Science.gov

Sample records for puerto montt 2000-2006

  1. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills.

  2. Automatic snow extent extraction in alpine environments: short and medium term 2000-2006 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, P.; Lisini, G.; Merlin, E.; Riva, F.

    2007-10-01

    Water resources in Northern Italy has dramatically shortened in the past 10 to 20 years, and recent phenomena connected to the climate change have further sharpened the trend. To match the observable and collected information with this experience and find methodologies to improve the water management cycle in the Lombardy Region, University of Milan Bicocca, Fondazione Lombardia per l'Ambiente and ARPA Lombardia are currently funding a project, named "Regional Impact of Climatic Change in Lombardy Water Resources: Modelling and Applications" (RICLIC-WARM). In the framework of this project, the analysis of the fraction of water available and provided to the whole regional network by the snow cover of the Alps will be investigated by means of remotely sensed data. While there are already a number of algorithms devoted to this task for data coming from various and different sensors in the visible and infrared regions, no operative comparison and analytical analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of using different data has been attempted. This idea will pave the way for a fusion of the available information as well as a multi-source mapping procedure which will be able to exploit successfully the huge quantity of data available for the past and the even larger amount that may be accessed in the future. To this aim, a comparison on selected dates for the whole 2000/2006 period was performed.

  3. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills. PMID:17568369

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in eight US hospitals along the US-Mexico border, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Benoit, S R; Ellingson, K D; Waterman, S H; Pearson, M L

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a growing problem worldwide and international travel, cross-border migration, and antimicrobial use may contribute to the introduction or emergence of AR. We examined AR rates and trends along the US-Mexico border by analysing microbiology data from eight US hospitals in three states bordering Mexico. Microbiology data were ascertained for the years 2000-2006 and for select healthcare and community pathogens including, three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) pathogens and 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Resistance was highest in S. aureus (oxacillin resistance 45·7%), P. aeruginosa (quinolone resistance 22·3%), and E. coli (quinolone resistance 15·6%); six (60%) of the 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations studied had a significantly increasing trend in resistance over the study period. Potential contributing factors in the hospital and community such as infection control practices and antimicrobial use (prescription and non-prescription) should be explored further in the US-Mexico border region.

  5. Map presentation of changes in Europe's artificial surfaces for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, Jan; Soukup, Tomas

    2013-06-01

    The landscapes of the world are constantly changing under the influence of human activities leading to the growth of artificial surfaces. The covering of soil by artificial surfaces is referred to as soil sealing. Aerial and satellite images or data derived from them (for instance CORINE land cover — CLC data used here) provide important information that makes it possible to assess the occurrence, area and rate of soil sealing. As the term sealed soil cannot be wholly identified with the content of the appropriate CLC classes, the term land cover flow urbanization (LCFU) will be used here. The essence of this study is the demonstration and documentation of the trends of the LCFU in Europe for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2006 on a single map. This may contribute to a better spatial awareness of the ongoing transformation of landscape under the effects of human activities in an pan-European context. Changes in the LCFU can be seen on a map, compiled from 3 × 3 km squares at an all-European scale, using colours and their hues, to fulfil the role both of identification and classification. The colour method employed makes it possible to perceive three groups of LCFU changes on two time horizons, that is, whether the rate of LCFU in 2000-2006 increased or remained the same (hues of red); or dropped compared to the 1990-2000 period (hues of light to dark blue). The third group represents the LCFU with rates higher or lower than the average (countries with changes recorded in only one time horizon are presented in dark and light magenta colours).

  6. A messy reality: an analysis of New Zealand's elective surgery scoring system via media sources, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Derrett, Sarah; Cousins, Kim; Gauld, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for elective procedures are a characteristic feature of tax-funded universal health systems. New Zealand has gained a reputation for its 'booking system' for waiting list management, introduced in the early-1990s. The New Zealand system uses criteria to 'score' and then 'book' qualifying patients for surgery. This article aims to (i) describe key issues focused on by the media, (ii) identify local strategies and (iii) present evidence of variation. Newspaper sources were searched (2000-2006). A total of 1199 booking system stories were identified. Findings demonstrate, from a national system perspective, the extraordinarily difficult nature of maintaining overall control and coordination. Equity and national consistency are affected when hospitals respond to local pressure by reducing access to elective treatment. Findings suggest that central government probably needs to be closely involved in local-level management and policy adjustments; that through the study period, the New Zealand system appears to have been largely out of the control of government; and that governments elsewhere may need to be cautious when considering developing similar systems. Developing and implementing scoring and booking systems may always be a 'messy reality' with unintended consequences and throwing regional differences in service management and access into stark relief. PMID:22815091

  7. Rates of ankle and foot injuries in active-duty U.S. Army soldiers, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert F; Wahi, Monika M; Hill, Owen T; Kay, Ashley B

    2011-03-01

    Ankle and foot injuries (AFI) are a major cause of Active-Duty Army (ADA) soldiers' time lost from training and combat operations. We used the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database to compute the rates of AFI to identify high-risk ADA groups for the years 2000-2006. During this time, 16% of soldiers were clinically seen at least once for an AFI. Yearly, 60% to 70% of ADA soldiers with AFI had an ankle sprain/strain, and ankle sprain/strain had the highest 7-year rate of all AFIs (103 per 1,000). From 2000 to 2006, all AFI rates declined; however, enlisted male soldiers < or = 30 years of age without an advanced degree were at highest risk. A history of an AFI in the previous 2 years increased AFI rates by 93% to 160%. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for identifying specific ADA groups at high risk of AFI; these groups should be targeted for preventive interventions. PMID:21456354

  8. Recent calving dynamics of Glaciar Jorge Montt (Southern Patagonia Icefield) based on feature tracking techniques and oceanographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, F.; Moffat, C. F.; Rivera, A.; Cisternas, S.; Kohoutek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers in the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) have been retreating, thinning and accelerating in recent decades. Most of the SPI is comprised of temperate ice, therefore melting is the dominant wasting factor, however, calving is also playing a very important role, especially because calving is enhancing ice dynamic responses, mainly when glaciers calve into deep waters. Some of the most exacerbated responses are connected to the well documented and long-term tidewater calving cycle (TCC) overlapped by recent climate-related glacier responses. Glaciar Jorge Montt (48S/73W), is a tidewater glacier (~500 km2) which has experienced the maximum frontal retreat of the whole SPI (near 20 km in 112 years) while retreating up to 400 m water depth. Dead trees found in areas recently open by the glacier's retreat prove a date for the previous advancing cycle which took place during the Little Ice Age (250-400 years BP). This result indicates that the glacier is experiencing the retreating phase of the TCC in centennial time-scales. However, very little is known if this phase will stop or will continue, or how do climate change dynamcis will affect it. In order to understand the present behaviour of the glacier, several surveys have recently been conducted in the area, including airborne lidar and radar surveys, water depth measurements and ice dynamic studies. In order to survey the ice dynamic of the glacier front in connection with tides at the inner fjord, a camera pointing to the glacier terminus and collecting up to 8 photographs per day was installed in April 2012. The camera was continuously working for 60 days, allowing to study in detail the ice velocities, calving fluxes and tides near the ice. Thanks to the geo-location of the oblique photographs, feature tracking techniques were applied to the series in order to determine ice velocities and frontal retreat during the operational period. The resulting average velocities are lower than 10 m d-1, which are

  9. PUERTO RICO AND THE PUERTO RICANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STERNAU, HERBERT

    PUERTO RICO WAS DISCOVERED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN 1493. THE PROCESS OF COLONIZATION BEGAN IN 1508, WITH THE ARRIVAL OF PONCE DE LEON AND HIS SPANISH SOLDIERS. PUERTO RICO WAS GOVERNED BY SPAIN FOR ABOUT 400 YEARS, AND THE GREAT MASS OF PEOPLE REMAINED POVERTY-STRICKEN, UNDERNOURISHED, AND ILLITERATE. THE ISLAND WAS CEDED TO THE UNITED STATES…

  10. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry. PMID:27550460

  11. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry.

  12. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates.

  13. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices.

  14. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices. PMID:26313472

  15. Urban Growth in a Fragmented Landscape: Estimating the Relationship between Landscape Pattern and Urban Land Use Change in Germany, 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the highest priorities in the conservation and management of biodiversity, natural resources and other vital ecosystem services is the assessment of the mechanisms that drive urban land use change. Using key landscape indicators, this study addresses why urban land increased 6 percent overall in Germany from 2000-2006. Building on regional science and economic geography research, I develop a model of landscape change that integrates remotely sensed and other geospatial data, and socioeconomic data in a spatial autoregressive model to explain the variance in urban land use change observed in German kreise (counties) over the past decade. The results reveal three key landscape mechanisms that drive urban land use change across Germany, aligning with those observed in US studies: (1) the level of fragmentation, (2) the share of designated protected areas, and (3) the share of prime soil. First, as fragmentation of once continuous habitats in the landscape increases, extensive urban growth follows. Second, designated protected areas have the perverse effect of hastening urbanization in surrounding areas. Third, greater shares of prime, productive soil experienced less urban land take over the 6 year period, an effect that is stronger in the former East Germany, where the agricultural sector remains large. The results suggest that policy makers concentrate their conservation efforts on preexisting fragmented land with high shares of protected areas in Germany to effectively stem urban land take. Given that comparative studies of land use change are vital for the scientific community to grasp the wider global process of urbanization and coincident ecological impacts, the methodology employed here is easily exportable to land cover and land use research programs in other fields and geographic areas. Key words: Urban land use change, Ecosystem services, Landscape fragmentation, Remote sensing, Spatial regression models, GermanyOLS and Spatial Autoregressive Model

  16. Recycling in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, C.L.

    1996-05-01

    The commonwealth of Puerto Rico has never had a traditional, centrally organized solid waste management system. In the past, municipalities provided service for their own residents and the island used 62 unlined landfills. In April 1994, 32 of those landfills closed. A study released in 1995 found that residents of Puerto Rico generate 8,100 tons of waste each day, at a per capita rate of 4.9 pounds per day. A solid waste management strategy unveiled with much fanfare early last year included plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites. These sites would be market-driven by recycling and hinged on partnerships between the public and private sectors and public education. A key to Puerto Rico`s plan was investment by the private sector.

