Belknap (Montana) American Indian community. These tales of the Assiniboine, Sioux, and Gros Ventres include legends, ghost stories, and reminiscences of heroic deeds, traditional life, and unusual events. Recollections of the past contain descriptions of the daily life of the…

  11. Methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in western Montana based on data through water year 2009: Chapter G in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    All of the data used to calculate basin characteristics were derived from publicly available data sources and are available through the U.S. Geological Survey Streamstats program (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) for Montana. The primary purpose of the Montana StreamStats application is to provide estimates of basin characteristics and streamflow characteristics for user-selected ungaged sites on Montana streams. The regional regression equations presented in this report have been loaded to the Montana StreamStats application and can be used to derive streamflow characteristics for ungaged sites.

  12. Plant water status relationships among major floodplain sites of the Flathead River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, L.C.; Hinckley, T.M.; Scott, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Water status measurements of dominant species from major floodplain plant community types of the North Fork Flathead River, Montana were used to test the accuracy of site moisture gradient relationships postulated from floristic ordinations and site water balance estimates. Analysis of variance tests showed significant differences among the average predawn xylem pressure potential (ψp) of species in several community types. However, additional analyses failed to indicate a significant degree of association between averaged predawn Yp measurements and either floristic ordination or site water balance results. Sixty eight percent of 22 trials comparing the diurnal average ψp of the same species in different community types on the same day were less negative for a species in the wetter community types as predicted by floristic ordinations. Similarly, 64% of the trials indicated that the diurnal average stomatal conductance was higher for a species in the wetter type. These results suggest that although a floodplain moisture gradient exists, it alone does not limit the distribution of floodplain plant communities in the North Fork.

  13. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: Student Results and System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Bailey-Anderson, Susan; Dotter, Susan

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) was developed in 1995 in response to increased incidents of student behavior problems. The intent of MBI is to improve educational environments to meet the needs of all students, including those with behavioral challenges. Each participating school conducts needs assessments and develops site-specific goals…

  14. 76 FR 43259 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Grad Montana Hotel and Convention Center, 5500 Midland Road, Billings, MT. Written comments should be sent to Babete Anderson, Custer National Forest, 1310 Main Street, Billings, MT 59105. Comments may..., Billings, MT 59105. Visitors are encouraged to call ahead to 406-657-6205 ext 239. FOR FURTHER...

  15. Crossing the Great Divide: From Manhattan to Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danell

    1997-01-01

    Tells about leaving graduate school at Columbia University for a tenure-track position at Rocky Mountain College in Montana, where the English department had three members, and the library had only 63,000 volumes as opposed to Columbia's 6.5 million. Discusses trying to adjust professional aims. (PA)

  16. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  17. Regional assemblages of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Montana canola fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fi...

  18. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Montana. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  19. 77 FR 31843 - PPL Montana, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PPL Montana, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, June 7, 2012 at 1:00 p.m. EDT. b. Place: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First St....

  20. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the coal reserves in the lands... by application (LBA) filed by Signal Peak Energy LLC. The Federal coal resource to be...

  1. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the coal reserves in the lands... lease by application (LBA) filed by Signal Peak Energy LLC. The Federal coal resource to be...

  2. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  3. Montana American Indian Student Achievement Data Report, Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The well-being and accomplishment of all Montana students is vital to the future success of the state. More specifically, increasing academic achievement and providing all students with a quality education will result in the opportunity for students to have more choices beyond their K-12 experience. This is what the business of education is all…

  4. Montana's Indian Education for All: Applying Multicultural Education Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carjuzaa, Jioanna; Jetty, Mike; Munson, Michael; Veltkamp, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Montana's constitutional commitment to the cultural heritages of American Indians exemplifies the practical application of multicultural education. In this article, the authors explore the goals and evolution of Indian Education for All within a multicultural education framework, and discuss how educators are best prepared to implement this…

  5. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana.

    PubMed

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H

    2006-09-01

    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  6. Methylated Flavonoids from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    PubMed

    Merfort, I

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less, subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA, the methylated flavonoids acacetin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, jaceosidin, 6-methoxykaempferol, and betuletol have been isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Except for acacetin, the same flavonoids were identified in the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. Betuletol was found for the first time in the family of Asteraceae.

  7. Montana Partnerships for Rural Resource Teams Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This project manual from the Partnerships for Rural Resource Teams Project, a project designed to build upon the foundation of services for children and youth with deaf-blindness in Montana, opens with guiding principles of the project and a description of the types of available services. Grounded in a framework that draws upon the principles of…

  8. Montana Public School Enrollment Data, Fall 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report gives details about the enrollment statistics of Montana Public Schools for 2003-2004. Sections include: (1) Enrollment Totals By Grade, (2) Data from Annual Data Collection (ADC) 1994-2004, and (3) Enrollment Totals by Racial/Ethnic Origin - October 2003.

  9. 76 FR 59479 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00062

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster Number MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  10. 77 FR 42694 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Telegraph Vegetation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... environmental impact statement called the Telegraph Vegetation Project was published in the 74 FR 58239. This... Forest Service Helena National Forest, Montana, Telegraph Vegetation Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... National Forest will still prepare an environmental impact statement for the Telegraph Vegetation...

  11. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  12. Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  13. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  14. The Media in Montana: Its Effects on Minorities and Women. A Report Prepared by the Montana Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norma; And Others

    Montana's Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights investigated the effects of Montana's television and newspaper media on minorities and women. Focus was on the employment opportunities in and the images projected by the media. Interviews were conducted with management and staff of newspapers, news services, and television…

  15. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  16. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-84-043, HETA 84-425-1680, Montana log home residents, Kalispell, Montana. [Treated with pentachlorophenol preservatives

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    Environmental and urine sampling was conducted in 15 log homes in Montana previously treated with wood preservatives containing pentachlorophenol (PCP). The Montana Department of Health had requested assistance in evaluating exposures to PCP among state residents in PCP-treated log homes.

  17. Ecological assessment of streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005–06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring.The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report.The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River

  18. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  19. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  20. Floods of January 15-17, 1974, in Northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Introduction Rain and snowmelt caused several streams in northwestern Montana to flood during January 15-17, 1974. The flooding was caused by a major rainstorm that extended from Montana through Idaho and Washington. The most damage occurred in the Kootenai River drainage, centering around the town of Libby. Also unusually high flows occurred on some streams in the Clark Fork basin. Throughout the area, ice jams contributed to much of the overbank flooding. Both the towns of Troy and Libby were partly flooded, but damage was greatest in and near Libby. Flood damage was estimated to be $4.9 million. No flood fatalities were listed. Most of the smaller streams equaled or exceeded a 50-year flood. A summary of flood stages and discharges for 24 sites in the Kootenai River drainage and 8 sites in the Clark Fork drainage is tabulated. A map shows the extent of flooding in the Libby area. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26319677

  2. Production of puerarin and isoflavones in cell suspension cultures of Pueraria lobata (Willd.): effects of medium supplementation with casein hydrolysate and coconut milk.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zhang, C R

    2006-01-01

    Callus induced from leaf explants of Pueraria lobata seedlings were suspended in Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 30 g l(-1) sucrose. The effects of coconut milk and casein hydrolysate (CH) on cell growth and yields of puerarin and isoflavones in cells suspension were studied. The contents of total isoflavones and puerarin in suspension cultures were determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC. Coconut milk (10%, filter sterilized) decreased the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation of total isoflavones, while 0.2% CH promoted the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation and release of puerarin and total isoflavones. The total yield of puerarin and isoflavones were 34% and 40.8% higher than in the control, respectively. The optimum medium for cell cultures of leaves of P. lobata seedlings was B5 liquid medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D, 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA, 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 20 mg l(-1) CH. The procedure use is a potentially useful for the production of isoflavones. PMID:16850870

  3. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  4. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  5. Screening and identification of BSA bound ligands from Puerariae lobata flower by BSA functionalized Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles coupled with HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangliang; Ma, Yongjian; Chen, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Xiang; Shi, Shuyun

    2012-03-01

    Puerariae lobata flower (Willdenow) has a long history used to treat alcoholic intoxication in China, which contains a series of isoflavones as its chief pharmacologically active constituents. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄ MNPs) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) were used to screen and identify active compounds from ethanolic extract of P. lobata flower. Thirteen active isoflavones were screened and identified as glycitin (1), tectoridin (2), daidzin (3), 3'-methoxy daidzin (4), ononin (5), 3'-hydroxyl daidzein (6), tectorigenin (7), biochanin A (8), prunetin (9), genistein (10), 3'-methoxy daidzein (11), irisolidone (12) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyisoflavone (13), while compounds 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 were identified from this plant for the first time. Furthermore, the activity of each bound ligand was evaluated on-line. The results indicated that the binding affinities of compounds with BSA were highly dependent on chemical structures and the methoxylation and hydroxylation on B-ring could improve the activity. The effective method could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of active compounds from complex mixtures. PMID:22305973

  6. Discrimination of the Thai rejuvenating herbs Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea) using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Yodpetch, Woraluk; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Sukrong, Suchada

    2013-07-01

    The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea) and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea), which belong to the family Leguminosae, are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional Thai medicine. Although all of these species have an indication for rejuvenation, each differs in its medicinal properties. Two varieties of P. candollei, var. mirifica and var. candollei, affect females, whereas B. superba and M. collettii exhibit effects on males. However, the identification of these roots according to the name "Kwao Khruea" is confusing due to the similarity in their features. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was utilised to identify plant origin. The partial matK gene was amplified and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with DdeI and TaqI. The restriction fragments generated differed in number and size. To test the reliability of the method, an admixture of the different Kwao Khruea species containing equal amounts of DNA was tested. The results showed combined restriction patterns, and each species could be detected in the background of the others. The method was also used to authenticate eight different crude drugs sold as various types of Kwao Khruea in Thai markets. The results showed that the misidentification of commercial drugs remains a problem in crude drug markets. The PCR-RFLP analysis developed here provides a simple and accurate discrimination of these rejuvenating "Kwao Khruea" species. PMID:23086155

  7. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  8. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria formation in Montana, 1951

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.

    1953-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Montana and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of the sections measured in southwestern Montana (fig. 1), during 1951, is the fifth Montana report of this series. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described in a previous report (McKelvey and others, 1953). Many people have taken part in this investigation. Crushing and splitting of the samples in the field were done by T. K. Rigby. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt. The P205 and acid insoluble analyses were made for the Survey by the U.S. Bureau of Mines at the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory, Albany, Oreg., under the direction of S. M. Sheldon and M. L. Wright.

  9. Uses, funding, and availability of continuous streamflow data in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shields, R.R.; White, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study of the uses, funding, and availability of continuous streamflow data collected and published by the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana. Data uses and funding sources are identified for the 218 continuous streamflow gages currently (1984) being operated. These stations are supported by 18 different funding sources at a budget for the 1984 water year of $1,065,000. The streamflow-gaging program in Montana has evolved through the years as Federal, State, and local needs for surface-water data have increased. Continuous streamflow records for periods ranging from less than 1 year to more than 90 years have been collected. This report describes phase 1 of a cost-effectiveness study of the streamflow-gaging program in Montana. Evaluation of the program indicates that numerous agencies use the data for studies involving regional hydrology, hydrologic systems, and planning and design. They also use the data for operations of existing hydroelectric and irrigation dams, forecasting flood and seasonal flows, water-quality monitoring, research studies for fish habitat, and other uses such as recreational management. (USGS)

  10. Petrography and petrology of Smoky Butte intrusives, Garfield County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, Robert E.

    1960-01-01

    The Smoky Butte intrusives are located in T. 18 N., R. 36 E. Garfield County, Montana on the extreme eastern edge of the petrographic province of Central Montana. They consist of dikes and plugs arranged in linear, en-echelon pattern with a northeast trend and intrude the Tullock member (Paleocene age) of the Fort Union formation. Extrusive rocks are absent. The rocks are potassium-rich volcanic types showing a disequilibrium mineral assemblage consisting of sanidine, leucite, biotite, olivine, pyroxene, magnetite plus. ilmenite, apatite, calcite, quartz, and a yellowish to dark greenish glassy groundmass. Two chemical analyses of Smoky Butte rocks show high magnesium, potassium, titanium, and phosphorous and low aluminum and sodium content. The two norm calculations show that the rocks are oversaturated with 1.3 and 3.1 per-cent excess silica. Because of the peculiar nature of the Smoky Butte rocks, descriptive names have been applied to them. They are divided into six different types. Three periods of intrusion are proposed for Smoky Butte quarry where three rock types crop out. Other evidence for multiple injection occurs in several multiple dikes. The upper contact of the intrusion is visible on a few plugs and dikes. Smoky Butte rocks show some similarities to the undersaturated potassium-rich rocks of the Highwood and Bearpaw Mountains of Montana, the rocks of the Leucite Hills of Wyoming, and the oversaturated rocks of the West Kimberly District of Australia.

  11. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  12. Precambrian basement geologic map of Montana; an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; O'Neill, J. M.; Bankey, Viki; Anderson, E.

    2004-01-01

    Newly compiled aeromagnetic anomaly data of Montana, in conjunction with the known geologic framework of basement rocks, have been combined to produce a new interpretive geologic basement map of Montana. Crystalline basement rocks compose the basement, but are exposed only in the cores of mountain ranges in southwestern Montana. Principal features deduced from the map are: (1) A prominent northeast-trending, 200-km-wide zone of spaced negative anomalies, which extends more than 700 km from southwestern Montana's Beaverhead Mountains to the Canadian border and reflects suturing of the Archean Mexican Hat Block against the Archean Wyoming Province along the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Montana Orogen (new name) at about 1.9-1.8 Ga; (2) North-northwest-trending magnetic lows in northeastern Montana, which reflect the 1.9-1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen and truncate the older Trans-Montana Zone; and (3) Subtle northwest- and west-trending negative anomalies in central and western Montana, which represent the northernmost segment of brittle-ductile transcurrent faults of the newly recognized Mesoproterozoic Trans-Rocky Mountain fault system. Structures developed in the Proterozoic provided zones of crustal weakness reactivated during younger Proterozoic and Phanerozoic igneous and tectonic activity. For example, the Trans-Montana Zone guided basement involved thrust faulting in southwestern Montana during the Sevier Orogeny. The Boulder Batholith and associated ore deposits and the linear belt of alkaline intrusions to the northeast were localized along a zone of weakness between the Missouri River suture and the Dillon shear zone of the Trans-Montana Orogen. The northwest-trending faults of Trans-Rocky Mountain system outline depocenters for sedimentary rocks in the Belt Basin. This fault system provided zones of weakness that guided Laramide uplifts during basement crustal shortening. Northwest-trending zones have been locally reactivated during Neogene basin-range extension.

  13. 78 FR 8509 - PPL Colstrip I, LLC, PPL Colstrip II, LLC, PPL Montana, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PPL Colstrip I, LLC, PPL Colstrip II, LLC, PPL Montana, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 21, 2012, PPL Colstrip I, LLC (PPL Colstrip I), PPL Colstrip II, LLC (PPL Colstrip II) and PPL Montana, LLC (PPL Montana) (collectively, the PPL Companies) submitted to...

  14. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given that the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  15. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization. 272.1351 Section 272.1351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Montana §...

  16. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final Habitat... Implementation Agreement and notice of availability of the Draft EIS in the Federal Register (74 FR 30617)....

  17. Characteristics of Discharged Mental Patients in Rural 18-County Sparsely Populated Eastern Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraenzel, Carl F.; Macdonald, Frances H.

    In order to obtain information about the nature and extent of mental illness in a sparsely populated area, the National Institute of Mental Health and the Montana Agricultural Experiement Station made a study of patients who had been discharged from a Montana state hospital for the mentally ill from January 1, 1963 to July 1, 1965. Only patients…

  18. 75 FR 36436 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  19. 77 FR 34063 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  20. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  1. 75 FR 36665 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  2. 77 FR 34402 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  3. 77 FR 34401 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  4. 75 FR 53334 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  5. 77 FR 64125 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  6. 76 FR 76178 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  7. 76 FR 17443 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plat of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings,...

  8. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on March 4, 2010, in Billings, MT. The meeting will start... in Montana. At these meetings, topics will include: Miles City and Billings Field Office manager..., 2010. M. Elaine Raper, District Manager. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  9. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

  10. 77 FR 23987 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Montana; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...-kiln firing of solid fuel. lii. The words Montana and State mean the State of Montana. liii. The... Sulphur and Chemical vii. Plum Creek Manufacturing viii. Roseburg Forest Products ix. Smurfit Stone... otherwise. ii. The initials A/F mean or refer to air-to-fuel. iii. The initials ARM mean or refer...

  11. Caring, Sharing in the Big Sky--Writer, Photographer Explore Five of Montana's Tribal Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The author travels across Montana with a former student and photographer, Anders Andersson, and says that visiting tribal colleges is the best way to really understand them. In this article, he writes about five tribal colleges in Montana: (1) Little Big Horn College (LBHC); (2) Chief Dull Knife College (CDKC); (3) Stone Child College (SCC); (4)…

  12. Summary of Vocational/Technical Program Offerings for Secondary Schools in Montana 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre. Montana Center for Vocational Education, Research, Curriculum and Personnel Development.

    This document summarizes the findings of a survey of the vocational offerings in Montana secondary schools, using data compiled from the 1987-88 fall reports submitted by local school districts to the Montana Office of Public Instruction. Total vocational enrollment was listed as 41,746. (Students enrolled in more than one vocational class were…

  13. 76 FR 14584 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Lincoln County Air Pollution Control Program submitted by Montana on June 26, 2006, for inclusion into... (NO X ) in the Libby, Montana nonattainment area insignificant for regional transportation conformity... regional emissions analysis for either direct PM 2.5 or NO X as part of future conformity...

  14. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  15. 75 FR 58430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT AGENCY: National... human remains and an associated funerary object in the possession of the University of Montana, Missoula... determinations in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of...

  16. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../cfr/ibr-locations.html. (i) The Binder entitled “EPA Approved Montana Regulatory Requirements... provisions. (c) State Statutes and Regulations. (1) The Montana regulations cited in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the...

  17. Preliminary geologic map of the Townsend 30' x 60' quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic map of the Townsend quadrangle, scale 1:100,000, was made as part of the Montana Investigations Project to provide new information on the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic history of this geologically complex area in west-central Montana. The quadrangle encompasses about 4,200 square km (1,640 square mi).

  18. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and middle…

  19. 77 FR 27450 - PPL Montana, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PPL Montana, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that... CFR 385.207, PPL Montana, LLC, submitted a petition requesting the Commission to issue a...

  20. Life of Montana Insurance Company solar system: operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The solar space heating system for the three-story home office building of the Life of Montana Insurance Company in Bozeman, Montana, is described. The system utilizes 3885 net sq. ft. of Sunworks hydronic collectors and two 3000 gal. heat storage tanks. Engineering drawings of the system are included, and an operation and maintenance manual is included. (WHK)

  1. A Kindergarten Teacher Bringing Science to a Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Becky; Galindo, Ed; Shockey, Tod

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored professional development of educators in the NASA Summer of Innovation (SOI) program. The Idaho, Montana, and Utah (IMU-SOI) program worked with educators and students from thirteen Native American communities. The summer sessions were focused on problem based learning and…

  2. Algal and Water-Quality Data for the Yellowstone River and Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Streams of the Yellowstone River Basin in Montana and Wyoming were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Algal communities were sampled in 1999 in conjunction with other ecological sampling and in 2000 during synoptic sampling. Water-quality measurements related to the algal sampling included light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Sites were sampled on the main-stem Yellowstone River, major tributaries such as the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and the Bighorn River, and selected minor tributaries. Some of the data collected, such as the phytoplankton chlorophyll-a data, were referenced or summarized in previous U.S. Geological Survey reports but were not previously published in tabular form, and therefore are presented in this report, prepared in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Data presented in this report include chlorophyll-a concentrations in phytoplankton and periphyton samples, as well as light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen production data from 1999-2000.

  3. Montana's Coalbed Methane Ground-Water Monitoring Program: Year One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. R.; Smith, M.; Donato, T. A.; Bobst, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tertiary coal seams in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana provide three very important resources: ground water, coal, and natural gas. Ground water from springs and wells is essential for the local agricultural economy. Because coal seams in the Fort Union Formation have higher hydraulic conductivity values and are more continuous than the sandstone units, they are the primary aquifers in this region. Coalbed methane (CBM) production is beginning in the Powder River Basin, and requires removal and management of large quantities of water from the coal-seam aquifers. The extensive pumping required to produce the methane is expected to create broad areas of severe potentiometric decline. The Montana CBM ground-water monitoring program, now in place, is based on scientific concepts developed during more than 30 years of coal-mine hydrogeology research. The program includes inventories of ground-water resources and regular monitoring at dedicated wells and selected springs. The program is now providing baseline potentiometric and water-quality data, and will continue to be active through the duration of CBM production and post-production ground-water recovery. An extensive inventory of ground-water resources in the Montana portion of the Powder River Basin has located 300 springs and 21 wells on private land, and 460 springs and 21 wells on U. S. Forest Service and U. S. Bureau of Land Management land, all producing ground water from the methane bearing strata. In southeastern Montana, 134 monitoring wells are currently included in the CBM monitoring program. They are completed either in coal seams, adjacent sandstone units, or alluvium. During the coal boom of the 1970's and 1980's many monitoring wells were drilled, but most have been since unused. Thirty-six of these existing wells have now been returned to service to decrease start-up costs for the CBM program. This network of existing wells has been augmented at key sites with 26 new wells drilled

  4. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4′,7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4′-O-mono-glucosides, and 4′,7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4′-O- and 4′,7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4′ and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4′-O-glucosides and 4′,7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  7. Improvements of Vaginal Atrophy without Systemic Side Effects after Topical Application of Pueraria mirifica, a Phytoestrogen-rich Herb, in Postmenopausal Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    JAROENPORN, Sukanya; URASOPON, Nontakorn; WATANABE, Gen; MALAIVIJITNOND, Suchinda

    2014-01-01

    The estrogenic efficacy of topical vaginal application of Pueraria mirifica extract (PM) on the restoration of vaginal atrophy, and the presence of any systemic side effects, were investigated in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques. Twelve postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques, with complete cessation of menstruation for at least 5 years before start of this experiment, were divided into three groups. They received a topical vaginal application daily of 0.1 or 1% (w/w) PM cream or a conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) cream (a mixture of estrone, equilin, 17β-dihydroequilin, 17α-estradiol and 17α-dihydroequilin at 0.625 mg total estrogen/g cream) for 28 days. Estrogenic efficacy was assessed weekly by vaginal cytology assay and vaginal pH measurement, whilst the plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex skin coloration levels were determined at the end of each treatment period to evaluate the systemic side effects. PM significantly increased the proportion of superficial cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a similar efficacy between 1% (w/w) PM and CEE. Together with increased vaginal maturation, PM decreased the vaginal pH to acidic levels, as observed in the CEE group. PM induced no detected systemic side effects, whilst CEE decreased the plasma LH level and increased the reddish color of the sex skin during the posttreatment period. Topical vaginal treatment with PM stimulated the maturation of the vaginal epithelium without causing systemic side effects in postmenopausal monkeys. The implication is that PM could be a safer alternative to treat vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. PMID:24748397

  8. Cenozoic pull-apart basins in southwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, E.T. )

    1991-06-01

    Faults and fault zones bounding the mountain ranges of southwest Montana commonly have been described as normal faults, and the region has been considered to be a northern extension of the Basin and Range. New geologic mapping suggests, however, that Cenozoic movements along most of the zones of steep faults in southwest Montana and in east-central Idaho have been strike-slip, and the intermontane basins appear to be pull-aparts. The principal fault zones trend about north, northwest, east, and north-northeast; the north-trending zones are Cenozoic in age, but the others are of Archean ancestry and are rooted in basement rocks. These faults break the region into rhomboidal mountain blocks separated by broad basins with parallel sides. The basins are as much as 5,000 m deep, and their floors are deeply indented by centers of subsidence wherre they are crossed by major fault zones. The basins are floored by Archean or Proterozoic rocks and are filled with tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of late Oligocene to late Miocene age. The Big Hole basin and the smaller basins in upper Grasshopper Creek and Horse Prairie are interpreted to be pull-aparts between zones of east-trending right-lateral faults. The cratonic basins farther east in southwest Montana are interpreted to be basement-floored openings between mountain blocks that have been separated by subcrustal flow to the northwest. The interpretations suggest that significant accumulations of oil or gas are not likely to be found in this region.

  9. Tectonic development of southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.A.

    1984-07-01

    The region of southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho, north of the Snake River plain and east of the Idaho batholith, has been affected by a complex sequence of orogenic events from the Proterozoic through Holocene time. Deposition of Proterozoic Belt Supergroup rocks and rocks of similar age in east-central Idaho occurred in basins that were clearly fault controlled. Many of these faults were reactivated repeatedly at later times and controlled or affected the development of younger tectonic features. This study encompasses the entire width of the Sevier orogenic belt in this part of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt. The thrust belt comprises several major eastward-transported thrust plates that are successively younger to the east. These plates juxtapose distinct stratigraphic packages that were deposited in eugeoclinal, miogeoclinal, and continental platform settings. As a consequence, the thrust plates can be distinguished on the basis of facies and thickness distribution as well as, to some extent, structural style. In southwest Montana, Sevier-type structures overlap with, and butt against, basement-involved Laramide structures. The extension of southwest Montana basement trends into Idaho suggests that this overlap may extend into east-central Idaho. Superimposed on these older structures are mid-Tertiary to Holocene normal faults that formed present-day basins and ranges. Many of these are reactivated older fault zones, some of which can be shown to have Precambrian ancestry. The region has excellent oil and gas potential, because reservoir and source rocks and trapping mechanisms are all clearly present. However, an understanding of the effect of overlapping tectonic elements is necessary to predict accurately where favorable rock packages are preserved.

  10. How Montana's deepest hole cut Mississippian carbonates underneath Precambrian belt

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.H.; Nims, R.C. )

    1992-08-03

    This paper discusses the Unocal i-B30 Federal Canyon Creek well drilled in the Montana thrust belt about 27 miles northwest of Helena to test Mississippian carbonates in a seismic structure in the footwall of the Eldorado thrust. The well penetrated more than 12,000 ft of thrusted Precambrian belt metasedimentary rocks before encountering a faulted and fractured footwall section of Cretaceous through Mississippian shales, sandstones, and carbonates. The 1-B30 well demonstrated that a more complex duplex structure was present under the Eldorado thrust and that the Madison was deeper than anticipated with a true vertical depth of 16,688 ft.

  11. Geologic map of the Stillwater Complex, Montana: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; digital database by Miller, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a digital version of the Geologic map of the Stillwater Complex, Montana by Page and Nokleberg (1974). Paper copies of the four geologic map sheets from the original report were scanned and initially attributed by Optronics Specialty Co., Inc. (Northridge, CA) and remitted to the U.S. Geological Survey for further attribution and publication of the geospatial digital files. The resulting digital geologic dataset can be queried in a geographic information system (GIS) in many ways to produce a variety of geological maps.

  12. The hidden effects of Montana's "abolition" of the insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Callahan, L A; Robbins, P C; Steadman, H J; Morrissey, J P

    1995-01-01

    Montana abolished the affirmative insanity defense in 1979. In this article we examine the effect of this change by focusing on all defendants who raised mental health in his/her defense from 1976 to 1985. We found that while post-reform insanity acquittals did dramatically decline, there was a corresponding rise in findings of incompetent to stand trial with charges dismissed, perhaps negating the desired impact. We also compared the defendants and the legal process, finding no significant differences pre to post reform.

  13. MIDDLE FORK OF THE JUDITH RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Hamilton, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Middle Fork of the Judith River Wilderness Study Area in Montana has several prospects containing local small inferred resources and several exposed mineral occurrences bearing silver, lead, copper, and gold along its north and west edges with no identified resource potential. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies, conducted to appraise the mineral resources of the study area, identified no other anomalous concentrations of metallic elements. A gem-quality sapphire resource, present near the east boundary, cannot be identified within the study area. The area holds little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  14. BIG SNOWIES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey determined that the Big Snowies Wilderness study area in Montana had little promise for the occurrence of mineral or fossil fuel resources. This assessment was based on consideration of geologic environments where minerals and fossil fuels might be expected, on geochemical and geophysical surveys of the study areas, and on examination of claims and prospects. Seismic-reflection studies across the Big Snowy anticline are recommended to better assess the nature and magnitude of offset along the faulted southern flank of the anticline. Discovery of a large offset would place strata and structures favorable for oil and gas beneath the southern part of the study areas.

  15. GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gates of the Mountains Wilderness and Additions, Montana, have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. This conclusion is based on detailed investigation of the geology and mineral and fossil fuel resources. Geologic structures of the area, although similar to potential petroleum-bearing structures in other parts of the Rocky Mountains overthrust belt, are open to the surface and probably could not have trapped or held hydrocarbons. Rocks that potentially could have generated petroleum have higher levels of thermal maturity than the range of oil generation but are within the range of dry natural gas generation.

  16. MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  17. The Montana lobe of the Keewatin ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calhoun, F.H.H.

    1906-01-01

    The area covered by this investigation lies along the eastern front of the Montana Rockies, between longitude 108° and 113° 40', and latitude 47° 15' and 49° 30'. Over the eastern and northern part of this area the ice from the northeast deposited its drift. Over the western part the ice from the Eockies pushed down the mountain valleys and, deploying on the plain, deposited large and well-defined terminal moraines. Extending from the Canadian line to the Missouri there is a strip of country, varying greatly in width, which the ice did not cover.

  18. Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.

    PubMed

    Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

    1993-02-01

    Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks).

  19. Immunologically active polysaccharides of Arnica montana cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Puhlmann, J; Zenk, M H; Wagner, H

    1991-01-01

    From the nutrition medium of Arnica montana cell cultures two homogeneous polysaccharides, an acidic arabino-3,6-galactan-protein with mean Mr of 100,000 and a neutral fucogalactoxyloglucan with mean Mr of 22,500 have been isolated by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated mainly by methylation analysis, partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The fucogalactoxyloglucan shows a pronounced enhancement of phagocytosis in vivo. The arabino-3,6-galactan-protein displays a strong anticomplementary effect and stimulates macrophages to excrete the tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha).

  20. Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    PubMed

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1987-10-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed.

  1. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  3. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  4. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  5. Agricultural land use mapping. [Pennsylvania, Montana, and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Agricultural areas were selected or analysis in southeastern Pennsylvania, north central Montana, and southern Texas. These three sites represent a broad range of soils, soil parent materials, climate, modes of agricultural operation, crops, and field sizes. In each of these three sites, ERTS-1 digital data were processed to determine the feasibility of automatically mapping agricultural land use. In Pennsylvania, forest land, cultivated land, and water were separable within a 25,000 acre area. Four classes of water were also classified and identified, using ground truth. A less complex land use pattern was analyzed in Hill County, Montana. A land use map was prepared shown alternating patterns of summer fallow and stubble fields. The location of farmsteads could be inferred, along with that of a railroad line. A river and a creek flowing into the river were discernible. Six categories of water, related to sediment content and depth, were defined in the reservoir held by the Fresno dam. These classifications were completed on a 150 square mile area. Analysis of the data from Texas is in its formative stages. A test site has been selected and a brightness map has been produced.

  6. Source rock potential of middle Cretaceous rocks in southwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S{sub 1}+S{sub 2}) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% R{sub o}. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% R{sub o}, and at Big Sky, Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% R{sub o}. At both localities, high R{sub o} values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  7. Aerosols in clean and smoky air at Bozeman, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. A.; Thomas, M.; Lathem, T. L.; Shaw, G. E.; Nenes, A.; Pust, N.; Repasky, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    The northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States is a natural laboratory for studying aerosols in a relatively uncontaminated environment punctuated by episodes of wildfire smoke. In autumn 2009, we conducted a field experiment at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana to characterize the boundary layer aerosols as they transition from smoky periods to relatively clean background air. Physical and chemical properties of the aerosols were conducted, including high time resolution of Cloud Condensation Nuclei and inter comparison with AERONET data during times of deep atmospheric mixing. The key results of this experiment are: 1) the air in this northern Rocky Mountain location is surprisingly pristine with frequent aerosol size distributions devoid of a an accumulation mode; 2) periods of night-time growth of Aitken-mode aerosols were observed; 3) a persistent diurnal variation occurred, with upslope daytime winds bringing aerosols exhibiting moderate anthropogenic influence , and down slope nighttime winds bringing aerosols with weak accumulation mode; 4) the smoke aerosol was weakly soluble; and 5) satisfactory agreement was found between the inverted estimate of the fine mode aerosol from AERONET solar radiometry with that measured in situ.

  8. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 milligramsper litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100?C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in 'granitic' terranes.

  9. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  10. Copper-silver deposits of the Revett Formation, Montana and Idaho: origin and resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, Thomas P.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The Revett Formation of northern Idaho and western Montana contains major stratabound copper-silver deposits near Troy, Rock Creek, and Rock Lake, Montana. To help the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) meet its goal of integrating geoscience information into the land-planning process, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently completed a compilation of regional stratigraphy and mineralogy of the Revett Formation and a mineral resource assessment of Revett-type copper-silver deposits. The USGS assessment indicates that a large area of USFS-administered land in northwestern Montana and northern Idaho may contain significant undiscovered Revett-type copper-silver deposits.