  17. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  18. Growing up Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paulette, Ed.

    This volume contains the narratives of 17 Puerto Rican young adults, describing the major events in their life histories to the editor. They were interviewed in their homes and schools, at work, and in the streets. Among the narratives are the accounts of Fernanda, who was told she was too stupid to bother studying, and who now has a master's…

  19. The Struggle for Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cardona, Victor; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since the 1940's, Operation Bootstrap, an economic development program, has changed Puerto Rico from an undeveloped country to one with increasing energy demands, decreasing natural resources, and alarming environmental degredation. The Puerto Rican government is presently supporting high-energy industrial facilities without regard to…

  20. The Psychology of Puerto Rican Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.

    The psychology of the Puerto Rican migrant to the United States mainland is explored. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the U.S. mainland and returning to Puerto Rico for more than 125 years, and, in fact, approximately 57% of all Puerto Ricans have migrated at one time or another. The migrant experience, including the circular migration…

  1. Mangos of Puerto Rico, country contribution: Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Puerto Rico; geographical distribution; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests...

  2. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  3. The Puerto Rico Photonics Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jonathan S.

    2014-07-01

    We have founded the Puerto Rico Photonics Institute (PRPI) in the Barceloneta, Puerto Rico campus of the Universidad Metropolitana. PRPI is established to provide opportunities in education, training and research and is unique in Puerto Rico. There are two initial focus areas of research and education: aerospace photonics and remote sensing. In particular, we will conduct studies and research and development in two particular fields: laser gyroscopes and similar technologies, and atmospheric remote sensing. PRPI has established local collaborations with the Arecibo Observatory and Honeywell Aerospace. Outside of Puerto Rico, PRPI collaborators include the University of Central Florida (CREOL), University of Arizona (OSC), University of Dayton (UD), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Scientific Solutions, Inc. (SSI), Atmospheric and Space Technology Research Associates (ASTRA), and the MIT Draper Laboratory. These organizations will help PRPI to: 1) establish its curriculum, provide research opportunities for PRPI students, 2) participate in faculty exchange programs, and 3) build its own research and development programs. PRPI will have educational and training programs for both Associate and Masters degrees, as well as a Certificate in Optics and Photonics for undergraduate science and engineering majors and professional engineers. PRPI is supported by UMET's parent institution, the Ana G. Mendez University System (SUAGM), the Puerto Rico Science, Technology and Research Trust (PRST), and the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company (PRIDCO).

  4. Zika Spreading Rapidly Through Puerto Rico: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159430.html Zika Spreading Rapidly Through Puerto Rico: CDC Possibly hundreds ... 2016 FRIDAY, June 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus is spreading fast through Puerto Rico, placing ...

  5. The Three Faces of Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernica, Antonio Jose

    1977-01-01

    The main political question on the minds of most Puerto Ricans is: "Is Puerto Rico going to be a state of the United States, a commonwealth directly connected to the United States, or is Puerto Rico going to be an independent country?" (NQ)

  6. Equal Educational Opportunity for Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary

    Puerto Ricans as a group are more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than any other ethnic minority. This marginalization is partly due to the educational system's discriminatory practices which deprive the vast majority of Puerto Rican children of equal educational opportunities. The educational problems of Puerto Ricans stem…

  7. Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs…

  8. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century. "Notas sobre el desarrollo…

  9. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease. PMID:26551268

  10. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  11. Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans: A Teaching and Resource Unit for Upper Level Spanish Students or Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrero, Milagros

    The subject of this teaching and resource unit for Spanish students or social studies classes is Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans. The unit has sections dealing with the present conditions of the Puerto Ricans, their culture, and historical perspectives. The appendixes contain: (1) Demands of the Puerto Ricans, (2) Notable Puerto Ricans, (3)…

  12. Estudio Cultural de Puerto Rico. A Cultural Study of Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jorge; And Others

    This book presents resource materials for teaching the cultural heritage of the Puerto Rican student. It includes biographical sketches of outstanding figures in Puerto Rican history from colonial times to the twentieth century. It also contains descriptions of national festivities and holidays, as well as poetry representative of Puerto Rican…

  13. Karst Map of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma B.

    2010-01-01

    This map is a digital compilation, combining the mapping of earlier geologists. Their work, cited on the map, contains more detailed descriptions of karst areas and landforms in Puerto Rico. This map is the basis for the Puerto Rico part of a new national karst map currently being compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, this product is a standalone, citable source of digital karst data for Puerto Rico. Nearly 25 percent of the United States is underlain by karst terrain, and a large part of that area is undergoing urban and industrial development. Accurate delineations of karstic rocks are needed at scales suitable for national, State, and local maps. The data on this map contribute to a better understanding of subsidence hazards, groundwater contamination potential, and cave resources as well as serve as a guide to topical research on karst. Because the karst data were digitized from maps having a different scale and projection from those on the base map used for this publication, some karst features may not coincide perfectly with physiographic features portrayed on the base map.

  14. Boricuas: The Puerto Ricans. Manual for Inservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Margarita; Trillas, Elba Pietri

    This document is a teachers' guide to the television series, "Boricuas: The Pureto Ricans." The manual provides additional information to help teachers understand the adjustment problems and special educational needs of Puerto Rican students. The program order is as follows: Puerto Rican studies, island of Borinquen, nineteenth century, golden…

  15. Leyendas Puertorriquenas, Adaptaciones (Puerto Rican Legends, Adaptations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Aurea; Puigdollers, Carmen

    The Puerto Rican legends presented here have been adapted for use in a bilingual education setting. They are presented in the framework of a Puerto Rican child's first visit to the island with his family. The four legends are: (1) "Carabali"; (2) "Guanina"; (3) "El Penon de las Palomas"; and (4) "La Garita del Diablo." The book is illistrated with…

  16. Puerto Rico: Tragedy in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    In this report, the status of education in Puerto Rico is described and recommendations are made for educational improvement. It is found that Puerto Rican schools are not up to the National Education Association minimum standard for schools due to: (1) inadequate physical plants; (2) teachers who are demoralized by what they see as a stagnant…

  17. A Bicentennial Without a Puerto Rican Colony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Piri

    1975-01-01

    The United States revolution of 1776 is said to lose validity in light of Puerto Rico's colonial situation under American rule. The plight of the Puerto Rican people is compared to that of the Euro-American settlers under the thumb-screw of British imperialism. (Author/AM)

  18. THE LOWER STATUS PUERTO RICAN FAMILY. REVISED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAM, JOSEPH

    THIS SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS DESCRIBES THE LOWER-STATUS URBAN AND RURAL FAMILIES IN PUERTO RICO. THE "JIBAROS," THE RURAL POOR OF THE HIGHLANDS, ARE LANDLESS AGRICULTURAL WORKERS WHO ARE MORE ISOLATED, LESS LITERATE, AND LESS ACCULTURATED TO URBAN LIFE THAN OTHER PUERTO RICANS. THEY TEND TO BE IDEALIZED AS THE PROTOTYPES OF THE ISLAND FOLK CULTURE.…

  19. The neotectonic setting of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masson, D.G.; Scanlon, Kathyryn M.

    1991-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico, in the northeast Caribbean, lies within a broad deformation zone between the Caribbean and North American plates. The simplest model for the tectonic setting of Puerto Rico has major strike-slip movement on nearly east-west lines in the vicinity of the Puerto Rico Trench coupled to a small counterclockwise rotation of a Puerto Rico block within the broader plate boundary zone. This simple model is attractive because it predicts the tectonic regime south of Puerto Rico, and provides an explanation for a possible component of extension across the Puerto Rico Trench west of 65.5°W. GLORIA long-range sidescan sonar data and seismic reflection profiles have been used to test this model by mapping the major tectonic features across the plate boundary north and south of Puerto Rico. To the north, the new data help to resolve between conflicting models, of underthrusting or strike-slip motion at the Puerto Rico Trench. No direct evidence of compression is seen, although evidence for normal and strike-slip movement is abundant. This, combined with regional considerations, leads us to conclude that the main east-west-trending part of the Puerto Rico Trench between 65.5°W and 68°W lies within a strike-slip regime, although oblique convergence occurs both to the east and west where the plate boundary trends east-southeast. To the south of Puerto Rico, underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath the island decreases from west to east, and it is ultimately replaced by extension in the Virgin Islands Basin east of 65°W.

  20. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    PubMed Central

    Van Huy, Nguyen; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Van Tien, Nguyen; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Design Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011) were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Results Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively). Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively). Conclusions This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control policies and practices

  1. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  2. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L.; Vergara, Juan A.; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996. PMID:15705337

  3. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  4. Sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Morales, Mercedes; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2007-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed.

  5. New seismic study begins in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    A new seismological project is now underway in Puerto Rico to provide information needed for accurate assessment of the island's seismic hazard. The project should also help to increase understanding of the tectonics and geologic evolution of the Caribbean region. The Puerto Rico Seismic Program is being conducted by the Geological Survey with support provided by the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, an agency responsible for generation and distribution of electric power throughout the Commonwealth. The Program will include the installation of a network of high quality seismograph stations to monitor seismic activity on and around Puerto Rico. These stations will be distributed across the island to record the seismicity as uniformly as possible. The detection and accurate location of small earthquakes, as well as moderate magnitude shocks, will aid in mapping active seismic zones and in compiling frequency of occurrence statistics which ultimately wil be useful in seismic risk-zoning of hte island. 

  6. Marine mammals of Puerto Rico: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is the product of a literature survey on marine mammals at a proposed OTEC site near Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. Included are reports of mammal sightings and strandings from Puerto Rico and adjacent Caribbean islands, reports containing information on distribution and abundance migration routes, and feeding ecology of those species known from the area. A few works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 96 references.

  7. MISR Browse Images: Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-02

    MISR Browse Images: Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE) These MISR Browse images provide ... overview of the region observed during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE) field campaign. PRiDE was a study of the radiative, ...

  8. Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Martínez-Pagan, J.; Santana-Torres, E. X.; Torres-O, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network is currently in charge of the operation of: (i) free-field (ff) strong motion stations, (ii) instrumented structures (STR) (Dams, Bridges, Buildings), and (iii) the data acquisition/monitoring and analysis of earthquakes considered strong from the point of view of their intensity and magnitude. All these instruments are deployed in the Puerto Rico Island (PRI), US-, and British-Virgin Islands (BVI), and Dominican Republic (DR). The Puerto Rico Island and the Caribbean region have high potential to be affected by earthquakes that could be catastrophic for the area. The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network (actually Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program, PRSMP) has grown since 1970's from 7 ff strong motion stations and one instrumented building with analog accelerographs to 111 ff strong motion stations and 16 instrumented buildings with digital accelerographs: PRI: 88 ff, 16 STR., DR: 13 ff, BVI: 5 ff, 2 STR collecting data via IP (internet), DU (telephone), and stand alone stations The current stage of the PRSMP seismic network, the analysis of moderate earthquakes that were recorded and/or occurred on the island, results of the intensity distribution of selected earthquakes, as well as results of dynamic parameter identification of some of the instrumented structures are here presented.

  9. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS...

  10. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS...

  11. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS...

  12. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS...

  13. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS...

  14. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  15. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  16. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  17. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  18. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  19. Health disparities between island and mainland Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to detect health disparities among three populations—Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico as well as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites living on the United States (U.S.) mainland. Data from two similarly designed surveys conducted in 1999-2000 were analyzed. The Be...

  20. The Well-Being of Recently Divorced Puerto Rican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; And Others

    Puerto Rico, although Hispanic, Roman Catholic, and conservative about women's role, has one of the highest divorce rates in the world. Puerto Rico's divorce rate has increased substantially since the process of industrialization began. This study analyzed 300 Puerto Rican women divorced between July 1980 and May 1981. Findings indicate that they…

  1. Puerto Rican Families with and Without Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figler, Clare Spector

    A study utilized a family systems approach, in which two groups of mainland based Puerto Rican families were interviewed, to compare Puerto Rican families whose children have identified handicaps (N=14) and Puerto Rican families whose children do not have handicaps (N=14). Investigated were the quality and quantity of stresses which impinge upon…

  2. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. 26.126 Section 26.126 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which...

  3. Mortality among the Puerto Rican Born in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenwaike, Ira

    1983-01-01

    Interesting mortality experience of Puerto Ricans resident in New York City in 1970 are discussed. For example, Puerto Rican males 55 years of age and above and females 75 and over had lower death rates than other White New Yorkers. Puerto Rican young adults had higher death rates than other Whites. (Author/RM)

  4. Pilot Study of Puerto Rican Junior Colleges. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Kuenzli, Pablo

    Despite an arduous effort to cope with modern Puerto Rico's societal needs, Puerto Rican junior colleges' educational offerings are inadequate and often irrelevant. The complexity and peculiarities of the junior college system in Puerto Rico cannot be fully grasped within the existing models for educational research designed for the educational…

  5. Puerto Ricans in the Mid '80s: An American Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Puerto Rican Coalition, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Taken together, the contents of this document provide a picture of the Puerto Rican community, both on the mainland and on the island, in the mid-1980s. First, a brief overview of the Puerto Rican community is provided. Next, a demographic profile compares Puerto Ricans on the mainland with those on the island and both with the general U.S.…

  6. Peer Norms and Sharing of Injection Paraphernalia among Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users in New York and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andia, Jonny F.; Deren, Sherry; Robles, Rafaela R.; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Colon, Hector M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of peer norms on sharing of injection paraphernalia (e.g., indirect sharing behaviors, including sharing of cookers, cotton, rinse water and back/front loading) among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, and East Harlem, New York City. Data were collected from 873 Puerto Rican IDUs…

  7. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  8. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island.

  9. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  10. Physiogenomic analysis of the Puerto Rican population

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge; Windemuth, Andreas; Cadilla, Carmen L; Kocherla, Mohan; Villagra, David; Renta, Jessica; Holford, Theodore; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    Aims Admixture in the population of the island of Puerto Rico is of general interest with regards to pharmacogenetics to develop comprehensive strategies for personalized healthcare in Latin Americans. This research was aimed at determining the frequencies of SNPs in key physiological, pharmacological and biochemical genes to infer population structure and ancestry in the Puerto Rican population. Materials & methods A noninterventional, cross-sectional, retrospective study design was implemented following a controlled, stratified-by-region, random sampling protocol. The sample was based on birthrates in each region of the island of Puerto Rico, according to the 2004 National Birth Registry. Genomic DNA samples from 100 newborns were obtained from the Puerto Rico Newborn Screening Program in dried-blood spot cards. Genotyping using a physiogenomic array was performed for 332 SNPs from 196 cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes. Population structure was examined using a Bayesian clustering approach as well as by allelic dissimilarity as a measure of allele sharing. Results The Puerto Rican sample was found to be broadly heterogeneous. We observed three main clusters in the population, which we hypothesize to reflect the historical admixture in the Puerto Rican population from Amerindian, African and European ancestors. We present evidence for this interpretation by comparing allele frequencies for the three clusters with those for the same SNPs available from the International HapMap project for Asian, African and European populations. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that population analysis can be performed with a physiogenomic array of cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes to facilitate the translation of genome diversity into personalized medicine. PMID:19374515

  11. Closed loop biomass in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    Kenetech Energy Systems, Inc., began to explore the opportunities for power generation in Puerto Rico in 1993. Among the projects investigated was the development of a power plant that uses biomass for fuel. Through the assistance of a grant from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a preliminary study was undertaken to explore various possibilities in biomass production and conversion. The existing sugar cane industry was examined, and various species and regimes of cane species, grass species, and other types of crops were studied. Among the other issues were the political and economic situation, and the uncertainty of the sugar industry in Puerto Rico. A current status of the project is provided.

  12. SWIM - A Scientific CubeSat from Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, H.; Ivchenko, N. V.; Earle, G. D.; Wiens, G.; Murphrey, T.; Tibert, G.

    2012-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of PRIDCO and Puerto Rico NASA Space Grant, a 3U scientific cubesat is being designed and built in Puerto Rico. The cubesat will have 2 scientific instruments: a scientific fluxgate magnetometer from Royal Institute of Technology being deployed on an AFRL deployable boom and a retarding potential analyzer from Virginia Tech University. Aside from contributing essential space weather products to space physics, the project is providing hand on aerospace engineering training for Puerto Rico work force. New aerospace companies in Puerto Rico such as Honeywell Aerospace of Puerto Rico and Infotech has hired graduating students from the program.

  13. Assistive Technology Developments in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizama, Mauricio A.; Mendez, Hector L.

    Recent efforts to develop Spanish-based adaptations for alternate computer input devices are considered, as are their implications for Hispanics with disabilities and for the development of language sensitive devices worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the particular need to develop low-cost high technology devices for Puerto Rico and Latin America…

  14. PUERTO RICAN PROFILES, RESOURCE MATERIALS FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    THE LARGE INFLUX OF PUERTO RICAN RESIDENTS INTO NEW YORK CITY HAS BEEN MOST DEEPLY FELT IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM. PROBLEMS HAVE ARISEN BECAUSE AMERICAN TEACHERS FIND IT DIFFICULT TO COPE WITH THE CHALLENGE OF NEW CUSTOMS AND LANGUAGE PRESENTED BY THESE STUDENTS. TO HELP BROADEN THE UNDERSTANDING IN THIS NEW STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIP, INFORMATION…

  15. The Puerto Rican Experience: A Sociological Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    A serious problem has presented itself to students who sought a convenient sourcebook which afforded an overview of the Puerto Rican mainland experience (with some notice of the island backgrounds), essentially compact, but dimensionally comprehensive. This documentary sourcebook is addressed to that need. It is intended as a classroom text (in a…

  16. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters... the Commonwealth's territorial seas, as defined in section 502(8) of the Clean Water Act, and 33 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters... the Commonwealth's territorial seas, as defined in section 502(8) of the Clean Water Act, and 33 CFR...

  18. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters... the Commonwealth's territorial seas, as defined in section 502(8) of the Clean Water Act, and 33 CFR...

  19. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters... the Commonwealth's territorial seas, as defined in section 502(8) of the Clean Water Act, and 33 CFR...