  11. The Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fiske, P.S.; Hargaves, R.B.

    1994-03-17

    The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure ({approximately} 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fragment of a large impact structure identified in the geologic record. The present evidence for impact consists of shatter cones, pseudotachylites, and planar deformation features in quartz. The age of the impact is not well constrained but is estimated to be Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (1000-500 Ma). The Beaverhead impact event must have created other features that may be preserved, elsewhere in western Montana and Idaho. These include proximal and distal ejecta (which may be misinterpreted as diamictites and/or tuff horizons) and other fragments of the crater floor containing shatter cones and pseudotachylite. A large circular gravity, magnetic and topographic anomaly, which could be the root of the impact structure, has been identified near Challis, Idaho. An enigmatic lithic tuff, identified in drill cores from the Challis area and an intraformational quartzite breccia in the Leaton Gulch area may be impact-related deposits, but no definitive evidence of shock metamorphism has been observed in these materials. The discovery of more pieces of the Beaverhead puzzle, as well as the recognition of other large impacts in the geologic record, are likely once the regional geologic community grows to accept the incidence of such events and becomes more familiar with the features of shock metamorphism in the field. To that end, the community of geologists in this area should integrate the Beaverhead structure into their research and teaching curriculum.

  12. Ecology and distribution of major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Bahls, L.L.; Weber, E.E.; Jarvie, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    From 1975 through 1980, samples were collected to determine the ecology and distribution of the major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana. Altogether, 370 diatom samples and 289 concurrent water-quality samples were collected at 52 surface-water stations. Sixty-eight major diatom ecotypes were selected for identification on the basis that their percent relative abundance equalled or exceeded 10 following proportional counts of 300 to 400 frustules. Each major diatom ecotype is systematically described in terms of taxonomy and morphology, abundance, ecology, and distribution in the study area. Included are tables of 24 water-quality variables of biological significance for each ecotype. Illustrations and brief descriptions of representative specimens are included to document and facilitate identification. This information may be used to help establish water-quality criteria for the region's aquatic communities, to identify indigenous diatoms or diatom groups that are useful as water-quality indicators, and to provide a basis for an ecological classification of the various diatom associations in the study area. Many of the major diatom ecotypes are identified as having sufficiently narrow ecological amplitudes to be useful as indicators of dissolved solids, suspended sediment, and temperature. These are three of the water-quality variables most likely to be affected by surface mining and related activities. 48 references.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Anaconda Smelter Site, Mill Creek, Montana (first remedial action), October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-02

    The 160-acre community of Mill Creek is located in Deerlodge County, Montana, immediately adjacent to the Anaconda Smelter NPL site. The community of Mill Creek has been contaminated for over 100 years with smelter emissions, fugitive emissions of flu dust at the smelter, and continued fugitive emissions emanating from adjacent highly contaminated soils. Settled flue emissions in the community of Mill Creek, from the now-defunct copper-smelting operation, contain arsenic, cadmium, and lead. Environmental siting of the community and biological testing of pre-school children, led EPA to conclude that contamination in the Mill Creek area poses an imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of individuals residing there. The primary contaminant of concern at this site is arsenic. Cadmium and lead are secondary contaminants of concern. The selected remedial action for the site includes: permanent relocation of all residents (8 homes) with temporary erosional stabilization of disturbed areas by establishing and maintaining a vegetative cover; demolition, consolidation, and storage.

  14. Capacity Building and Community Resilience: A Pilot Analysis of Education and Employment Indicators before and after an Extension Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the effects of a quasinatural experiment in which 16 rural communities participated in public discussion, leadership training, and community visioning as part of an Extension program at Montana State University. Difference-in-differences methods reveal that key U.S. Census socioeconomic indicators either…

  15. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-06-28

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  16. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from Radix puerariae, potentiates endothelium-independent relaxation via the cyclic AMP pathway in porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dennis K Y; Leung, Susan W S; Xu, Yan Chun; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Man, Ricky Y K

    2006-12-15

    Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medicinal herb Radix puerariae, has been suggested to be useful in the management of various cardiovascular disorders. The present study examined the effect of acute exposure (30 min) to puerarin on vascular relaxation. Rings from porcine coronary artery of either sex were used. The highest concentration of puerarin (100 microM) produced a small but statistically significant relaxation of U46619-contracted rings. Vascular relaxations were also studied in the presence of lower concentrations of puerarin (0.1, 1 and 10 microM) which had no direct relaxation effect. Puerarin enhanced vasorelaxation to endothelium-independent relaxing agents, sodium nitroprusside and cromakalim. However, puerarin had no effect on vasorelaxation induced by endothelium-dependent relaxing agents, bradykinin and calcium ionophore A23187. The potentiating action of puerarin (10 microM) on sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation was not affected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM), or by the disruption of the endothelium with Triton X-100. The effect of puerarin was reversible following a washout period. The potentiating effects were comparable with the 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) analogues, 8-bromoadenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP; 10 muM) and Sp-isomer [S nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Sp-cyclic AMPS; 3 microM), but not the 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) analogue, 8-bromoguanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic GMP; 3 microM). The cyclic AMP antagonist, Rp-isomer [R nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of 8-bromoadenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS; 10 microM), but not cyclic GMP antagonist, Rp-isomer of 8-bromoguanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM), reversed the effects of puerarin (10

  17. 75 FR 4758 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the citations... activities exempt from control of emissions of airborne particulate matter. This action is being taken...

  18. 75 FR 4036 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the citations and references to federal and state laws and regulations, other minor changes to conform...

  19. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    .... The plat, in one sheet, representing the dependent resurvey of Mineral Survey No. 5856B, Charity Mill Site and Supplemental Plat, Township 2 South, Range 3 West, Principal Meridian, Montana, was...

  20. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest... Service will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to implement restoration.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest...

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, S B; Ferreira, L R; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C

    2004-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of Arnica montana 6cH was evaluated using acute and chronic inflammation models. In the acute, model, carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, the group treated with Arnica montana 6cH showed 30% inhibition compared to control (P < 0.05). Treatment with Arnica 6cH, 30 min prior to carrageenin, did not produce any inhibition of the inflammatory process. In the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 h after the inflammatory agent was applied (P < 0.05). When treatment was given 6 h after Nystatin treatment, there was no significant inhibitory effect. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability.

  2. 6-O-Isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin from the flowers of Arnica montana.

    PubMed

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Wendisch, D

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L., the helenanolides 6- O-isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin and 2beta-ethoxy-6- O-isobutyryl-2,3-dihydrohelenalin were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods.

  3. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  5. Identifying priority chronic wasting disease surveillance areas for mule deer in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Gude, Justin; Anderson, N.J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that affects a variety of ungulate species including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). As of 2014, no CWD cases had been reported in free-ranging ungulates in Montana. However, nearby cases in Canada, Wyoming, and the Dakotas indicated that the disease was encroaching on Montana's borders. Mule deer are native and common throughout Montana, and they represent a significant portion of the total hunter-harvested cervids in the state. The arrival of CWD in Montana may have significant ecosystem and socioeconomic impacts as well as potential consequences for wildlife management. We used 18,879 mule deer locations from 892 individual deer collected during 1975–2011 and modeled habitat selection for 7 herds in 5 of the 7 wildlife management regions in Montana. We estimated resource selection functions (RSF) in a Bayesian framework to predict summer and winter habitat preferences for mule deer. We estimated deer abundance from flyover counts for each region, and used the RSF predictions as weights to distribute the deer across the region. We then calculated the distance to the nearest known infected herds. We predicted areas of high risk of CWD infection in mule deer as areas with densities above the median density estimate and within the lowest quartile of distances to known infected herds. We identified these areas, the southeast corner of Montana and the north-central border near Alberta and Saskatchewan, as priority areas for CWD surveillance and management efforts. 

  6. Compilation of Water-Resources Data for Montana, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, P. B.; Berkas, W.R.; White, M.K.; Dodge, K.A.; Bailey, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Water Science Center, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and Tribal governments, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Montana each water year. This report is a compilation of Montana site-data sheets for the 2006 water year, which consists of records of stage and discharge of streams; water quality of streams and ground water; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels in wells; and precipitation data. Site-data sheets for selected stations in Canada and Wyoming also are included in this report. The data for Montana, along with data from various parts of the Nation, are included in 'Water-Resources Data for the United States, Water Year 2006', which is published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report WDR-US-2006 and is available at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wdr2006. Additional water year 2006 data collected at crest-stage gage and miscellaneous-measurement stations were collected but were not published. These data are stored in files of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center in Helena, Montana, and are available on request.

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  8. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  9. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  10. Western Energy Company's Rosebud Mine, Area C, Block 1, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A final environmental impact statement (EPA No. 820517F) for a proposed surface mining project in Montana that would produce an estimated 24 million tons of coal from a 709-acre tract notes that the project would last five years and would require two separate support facilities for the mine. The project would produce coal for units 3 and 4 of the Colstrip generating facility and jobs for up to 600 people. Annual local revenues would increase 11%. Mining activities would disrupt ground water aquifers and double the concentration of dissolved solids in the spoils aquifer. Other problems would be erosion, soil contamination, a loss of vegetation and wildlife, and deterioration of crop land. New workers and their families would strain local resources. Several cultural resource sites would suffer varying degrees of damage. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 requires the impact statement.

  11. Sulfate reduction in ground water of southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dockins, William S.; Olson, G.J.; McFeters, G.A.; Turbak, S.C.; Lee, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground waters in southeastern Montana were investigated to determine if sulfide production was bacterially mediated. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in 25 of 26 groundwater samples in numbers ranging from 20 to greater than 24,000 bacteria per 100 milliliters for those samples containing bacteria. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation studies indicate a biological role in sulfate reduction. However, sulfate-reducing activity as determined by use of a radioactive sulfur isotope was observed in only 1 of 16 samples. Bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction is postulated to be responsible for a major part of the sulfide produced in these ground waters. These bacteria are most likely active in the adsorbed state, possibly in subsurface microzones where environmental conditions are conducive to sulfate reduction. (USGS)

  12. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  13. Hydrogeologic data from the northern Powder River Basin, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, Steven E.; Stimson, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic data have been collected as part of energy-related projects conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northern Powder River basin of southeastern Montana. Records of 1924 stock, domestic, irrigation, public supply and test wells are tabulated in the report. The data include well location, depth of well, casing diameter, type of lift, type of power, use of water, principal aquifer, altitude of land surface , water level, discharge, field specific conductance, and water temperature. Locations of the inventoried wells are shown on a map at a scale of 1:500,000. Lighologic logs of 373 wells and test holes are also included. The geologic units considered range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. SAPPHIRE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Bannister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral studies located sulfide-bearing quartz veins with demonstrated metallic mineral resources in granitic and metasedimentary rocks in several parts of the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area and contiguous roadless areas, Montana. Mines and prospects contain demonstrated resources of gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc. Gold-bearing placers occur downstream from each of these vein occurrences; most of the gold placers have a probable mineral-resource potential. A replacement body of sulfide minerals is present at the Senate mine adjacent to the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area. Around the Senate mine is an area of probable mineral-resource potential that extends into the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the study area.

  15. Epizootic toxoplasmosis associated with abortion in dairy goats in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1981-04-01

    Perinatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in goats from 2 farms in Montana. Of 7 pregnant does from one farm, 1 aborted a dead fetus and 2 each had a kid infected in utero. Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated histologically in the placenta of 2 of the infected does and by mouse inoculation in all 3 of them. The organism also was isolated from internal organs of 6 of 7 does, 4 of 4 cats, and 3 of 11 chickens from the farm. A pregnant doe from the other farm delivered 3 kids infected with T gondii. One kid was born dead, 1 was moribund when born, and 1 was healthy when born. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the placenta and several tissues of all 3 kids.

  16. Channeling in Paleocene coals, northern Powder River basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Interpretation of 1,200 geophysical logs in the northern Powder River basin, Montana, reveals the paleodrainages influencing coal deposition during the deposition of the Tongue River member (Paleocene, Fort Union Formation). Four channels with associated crevasse splay deposits are recognized: (1) an east-west rosebud drainage near Colstrip, (2) a north-south wall channel near Birney, (3) a north-south Dietz drainage near Tongue River Reservoir, and (4) a north-south Anderson channel in the vicinity of Moorhead. These channels support the concept of a major northeast-flowing drainage system during deposition of the Tongue River Member. Identification of these channels serves as a guide to future coal exploration.

  17. Shoot Tip Culture of Arnica montana for Micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Conchou, O; Nichterlein, K; Vömel, A

    1992-02-01

    Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tips of ARNICA MONTANA on MS and B5 media supplemented with BA (1 mg/l) and NAA (0.1 mg/l). Sections of 1-2 mm in length cultured from IN VITRO germinated seedlings regenerated 7.7 (mean) shoots on the MS medium, whereas sections cultured from greenhouse plants regenerated 9.0 (mean) shoots on the B5 medium within 6 weeks. Subsequent subcultures of shoots on the same media but without NAA resulted in similar or lower multiplication rates (1.6 to 3.1 in 3 weeks). Shoot development was promoted, whereas shoot initiation was simultaneously inhibited by the addition of activated charcoal to the media. Rooting was induced by culturing shoots from seedling as well as from greenhouse plant shoot tips on MS or B5 medium supplemented with NAA. The plantlets were transplanted into soil and grown successfully under greenhouse and field conditions.

  18. Forest Recovery after Four Wildfires in Western Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satterberg, Kevin

    Wildfires in mixed conifer forests have increased in size and occurrence over the past decades and are expected to increase in the future because of a warming climate leading to longer fire seasons. To better understand that impacts of wildfires on forests, research focusing on the connection between severity of the fire and forest recovery is needed. Research on immediate fire effects and post-fire recovery within five years of fires have been reported, however long term effects are largely unexplored. To understand long term recovery in mixed conifer forests after wildfire, four wildfires from the 2003 fire season in western Montana were sampled in the field and via remote sensing. Analysis of field data and satellite imagery shows lower tree density in high severity burns and significant differences in recovery rates between severity classes. This research contributes to the scientific knowledge of long term effects of wildfires in mixed conifer forests.

  19. Geophysical interpretations of the Libby thrust belt, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleinkopf, M. Dean; with sections by Harrison, Jack Edward; Stanley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretations of gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data, supplemented by results from two seismic reflection profiles and five magnetotelluric soundings, were used to study buried structure and lithology of the Libby thrust belt of northwestern Montana. The gravity anomaly data show a marked correlation with major structures. The Purcell anticlinorium and the Sylvanite anticline are very likely cored by stacks of thrust slices of dense crystalline basement rocks that account for the large gravity highs across these two structures. Gravity anomaly data for the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness show a string of four broad highs. The principal magnetic anomaly sources are igneous intrusive rocks, major fault zones, and magnetite-bearing sedimentary rocks of the Ravalli Group. The most important magnetic anomalies in the principal study area are five distinct positive anomalies associated with Cretaceous or younger cupolas and stocks.

  20. Geology and ore deposits of the Philipsburg quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, William Harvey; Calkins, Frank Cathcart

    1913-01-01

    Philipsburg lies about midway between the eastern and western limits of the Rocky Mountain system, if the term be used in the broad sense prevailing in the United States. In the general latitude of Montana the system as defined by American usage is bounded on the west by the Columbia River basalt plain and on the east by the Great Plains. The western limit is fairly definite, but on the east there is no very definite line between the plains and mountains; the mountains are fairly continuous west and north of the Philipsburg quadrangle, but to the east and southeast mountains alternate with broad stretches of semiarid lowland. The quadrangle therefore overlaps the line between two physiographic provinces, one characterized by isolated mountain groups, of which the Flint Creek Range is the most westerly, and the other by more continuous elevations, of which the Sapphire Mountains are an example.

  1. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  2. Hydrogeology of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D. )

    1993-04-01

    The Fort Peck Indian Reservation, which encompasses about 3,300 square miles in northeastern Montana, is characterized by three major types of terrain: Missouri River bottom lands, badlands, and topographically higher benchlands. The reservation lies on the western flank of the Williston Basin, a large, petroleum-rich structural depression in Montana, North and South Dakota, and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Structurally, the area is not complex, although the Poplar Anticline trends northwest through the central part of the reservation. The East Poplar Oil Field lies astride this structure and produces from the mississippian Madison Group. Geologic units that crop out in the reservation are the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Hell Creek Formation; the Tertiary Fort Union and Flaxville Formations; and Quaternary glacial and alluvial deposits. Most ground water is produced from alluvial deposits, glacial deposits, Flaxville Formation, Fort Union Formation, Hell Creek Formation, and Fox Hills Sandstone. Well depths range from about 15 to 300 feet below land surface; depth to water ranges from about 5 to 160 feet. Units deeper than the Fox Hills Sandstone are not important aquifers because of the underlying, thick Bearpaw Shale, and because the water is too mineralized for most uses. Background dissolved-solids concentrations of water from major aquifers is in the range of about 300 to 3,000 milligrams per liter. However, in the East Poplar Oil Field, water in the alluvial and glacial deposits has been contaminated near brine-disposal facilities; dissolved-solids concentration of water is as much as 114,000 milligrams per liter.

  3. Large-scale geometry of Montana thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.W.; Dolberg, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    Regional plunge of a structural culmination in the Sawtooth Mountains, combined with seismic profiles and borehole data, show that the imbricated faults of the Montana Disturbed belt gather upward to merge into a duplex beneath a large thrust plate dominated by the Precambrian Belt Supergroup. The duplex formed after deposition of the Paleocene St. Mary River Formation. This thrust plate overlies the Lewis, Hoadley, El dorado, Steinbach, and related thrust faults and forms the main ranges of the Montana Rocky Mountains. The plate is shaped like a northeasterly tapering wedge; it is 3 to 4 km (10,000 to 13,000 ft) thick at its leading edge, but thickens to more than 25 km (15 mi) to the southwest. At its leading edge, the plate carries lower parts of the Belt supergroup, including the Greyson, Empire, and Spokane formations. These units and overlying parts of the Belt Supergroup thicken dramatically westward within the plate, and the older, very thick, metamorphosed Prichard Formation emerges along the Purcell and related anticlinoria. The plate forms a south-facing monocline along the Lewis and Clark line. The monocline is corrugated into a series of southeast-plunging en echelon folds of Late Cretaceous age and merges with the southern terminus of the Purcell anticlinorium. Along these folds, metamorphosed Belt strata of the plate plunge systematically beneath Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that are preserved in a regional structural depression at the foot of the monocline. Geometric constructions based on areal geology suggest that the monocline has 25 km (15 mi) of structural relief and overlies a major footwall ramp that continues northward beneath the Purcell anticlinorium. This footwall ramp corresponds to the depositional locus for the easterly tapering belt strata of the plate, suggesting a total northeasterly displacement of about 50 km (30 mi) for the plate.

  4. Early Tertiary Anaconda metamorphic core complex, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. M.; Lonn, J.D.; Lageson, D.R.; Kunk, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A sinuous zone of gently southeast-dipping low-angle Tertiary normal faults is exposed for 100 km along the eastern margins of the Anaconda and Flint Creek ranges in southwest Montana. Faults in the zone variously place Mesoproterozoic through Paleozoic sedimentary rocks on younger Tertiary granitic rocks or on sedimentary rocks older than the overlying detached rocks. Lower plate rocks are lineated and mylonitic at the main fault and, below the mylonitic front, are cut by mylonitic mesoscopic to microscopic shear zones. The upper plate consists of an imbricate stack of younger-on-older sedimentary rocks that are locally mylonitic at the main, lowermost detachment fault but are characteristically strongly brecciated or broken. Kinematic indicators in the lineated mylonite indicate tectonic transport to the east-southeast. Syntectonic sedimentary breccia and coarse conglomerate derived solely from upper plate rocks were deposited locally on top of hanging-wall rocks in low-lying areas between fault blocks and breccia zones. Muscovite occurs locally as mica fish in mylonitic quartzites at or near the main detachment. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum obtained from muscovite in one mylonitic quartzite yielded an age of 47.2 + 0.14 Ma, interpreted to be the age of mylonitization. The fault zone is interpreted as a detachment fault that bounds a metamorphic core complex, here termed the Anaconda metamorphic core complex, similar in age and character to the Bitterroot mylonite that bounds the Bitterroot metamorphic core complex along the Idaho-Montana state line 100 km to the west. The Bitterroot and Anaconda core complexes are likely components of a continuous, tectonically integrated system. Recognition of this core complex expands the region of known early Tertiary brittle-ductile crustal extension eastward into areas of profound Late Cretaceous contractile deformation characterized by complex structural interactions between the overthrust belt and Laramide basement uplifts

  5. Dual high-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of minor and major constituents directly from the crude extract of Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Qinglei, Sun; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2015-02-27

    The crude methanol extract of Pueraria lobata was investigated by dual high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition and radical scavenging profiling combined with hyphenated HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Direct analysis of the crude extract without preceding purification was facilitated by combining chromatograms from two analytical-scale HPLC separations of 120 and 600 μg on-column, respectively. High-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiles were obtained after microfractionation of the eluate in 96-well microplates. This allowed full bioactivity profiling of individual peaks in the HPLC chromatogram of the crude methanol extract. Subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis allowed identification of 21 known compounds in addition to two new compounds, i.e., 3'-methoxydaidzein 8-C-[α-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 6″-O-malonyl-3'-methoxydaidzin, as well as an unstable compound tentatively identified as 3'-de-O-methylpuerariafuran. PMID:25679337

  6. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  7. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the (34)S isotopic ion is drastically affected by (13)C2 and (18)O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ((12)C(x)(1)H(y)(16)O(z)(32)S(13)C2(18)O, (12)C(x+2)(1)H(y)(16)O(z+1)(34)S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS(n)). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field. PMID:26423627

  8. Project Sunrise Proceedings Document. The Annual Montana Symposium on Early Education and the Exceptional Child (2nd, Billings, Montana, April 1-3, 1981.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kay P., Ed.; And Others

    Four keynote speeches and 14 sectional presentations comprise the proceedings of the April 1981 Montana Symposium on Early Education and the Exceptional Child. The first speech, entitled "The Yellow Brick Road--Does it Lead to Oz or Abyss?" by B. Fredericks, stresses the importance of gathering solid research evidence to demonstrate that early…

  9. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  10. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Western Montana College Faculty Association (Local 4323, MFT, AFT, AFL-CIO) and the Board of Regents of Higher Education, Montana University System, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ. System, Helena.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Regents of Montana University System and Western Montana College Faculty Association, an American Federation of Teachers affiliate, covering the period July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; dues deduction; dues checkoff;…

  11. A Comparison of the Content Mastery Examination for Educators (CMEE) and the Praxis I Academic Skills Assessment for Initial Certification of Montana Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette

    This comparative study was conducted in preparation for selecting a successor to the National Teachers Examination (NTE) for initial certification of Montana educators. The paper begins by discussing the background of using teacher competency tests in Montana, and examining demographic data on Montana students and certified teachers. Then, the…

  12. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria in Montana, 1947-48

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Roger Warren; Klepper, M.R.; Lowell, W.R.; Honkala, F.S.; Cressman, E.R.; Bostwick, D.A.; Payne, O.A.; Ruppel, E.T.

    1952-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Montana and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, will be published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of many of the sections measured in southwestern Montana (pl. 1), is one of this series. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a companion report (McKelvey and others, 1952). Many people have taken part in this investigation. The program of which this work is a part was organized by V. E. McKelvey. J. G. Evans, J. E. Joyce, J. A. Kelleher, R. L. Konizeski, J. A. Mann, R. L. Parker, J. E Smedley, L. A. Thomas, and W. H. Wilson participated in the description of strata and collection of samples referred to in this report. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt. All the P2O5, F, V2O5, and acid-insoluble analyses were made for the Survey by the U. S. Bureau of Mines at the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory, Albany, Oreg., under the direction of S. M. Shelton and M. L. Wright. The Al2O3, Fe2O3, and loss-on-ignition analyses were about equally distributed between the Bureau of Mines and the Trace Elements Section laboratory of the Survey in Washington, D. C., under the direction of J. C. Rabbit by chemists I. Barlow, A. Caemmerer, J. Greene, N. Guttag, and E. H. Humphrey. The spectrographic analyses were made by D. M. Mortimer, of the Bureau Mines in Albany, and the oil-shale analyses were made by the Bureau of Mines Petroleum and Oil-Shale Experiment Station at Laramie, Wyo. Compilation of the data has been largely by R. P. Sheldon and F. D. Frieske. Organization of the tabular data has been largely by Anita Cozzetto.

  13. Floodplain Vegetation Productivity and Carbon Cycle Dynamics of the Middle Fork Flathead River of Northwest Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakins, A. J.; Kimball, J. S.; Relyea, S.; Stanford, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    River floodplains are vital natural features that store floodwaters, improve water quality, provide habitat, and create recreational opportunities. Recent studies have shown that strong interactions among flooding, channel and sediment movement, vegetation, and groundwater create a dynamic shifting habitat mosaic that promotes biodiversity and complex food webs. Multiple physical and environmental processes interact within these systems to influence forest productivity, including water availability, nutrient supply, soil texture, and disturbance history. This study is designed to quantify the role of groundwater depth and meteorology in determining spatial and temporal patterns of net primary productivity (NPP) within the Nyack floodplain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, Northwestern Montana. We examine three intensive field sites composed of mature, mixed deciduous and evergreen conifer forest with varying hydrologic and vegetative characteristics. We use a modified Biome-BGC ecosystem process model with field-collected data (LAI, increment growth cores, groundwater depth, vegetation sap-flow, and local meteorology) to describe the effects of floodplain groundwater dynamics on vegetation community structure, and carbon/nitrogen cycling. Initial results indicate that conifers are more sensitive than deeper-rooted deciduous species to variability in groundwater depth and meteorological conditions. Forest productivity also shows a non-linear response to groundwater depth. Sites with intermediate groundwater depths (0.2-0.5m) allow vegetation to maintain connectivity to groundwater over longer periods during the growing season, are effectively uncoupled from atmospheric constraints on photosynthesis, and generally have greater productivity. Shallow groundwater sites (<0.2m) are less productive due to the indirect effects of reduced soil aerobic decomposition and reduced plant available nitrogen.

  14. Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, G.A.; Blanchet, R.J. ); Linder, G. )

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork River (CFR) and the benthic and terrestrial habitats further downstream in Milltown Reservoir. The risk characterization component of the process integrated results from a triad of information sources: (a) chemistry studies of environmental media to identify and quantify exposures of terrestrial and aquatic organisms to site-related contaminants; (b) ecological or population studies of terrestrial vegetation, birds, benthic communities, and fish; and (c) in situ and laboratory toxicity studies with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and plants, small mammals, amphibians, and fish exposed to contaminated surface water, sediments, wetland soils, and food sources. Trophic transfer studies were performed on waterfowl, mammals, and predatory birds using field measurement data on metals concentrations in environmental media and lower trophic food sources. Studies with sediment exposures were incorporated into the Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate risks to benthic ecology. Overall results of the wetland and terrestrial studies suggested that acute adverse biological effects were largely absent from the wetland; however, adverse effects to reproductive, growth, and physiological end points of various terrestrial and aquatic species were related to metals exposures in more highly contaminated depositional areas. Feeding studies with contaminated diet collected from the upper CFR indicated that trout are at high risk from elevated metals concentrations in surface water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates.

  15. Training the next generation of scientists: Modeling Infectious Disease and Water Quality of Montana Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Wyman, S.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences and the Barrett Foundation have established a scholarship program for undergraduate students. The Barrett Scholarship program, aware of the importance of developing research quantitative and writing skills for undergraduate students, provides scholarships to outstanding undergraduate students for environmental engineering research projects. The intent is to help retain student interest early in their undergraduate engineering careers when few of their first or second year classes have little engineering or real-world application. We focus on one Barrett research project, derived from a NSF Biodiversity and Infectious Disease grant, because of the multiple disciplines (engineering, ecology, biology) and education levels (spanning secondary to graduate) involved. In this research, students across three departments at two universities (University of Vermont, Montana State University) and one independent high school (Vermont Commons School) formed a cohesive collaboration with faculty members to identify different worm taxa of T. Tubifex. Whirling disease has had a severe impact on the native population of salmonids in the upper Madison River MT, USA, resulting in the death of most fish that contract the parasite. T. Tubifex is the intermediate host for Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease in salmonids. Samples collected from eight locations along the Madison River varied in the prevalence of whirling disease. The site-specific worm community structure has been measured and identified using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key to link worm communities to geochemical features (e.g. site elevation, slope, pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and percent of organic soil matter). Using a unique clustering algorithm, we group geochemical features to discriminate over a range of water quality gradients (i.e., “clean” to “dirty”). The link between

  16. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    PubMed

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  17. Predicting Disease Risk, Identifying Stakeholders, and Informing Control Strategies: A Case Study of Anthrax in Montana.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lillian R; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases that affect wildlife and livestock are challenging to manage and can lead to large-scale die-offs, economic losses, and threats to human health. The management of infectious diseases in wildlife and livestock is made easier with knowledge of disease risk across space and identifying stakeholders associated with high-risk landscapes. This study focuses on anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, risk to wildlife and livestock in Montana. There is a history of anthrax in Montana, but the spatial extent of disease risk and subsequent wildlife species at risk are not known. Our objective was to predict the potential geographic distribution of anthrax risk across Montana, identify wildlife species at risk and their distributions, and define stakeholders. We used an ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of anthrax risk. We overlaid susceptible wildlife species distributions and land ownership delineations on our risk map. We found that there was an extensive region across Montana predicted as potential anthrax risk. These potentially risky landscapes overlapped the ranges of all 6 ungulate species considered in the analysis and livestock grazing allotments, and this overlap was on public and private land for all species. Our findings suggest that there is the potential for a multi-species anthrax outbreak on multiple landscapes across Montana. Our potential anthrax risk map can be used to prioritize landscapes for surveillance and for implementing livestock vaccination programs. PMID:27169560

  18. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts. PMID:19901399

  19. NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT): Professional Development for Montana K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Kathryn; McKenzie, D.; Des Jardins, A.; Key, J.; Kanode, C.; Willoughby, S.

    2012-05-01

    Piloted during the 2011-2012 academic year, the NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT) teacher workshop program has introduced five solar astronomy and space weather activities to over forty Montana K-12 teachers. Because many Montana schools are geographically isolated (40% of Montana students live more than 50 miles from a city) and/or serve traditionally underrepresented groups (primarily Native Americans), professional development for teachers can be costly and time consuming. However, with funding shared by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly EPO team and the Montana Space Grant Consortium, graduate student specialists are able to host the two-hour NEAT workshops on-site at the schools free of charge, and participating teachers earn two continuing education credits. Leveraging the existing catalogue of research-based NASA activities, the featured NEAT activities were chosen for their ease-of-use and applicability to Montana science standards. These include three advanced activities for older students, such as a paper plate activity for the June 5th, 2012 Transit of Venus, Kinesthetic Astronomy, and the Herschel Infrared experiment, along with two simpler activities for the younger students, such as Solar Cookies and the Electromagnetic War card game. Feedback surveys show that NEAT workshop participants were interested and engaged in the activities and planned on using the activities in their classrooms. With such positive responses, the NEAT program has been a huge success and can serve as a model for other institutions looking to increase their space public outreach and education.

  20. Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William J.; Gill, James R.

    1952-01-01

    A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many area appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two area in Montana and one area of Idaho were examine. The coal in five of these area is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 area occur in Tertiary "lake-bed" deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyroclastic sequences. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Prickly Pear Valley northeast of Helena, Montana, contained 0.013 percent uranium. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Flint Creek Valley southwest of Drummond, Montana, contained 0.006 percent uranium. All other samples of both Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale were essentially non-radioactive. No further work is planned on the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale in western Montana. A few localities in Idaho will be visited in the course of other work.

  1. Sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana: helenalin and dihydrohelenalin chemotypes in Spain.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Rodríguez Guitián, Manuel A; Romero Franco, Rosa; López Mosquera, Elvira; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Littlejohn, Roger P

    2009-05-01

    An analytical RPLC method for sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana has been extended to include quantitative analyses of dihydrohelenalin esters. LC-ESI-MS-MS distinguished the isomeric helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. The dihydrohelenalin esters have lower response factors for UV detection than do helenalin esters, which must be taken into account for quantitative analyses. Analyses of flowers from 16 different wild populations of A. montana in Spain showed differing proportions of helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. For the first time a chemotype with high levels of helenalin esters (total helenalins 5.2-10.3 mg/g dry weight) is reported in Spanish A. montana. These samples were from heath lands at high altitude (1330-1460 m), whereas samples from meadows and peat bogs at lower altitudes were the expected chemotype with high levels of dihydrohelenalin esters (total dihydrohelenalins 10.9-18.2 mg/g). The phenolic compounds, both flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acids, in Spanish A. montana are reported for the first time. The levels of several of these compounds differed significantly between samples from heath lands and samples from peat bogs or meadows, with the heath land samples being most similar to central European A. montana in their phenolic composition.