  20. Measuring Puerto Ricans' Perceptions of Racial Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Berry, Paul C.

    To measure how Puerto Ricans classify each other into racial groups by physical appearance, a stimulus set of 60 color slides was prepared. Two hundred and fifty secondary students sorted these portraits into four, three, and finally two groups. Although subjects placed both the pictures and themselves in a color continuum of racial types with…

  1. The Puerto Ricans: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita, Ed.

    The initial selection of titles for this bibliography was based on a survey of library catalogs as well as numerous existing lists and partial bibliographies on Puerto Rico. Careful search led to a bibliography that, although selected, is also retrospective, broad, and balanced. It is retrospective in the sense that the first known published works…

  2. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the

  3. Puerto Rican migrant farmworkers: an untold story.

    PubMed

    Bonilla Santiago, G

    1986-01-01

    Thousands of Puerto Rican farmworkers have annually migrated to the US mainland. In 1947, the inhuman conditions that the Puerto Rican farmworker faced on the mainland forced a crisis on the island where in 1948 the Puerto Rican government established the Migration Division of its Department of Labor and specifically mandated that it oversee the annual outflow of farmworkers. The Farmworkers' Support Committee (CATA) involves and educates farmworkers in various ways, as well as has organizers visit camps on a regular basis as soon as the farm season has begun. CATA convenes regional meetings organized by worker committees in the different regions of Southern New Jersey where farm workers from different farms can get together and discuss common problems. The large majority of New Jersey farm-workers are Hispanic from Puerto Rico and Mexico. In 1978, the average annual income for a farmworker's family of 4 was $3000, over 40% below the poverty line. During the harvest of 1980, CATA was involved in several labor disputes, but the big one was the Sunny Slope strike in South Jersey. Puerto Rican farmworkers employed on farms in southern New Jersey face living and working conditions, exploitation, and a host of problems that are much worse than other workers face, and that stem, ultimately from their powerlessness. Although there is a lack of funding, training for staff, and organization and communication between areas of work, CATA's final goal is to become a movement to support and advocate for the formation of a farm workers union, "controlled and directed by farmworkers."

  4. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    1998-01-01

    Water-use data during calendar year 1995 was compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Eight offstream water-use categories were considered during the study: public supply, wastewater treatment discharges, domestic, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power, livestock, and irrigation. Three instream water-use categories were considered: hydroelectric power, saline water used at thermoelectric power plants, and reservoir evaporation. Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated to be 566 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was 431 million gallons per day for public supply. Total discharge from public wastewater treatment facilities was reported as 185 million gallons per day. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals for domestic and industrial self-supplied facilities were estimated to be about 19 million gallons per day. Mining activities, which in Puerto Rico are mostly limited to the production of sand and gravel, withdrew about 4.2 million gallons per day of freshwater. Livestock activities used 6.3 million gallons per day from surface- and ground-water sources to meet the water needs of the 12.1 million animals counted in the 1992 Census of Agriculture in Puerto Rico. Self-supplied ground-water withdrawals for thermoelectric facilities were estimated to be 2.2 million gallons per day. Freshwater withdrawals for irrigation purposes were estimated to be 103 million gallons per day, or approximately 18 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were 349 million gallons per day. Reservoir evaporation is considered to be a consumptive use associated with the storage of water. The evaporation from 15 reservoirs in Puerto Rico was estimated to average about 23,900 acre-feet from a total reservoir surface area of 6,900 acres. The largest amount of withdrawals was 2,260 million

  5. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  6. The Education Industry in Puerto Rico. An Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terry W.

    The policy of the Fair Labor Standards Act is to eventually establish the same minimum wage standards in Puerto Rico as in the 50 states. Pursuant to this policy, this report was prepared for Industry Committee No. 129-A for the Education Industry in Puerto Rico. It contains economic and other data pertinent to the committee's duties. The minimum…

  7. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  8. Puerto Rican Migrants on the Mainland of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gertrude S.; Gordon, Edmund W.

    1968-01-01

    This bulletin on the Puerto Rican migrant consists primarily of (1) a review of research which examines the social science literature dealing with the island background of the Puerto Rican immigrant as well as his life on "La Vida" which questions whether the family described by Lewis is representative of slum dwellers in urban San Juan who…

  9. Puerto Ricans in Historical and Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    This review of the literature on Puerto Ricans in historical and social science research focuses on major English-language books. The review finds that colonialism has been a major factor in, an orienting influence of, and a focus for critical writing about Puerto Ricans. In general, books published before 1970 were reflective, implicitly or…

  10. Puerto Ricans: Born in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    This social history of the post-World War II Puerto Rican community in the United States focuses mainly on New York City. Each of the following chapters can be read separately: (1) "The Colonial Relationship: Migration and History" examines the factors leading to the migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States and their choice of communities;…

  11. Puerto Rican Return Migration: Its Implications for Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferty, Pastora San Juan

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is cited to indicate that the ebb and flow of migration between Puerto Rico and the mainland results in ever increasing numbers of Puerto Rican children being the outcasts of two monolingual educational systems, each of which denies them their complex identity. The establishment of bilingual education programs is advocated in both the…

  12. The Characteristics of Recent Puerto Rican Migrants: Some Further Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the demographic characteristics, educational attainment, and occupational distribution of a sample of Puerto Rican out-migrants and in-migrants during 1984. Discusses the similarities of in-migrants and out-migrants and concludes that there is a massive outflow of technical and related Puerto Rican workers, but there is also a massive…

  13. Annotated Bibliography on Return Migration to Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasquillo, Angela; Carrasquillo, Ceferino

    This paper is an annotated bibliography on return migration from the mainland United States to Puerto Rico. An introduction defines the term "return migration" in the specific context of the Puerto Rican community. The introduction is followed by the bibliography, which lists and summarizes research studies and works dealing with demographic data…

  14. Cuento Therapy: A Culturally Sensitive Modality for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a modeling therapy designed to be sensitive to Hispanic culture using cuentos (folktales) from Puerto Rican culture to present models of adaptive behavior and folktales tailored to bridge Puerto Ricans' bicultural conflict. Cuento therapy significantly reduced children's trait anxiety relative to traditional…

  15. The Ecological Effects in Acculturation of Puerto Rican Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Ramirez, Norma Iris

    Various studies discuss the influences on and effects of the process of adjustment to a new environment among Puerto Rican migrants to the United States mainland. In confronting cultural differences, Puerto Ricans may experience culture shock and identity problems and suffer disassociation leading to schizophrenia and hysteria, stress,…

  16. Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This journal issue is a collection of papers describing research on Hispanic families conducted at the Hispanic Research Center, Fordham University, New York. The first article, "Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family," by Lloyd H. Rogler, reviews two research projects on health conditions and the plight of Puerto Rican…

  17. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  18. Assimilation and Educational Determinants for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargacki, Julianne M.

    To understand the problems that urban schools encounter educating Puerto Rican students, teachers must understand the history and culture of Puerto Rico, which has been a melting pot of many different cultures. North American culture became prevalent after the Spanish-American War (1898) and the passage of the Jones Act (1917), which gave U.S.…

  19. Puerto Ricans: Breaking Out of the Cycle of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jose E., Ed.

    This report contains three background papers for reports presented at the ninth annual conference of the National Puerto Rican Coalition (NPRC) in 1989 and a discussion concerning Puerto Rican Americans and the cycle of poverty originally presented at a conference. The first paper, "Beyond the Census Data: A Portrait of the Community" (C. E.…

  20. 14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the following coordinates: Beginning at latitude 18°22′ N., longitude...

  1. Puerto Rico Nursing Career Cooperative Demonstration Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey.

    The Puerto Rico Nursing Career Cooperative Demonstration Project and Associate Nursing Program provided education and onsite occupational training laboratory to upgrade the education of 20 licensed practical nurses (LPNs) from 1989-90. The nurses were upgraded to associate nurses in an 18-month period at the Technological Institute of Puerto Rico.…

  2. La ensenanza de idiomas en Puerto Rico (Language Teaching in Puerto Rico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorens, Washington

    1976-01-01

    The poor command of Spanish common to many Puerto Ricans is due, not to the teaching of English as a second language, but to the poor instruction of the native language and the lack of emphasis on reading good Spanish literature. The two languages can coexist. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  3. Machismo y educacion en Puerto Rico [Machismo and Education in Puerto Rico].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Isabel

    This book is the result of a study that investigated the influence of "machismo" (a set of attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that perpetuates the myth of male superiority) in elementary education. The study included (1) a content analysis of textbooks used in Spanish and social studies classes in public and private schools in Puerto Rico and in…

  4. Vertical motions of the Puerto Rico Trench and Puerto Rico and their cause

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rico trench exhibits great water depth, an extremely low gravity anomaly, and a tilted carbonate platform between (reconstructed) elevations of +1300 m and -4000 m. I argue that these features are manifestations of large vertical movements of a segment of the Puerto Rico trench, its forearc, and the island of Puerto Rico that took place 3.3 m.y. ago over a time period as short as 14-40 kyr. I explain these vertical movements by a sudden increase in the slab's descent angle that caused the trench to subside and the island to rise. The increased dip could have been caused by shearing or even by a complete tear of the descending North American slab, although the exact nature of this deformation is unknown. The rapid (14-40 kyr) and uniform tilt along a 250 km long section of the trench is compatible with scales of mantle flow and plate bending. The proposed shear zone or tear is inferred from seismic, morphological, and gravity observations to start at the trench at 64.5??W and trend southwestwardly toward eastern Puerto Rico. The tensile stresses necessary to deform or tear the slab could have been generated by increased curvature of the trench following a counterclockwise rotation of the upper plate and by the subduction of a large seamount.

  5. The Anthropology of the People of Puerto Rico. Studies of Puerto Rican Society and Culture, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Ronald J., Ed.