  2. 75 FR 27551 - Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  3. Montana K-12 & School Choice Survey: What Do Voters Say about K-12 Education? Polling Paper Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The "Montana K-12 & School Choice Survey" project, commissioned by the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice and conducted by Braun Research, Inc. (BRI), measures Montana registered voters' familiarity and views on a range of K-12 education topics and school choice reforms. The author and his colleagues report response levels and differences…

  4. Libraries across the Education Continuum: Relationships between Library Services at the University of Montana and Regional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Kate; Potter, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the library instructional programming and resources of high school library media centers in western Montana with the intent of documenting and understanding both the services provided to and the experiences of first-year college students at the University of Montana. Results from the survey (n = 22) and site visits (n = 10)…

  5. 77 FR 74873 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Museum of the Rockies at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Museum of the Rockies at Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; and University of Wyoming, Department of Anthropology, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of...

  6. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  7. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  8. Climate change in Western Montana: local needles in the global haystack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. M.; Zaspel, C. E.; Hill, J.

    2012-12-01

    Global and national climate-change statistics do not inform individuals and communities about specific challenges they face at home. Often local climate-scale data is available but not in a form that elucidates change through time. To investigate site-specific climate trends, the Western Regional Climate Data Center provides free on-line monthly temperature and precipitation data. We investigated 20 sites in Montana (10 SW and 10 NW), selected for spatial distribution and length and continuity of records. Sixteen had more than 100 yrs of record (mean 105, range 75 to 118). All had some missing years, and we eliminated others from analysis, based arbitrarily on missing five or more days/month or one month/year. Mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, and seasonal temperature and precipitation were graphed for the 20 sites over the period of record. The slopes of regression lines were used to describe change per century. Standard deviations and r2 values provided numerical descriptions of annual variability and the predictive values of the slopes. In NW Montana, average temperature for the 10 sites was 44.1°F/6.7°C (range 39.8 to 46.1°F/4.3 to 7.8°C) and average annual precipitation was 16.3 in/41.4 cm (range 12.6 to 20.9 in/32.0 to 53.1 cm). Changes averaged for all 10 sites were about +2°F/3.6°C and about +0.2 in/0.5 cm/100 yrs. Eight of the 10 sites experienced temperature increases, ranging from about 0.5 to about 4.5°F/0.9 to 8.1°C, with two sites unchanged. Four sites had precipitation losses (up to almost 3.5 in/8.9 cm) and four had precipitation gains (up to about 3.5 in/8.9 cm), with two unchanged. In one community, a 100-yr temperature rise of more than 4°F/7°C accompanied a loss of more than 3 in/7.6 cm of precipitation! In SW Montana, the 10-site average for the period of record was 42.41°F/5.78°C (range 36.37 to 46.86°F/2.43 to 8.26°C) and 15.53 in/39.45 cm (range 11.86 to 18.57 in/30.12 to 47.17 cm), with changes averaging

  9. Characteristics of modern pollen rain and the relationship to vegetation in sagebrush-steppe environments of Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, C.; Bryant, V.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in pollen production and dispersal characteristics among plant species complicate our ability to determine direct relationships between deposited pollen and actual vegetation. In order to better understand modern pollen-vegetation relationships, we analyzed pollen from 61 samples taken from sagebrush-steppe environments across Montana and compared them with the actual vegetation composition at each site. We also determined to what degree sagebrush-steppe communities can be geographically distinguished from one another based on their pollen signature. Pollen preservation was good, especially in wetter environments, with pollen degradataion ranging from 4-15%. Diploxylon Pinus was the primary contributor to the pollen rain, even in plots where pine trees did not occur or were several kilometers from the plot. Artemisia and grass pollen are underrepresented in the soils samples, while Chenopodiaceae and Juniperus pollen are overrepresented when compared to actual vegetation composition. Insect-pollinated species are present only in very minor amounts in the soil samples, even though some (e.g., Brassica) are abundant in the plots. In general, pollen spectra show significant differences between regions, however, within each region the individual spectra are not statistically significant from one another. An understanding of modern pollen-vegetation relationships and the palynological “fingerprint” of sagebrush-steppe communities aid in climatic and ecological interpretations of fossil pollen assemblages. The data also provide important control samples for forensics studies that use pollen to geolocate an object or person to a crime scene.

  10. Social Support Functions During a Slowly-Evolving Environmental Disaster: The Case of Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Child, Jeffrey T; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Previous research concluded that victims of rapid-onset natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes) receive and provide high levels of instrumental support. However, different kinds of disasters (natural or human caused [technological, environmental, intentional/terrorism], rapid or slow onset, short or long duration) may create different stressors and thus influence the types of social support most needed and provided. We explored social support functions during an ongoing "slowly-evolving environmental disaster" in Libby, Montana due to widespread exposure to amphibole asbestos. Analyses of focus groups and in-depth interviews focused on the relative salience of support functions (emotional, informational, instrumental, and spiritual) identified as needed or provided. Dominant themes emerged around each function. Results indicated that informational support is particularly salient in this type of disaster. Although not all community members had experienced the disaster's health consequences (asbestos-related disease [ARD]), all had been affected by the disaster and had informational needs. The nature of those informational needs (e.g., medical vs. financial) varied based on experience with ARD. Experience with ARD was associated with awareness of disaster-related emotional and instrumental support needed or provided. Results have implications for future research on slowly-evolving environmental disasters and institutional and community responses to them.

  11. Quantifying the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power in Six Rural Montana Counties Using NREL's JEDI Model; Period of Performance: December 1, 2003--May 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Costanti, M.

    2004-09-01

    The economic development potential that wind power offers is often an overlooked aspect of today's wind power projects. Much has been written about how wind can spur economic development, but few have attempted to quantify these impacts. Using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Jobs, Economic Development, and Impacts Model (JEDI), the author examined six counties in Montana to quantify these impacts. The overriding project goal was to illuminate economic development opportunities from wind project development for six Montana counties using an objective economic modeling tool. Interested stakeholders include the agriculture community, wind developers, renewable energy advocates, government officials, and other decision-makers. The Model was developed to enable spreadsheet users with limited or no economic modeling background to easily identify the statewide economic impacts associated with constructing and operating wind power plants. The Model's User Add-In feature allows users to conduct county-specific analyses using county IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for PLANning) multipliers, while state-level multipliers are contained within the Model as default values for all 50 states.

  12. A Composite Depth Scale for Sediments from Crevice Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Skipp, G.; Honke, J.; Chapman, C.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study to derive records of past environmental change from lake sediments in the western United States, a set of cores was collected from Crevice Lake, Montana, in late February and early March 2001. Crevice Lake (latitude 45.000N, longitude 110.578W, elevation 1,713 meters) lies adjacent to the Yellowstone River at the north edge of Yellowstone National Park. The lake is more than 31 meters deep and has a surface area of 7.76 hectares. The combination of small surface area and significant depth promote anoxic bottom-water conditions that preserve annual laminations (varves) in the sediment. Three types of cores were collected through the ice. The uppermost sediments were obtained in freeze cores that preserved the sediment water interface. Two sites were cored with a 5-centimeter diameter corer. Five cores were taken with a 2-meter-long percussion piston corer. The percussion core uses a plastic core liner with an inside diameter of 9 centimeters. Coring was done at two sites. Because of the relatively large diameter of the percussion cores, samples from these cores were used for a variety of analyses including pollen, charcoal, diatoms, stable isotopes, organic and inorganic carbon, elemental analyses, and magnetic properties.

  13. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  14. Holocene faulting on the Mission fault, northwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenaa, D.A.; Klinger, R.E.; Levish, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    South of Flathead Lake, fault scarps on late Quaternary surfaces are nearly continuous for 45 km along the western flank of the Mission Range. On late Pleistocene alpine lateral moraines, scarp heights reach a maximum of 17 m. Scarp heights on post glacial Lake Missoula surfaces range from 2.6--7.2 m and maximum scarp angles range from 10[degree]--24[degree]. The stratigraphy exposed in seven trenches across the fault demonstrates that the post glacial Lake Missoula scarps resulted from at least two surface-faulting events. Larger scarp heights on late Pleistocene moraines suggests a possible third event. This yields an estimated recurrence of 4--8 kyr. Analyses of scarp profiles show that the age of the most surface faulting is middle Holocene, consistent with stratigraphic evidence found in the trenches. Rupture length and displacement imply earthquake magnitudes of 7 to 7.5. Previous studies have not identified geologic evidence of late Quaternary surface faulting in the Rocky Mountain Trench or on faults north of the Lewis and Clark line despite abundant historic seismicity in the Flathead Lake area. In addition to the Mission fault, reconnaissance studies have located late Quaternary fault scarps along portions of faults bordering Jocko and Thompson Valleys. These are the first documented late Pleistocene/Holocene faults north of the Lewis and Clark line in Montana and should greatly revise estimates of earthquake hazards in this region.

  15. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  16. View of north central Wyoming and southern Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana as seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River flowing northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, in the center of the picture, is impounded by a dam across the Big Horn River. A sharp contrast is clearly evident between the small rectangular crop areas along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formations appear in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the fr

  17. Upper cretaceous microbial petroleum systems in north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2007-01-01

    Methanogenesis began soon after the deposition (early-stage methanogenesis) of the Cenomanian to Campanian source sediments, and was either sustained or rejuvenated by episodic meteoric water influx until sometime in the Paleogene. Methanogenesis probably continued until CO2 and hydrogen were depleted or the pore size was compacted to below tolerance levels of the methanogens. The composition of the Montana and Colorado Group gases and coproduced formation water precludes a scenario of late-stage methanogenesis like the Antrim gas system in the Michigan basin. Some portion of the methane charge was originally dissolved in the pore waters, and subsequent reduction in hydrostatic pressure caused the methane to exsolve and migrate into local stratigraphic and structural traps. The critical moment of the microbial gas systems is this timing of exsolution rather than the time of generation (methanogenesis). Other studies suggest that the reduction in hydrostatic pressure may have been caused by multiple geologic events including the lowering of sea level in the Late Cretaceous, and subsequent uplift and erosion events, the youngest of which began about 5 Ma.

  18. Dolomitization of the Devonian Jefferson Formation, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.M. ); Dorobek, S.L. )

    1989-07-01

    Dolomitization of the Devonian Jefferson Formation in south-central Montana probably occurred as a result of multiple dolomitizing events. Petrographic and geochemical studies show the presence of five distinct dolomite types: cathodoluminescently nonzoned euhedral dolomite, nonzoned subhedral/anhedral dolomite mosaics, zoned euhedral dolomite, irregularly luminescent dolomite, and zoned dolomite cement. Data from Jefferson Formation dolomite indicate a progression from early, nonstoichiometric, euhedral replacive dolomites, to nearly stoichiometric, subhedral/anhedral dolomite mosaics. {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C ratios decrease with increasing degree of dolomitization. Euhedral replacive dolomites in lower dolomitic limestone layers probably formed by early, refluxing hypersaline brines in evaporitic settings. These dolomites are the least stoichiometric and have the heaviest {delta}{sup 18}O signatures of all dolomites which were analyzed. Massive dolomitization of the upper two-thirds of the Jefferson Formation probably occurred when dolomitizing brines migrated downward through the upper Jefferson Formation during deposition of thick evaporite sequences in the overlying Three Forks Formation. Mass balance calculations indicate that this mechanism was more than adequate to cause the massive dolomitization in the upper Jefferson Formation. Massive dolomitization during Logan Gulch deposition may have been the final phase of dolomitization, or dolomite may have recrystallized to more stoichiometric, {sup 18}O- and {sup 13}C-depleted subhedral/anhedral mosaics during later burial.

  19. Characterization and pharmacodynamic properties of Arnica montana complex.

    PubMed

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kočmalová, M; Pawlaczyk, I; Zaczyńska, E; Czarny, A; Uhliariková, I; Gancarz, R; Fraňová, S

    2014-08-01

    A dark brown polymeric complex was isolated from flowering parts of medicinal plant Arnica montana L. by hot alkaline extraction followed by neutralization and multi-step extractions with organic solvents. It was recovered in 5.7% yield, on GPC showed two peaks of molecular mass of 9 and 3.5kDa. The compositional analyses of Arnica complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (26%), uronic acids (12%), phenolics (1.25mM or 213mg of GAE/1g), and low protein content (∼1%). The carbohydrate moiety was rich mainly in rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan. The antitussive tests showed the reduction of the cough efforts by Arnica complex, however, its total antitussive effect was lower compared with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. The bronchodilatory activity of Arnica complex was similar to salbutamol, a classic antiasthmatic drug, and was confirmed by significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance in vivo and by considerably attenuated the amplitude of acetylcholine and histamine-induced contractions in vitro. Arnica complex did not show any cytotoxic effect on mouse fibroblast cultures and human lung cells, up to the dose of 500μg/mL.

  20. Floods of June 4 and 12, 1976, at Culbertson, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    Runoff from rainfall caused flooding in the town of Culbertson, Montana, on June 4 and 12, 1976. Flood damage was mostly to business and residential structures within Culberston. Two small drainage contributed the peak flows, which at one site exceeded 1,200 cubic feet per second per square mile of contributing area. Flow from the Missouri River tributary No 5 at Culbertson consisted of flow through a pipe-arch at the State Highway 16 crossing and flow that overtopped the right bank of the main channel. Maximum combined pipe-arch and bypass flow for the June 12 flood was 1,30030 cubic feet per second. Flow from Diamond Creek consisted of flow through a culvert at the U.S. Highway 2 crossing west of Culbertson and flow that overtopped a road. Maximum combined culvert and bypass flow for the June 4 flood was 1,320 cubic feet per second. Failure of small dam increased the flow volume of the flood.

  1. Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

  2. Age of the basement rocks of southwest Montana.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, H.L.; Hedge, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rb-Sr analyses of a suite of quartzofeldspathic gneisses that are interlayered with beds of marble, quartzite, and amphibolite in the Ruby and Tobacca Root Ranges and the Gallatin River canyon of southwest Montana show that the age of metamorphism of these strata occurred about 2750 m.y. ago. The 13 samples analyzed are from rock units that have in the past been assigned stratigraphically to the Pony Group, Cherry Creek Group, and Dillion Granite Gneiss. Except for two samples of anomalous composition, the data define a linear array on an isochron diagram that has a best-fit value of 2762+- 113 m.y. Inclusion of other published data for the Tobacco Root Range yields a best-fit value of 2730+- 85 m.y. This age corresponds closely to that of the principal metamorphic-plutonic epoch of the Beartooth Mountains, to which the term 'Beartooth orogeny' has been applied. It also demonstrates that the major Precambrian metasedimentary sequences of the region are of Archean age. - Authors

  3. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  4. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana

    PubMed Central

    Scannella, John B.; Fowler, Denver W.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Horner, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor–descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria. PMID:24982159

  5. New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.

    1986-08-01

    Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193 bbl of oil and 3,061,522 mcf of gas, with Lakota sandstones being most productive. Lakota production occurs from a structural-stratigraphic trap in an east-west-trending channel on the axis of Clarks Fork anticline, geographically near the center of the township. Our structural reinterpretation of Clarks Fork field suggests that Elk Basin anticline is a northwest extension of the Elk Basin field anticline. The Elk Basin thrust truncates the north limb of the fold and does not strike to the northwest, as shown by earlier interpretations. They interpret a northwest-striking thrust in the center of the township as a splay off the Elk Basin thrust, and have named it the Clarks Fork thrust. The Clarks Fork anticline is located on the hanging wall of Clarks Fork thrust. Subsurface maps indicate the Clarks Fork area has not been fully developed. Stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Greybull sandstones are present in several areas of the township. Structural traps in the center and northwest portions of the township may also exist.

  6. Glacier-derived August runoff in northwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Adam; Harper, Joel T.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The second largest concentration of glaciers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains is located in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. The total glacier-covered area in this region decreased by ∼35% over the past 50 years, which has raised substantial concern about the loss of the water derived from glaciers during the summer. We used an innovative weather station design to collect in situ measurements on five remote glaciers, which are used to parameterize a regional glacier melt model. This model offered a first-order estimate of the summer meltwater production by glaciers. We find, during the normally dry month of August, glaciers in the region produce approximately 25 × 106 m3 of potential runoff. We then estimated the glacier runoff component in five gaged streams sourced from GNP basins containing glaciers. Glacier-melt contributions range from 5% in a basin only 0.12% glacierized to >90% in a basin 28.5% glacierized. Glacier loss would likely lead to lower discharges and warmer temperatures in streams draining basins >20% glacier-covered. Lower flows could even be expected in streams draining basins as little as 1.4% glacierized if glaciers were to disappear.

  7. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana.

    PubMed

    Scannella, John B; Fowler, Denver W; Goodwin, Mark B; Horner, John R

    2014-07-15

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor-descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria.

  8. Reproductive ecology of Dusky Flycatchers in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Breeding ecology of Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) was studied in western Montana from May-August 1974. Dusky Flycatchers were monogamous and single-brooded although some pairs made renesting attempts after first nests failed. Length of the reproductive cycle for first nesting attempts, from arrival on the breeding grounds to fledging, was about 70 days. All nests were placed in shrubs, primarily ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) and Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), and were an average of 150 cm above the ground. Females incubated a clutch with an average of 4.0 eggs for 15-16 days, and the average nestling period was 17.5 days. Both sexes fed nestlings and fledglings, but only females brooded nestlings. Egg survival was 63.8%, hatching success was 95.4%, and nestling survival was 61.9% for an overall probability of 0.376 percent that an egg produced a fledgling. Predation was the major cause of nest failure. Dusky Flycatchers reared an average of 1.9 fledglings/pair.

  9. Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Montana using L-moments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, C.

    1998-01-01

    Dimensionless precipitation-frequency curves for estimating precipitation depths having small exceedance probabilities were developed for 2-, 6-, and 24-hour storm durations for three homogeneous regions in Montana. L-moment statistics were used to help define the homogeneous regions. The generalized extreme value distribution was used to construct the frequency curves for each duration within each region. The effective record length for each duration in each region was estimated using a graphical method and was found to range from 500 years for 6-hour duration data in Region 2 to 5,100 years for 24-hour duration data in Region 3. The temporal characteristics of storms were analyzed, and methods for estimating synthetic storm hyetographs were developed. Dimensionless depth-duration data were grouped by independent duration (2,6, and 24 hours) and by region, and the beta distribution was fit to dimensionless depth data for various incremental time intervals. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to develop relations between dimensionless depths for a key, short duration - termed the kernel duration - and dimensionless depths for other durations. The regression relations were used, together with the probabilistic dimensionless depth data for the kernel duration, to calculate dimensionless depth-duration curves for exceedance probabilities from .1 to .9. Dimensionless storm hyetographs for each independent duration in each region were constructed for median value conditions based on an exceedance probability of .5.

  10. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  11. Maintenance of an insanity defense under Montana's "abolition" of the insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Steadman, H J; Callahan, L A; Robbins, P C; Morrissey, J P

    1989-03-01

    In 1979, Montana's insanity defense was replaced with the more restrictive mens rea defense, a change that has been described as an example of "abolition" of the insanity defense. The authors identified cases in which mental health was an issue in seven Montana counties for 3 years before and 3 years after the 1979 reform. They found that acquittals based on the insanity plea markedly declined, but that dismissals based on incompetence to stand trial increased substantially following the reform. They conclude that dismissal based on incompetence to stand trial became a substitute for acquittal based on the insanity plea under mens rea.

  12. [Helenalin- and 11,13-Dihydrohelenalinester from Flowers of Arnica montana.].

    PubMed

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Matthiesen, U

    1983-12-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. 13 helenanolides were isolated and identified. They are shown to be 11,13-dihydrohelenalin ( 1), helenalin ( 2) and their ester derivatives 3-13 (see figure). The natural occurence of 6-O-isobutyryl-, 6-O-tigloyl-, 6-O-isovaleryl- and 6-O-(2-methyl)-butyrylhelenalin (compounds 9, 11, 12, 13) is reported for the first time. The qualitative sesquiterpene lactone composition in flowers of A. MONTANA from different regions was found to be variable.

  13. Impacts of smelter emissions on vegetation communities -- The identification of causal mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, H.; Lipton, J.; Lejeune, K.; Cacela, D.

    1995-12-31

    Field measurements of vegetation community structure in an area of southwest Montana contaminated by arsenic and metals were combined with data from laboratory phytotoxicity studies and field soil sampling studies to identify the causal mechanisms responsible for modifications to the vegetation communities. Causal relationships between vegetation community modifications and continents were identified using two methodologies: Kendalltau correlations among soil contaminant concentrations, phytotoxicity scores, and vegetation community matrices; and a causality evaluation approach that included the identification and evaluation of all other stressors that could potentially have resulted in the observed vegetation impacts. It was concluded that the contaminants were important causal agents in the observed modifications to the vegetation communities.

  14. Cyclic platform dolomites of Devonian Jefferson Formation, Montana and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary field study indicates that the Devonian Jefferson Formation in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho consists of cyclic sequences of shallow marine platformal dolomites that grade basinward into slope sediments deposited on a steepened carbonate ramp. Individual shallowing-upward, platformal cycles are 25 to < 1 m (82 to 3 ft) thick and, from top to bottom, consist of: solution-collapse breccia caps; cryptalgal dolomudstone; rare ooid dolograinstone; thin-bedded Amphipora dolowackestone; sucrosic dolostones with abundant lenticular to domal stromatoporoids; thin-bedded, fine-grained, shaly dolostones with closely spaced hardgrounds that grade upward into burrow-homogenized, irregularly bedded dolostones. Thinner cycles (< 5 m or 16 ft thick) contain fewer basal lithologies and typically consist only of cryptalgal dolomudstone with breccia caps. The 1 to 25-m thick cycles comprise larger scale sequences (30-60 m or 100-200 ft thick), in which smaller scale cycles become progressively thinner toward the top of large-scale sequences. These shallowing-upward carbonate cycles probably formed in response to glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations. Current estimates for the time span represented by the Jefferson formation (9 m.y.), divided by the number of shallowing-upward cycles, indicate that each cycle represents an average time span of 0.6 to 1.0 m.y.. This time span suggests that either: (1) average sedimentation rates were unrealistically slow during deposition of each cycle (< 0.1-3 cm/1000 years); (2) breccia caps represent long periods of subaerial exposure (> 0.5 to about 0.2 m.y.); or (3) the Jefferson Formation was deposited during a much shorter time span than previously thought.

  15. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the existing, computer-accessible, ground-water-quality data for Montana. All known sources of ground-water-quality data were reviewed. Although the estimated number of analyses exceeds 25,000, more than three-fourths of the data were not suitable for this study. The only data used were obtained from the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) of the US Geological Survey, because the chemical analyses generally are complete, have an assigned geohydrologic unit or source of water, and are accessible by computer. The data were assessed by geographic region of the State because of climatic and geologic differences. These regions consist of the eastern plains region and the western mountainous region. Within each region, the data were assessed according to geohydrologic unit. The number and areal distribution of data sites for some groupings of units are inadequate to be representative, particularly for groupings stratigraphically below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Hell Creek Formation in the eastern region and for Quaternary alluvium, terrace deposits, glacial deposits, and associated units in the western region. More than one-half the data for the entire State are for the Tertiary Wasatch, Fort Union, and associated units in the eastern region. The results of statistical analyses of data in WATSTORE indicate that the median dissolved-solids concentration for the groupings of geohydrologic units ranges from about 400 to 5000 milligrams per liter in the eastern region and from about 100 to 200 milligrams per liter in the western region. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The data in WATSTORE for organic constituents presently are inadequate to detect any organic effects of man's activities on ground-water quality. 26 figs., 79 tabs.

  16. Heliophysics Applications of CubeSats at Montana State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies applicable to the miniaturization of satellites accompanied by the simultaneous development of standardized launch deployment systems have enabled unique focused research in Heliophysics to be carried out with sub-10 kg-class free flying satellites. Montana State University (MSU) is among the first institutions to have applied these emergent capabilities to the development of CubeSats for scientific research. Since its founding in 2001, MSU's Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) has designed, built, space qualified, and delivered for launch seven increasingly more capable scientific satellites, all carrying payloads directed toward further understanding of the Geospace environment. Each development cycle led to the launch of one, or more satellites with greater technological sophistication and more scientific capability than it's predecessor(s). The presentation will trace the spiral development of our series of scientific research satellites that aim to further elucidate the dynamical behavior of the energetic charged particle radiation environment near-Earth, culminating with the twin FIREBIRD-II satellites launched on January 31st 2015. Scientific insights revealed by the ongoing Focused Investigation of Relativistic Electron Burst, Intensity, Range, and Dynamics mission include the first correlative measurements of the spatio-temporal coherence of relativistic electron microbursts from two satellites at spatial separations ranging from 10 km to >1000 km; stationary or slowly evolving electron precipitation walls; and both forward and reverse dispersive electron precipitation bursts. FIREBIRD-provided scientific insights serve to illustrate the value of CubeSats for performing focused targeted investigations that lead to deeper insights on the Geospace environment.

  17. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  18. Preliminary report on the Comet area, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becraft, George Earle

    1953-01-01

    Several radioactivity anomalies and a few specimens of sooty pitchblende and other uranium minerals have been found on the mine dumps of formerly productive base- and precious-metal mines along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone in the Comet area in southwestern Montana. The shear zone is from 50 to 200 feet wide and has been traced for at least 5? miles. It trends N. 80 ? W. across the northern part of the area and cuts the quartz monzonitic rocks of the Boulder batholith and younger silicic intrusive rocks, as well as prebatholithic volcanic rocks, and is in turn cut by dacite and andesite dikes. The youngest period of mineralization is represented by chalcedonic vein zones comprising one or more discontinuous stringers and veins of cryptocrystalline silica in silicified quartz monzonite and in alaskite that has not been appreciably silicified. In some places these zones contain no distinct chalcedonic veins but are represented only by silicified quartz monzonite. These zones locally contain uranium in association with very small amounts of pyrite, galena, ruby silver, arqentite, native silver, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and barite. At the Free Enterprise mine, uranium has been produced from a narrow chalcedonic vein that contains disseminated secondary uranium minerals and local small pods of pitchblende and also from disseminated secondary uranium ,minerals in the adjacent quartz monzonite. Undiscovered deposits of uranium ore may occur spatially associated with the base- and precious-metal deposits along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone and with chalcedonic vein zones similar to the Free Enterprise.

  19. Preliminary report on the Comet area, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becraft, George Earle

    1952-01-01

    Several radioactivity anomalies and a few specimens of sooty pitchblende and other uranium minerals have been found on the mine dumps of formerly productive base-and precious-metal mines along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone in the Comet area in southwestern Montana. The shear zone is from 50 to 200 feet wide and has been traced for at least 5 1/2 miles. It trends N. 80° W. across the northern part of the area and cuts the quartz monzonitic rocks of the Boulder batholith and younger silicic intrusive rocks, as well as the pre-batholitic volcanic rocks, and is in turn cut by dacite and andesite dikes. The youngest period of mineralization is represented by chalcedonic vein zones comprising one or more discontinuous stringers and veins of cryptocrystalline silica in silicified quartz monzonite and in alaskite that has not been appreciably silicified. In some places these zones contain no distinct chalcedonic veins, but are represented only by silicified quartz monzonite. These zones locally contain uranium in association with very small amounts of the following minerals: pyrite, galena, ruby silver, argentite, native silver, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and barite. At the Free Enterprise mine, uranium has been produced from a narrow chalcedonic vein that contains disseminated secondary uranium minerals and local small pods of pitchblende and from disseminated secondary uranium minerals in the adjacent quartz monzonite. Undiscovered commercial deposits of uranium ore may occur spatially associated with the base-and precious-metal deposits along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone, and chalcedonic vein zones similar to the Free Enterprise.

  20. Quantitative petrographic analysis of Cretaceous sandstones from southwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S. Krystinik, K.B.; Takahashi, K.I.

    1986-05-01

    The Albian Blackleaf Formation and the Cenomanian lower Frontier Formation in southwest Montana lie within or east of the fold and thrust belt in the Cretaceous foreland basin complex. Petrography of these strata record a complex interaction between source-area tectonism, basin subsidence, and sedimentation patterns associated with a cyclic sequence of transgressions and regressions. Because the petrographic data set was large (127 thin sections) and difficult to interpret subjectively, statistical techniques were used to establish sample and variable relationships. Theta-mode cluster and correspondence analysis were used to determine the contributing effect (total variance) of key framework grains. Monocrystalline quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, and sandstone-, limestone-, and volcanic-lithic grain content contribute most to the variation in the framework-grain population. Theta-mode cluster and correspondence analysis were used to identify six petrofacies. Lower Blackleaf petrofacies (I-III) contain abundant monocrystalline quartz (55-90%) and sedimentary lithic grains (10-50%), which are distributed throughout the study area. Petrofacies I-III are differentiated by variable monocrystalline quartz and sedimentary lithic grain content. Upper Blackleaf and lower Frontier petrofacies (IV-VI) exhibit highly variable, sedimentary and volcanic lithic ratios, and contain less monocrystalline quartz (20-50%) than lower Blackleaf petrofacies. Information from quantitative analyses combined with available paleocurrent data indicates that Blackleaf and lower Frontier detritus was derived from variable source areas through time. Lower Blackleaf detritus was derived from Precambrian through Paleozoic sedimentary terranes to the west, north, and east; whereas, upper Blackleaf and lower Frontier detritus was derived from both sedimentary and volcanic terranes to the south.

  1. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program among Persons at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadheim, Liane M.; Brewer, Kari A.; Kassner, Darcy R.; Vanderwood, Karl K.; Hall, Taryn O.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Harwell, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of translating the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into practice in a rural community. Methods: In 2008, the Montana Diabetes Control Program worked collaboratively with Holy Rosary Healthcare to implement an adapted group-based DPP lifestyle intervention. Adults at high risk for…

  2. Geochemistry of igneous rocks from the Crazy Mountains, Montana, and tectonic models for the Montana Alkalic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DudáS, Francis Ö.

    1991-07-01

    Tectonic models have postulated that subduction of a flat-lying oceanic plate was intimately linked with mid-Eocene magmatism in the northwestern United States and have assumed that this linkage is expressed in the geochemical characteristics of igneous rocks. Geochemical data from the Crazy Mountains in south central Montana can be interpreted as indicating the presence of a subduction-related chemical component. Because radiogenic isotopic data for these rocks restrict the major chemical events in their mantle source to the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary (50-100 Ma) and the mid-Proterozoic (1.6-1.8 Ga), subduction during one or both of these periods is the most plausible explanation for the origin of the arc-like geochemical features. Assessment of geologic and tectonic constraints, however, indicates that Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary subduction cannot explain the regional distribution, the contemporaneity, and the compositional range of the Eocene igneous rocks. The Eocene magmatic event does not show interpretable age progressions, as most subduction-related models suggest. There is considerable geographic overlap in the chemical characteristics of the Eocene igneous rocks, so that chemical zoning cannot be demonstrated south of the U.S.-Canada border. The zone of igneous activity was diffuse and discontinuous, unlike most subduction-related magmatic arcs. The presence of thick lithospheric mantle beneath the Archean Wyoming craton presents difficulties for models that involve subduction of a flat-lying slab. The lithospheric mantle probably controlled the depth of subduction and probably forced the slab to depths greater than those of plausible source regions for subalkalic, mantle-derived basalts. Flat slab subduction models cannot account for the thermal inputs required for extensive magmatism. Subduction-related models fail to explain the CO2-rich character of alkalic magmatism in central Montana. The arc-like geochemical patterns in the Crazy Mountains

  3. 75 FR 1748 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Stonewall Vegetation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... conditions are elevating fuel levels which pose a wildfire threat to nearby homes and communities in the... levels, which in turn pose a threat to nearby homes and communities in the wildland urban interface. The... landscape so that it is diverse, resilient, and sustainable to wildfire and insects; modifying fire...

  4. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria Formation in Montana, 1949-50: part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, R.W.; Cressman, E.R.; Jones, R. S.; Replogle, B.K.

    1953-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Montana and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of many of the sections in southwestern Montana (fig. 1), is one of this series and is the fourth Montana report; it includes the second half of the data gathered in Montana during 1949 and 1950. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a previous report (McKelvey and others, 1953). Many people have taken part in this investigation. The program of which this work is a part was organized by V. E. McKelvey. J. L. Elliott, W. J. Garmoe, R. F. Gosman, C. W. Tandy, and W. H. Wilson participated in the description of strata and the collection of samples referred to in this report. Crushing and splitting of the samples in the field was done by T. K. Rigby. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt.

  5. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria Formation in Montana, 1949-50: part I

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressman, E.R.; Wilson, W.H.; Tandy, C.W.; Garmoe, W.J.

    1953-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Montana and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized for many years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of the sections measured in southwestern Montana (fig. 1) is one of this series and is the third Montana report; it includes about half of the data gathered in Montana during 1949 and 1950. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a previous report (McKelvey and others, 1953). Many people have taken part in this investigation. The program which this work is a part was organized by V. E. McKelvey and the field program was supervised by R. W. Swanson, T. M. Cheney, J. L. Elliott, F. D. Frieske, R. F. Gosman, R. S. Jones, B. K. Replogle, and R. G. Waring participated in the description of strata and the collection of samples referred to in this report. Crushing and splitting of the samples in the field was done by T. K. Rigby. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt.