    This monograph contains seven papers presented at a 1977 symposium held to reevaluate the 1947 research work, "The People of Puerto Rico." (1) Sidney Mintz discusses the role of Puerto Rico in modern social science. (2) Eric Wolf, one of the authors of the 1947 work, comments retrospectively on some of the conceptual and methodological strengths…

  6. Floods in Puerto Rico, magnitude and frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Colon-Dieppa, Eloy; Cobb, Ernest D.

    1979-01-01

    Annual-peak discharge records at 50 sites in Puerto Rico with five or more years of record were used to determine individual site log-Pearson type III frequency curves. The frequency curve values for 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals at 37 sites with 10 or more years of record were regressed against basin characteristics. Drainage area and mean annual rainfall proved to be the only independent variables significant at the 95 percent confidence level in these regression equations. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2005-01-01

    Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2000. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power fresh water use. Two additional categories also were considered: power generation instream use and public wastewater treatment return-flows. Fresh water withdrawals for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 617 million gallons per day. The largest amount of fresh water withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 540 million gallons per day. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users was estimated at 2 million gallons per day and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.5 million gallons per day. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 64 million gallons per day, or approximately 10 percent of all offstream fresh water withdrawals. Saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric power facilities was estimated at 2,191 million gallons per day, and instream fresh water withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities at 171 million gallons per day. Total discharge from public wastewater treatment facilities was estimated at 211 million gallons per day.

  8. Estimated Water Use in Puerto Rico, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2005. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied ground-water withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power freshwater use. One water-use category also was considered: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric-saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals and deliveries for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 712 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 652 Mgal/d. The public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 347 Mgal/d. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.1 Mgal/d and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.4 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 45.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 6.3 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 568 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,288 Mgal/d.

  9. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

  10. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  11. Geodesy, a Bibliometric Approach for 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G.; Landeros, C. F.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, bibliometric science has been frequently applied in the development and evaluation of scientific research. This work presents a bibliometric analysis for the research work performed in the field of geodesy "science of the measurement and mapping of the earth surface including its external gravity field". The objective of this work is to present a complete overview of the generated research on this field to assemble and study the most important publications occurred during the past seven years. The analysis was performed including the SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases for all the geodetic scientific articles published between 2000 and 2006. The search profile was designed considering a strategy to seek for titles and article descriptors using the terms geodesy and geodetic and some other terms associated with the topics: geodetic surfaces, vertical measurements, reference systems and frames, modern space-geodetic techniques and satellite missions. Some preliminary results had been achieved specifically Bradford law of distribution for journals and education institutes, and Lotka's law for authors that also includes the cooperation between countries in terms of writing together scientific articles. In the particular case of distributions, the model suggested by Egghe (2002) was adopted for determining the cores.

  12. Source, use and disposition of freshwater in Puerto Rico, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina, Wanda L.

    2015-07-29

    From 2000 to 2010, the population of Puerto Rico decreased 2.6 percent, from 3.8 to 3.7 million residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011), and this decrease in population reduced the demand for freshwater. Factors that contributed to a reduction in domestic per capita water use in Puerto Rico include water-rate cost increases, the implementation of low-flow fixture, and domestic conservation programs. Almost 99 percent of the residents in Puerto Rico were served by public-supply water systems in 2010. Public-supply water is provided by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) and by non-PRASA systems. Non-PRASA systems include community-operated water systems (water systems that serve rural or suburban housing areas).

  13. 75 FR 76517 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated 10/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides associated with Tropical Storm Otto. Incident Period:...

  14. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  15. Successful nesting behavior of Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Field, R.; Wilson, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed nesting behavior of five pairs of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) during eight successful nesting attempts. Each stage of the nesting cycle (egg laying, incubation, early chick rearing, and late chick rearing) was characterized by distinct trends or levels of behavior. During egg laying, female attentiveness to tile nest increased, and male attentiveness decreased. Throughout incubation and the first several days of early chick rearing, females were highly attentive to their nests, whereas males rarely entered the nest cavities. Female attentiveness then began to decline. Male attentiveness to the nest was sporadic until chicks were 10-12 days old. when all males began to enter their nests at least once each day. During late chick rearing, both male and female attentiveness were erratic and highly variable. Biologists may be able to use these results to identify nest problems and the need for management intervention when patterns of nest attentiveness deviate from the limits described in this study..

  16. Therapeutic aspects of Puerto Rican cult practices.

    PubMed

    Koss, J D

    1975-05-01

    This paper seeks to explore the phenomenon of possession trance in the ritual context from still another tack, complementary to the studies cited above, by analyzing it as an active and perhaps necessary component in the development of significant personal relationships basic to the organization and goals of some religous cults.-1 This view has been suggested by data gathered in study of social process in Puerto Rican Spiritist cults-2 which examined the relationship between patterns of cult social organization and the cult execution of a culturally patterned psychotherapeutic process for committed adherents whose emotional problems are diagnosed by cult headers as manifestations of developing "faculties" for communication with the spirit world-3 (see Koss; Rogler and Hollingshead, 1965, pp. 244-254; Seda Bonilla, 1964). PMID:1144571

  17. 75 FR 56995 - Termination of Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... of Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico located in Guayama, Puerto Rico (75 FR 40795-40796, 7/14/2010... Healthcare of Puerto Rico, (Inhalation Anesthetics Manufacturing), Guayama, PR Notice is hereby given...

  18. Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Landscape Development of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Salas, M.; Colon, A.

    2007-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island of Puerto Rico is an exhumed Cenozoic island arc situated between the inactive Muertos trench to the south and the highly oblique Puerto Rican Trench to the north that forms the left- lateral strike-slip plate margin with North America. The rectangular island's long axis of 175 km parallels the east trending strike of the trenches with a near constant width of between 50 and 60 km. Puerto Rico receives the NE trade winds and has a tropical monsoonal climate. Puerto Rico has a distinct midline asymmetry with north draining watershed about twice the length and five times as large as south draining watershed. This midline asymmetry is more pronounced along the islands eastern third than the central or western thirds. River outlet spacing, mountain front sinuosity, and comparative hypsometry display similar east to west variability consistent with greater denudation in the eastern parts of the island. The southwestern fifth of the island is underlain by serpentinized ocean crust that forms the large diapiric Monte del Estado uplift. Active diapirism is indicated by highly asymmetric watersheds of the surrounding rivers and tributaries. Stream length gradient index calculated from 1:20,000 scale map data and compared to fault locations show little correlation suggesting that active faults does not significantly control Puerto Rico's landscape. Quantified morphologic data from the eastern two-thirds of Puerto Rico are consistent with a landscape developed in response to the precipitation derived from NE trade winds while serpentinite diapirism dominates the western third of the island. Individual active faults of Puerto Rico do not control the landscape development.

  19. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  20. Social Support, Family Organizations, and Adolescent Adjustment in Low-Income Puerto Rican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Elenor; Jacobson, Leanne; Rodriguez, Antoinette U.; Dominguez, Antonio

    Social support from kin has been discussed as an important feature of family life among Puerto Rican families. This study examines the association between kinship support, family organization, and adolescent adjustment in Puerto Rican families. (Author)

  1. Source, Use, and Disposition of Freshwater in Puerto Rico, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Water diverted from streams and pumped from wells constitutes the main sources of water for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. A better understanding is needed about water-use patterns, particularly about the amount of water used, where and how this water is used and disposed, and how human activities impact water resources. Irrigation practices, indoor and outdoor household uses, industrial uses, and commercial and mining withdrawals affect reservoirs, streams, and aquifers. Accurate and accessible water information for Puerto Rico is critical to ensure that water managers have the ability to protect and conserve this natural resource. The population of Puerto Rico increased 15 percent, from 3.4 million in 1985 to 3.9 million people 2005 and resulted in an increased demand for freshwater, mostly for the public-supply water use category. Almost 99 percent of the residents in Puerto Rico were served by public-supply water systems in 2005. One of the major challenges that water managers confront is the need to provide sufficient freshwater availability in the densely populated areas. Public-supply water is provided by the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA) and by non-PRASA systems. Non-PRASA systems refer to community-operated water systems (water systems that serve a rural or suburban housing area).