  6. 78 FR 69296 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... submittals on November 13, 2012 (77 FR 67596). We accepted comments from the public on this proposal from... into the SIP. EPA proposed action on these submittals on January 6, 2011 (76 FR 758). EPA had several concerns with the Program, as was explained in 76 FR 758. Montana withdrew the October 16, 2006,...

  7. Microsatellites indicate minimal barriers to mule deer Odocoileus hemionus dispersal across Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John H. Powell,; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Megan D. Higgs,; Michael R. Ebinger,; Vu, Ninh V.; Cross, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the future spread of chronic wasting disease, we conducted a genetic assessment of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus population structure across the state of Montana, USA. Individual based analyses were used to test for population structure in the absence of a priori designations of population membership across the sampling area. Samples from the states of Wyoming, Colorado and Utah were also included in the analysis to provide a geographic context to the levels of population structure observed within Montana. Results showed that mule deer across our entire study region were characterized by weak isolation by distance and a lack of spatial autocorrelation at distances > 10 km. We found evidence for contemporary male bias in dispersal, with female mule deer exhibiting higher mean individual pairwise genetic distance than males. We tested for potential homogenizing effects of past translocations within Montana, but were unable to detect a genetic signature of these events. Our results indicate high levels of connectivity among mule deer populations in Montana and suggest few, if any, detectable barriers to mule deer gene flow or chronic wasting disease transmission.

  8. 75 FR 4698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the... exempt from control of emissions of airborne particulate matter. This action is being taken under section.... EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change...

  9. 76 FR 38116 - Foreign-Trade Zone 274, Butte, Montana, Manufacturing Authority, REC Silicon, (Polysilicon and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... (Docket 10-2011, 76 FR 9320, 2/17/ 2011). Section 400.32(b)(1)(i) of the FTZ Board's regulations (15 CFR... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 274, Butte, Montana, Manufacturing Authority, REC Silicon... behalf of REC Silicon to manufacture polysilicon and silane gas under FTZ procedures within Site 1 of...

  10. 75 FR 72784 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Blackfoot Travel Plan. SUMMARY: This notice extends the comment period for the Blackfoot Travel Plan from November...

  11. 76 FR 46829 - Montana; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster...; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034,...

  12. 77 FR 34402 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... was necessary to determine boundaries of trust or tribal interest lands. The lands we surveyed are... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM)...

  13. 78 FR 66379 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... the survey of the west boundary of the Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument, through sections... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM)...

  14. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  15. 75 FR 43553 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease MTM 97827, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, as amended, Longshot Oil LLC timely filed a petition for reinstatement of competitive oil and gas lease MTM 97827, Carbon County, Montana. The lessee paid the required... Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (30 U.S.C. 188). We are proposing to reinstate the lease, effective the...

  16. 78 FR 49510 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana...

  17. 76 FR 76970 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana...

  18. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  19. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for Montana related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

  20. 75 FR 38544 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... established by Public Land Order No. 7464 (65 FR 59463 (2000)), which withdrew 3,530.62 acres of public land... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101- 4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Micah Lee, Malta Field Office... respondents, and records relating to the application will be available for public review at the Malta...

  1. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... University-- 1500 University (406) 657-2011 Billings. Drive, Billings, MT 59101. Montana State University...-day public comment period via a Federal Register notice (75 FR 54381). We now extend the comment... p.m. Mountain Time. Background For background information, see our September 7, 2010, notice (75...

  2. 77 FR 31873 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... adjourn at 3:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meetings will in the Great Northern Hotel at 2 S. 1st Street East, in... Manager, Lewistown Field Office, 920 NE Main, Lewistown, Montana 59457, (406) 538-1900, gary_benes@blm.gov... River and Arrow Creek reserved water rights; district managers' updates; fire program updates; and...

  3. 76 FR 31579 - Designation for the State of Georgia and State of Montana Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the January 4, 2011, Federal Register (76 FR 317... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the State of Georgia and State of Montana Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA....

  4. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

  5. 77 FR 75445 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act Land the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the...

  6. 77 FR 43116 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... previously published in a Notice of Inventory Completion in the Federal Register (68 FR 50187-50189, August... Register (68 FR 50187-50189, August 20, 2003), paragraph four, is corrected by substituting the following... University of Montana campus, Missoula County, MT. The remains were excavated by Carling Malouf. One bone...

  7. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability...

  8. 76 FR 758 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... 17.8.759 is being addressed in a separate action (see 75 FR 9834-9843). The submission also contains... previous action (see 75 FR 3993-3996). In addition to these revisions, on October 16, 2006, Montana is also... were addressed by EPA in a previous action (see 75 FR 3993-3996). These proposed amendments to...

  9. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  10. A quantitative approach to assessing the efficacy of occupant protection programs: A case study from Montana.

    PubMed

    Manlove, Kezia; Stanley, Laura; Peck, Alyssa

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative evaluation of vehicle occupant protection programs is critical for ensuring efficient government resource allocation, but few methods exist for conducting evaluation across multiple programs simultaneously. Here we present an analysis of occupant protection efficacy in the state of Montana. This approach relies on seat belt compliance rates as measured by the National Occupant Protection Usage Survey (NOPUS). A hierarchical logistic regression model is used to estimate the impacts of four Montana Department of Transportation (MDT)-funded occupant protection programs used in the state of Montana, following adjustment for a suite of potential confounders. Activity from two programs, Buckle Up coalitions and media campaigns, are associated with increased seat belt use in Montana, whereas the impact of another program, Selective Traffic Enforcement, is potentially masked by other program activity. A final program, Driver's Education, is not associated with any shift in seat belt use. This method allows for a preliminary quantitative estimation of program impacts without requiring states to obtain any new seat belt use data. This approach provides states a preliminary look at program impacts, and a means for carefully planning future program allocation and investigation.

  11. The Positive Impact of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Montana's Indian Education for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carjuzaa, Jioanna

    2012-01-01

    Montana's Indian Education for All Act is an unprecedented state constitutional mandate requiring educators to integrate American Indian content into all instruction. Not all educators in this western state in the United States embrace this requirement, but those who do become change agents as they lead students to challenge the status quo.…

  12. Entrepreneurship in Montana. A Handbook for Integrating Entrepreneurship into All Vocational Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ronald R.

    This handbook was developed to provide vocational education teachers in Montana with information about entreprenuership so that they can integrate the concepts into their vocational courses. The guide provides a definition of entrepreneurship and describes the syllabus for entrepreneurship (ownership, location, financing, personnel, promotion,…

  13. 30 CFR 926.15 - Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments. 926.15 Section 926.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT..., revegetation, and protection of wildlife and air resources; 8, alluvial valley floors, prime...

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Roundup Quadrangle, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-31

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1263 water samples and 961 sediment samples from the Roundup Quadrangle, Montana. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  15. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... necessary to continue protection of Rattler Gulch Limestone Cliffs Area of Critical Environmental Concern... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lonna Sandau, BLM Missoula Field Office, 406-329-1093, or Sandra Ward, BLM Montana State Office, 406- 896-5052. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The purpose for which the withdrawal was first...

  16. 75 FR 59741 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... leasing laws for a period of 5 years to protect the Limestone Hills Training Area pending the processing... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra Ward, BLM, Montana State Office at 406-896-5052. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The... including your address, phone number, e-mail address, or other personal identifying information in...

  17. 75 FR 51837 - Montana; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121-5207 (the Stafford Act). Therefore, I amend my... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major...

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta montana L. essential oil from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kambouche, N; Merah, B; Bellahouel, S; Bouayed, J; Dicko, A; Derdour, A; Younos, C; Soulimani, R

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil of aerial parts of Ruta montana L. growing in the Oran region in the west of Algeria was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 1.63% yield on a dry weight basis. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of R. montana essential oil. Moreover, spectrophotometric analyses were employed to highlight the scavenger capacity of this oil using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Twenty compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses, and the bulk of the compounds of the oil were undecan-2-one (32.8%), nonan-2-one (29.5%), nonanol-2-acetate (18.2%), and psoralen (3.5%). The results obtained using the DPPH test show that R. montana essential oil possesses antiradical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, a linear correlation (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.971, P < .001) was found between the reduction of DPPH stable free radical and the concentration of R. montana essential oil.

  19. Measuring effectiveness of three postfire hillslope erosion barrier treatments, Western Montana, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After the Valley Complex Fire burned 86000ha in western Montana in 2000, two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of contour-felled log, straw wattle, and hand-dug contour tench erosion barriers installed in mitigating postfire runoff and erosion. Sixteen plots were located across a...

  20. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time.

  1. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  2. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

  3. Infiltration and interrill erosion rates after a wildfire in western Montana, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2000 Valley Complex wildfire burned in steep montane forests with ash cap soils in western Montana, USA. The effects of high burn severity on forest soil hydrologic function was examined using rainfall simulations (100 mm h-1 for 1 h) on 0.5-m2 plots. Infiltration rates and sediment yields and c...

  4. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  5. The Restructuring of the Montana University System: Phase Two. Board of Regents Resolution, July 6, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ. System, Helena. Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education.

    This report explains phase two in the restructuring of the Montana University System. In this stage the process focuses on students rather than on the institution, and on the learning process and supporting activities. Four goals are established: (1) getting in, (2) getting through, (3) getting a job, and (4) "paying the way." Recommendations to…

  6. Montana Proficiency Events Handbook. FHA HERO: Future Homemakers of America toward New Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Linda, Ed.; Quickenden, Sandy, Ed.

    This handbook contains directions for FHA/HERO (Future Homemakers of America/Home Economics Related Occupations) participation activities in Montana. Participation activities are local, state, and national level competitions involving students in vocational home economics programs. The handbook provides a general overview of participation…

  7. 78 FR 20354 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S....

  8. 77 FR 53907 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Modification and Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... the Bureau of Land Management, Miles City Field Manager, 111 Garryowen Road, Miles City, Montana 59301-0940. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Pam Wall, BLM, Miles City Field Office, 111 Garryowen Road...\\ in. rebar with a plastic cap at the point of beginning; thence N. 76 54'06'' W., 405.51 feet to a...

  9. 75 FR 11105 - Kootenai (KNF) and Idaho Panhandle National Forests (IPNF); Montana, Idaho and Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Forest Service Kootenai (KNF) and Idaho Panhandle National Forests (IPNF); Montana, Idaho and Washington; Revised Land and Resource Management Plans AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... the National Forest System land and resource management planning rule in effect prior to November...

  10. 76 FR 55643 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Forest is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the effects of proposed changes to... for wheeled and over-snow motorized vehicles. Consistent with Forest Service travel...

  11. Online Credit Recovery: Enrollment and Passing Patterns in Montana Digital Academy Courses. REL 2016-139

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David; Frazelle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. school districts (88 percent) offer credit recovery courses or programs for students. In rural states such as Montana, online credit recovery options are especially popular because they allow schools to serve students in remote areas throughout the year, across a range of subjects, and with few additional resources (Carver & Lewis,…

  12. 78 FR 76319 - Notice of Invitation-Coal Exploration License Application MTM 106757, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Invitation--Coal Exploration License Application MTM 106757, Montana... exploration of coal deposits owned by the United States of America in lands located in Yellowstone and... State Office coal Web site at http://www.blm.gov/mt/st/en/prog/energy/coal.html . A written notice...

  13. Montana School Nutrition Programs Free and Reduced Price Participation Data, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a count of all students in Montana public and nonpublic schools who are eligible to receive free and reduced price benefits for meals and milk. Because the data presented in this report are frozen on December 31, there may be missing values as well as late corrections for a given year because data came in later than that date.

  14. 76 FR 46829 - Montana; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends the... Miller, Office of Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street,...

  15. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ana Paula; Sato, Cesar; Cardoso, Thayna Neves; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control) or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control), per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD45RA (B lymphocytes), CD18 (beta 2 integrin), CD163 (ED2 protein), CD54 (ICAM-1), and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages). The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N = 20) in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P = .01), lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P = .0001), and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P = .05). The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH. PMID:21318109

  16. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.

  17. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ana Paula; Sato, Cesar; Cardoso, Thayna Neves; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control) or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control), per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD45RA (B lymphocytes), CD18 (beta 2 integrin), CD163 (ED2 protein), CD54 (ICAM-1), and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages). The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N = 20) in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P = .01), lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P = .0001), and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P = .05). The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa montana BDHKU 210001

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sourav; Chandrababunaidu, Mathu Malar; Sen, Deeya; Panda, Arijit; Ghorai, Arpita; Bhan, Sushma; Sanghi, Neha

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time the draft genome sequence of Aphanocapsa montana BDHKU 210001, a halotolerant cyanobacterium isolated from India. This is a marine exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing cyanobacterium. The genome of this species is assembled into 11.50 million bases, with 296 scaffolds carrying approximately 7,296 protein-coding genes. PMID:25744997

  19. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY... Sinha, Project Manager, Bonneville Power Administration--TEP-3, P.O. Box 3621, Portland, Oregon 97208... (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to...

  20. State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Progress on Teacher Quality, 2007. Montana State Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" examines what is arguably the single most powerful authority over the teaching profession: state government. This Montana edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the first of what will be an annual look at the status of state policies impacting the…

  1. Family Supports in Montana: Region III: Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam

    Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP) is a private, nonprofit agency serving children with developmental disabilities (0-22 years) and their families in the south-central section of Montana, encompassing Billings and a Crow Indian Reservation. One of the services provided by STEP is specialized family care, to prevent placement out of…

  2. Characteristics and Opinions of Entering Undergraduate Students at Montana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulniak, Dennis J.

    Montana State University's (MSU) use of the Student-Outcomes Information Services (SOIS), developed jointly by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) and the College Board for surveying the characteristics and opinions of entering undergraduate students, is examined. The Entering-Student Questionnaire, one of five…

  3. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  4. Montana Institute for Effective Teaching of American Indian Children (Pablo, MT, June 9-14, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This document contains 12 units of study and student activities that incorporate American Indian culture into various aspects of the elementary school curriculum. These teaching units are the outcome of a teacher summer workshop held at Salish Kootenai College, Pablo, Montana. Sections describe: (1) research and presentations on the Indian tribes…

  5. Tobacco Use Prevention Education. K-12 Lesson Plans from the Montana Model Curriculum for Health Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This publication presents K-12 tobacco use prevention lesson plans for schools in the state of Montana. Lessons for students in grades K-6 include: family connections; body tracing; smokeless tobacco; prenatal development; tobacco look-alikes; tobacco chemicals; analyzing tobacco and alcohol ads; tobacco use and the lungs; and a personal health…

  6. 77 FR 57863 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Montana; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... sources subject to that requirement. 77 FR 23988. Montana did not submit a SIP, knowing that as a... requirements apply to sources that contribute to, as well as cause, such impairment. 70 FR 39129. Visibility... and FLM to determine appropriate methods for assessing a single source's impacts on visibility. 77...

  7. 77 FR 29270 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Montana; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Montana; State Implementation Plan and Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan'' (77 FR 23988). See... technologies that provide similar control levels at higher cost. See 70 FR 39165 (July 6, 2005). We think it is..., SNCR, and SCR.'' 6. On page 24018, in Table 52, the annual emissions reduction for fuel...

  8. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time. PMID:19928761

  9. 75 FR 63434 - Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana; Grizzly Vegetation and Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... EIS for this project was published in the Federal Register (72 FR 31821) on June 8, 2007, and the notice of the Final EIS (74 FR 24006) on May 22, 2009. The Record of Decision was issued concurrently... Forest Service Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana; Grizzly Vegetation and...

  10. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  11. The Montana Radon Study: Social Marketing via Digital Signage Technology for Reaching Families in the Waiting Room

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives I tested a social marketing intervention delivered in health department waiting rooms via digital signage technology for increasing radon program participation among priority groups. Methods I conducted a tri-county, community-based study over a 3-year period (2010–2013) in a high-radon state by using a quasi-experimental design. We collected survey data for eligible participants at the time of radon test kit purchase. Results Radon program participation increased at the intervention site (t38 = 3.74; P = .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 16.0) with an increase in renters (χ21,228 = 4.3; P = .039), Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children families (χ21,166 = 3.13; P = .077) and first-time testers (χ21,228 = 10.93; P = .001). Approximately one third (30.3%; n = 30) attributed participation in the radon program to viewing the intervention message. The intervention crossover was also successful with increased monthly kit sales (t37 = 2.69; P = .01; 95% CI = 1.20, 8.47) and increased households participating (t23 = 4.76; P < .001; 95% CI = 3.10, 7.88). Conclusions A social marketing message was an effective population-based intervention for increasing radon program participation. The results prompted policy changes for Montana radon programming and adoption of digital signage technology by 2 health departments. PMID:25121816

  12. The Isoflavone-Rich Fraction of the Crude Extract of the Puerariae Flower Increases Oxygen Consumption and BAT UCP1 Expression in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-01-01

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones. PMID:22980388

  13. Geology and hydrology of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alverson, Douglas C.

    1965-01-01

    The Fort Belknap Indian Reservation includes an area of 970 square miles in north-central Montana. At its north edge is the Milk River valley, which is underlain by Recent alluvium of the Milk River, glacial deposits, and alluvial deposits of the preglacial Missouri River, which carved and occupied this valley before the Pleistocene Epoch. Rising gently to the south is an undulating glaciated plain broken only by three small syenite porphyry intrusions. Underlying the glacial till of the plain are Upper Cretaceous shale and sandstone of the Bearpaw and Judith River Formations. At the south end of the reservation, 40 miles from the Milk River, an intrusion of syenite porphyry in Tertiary time uplifted, tilted, and exposed the succession of sedimentary rocks overlying the Precambrian metamorphic basement. The sedimentary rocks include 1,000 feet of sandstone and shale of Cambrian age; 2,000 feet of limestone and dolomite of Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian age; 400 feet of shale and limestone of Jurassic age; and 3,500 feet of sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Cretaceous age. Extensive gravel terraces of Tertiary and Quaternary age bevel the upturned bedrock formations exposed around the Little Rocky Mountains. Ground water under water-table conditions is obtained at present from alluvium, glaciofluvial deposits, and the Judith River Formation. The water table ranges in depth from a few feet beneath the surface in the Milk River valley alluvium to more than 100 feet deep in the Judith River Formation. Yields to wells are generally low but adequate for domestic and stock-watering use. Quality of the water ranges from highly mineralized and unusable to excellent; many wells in the Milk River valley have been abandoned because of the alkalinity of their water. Potential sources of additional ground-water supplies are the alluvial gravel of creeks issuing from the Little Rocky Mountains and some extensive areas of terrace gravel. The uplift and tilting of the

  14. Space Radar Image of Missoula, Montana in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Missoula, Montana, created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful because they show scientists the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking north-northeast. The blue circular area at the lower left corner is a bend of the Bitterroot River just before it joins the Clark Fork, which runs through the city. Crossing the Bitterroot River is the bridge of U.S. Highway 93. Highest mountains in this image are at elevations of 2,200 meters (7,200 feet). The city is about 975 meters (3,200 feet) above sea level. The bright yellow areas are urban and suburban zones, dark brown and blue-green areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 46.9 degrees north latitude and 114.1 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA

  15. Early Archean Osmium in Chromitites from the Beartooth Range, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarik, W. G.; Henry, D.

    2004-05-01

    Metamorphosed chromitites from the Hellroaring Plateau (Beartooth Mountains, Montana, USA) were analyzed for osmium isotopes and Re and Os contents. The chromitites are exposed at the surface in pit mines above Quad Creek. Euhedral spinels (Mg# 43-44, Cr# 74-76) are set in a matrix of phlogopite and talc. Chromites are free of ferrichromite rims and have only minor exsolution lamellae. Samples were dissolved in carius tubes using aqua regia and analyzed using MC-NTIMS (Os) and MC-ICPMS (Re). Zircons from the Hellroaring Plateau give average Lu-Hf ages of 3.5 Ga (Stevenson and Patchett, 1990). Quartzites (3.1-2.7 Ga depositional age) from this area contain detrital zircons with U-Pb ages up to 4.0 Ga. The main zircon population dates a major crust-forming event at 3.2-3.4 Ga (Mueller et al. 1998). The Main Beartooth Massif area has seen several generations of amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism before the area was uplift during the Laramide orogeny. Sample QC81-19 contains 43 ppb Os with a 187Os/188Os of 0.1048 (±0.0001, 2σ ). Low Re/Os makes correction for 187Os production since the Archean minimal. Assuming an igneous age of 3.2 Ga, the sample formed with an initial 187Os/188Os of 0.1046, close to the chondritic Re/Os evolution line. A sample aggressively acid leached with still contained considerable osmium of nearly the same 187Os/188Os as the unleached sample. This suggests that the Os is not hosted by grain boundary sulfides, and that fluid influx and recrystallization was not accompanied by either Re or Os mobility. The present-day 187Os/188Os of this sample (0.1048) is one of the least radiogenic bulk sample Os ratios reported to date, slightly more radiogenic than the ratios reported (0.1026) for the 3.8 Ga peridotites of SW Greenland (Bennett et al., 2002). Both suggest the upper mantle source had a chondritic Re/Os in the early Archean. Mantle xenoliths from the Highwood mountains on the northern margin of the Wyoming Craton give minimum model

  16. CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

  17. Geologic map of the western part of the Cut Bank 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, J. E.; Whipple, J.W.; Lidke, D.J.; digital database by Kayser, Helen Z.; Miller, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The paper geologic map of the western part of the Cut Bank 1 degrees x 2 degrees quadrangle, northwestern Montana (Harrison and others, 1998) was digitized and initially attributed by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) and remitted to the U.S. Geological Survey for further attribution and publication of the geospatial digital files. The resulting digital geologic map GIS can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geological maps.

  18. Exploring local perceptions and attributions of 'extreme' wildfire impacts in Rural Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M.; Paveglio, T.; Kallman, D.

    2013-12-01

    To date there have been few systematic efforts to uncover the criteria that local stakeholders use to perceive of and make judgments about the severity of wildfire impacts to the social-ecological systems they are a part of. The study presented here sought to uncover expanded understandings of perceived social and ecological impacts from a wildfire in rural Montana and the underlying causes for those perceived impacts. Such efforts could lead to more comprehensive social impact assessment concerning wildfires or other hazards and help better understand how local perceptions might influence residents' ongoing attitudes toward fire risk or mitigation efforts. The study presented here explored local perceptions of impact from the 2012 Dahl fire near Roundup, MT. The Dahl Fire burned 73 permanent structures, 150 outbuilding and 22,000 acres of predominantly private lands in the rural Bull Mountains. Members of the project team interviewed approximately 50 stakeholders impacted by or involved in the management for the Dahl Fire. Interviews took place in the summer of 2013 and included a variety of residents, emergency personnel, firefighters, local community officials and land management professionals. Results suggest that residents considered the Dahl fire especially impactful given the number of private residences and structures that were burned and the number of people displaced or disrupted by the event (either directly, through efforts to help those affected, or through indirect impacts to community function). The extremity of the firefighting conditions (e.g. wind, relative humidity, terrain), the rapidity of fire spread through populated areas and the damages sustained given previous fires in the area all surprised stakeholders and contributed to their perceptions of impact severity. Conflicts over access to properties during and immediately following the fire, and the variable perception that personal wildfire mitigations did little to reduce damages from the

  19. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  20. American Indian Higher Education Consortium Research Project to Strengthen Local Economic and Human Resource Development Through Indian Community Colleges in the Old West Region. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry G.

    The results of a 12-month research project are summarized including findings of reservation-based field studies at 12 Indian community colleges in Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The project was conducted to provide the participating colleges with additional experiences in the use of research tools and methodology necessary for…

  1. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  2. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    by Cl-rich fluids [4]. The association of high-temperature carbonates with sulphides beneath the J-M reef supports the hydromagmatic theory which involves a late-stage chloride-carbonate fluid percolating upwards, dissolving PGE and sulphides and redepositing them at a higher stratigraphic level. [1] Anovitz, L.M., and Essene, E.J., 1987, Phase Equilibria in the System CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3: Journal of Petrology, v. 28, p. 389-414. [2] Hanley, J.J., Mungall, J.E., Pettke, T., Spooner, E.T.C., and Bray, C.J., 2008, Fluid and Halide Melt Inclusions of Magmatic Origin in the Ultramafic and Lower Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA: Journal of Petrology, v. 49, p. 1133-1160. [3] Boudreau, A.E., and McCallum, I.S., 1989, Investigations of the Stillwater Complex: Part V. Apatites as indicators of evolving fluid composition: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, p. 138-153. [4] Newton, R.C., and Manning, C.E., 2002, Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-NaCl solutions at deep crust/upper mantle pressures and temperature: implications for metasomatic processes in shear zones: American Mineralogist, v. 87, p. 1401-1409.

  3. MORE (Montana Organization for Research in Energy), MT DOE/EPSCoR. Progress performance report, traineeship activities: 30 September 1992--31 January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report focuses on Montana`s Graduate Traineeship in Energy Program and covers the past 16 months. During this period, MORE established a graduate traineeship program in energy, released three calls for applications, and funded 26 graduates. The traineeship program stresses interdisciplinary training to prepare professionals for careers in energy-related fields. Preference is given to research projects involving interdisciplinary, intercampus, collaborative research with DOE national laboratories and Montana`s energy industries. The 26 trainee research projects, campus affiliation, host laboratory, and host scientist are summarized in this report.

  4. Methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter F in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    This report chapter also presents other methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites. Two methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites located on the same streams as streamflow-gaging stations are described. Additionally, envelope curves relating maximum recorded annual peak flows to contributing drainage area for each of the eight hydrologic regions in Montana are presented and compared to a national envelope curve. In addition to providing general information on characteristics of large peak flows, the regional envelope curves can be used to assess the reasonableness of peak-flow frequency estimates determined using the regression equations.

  5. 75 FR 15411 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...-463) and under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393..., Beaver head-Deerlodge National Forest, 420 Barrett Road, Dillon, MT 59725 (406) 683-3979; e-mail pbates...) Orientation to the reauthorized legislation; (2) Purpose of the Secure Rural Schools Act; (3) Roles...

  6. Pennsylvanian fusulinids from the Beaverhead Mountains, Morrison Lake area, Beaverhead County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Verville, G.J. ); Sanderson, G.A.; Baesemann, J.F. ); Hampton, G.L. III )

    1990-04-01

    A fusulinid fauna consisting of Triticites spp., Kansanella aff. K. tenuis (Merchant Keroher), Eowaeringella sp., Fusulina sp. (Beedeina of some authors), Wedekindellina henbesti (Skinner), Plectofusulina spp., Pseudostaffella sp., Fusulinella aff. F. acuminata Thompson, and Eoschubertella sp. has been identified from Pennsylvanian rocks exposed on the Continental Divide, Morrison Lake area, Beaverhead County, Montana. These fusulinids, the first to be published from Pennsylvanian rocks in southwestern Montana, indicate that strata of late Atokan, early Desmoinesian, Missourian, and Virgilian age are present. These rocks, previously assigned to the Quadrant Formation in the Morrison Lake area, are subdivided and correlated with the Bloom, Gallagher Peak Sandstone and Juniper Gulch members of the Snaky Canyon Formation (Skipp et al., 1979a).

  7. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Knuesel, Otto; Weber, Michel; Suter, Andy

    2002-01-01

    This open multicenter trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an Arnica montana fresh plant gel, applied twice daily, in 26 men and 53 women with mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. After 3 and 6 weeks, significant decreases in median total scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were evident in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations (both P < .0001). Scores on the pain, stiffness, and function subscales also showed significant reductions at these timepoints. The overall local adverse-event rate of 7.6% included only one allergic reaction. Sixty-nine patients (87%) rated the tolerability of the gel as "good" or "fairly good," and 76% would use it again. Topical application of Arnica montana gel for 6 weeks was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactone content in leaves of in vitro and field cultivated Arnica montana.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T J; Bomme, U; Alfermann, A W

    1998-04-01

    On the basis of GC and GC/MS analyses we report on the full qualitative and quantitative sesquiterpene lactone (STL) content of in vitro cultivated A. montana plantlets consisting of helenalin and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin esters in approximately equal amounts. The accumulation of STL was shown to be correlated with tissue differentiation in the above-ground parts. The seasonal variation of STL content in leaves of A. montana cultivated in the proving field was investigated. Changes in the composition of the STL fraction were detected. While young plants accumulate mainly helenalin derivatives, the content of such compounds decreases to almost zero within about 6 weeks from the beginning of leaf formation while that of dihydrohelenalin type compounds increases at the same rate and remains constant for a longer period.

  9. Reconnaissance examination for uranium at six mines and properties in Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vhay, John Stewart

    1951-01-01

    Six mining properties in Idaho and Montana at which radioactivity had been reported or suspected were briefly examine by J.S. Vhay and W.A. Roberts of the U.S. Geological Survey in October and November 1949. The properties in Idaho are the Grunter mine, from which radio-active mill concentrates have been reported; the Kentuck mine; the Ulysses-kittie Burton Mill; and the Garm-Lemoreaux mine. The properties in Montana are the Armeson-McKenny property in Beaverhead County and the Oro property in Lincoln County. Moderate to high radioactivity was noted at the Garm-Lemoreaux mine and the Armeson-McKenney property. That most of this radioactivity is not caused by uranium is suggested by the low uranium content of the majority of the samples. One sample from a dump of the Garm-Lemoreaux mine assayed 0.11 percent uranium.

  10. Geology, age, and tectonic setting of the Cretaceous Sliderock Mountain Volcano, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.; Harlan, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    The Sliderock Mountain stratovolcano, part of the Upper Cretaceous continental magmatic arc in southwestern Montana, consists of volcaniclastic strata and basaltic andesite lava flows. An intrusive complex represents the volcano's solidified magma chamber. Compositional diversity within components of the volcano appears to reflect evolution via about 50 percent fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and plagioclase. 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the volcano was active about 78?1 Ma.

  11. Geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, E.T.; Lopez, D.A.; O'Neill, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The digital ARC/INFO databases included in this website provide a GIS database for the geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle of southwest Montana and east-central Idaho. The geologic map was originally published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1803-H. This website directory contains ARC/INFO format files that can be used to query or display the geology of USGS Map I-1803-H with GIS software.

  12. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  13. Floods of May-July 1975 Along the Continental Divide in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred along both sides of the Continental Divide in Montana from May through July 1975. Runoff from above average snowpack at low altitudes combined with runoff from rainfall to cause floods in May. Snowmelt from high altitudes and above average rain in June caused flooding and sustained high flows into July. Federal and State agencies estimated flood damage at about $53,000,000. Peak stages, flow rates, and estimated frequencies were determined for 124 sites.

  14. 76 FR 40237 - Approval and Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... approved the revisions to ARM 17.8.702 (see 67 FR 55125, 8/28/02, and 40 CFR 52.1370(c)(55)) by the time we.... EPA approved all of the October 25, 2005 submittal on July 19, 2006 (71 FR 40922), except for ARM 17.8... 75 FR 54562 (Sept. 26, 2007) (Missouri), 68 FR 2217 (Jan. 16, 2003) (Idaho). Montana's rules...

  15. Preliminary geologic investigation of the West Glendive lignite deposits, Dawson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banet, Arthur C.

    1979-01-01

    Four major lignite beds, all in the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), occur in the West Glendive area, Dawson County, Montana. The Newton Ranch and Poverty Flats beds are in the Lebo Member and the Peuse and Kolberg Ranch beds are in the Tongue River Member. Correlation of the lignite beds across the area shows that the Peuse bed is the thickest and most extensive. Field mapping and drill-hole data indicate that folding and faulting are more common than previously reported.

  16. Environmental effects of historical mining in the Boulder River watershed, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, David

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed an environmental study of historical mining in the Boulder River watershed, Montana, using the watershed approach. Results of the study have been used by State and Federal agencies to plan and implement cleanup. The watershed approach is based on the premise that contaminated sites that have the most profound effect on water and ecosystem quality within an entire watershed can be identified, characterized, and ranked for cleanup.

  17. Potential preservation of native American petroglyphs at Steamboat Butte, Montana, using ethyl silicate solution treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisafe, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the Tongue River Sandstone, collected from the top of Steamboat Butte in central Montana, were treated with an ethyl silicate solution. The samples showed a large increase in compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance, relative to untreated samples, and indicates the treatment(s) significantly consolidate(s) the stone, thus providing a method to increase the lifetime of the petroglyphs carved onto the stone.

  18. The impact of energy development in the Tongue River Basin, southeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hickcox, D.H.

    1982-12-01

    Southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin is experiencing rapid development of its extensive coal deposits. This development has a significant impact on the basin's hydrologic systems. Ground water flow is disrupted by mining and its quality degraded. Mine mouth conversion of the coal involves consumption of large amounts of water at the expense of downstream users, creating several water conflicts. Allocation of Tongue River water has favored agricultural users, and reallocation is difficult.

  19. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  20. A geological reconnaissance across the Bitterroot Range and Clearwater Mountains in Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Waldemar

    1904-01-01

    This report describes, in a preliminary way, a belt of country extending westward from the Bitterroot Valley, across the dividing range and the rugged mountains of the Clearwater system, down to the fertile plateaus which border the canyon of Snake River. It thus presents a reconnaissance section from western Montana across northern Idaho, and deals chiefly with areas about which, thus far, little geological information has been available.