  2. The Neuropsychological Performance of Nondemented Puerto Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Meléndez-Cabrero, Josefina; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims While the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the US population, normative neuropsychological data for nondemented oldest old Spanish speakers are nonexistent. This study sought to evaluate the neuropsychological performance of nondemented nonagenarians residing in Puerto Rico and to compare their results with those of a similar English-speaking sample from New York. Methods We studied 81 subjects who had a complete CERAD neuropsychological assessment in Spanish. We used multiple regression analysis to predict performance on the CERAD battery and ANCOVA to compare the Puerto Rico and New York samples. Results In 10 out of the 13 neuropsychological tests administered, education was a significant predictor of performance. There were significant differences between the Puerto Rico and New York groups only in the Trail Making Tests. Conclusions In this Puerto Rican sample, education was the strongest predictor of neuropsychological performance, which is consistent with previous studies. When education level is properly accounted for, the performance of Puerto Rican nonagenarians in the CERAD battery does not differ from the performance of US English-speaking nonagenarians. PMID:19293568

  3. Hydrogeology of the karst of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giusti, Ennio V.

    1978-01-01

    About one-fifth of Puerto Rico is covered by a tropical karst formed on a series of six limestone formations ranging in age from middle-Oligocene to middle Miocene. These formations strike east to west and crop out over the north coast of the island. Structurally, the rocks form a simple wedge abutting southward against a mountain chain of volcanic origin and thickening northward to about 1,400 meters by the seashore. All stages of karstification are present: from the incipient, found at the western end of the belt to the residual, found at the eastern end. Maximum development of sinkholes occurs on the Aguada Limestone and upper part of the Aymanom Limestone. These formations have a CaCO3 content range from about 85 to 95 percent. The denudation rate of the Limestone belt through solution is computed as 0.70 mm per year with some evidence that abrasion may increase the denudation rate locally by as much as 40 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

  5. Therapeutic aphaeresis: experience in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Morales Borges, Raúl H; Nieves, Gladys Colón; Martínez, María Rodríguez; Ramos, Rosa Vargas; Pedraza Otero, Linda I; Vargas, Carmen Nieves; Pedraza, Glorimar Ortiz; Jiménez, Jairo J Morales

    2014-06-01

    The Puerto Rico (PR) Region of the American Red Cross (ARC) evaluated the therapeutic aphaeresis program and we conducted 1609 procedures in 30 months between 2011 and 2013. The primary objective of the present review was to demonstrate our data and compare it to the reviewed medical evidence regarding the adequacy of applying therapeutic aphaeresis (TA) for chosen indications based on data in the literature. It was concluded that our service is very active and appropriate, and the number of TA's done varies and it's not steady year-by-year. The indications are the same as most common indicators across the World and the adverse reactions are too. We are the only ones doing apheresis in the pediatric population of PR. No deaths have been reported from our procedures. We understand that clinicians do not have enough knowledge about TA and tend to apply TA's in many cases as a last resort treatment for many diseases. Education at medical faculties and of hospital staff (nurses and medical technologists) about TA is very important. There is a need for symposia about this topic to the medical and general community. PMID:24667158

  6. Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, E.F.; Wicks, C.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, E.C., Jr.; Carew, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

  7. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control...

  8. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control...

  9. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control...

  10. 77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism AGENCY: National Oceanic and... values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be made for all ecosystem services for the Guanica Bay Watershed and for recreation-tourism for all of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems....

  11. Puerto Ricans: Growing Problems for a Growing Population. A First Friday Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Julio, Jr.; And Others

    This report provides statistical evidence of worsening conditions facing Puerto Ricans in America in the areas of (1) unemployment, (2) poverty, (3) demographics, and (4) education. It concludes with recommendations from the National Puerto Rican Forum. The unemployment rate for Puerto Ricans is the highest among Hispanic population groups. The…

  12. 7 CFR 245.4 - Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 245... REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS § 245.4 Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Because the State agencies of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands provide free meals or milk to...

  13. 27 CFR 19.415 - Marks on containers of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. 19.415 Section 19.415 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) Packages from Puerto Rico. When a proprietor receives... from the Virgin Islands. When a proprietor receives packages of Virgin Islands spirits on...

  14. Puerto Ricans in Continental United States: A Bibliography, Selected and Annotated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Rene

    This annotated bibliography contains approximately 900 citations of material written about Puerto Ricans residing in the mainland United States. Also included is a section listing published bibliographies that cover literature on Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans. Citations within each section are listed in alphabetical order by author or sponsoring…

  15. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  1. 26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... States citizen, files returns on a calendar year basis. In April 2008, E moves to Puerto Rico, where he... Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... (whether a United States citizen or an alien), who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... citizen, files returns on a calendar year basis. In April 2008, E moves to Puerto Rico, where he purchases... Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... United States citizen or an alien), who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire...

  3. 26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... States citizen, files returns on a calendar year basis. In April 2008, E moves to Puerto Rico, where he... Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... (whether a United States citizen or an alien), who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... States citizen, files returns on a calendar year basis. In April 2008, E moves to Puerto Rico, where he... Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... (whether a United States citizen or an alien), who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the...

  5. Sociodemographic Variables, Childhood Characteristics, and Family Risk Factors for Homelessness: A "Puerto Rican Paradox?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Aileen; Garcia-Carrasquillo, Aida; Nogueras, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored sociodemographic variables, childhood characteristics, and family factors in the Puerto Rican homeless. The study is a secondary analysis in which a Puerto Rican homeless sample (N = 113) is compared with a Puerto Rican primary care patient group (N = 102). Discriminant function analysis was employed to determine if family and…

  6. Recent Advances in Dengue: Relevance to Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Noyd, David H.; Sharp, Tyler M.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue represents an increasingly important public health challenge in Puerto Rico, with recent epidemics in 2007, 2010, and 2012–2013. Although recent advances in dengue vaccine development offer hope for primary prevention, the role of health professionals in the diagnosis and management of dengue patients is paramount. Case definitions for dengue, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue provide a framework to guide clinical decision-making. Furthermore, the differentiation between dengue and other acute febrile illnesses, such as leptospirosis and chikungunya, is necessary for the appropriate diagnosis and management of cases. An understanding of dengue epidemiology and surveillance in Puerto Rico provides context for clinicians in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. This review aims to improve health professionals’ ability to diagnose dengue, and as highlight the relevance of recent advances in dengue prevention and management in Puerto Rico. PMID:26061055

  7. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

    1999-08-11

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

  8. Asthma and Suicidal Ideation and Behavior among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Frank C.; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at-risk for both conditions. Data came from wave three of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000–2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (GEE) were conducted with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants aged 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design, age, gender, poverty, DSM-IV mental disorders, cigarette smoking, and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among Puerto Rican adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156

  9. Building a new waste management strategy in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, C.

    1995-06-01

    Puerto Rico traditionally has not had a centrally organized waste management system. Most municipalities have provided service for their own residents, and the island used 62 unlined landfills before 32 of those closed in April 1994. But waste management on this Caribbean island is changing as the government-a self-governing commonwealth associated voluntarily with the US government-begins implementing its strategy for developing efficient, state-of-the-art waste management. This strategy includes plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites whose centerpieces are market-drives recycling, partnerships between the public and private sectors, and public education. The details of this plan coincide with the mission statement of the Puerto Rico Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA, San Juan), to ``develop and implement the necessary infrastructure for the efficient management of solid waste in Puerto Rico.

  10. Recent Advances in Dengue: Relevance to Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Noyd, David H; Sharp, Tyler M

    2015-06-01

    Dengue represents an increasingly important public health challenge in Puerto Rico, with recent epidemics in 2007, 2010, and 2012-2013. Although recent advances in dengue vaccine development offer hope for primary prevention, the role of health professionals in the diagnosis and management of dengue patients is paramount. Case definitions for dengue, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue provide a framework to guide clinical decision-making. Furthermore, the differentiation between dengue and other acute febrile illnesses, such as leptospirosis and chikungunya, is necessary for the appropriate diagnosis and management of cases. An understanding of dengue epidemiology and surveillance in Puerto Rico provides context for clinicians in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. This review aims to improve health professionals' ability to diagnose dengue, and as highlight the relevance of recent advances in dengue prevention and management in Puerto Rico. PMID:26061055

  11. Recent Advances in Dengue: Relevance to Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Noyd, David H; Sharp, Tyler M

    2015-06-01

    Dengue represents an increasingly important public health challenge in Puerto Rico, with recent epidemics in 2007, 2010, and 2012-2013. Although recent advances in dengue vaccine development offer hope for primary prevention, the role of health professionals in the diagnosis and management of dengue patients is paramount. Case definitions for dengue, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue provide a framework to guide clinical decision-making. Furthermore, the differentiation between dengue and other acute febrile illnesses, such as leptospirosis and chikungunya, is necessary for the appropriate diagnosis and management of cases. An understanding of dengue epidemiology and surveillance in Puerto Rico provides context for clinicians in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. This review aims to improve health professionals' ability to diagnose dengue, and as highlight the relevance of recent advances in dengue prevention and management in Puerto Rico.

  12. The Puerto Rican Community and Its Children on the Mainland: A Source Book for Teachers, Social Workers and Other Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    This collection of readings is organized in four parts. Part I, "Aspects of Puerto Rican culture," includes the following articles: "Explicit and implicit culture in Puerto Rico: a case study in educational anthropology," T. Brameld; "Respeto, relajo, and interpersonal relations in Puerto Rico," A. Lauria; "Puerto Rican spiritualist as a…

  13. Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto Rican children…

  14. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +- 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fledgling. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100% (n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledgling. A major cause of mortality was predation by raptors. This research shows that additional studies are needed to define mortality causes to juvenile and adult free-flying Puerto Rican Parrots and to develop management guidelines to increase survival.

  15. Tectonic and Diapiric Forcing of Western Puerto Rico Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Macinnes, S.; Hibbert, A.

    2008-12-01

    Puerto Rico's divide bifurcates in the west into a southern higher-elevation divide and a lower-elevation northern divide. The southern divide trends along exposures of weak, low density serpentinized ocean basement of the Monte de Estado Range forming the highest elevations in western Puerto Rico. Evidence of long-term active uplift along the serpentinite-cored divide is abundant. Streams draining Monte de Estado (MdE) radiate outward from an ellipse centered on the serpentinite exposure. The Rio Anasco draining the north flank of MdE is highly asymmetric, displaying a large scale tilt to the north while the Rio Guanajibo draining its south flank is highly asymmetric with tilt to the south. Subbasins of these rivers are asymmetric, tilted away from the core of the serpentinite exposures. Hypsometric integrals of the Anasco and Guanajibo basins are higher than basins of central and eastern Puerto Rico indicating an inequilibrium condition. The concurrence of morphologic indicators of active uplift (stream patterns and basin asymmetry and hypsometry) with the distribution of topographically elevated low-density serpentinite exposures indicates that MdE is experiencing active diapiric uplift. Northwestern Puerto Rico differs morphologically from the rest of the island. Underlain by island arc crust with exposed igneous and sedimentary strata similar to that of the eastern two-thirds of the island, the Atlantic shore has sea cliffs at the base of a coastal plateau west of the Rio Manati. Rivers draining western Puerto Rico have strikingly lower ratio to valley floor widths to valley height than the rivers to the east indicating incision in response to uplift is greater to the west. Western-most rivers have closer outlet spacing, lower distances from outlets to divide and their watershed have higher hypsometric intergrals all indicating that northwest Puerto Rico is actively uplifting at a rate greater than the eastern two-thirds of the island. North and south flowing

  16. Proceedings of the 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Edna; Robb, James A.; Stefanoff, Gustavo; Mellado, Robert Hunter; Coppola, Domenico; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Flores, Idhaliz

    2015-01-01

    The 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop took place on August 20th, 2014 in the Auditorium of the Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan Puerto Rico. The program for this 1-day, live workshop included lectures by three biobanking experts, followed by presentations from existing biobanks in Puerto Rico and audience discussion. The need for increasing biobanking expertise in Puerto Rico stems from the fact that Hispanics in general are underrepresented in the biobanks in existence in the US, which limits the research conducted specifically to understand the molecular differences in cancer cells compared to other better studied populations. In turn, this lack of information impairs the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for our population. Dr. James Robb, M.D., F.C.A.P., consulting pathologist to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research (OBBR), opened the workshop with a discussion on the basic aspects of the science of biobanking (e.g., what is a biobank; its goals and objectives; protocols and procedures) in his talk addressing the importance of banking tissues for advancing biomedical research. Next, Dr. Gustavo Stefanoff, from the Cancer Institutes Network of Latin America (RINC by its name in Spanish), explained the mission, objectives, and structure of the Network of Latin-American and Caribbean Biobanks (REBLAC by its name in Spanish), which despite limited resources and many challenges, currently accrue high quality human tissue specimens and data to support cancer research in the region. Dr. Robert Hunter-Mellado, Professor of Internal Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, followed with an examination of the ethical and regulatory aspects of biobanking tissues for future research, including informed consent of subjects; protection of human subjects rights; and balancing risks and benefit ratios. In the afternoon, the

  17. Diagenesis of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, L.A. ); Ruiz, H.; Monell, V. )

    1990-05-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The plateau is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units, the Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. These two units consist primarily of back-reef sands with a reefal sequence present in the Lirio Limestone to the southwest. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified with numerous sinkholes in the central part of the island resembling present-day cenotes of the Yucatan peninsula. Numerous large cave openings are exposed along cliffs surrounding the island, with cavern size rapidly decreasing toward the interior. Within the Isla de Mona Dolomite, three different soil development episodes can be identified in the central part of the island, and on the periphery of the island several episodes of vadose diagenesis are identified by the presence of vadose silts and paleotravertine. Both units exhibit selective dissolution of aragonitic skeletal grains with fabric retentive replacement of former high magnesium calcite skeletal components, by calcite in the Lirio Limestone, and by dolomite in the Isla de Mona Dolomite. Petrographic relationships suggest early diagenetic modification by fluids that were substantially undersaturated with respect to aragonite, which preferentially dissolved aragonitic components, near saturation with respect to calcite/high magnesian calcite during dolomitization, and saturated with respect to calcite during calcitization. Stable isotopic composition of individual dolomitized components and dolomite microspar in the Isla de Mona Dolomite define a hyperbolic trend characteristic of composition produced by fluid mixing. The similarity of the karstified Lirio Limestone to present-day Yucatan, the nature and fluid chemistry requirement of the aragonite dissolution and calcite replacement process, the isotopic composition of the dolomite suggest diagenetic modification under meteoric-marine fluid mixing.

  18. Survival of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    MARRERO, CARLOS ROMERO; ORTIZ, ANA P.; PÉREZ, CYNTHIA M.; PÉREZ, JAVIER; TORRES, ESTHER A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blacks and Hispanics in the United States (US) have the lowest survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly associated to the presence of advanced disease at diagnosis when intervention is least beneficial. This study compared the survival distribution and relative survival of HCC in Puerto Rico (PR) during 1988-1992 and 1998-2002. Methods All HCC cases in the PR Central Cancer Registry database for 1988-1992 (n=306) and 1998-2002 (n=333) were identified. Patient characteristics and clinical variables were compared between study periods. Survival by age at diagnosis, sex, tumor stage and treatment was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the Wilcoxon test. A Cox proportional hazards model was employed to assess the effect of period of diagnosis on survival, after adjusting for confounders. One- and three-year survival rates were also calculated. Results Patients diagnosed during 1998-2002 (median: 3.08 months, 95% CI: 2.30-4.16) had a longer observed survival than those diagnosed from 1988-1992 (median: 1.80 months, 95% CI: 1.44-2.52). A significant interaction was observed between the variables age and period of diagnosis, where only among persons aged ≥ 60 years the risk of HCC death was lower (sex-adjusted HR=O.72; 95%CI: 0.59-0.88) in patients diagnosed during 1998-2002 as compared to those diagnosed during 1988-1992. The overall one- and three-year relative survival during 1998-2002 was approximately 6% (22.4% vs.16.6%) and 2% higher (9.0% vs. 6.7%) respectively, as compared to 1988-1992. Conclusion We observed a temporal improvement in the survival of HCC in PR during the last decade. However, this survival is inferior to the one observed in the US population. Further studies are needed to identify factors that explain these disparities. PMID:19530551

  19. Puerto Ricans in Science and Biomedicine: Report of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Twelve divisions and institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored this conference to examine the barriers to participation of Puerto Ricans in the United States to careers in science and biomedicine. Areas addressed during the conference included: (1) perspectives from the NIH; (2) historical and modern perspectives of…

  20. The Demand for Higher Education in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    Uses time-series data to estimate empirical enrollment functions for three Puerto Rico university systems. Measures opportunity cost and benefits to education as expected wage rates and tests a market segmentation process. Results show that the universities are not substitutes for one another. To cope with continuing revenue shortfalls,…

  1. Relations between Study and Employment: Music Graduates in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latorre, Ileana S.; Lorenzo, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    Higher education programs in Puerto Rico include undergraduate degrees in music, music education, composition, popular music, jazz and Caribbean music, and, most recently, a master’s degree in music education. However, little is known about what music graduates do after concluding college. Do they work in music-related areas? Are they satisfied…

  2. Proceedings of Quantifying Sustainability in Puerto Rico: A Scientific Discussion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) symposium/workshop entitled, “Quantifying Sustainability in Puerto Rico: A Scientific Discussion,” was to establish a dialogue between researchers and decision makers and fa...

  3. African Dust Concentrations in the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-Garcia, F.; Santos-Figueroa, G.; Custals, L.; Izaguirre, M.; Prospero, J. M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    African dust carried to the Tropical Atlantic and Caribbean was measured during the summer months of 2015. Atmospheric particles during dust events were collected at Cape San Juan, Puerto Rico on stacked-filter units and a high-volume sampler for the fine and coarse fractions and on a low-pressure impactor for size-resolved characterization. The filter ash gravimetric method was used to determine bulk dust mass concentrations for the first time in Puerto Rico. The method was validated analyzing same filter portions at CIAM/ACAR University of Puerto Rico and at RSMAS/MAC University of Miami. Filter's extracts were analyzed for ionic species measured by ion chromatography. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was determined with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Mineral dust concentrations in Puerto Rico were compared to those reported at Miami during summer periods. Comparison between dust concentration and regional PM10 data and results on size-resolved dust concentration will also be presented.

  4. Tele-TESOL in Puerto Rico for the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welninski, Virginia M.

    The lack of qualified English teachers is a pressing problem in Puerto Rico where, officially, English is taught in grades 1-12 one hour each school day. Less than 1% of the primary grade teachers are qualified to teach English as a second language, yet because of their excellent methodology, they teach "very effectively their own faulty speech…

  5. Quantifying Sustainability in Puerto Rico – A Scientific Discussion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation introduces the symposium and an overview of work on sustainability metrics research in Puerto Rico. The presentation starts broadly by presenting the focus of Office of Research and Development on sustainability and systems thinking and drilling down to the how ...

  6. Sediment Loss and its Contributors in Puerto Rico Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major environmental concern in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is increased sediment load to water reservoirs and ultimately to estuaries and reef areas outside the estuaries. Sediment deposition has significantly reduced the storage capacity of reservoirs, and the associated c...

  7. Cultural Values of Puerto Rican Opiate Addicts: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurzman, Ilyana; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the underutilization of drug rehabilitation programs among Puerto Rican addicts because of the failure of the programs to consider Hispanic cultural differences. Six cultural values specific to Hispanics are evaluated for their psychological implications and suggestions are made for clinicians working with Hispanic drug addicts.…

  8. Puerto Rico Third Annual Evaluation Report, Fiscal Year 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Advisory Council on Vocational and Technical Education, San Juan.

    This document is a summary of a study conducted by the Puerto Rico Vocational Advisory Committee to determine the effectiveness of the Vocational-Technical Education (VTE) programs in that country over a 1-year period. Predicated on the philosophy that improvement in the quality of education is dependent on continuous and comprehensive evaluation,…

  9. Turn and Control in Puerto Rican Spanish Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Paul

    An investigation of Puerto Rican Spanish conversational strategies involved analysis of recorded conversations for the amount of simultaneous speech, its context, and the turn-taking used. Overlapping and interruption were distinguished from cooperative (supportive) simultaneity of speech, and a "turn" was defined as a recognized utterance. The…

  10. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in south-western Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cuev...

  11. Puerto Rican Children's Informal Education at Home. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn

    Observations of children's daily activities and interviews with the children's caretakers provided information on preschool children's informal home education in Utuado, Puerto Rico. Three kinds of skills were examined: literacy, chores, and rule-bound games. The unit of analysis was the "Potential Learning Activity" (PLA), a behavior/sequence of…

  12. Cancer Disparities between Mainland and Island Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer incidence is generally lower in Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. These data should be interpreted with caution, as Hispanics are ethnically heterogeneous. This study examined cancer rates in a single Hispanic subgroup – Puerto Ricans – and compared incidence rates among mainla...

  13. Sediment loss and its cause in Puerto Rico watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Taguas, E. V.; Mbonimpa, E. G.; Hu, W.

    2015-09-01

    A major environmental concern in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is increased sediment load to water reservoirs, to estuaries, and finally to coral reef areas outside the estuaries. Sediment deposition has significantly reduced the storage capacity of reservoirs, and sediments, with their associated contaminants and nutrients that are adsorbed, can stress corals and negatively impact reef health. To prevent and manage sediment loss it is therefore important to understand local soil erosion and sediment transport processes. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of landscape characteristics on sediment loss. We analyzed available precipitation and sediment data collected in Puerto Rico during the past three decades, as well as information on land use, soil properties, and topography. Our partial least squares analysis was not very successful in identifying major factors associated with sediment loss due to the complexity of the study's watersheds; however, it was found that topography and rainfall factors do not play a leading role. Sediment loss from the ridge watersheds in Puerto Rico was mainly caused by interactions of development, heavy rainfall events (especially hurricanes), and steep mountainous slopes associated with the ridges. These results improve our understanding of sediment loss resulting from changes in land use/cover within a Puerto Rico watershed, and allow stakeholders to make more informed decisions about land use planning.

  14. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste,…

  15. A Model of Fertility Control in a Puerto Rican Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schensul, Stephen L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied fertility control among Puerto Rican women in Hartford, Connecticut, utilizing data gathered from structured interviews. Found that sterilization is the overwhelming preference in this community and that number of children--rather than age or availability of accurate information--is usually the factor that precipitates the decision to…

  16. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in knowing about it and…

  17. Cuentos Folkloricos as a Therapeutic Modality with Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Therapeutic techniques using Puerto Rican folktales to promote identification with culturally familiar characters and themes were used with 208 children in grades K-3. Cuento therapies significantly increased WISC-R comprehension scores uniformly across grades K-3 and significantly reduced trait anxiety of first graders. (DC)

  18. The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exit, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We use an environmental Gini coefficient with Toxic Release Inventory ...

  19. The Music of Puerto Rico; A Classroom Music Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Lloyd; Toro, Leonor

    With the assumption that the teacher of students with identifiable ethnic or cultural background must be prepared to deal with each student's heritage in a meaningful way, the document provides resource materials for Connecticut classroom teachers and/or music specialists with responsibilities for teaching children of Puerto Rican heritage. The…

  20. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  1. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  2. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  3. Policies for Early Childhood Music Education in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Candelas, Marta

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, aware of the importance of music education from the earliest age, especially in the emotional, expressive, cultural, social, intellectual, and creative needs of all children, analyzes the status of music education for the young child in Puerto Rico. She examines whether and how local education policies impact the…

  4. Puerto Rican History, Civilization, and Culture: A Mini-Documentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This publication was compiled from a number of smaller manuscripts dealing with various aspects of Puerto Rican history, civilization, and culture. The book is designed to: (1) provide teachers of middle school and high school students with instructional material which covers all these aspects in a related sequential manner; and (2) provide…

  5. Community beliefs and practices about dengue in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of long-term endemicity and repeated government and private efforts, effective, sustained community participation for dengue prevention is still a challenge in Puerto Rico. This study explored differences found in interviews conducted in 2001 in attitudes toward dengue and its prevention by...

  6. Puerto Rican Vocational Students' Experiences Regarding Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segui, Nomara I.

    2016-01-01

    Vocational high school students are not passing state tests and are not meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements in Puerto Rico. Limited qualitative research has been conducted to examine the experiences of vocational high school students regarding mandated standardized tests. Using a qualitative case study, the experiences of Puerto…

  7. Appreciating Ethnic Diversity with "When I Was Puerto Rican."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes there are many resources available that will stimulate student thinking about the diverse people in the world. Considers Esmeralda Santiago's "When I Was Puerto Rican," and notes how it provides a great tool for helping high school students explore their understanding and appreciation of the emerging Hispanic culture. (SG)

  8. Puerto Rican Families in New York City: Intergenerational Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.; Cooney, Rosemary Santana

    This study examined the lives of 100 intergenerationally linked Puerto Rican families living in New York City. Each family consisted of two generations: the mothers and fathers in the parent generation and their married child and spouse in the child generation. Subjects investigated included the experiences of the migrant parent generation in…

  9. Learning in Order To Teach in Chicxulub Puerto, Yucatan, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Cynthia J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a community-based computer education program for the young people (and adults) of Chicxulub Puerto, a small fishing village in Yucatan, Mexico. Notes the children learn Maya, Spanish, and English in the context of learning computer and telecommunication skills. Concludes that access to the Internet has made a profound difference in a…

  10. A Sociolinguistic Survey of Puerto Rican Parents in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry Alan

    The purpose of this study was to develop a data base concerning the home background of Puerto Rican pupils as it relates to present and potential educational progress. Specifically, the study was designed to secure and summarize systematic data concerning the following factors: (1) the educational level of the parents and their educational…

  11. Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Haddock, L; de Conty, I T

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence data for diabetes mellitus obtained from a household interview of a random sample of the general population by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the years 1975-1986. Details of the prevalence rate by sex and age were analyzed for the years 1981, 1984, 1985, and 1986 and for the urban and rural population in 1985. The mean prevalence rate of known cases of diabetes showed a tendency to increase from 3.1% in 1975 to 5.1% in 1986. Prevalence rates adjusted for age and sex showed an increase in the mean prevalence for 1986 compared with that of 1981. The prevalence rate was significantly higher for the rural population for the age-group 45-64 yr old and for the urban population for the age-group greater than or equal to 65 yr. The prevalence rate compares with that of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. On the basis of the prevalence data, approximately 90% of the diabetic population is non-insulin dependent and 10% are insulin dependent. Major risk factors thought to explain the increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are increasing longevity of the Puerto Rican population, genetic predisposition, obesity, and changes in life-styles. In conclusion, Puerto Ricans, as other Hispanic Americans, have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the white American population.

  12. ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE COASTAL RESOURCES OF PUERTO RICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty seven stations located in the coastal estuaries of Puerto Rico were sampled during the summer of 2000 using a probabilistic design. Fourteen estuaries were classified as "large" at 4.19 km2, 25 "medium" at 3.46 km2, and 8 "small" at 0.55 km2. Samples were successfully coll...

  13. THE PEOPLE OF PUERTO RICO, A STUDY IN SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWARD, JULIAN H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BOOK REPORTS A CULTURAL-HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF CERTAIN PUERTO RICAN SUBCULTURES. THE AIMS OF THE STUDY WERE TO ANALYZE THE CONTEMPORARY CULTURE AND TO EXPLAIN IT IN TERMS OF THE HISTORICAL CHANGES WHICH HAVE OCCURRED ON THE ISLAND, AND TO DETERMINE HOW THESE HISTORICALLY DERIVED PATTERNS HAVE BEEN ADAPTED…

  14. Puerto Rican Phenotype: Understanding Its Historical Underpinnings and Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Irene

    2008-01-01

    The following is a historically informed review of Puerto Rican phenotype. Geared toward educating psychologists, this review discusses how various psychological issues associated with phenotype may have arisen as a result of historical legacies and policies associated with race and racial mixing. It discusses how these policies used various…

  15. 76 FR 70467 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4040-DR), dated October 18, 2011, and related determinations. DATES: Effective Date: October 18, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... dated October 18, 2011, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of...

  16. Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico Craig Patterson1, Graciela Ramirez Toro2, Harvey Minnigh2, Cristina Maldonado3, and Rajib Sinha4 1U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, 2Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA),...

  17. 75 FR 2165 - Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico dated 01/07/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 12/24/2009 through 12/25/2009. Effective Date: 01/07... Deadline Date: 10/07/2010. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  18. Social Networks and Depression among Older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Puerto Rican population has excess risk of many health problems like diabetes, cognitive impairment, physical frailty, and disability. They also exhibit high rates of depression symptoms. Research suggests that support from social networks may mediate the effects of social and environmental stre...

  19. Tropical cyclones and the flood hydrology of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.A.; Sturdevant-Rees, P.; Baeck, M.L.; Larsen, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks in the stream gaging records of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have occurred in Puerto Rico. Many of these flood peaks are associated with tropical cyclones. Hurricane Georges, which passed directly over the island on 21-22 September 1998, produced record flood peaks at numerous USGS stations in Puerto Rico. The hydrology and hydrometeorology of extreme flood response in Puerto Rico are examined through analyses of rainfall, based on Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar reflectivity observations and USGS rain gage observations and discharge from USGS stream gaging stations. Peak rainfall accumulations of more than 700 mm occurred in the central mountain region of the island. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were located in the eastern portion of the island in areas with smaller storm total rainfall accumulations but markedly larger rainfall rates at 5-60 min timescale. Orographic precipitation mechanisms played an important role in rainfall distribution over the island of Puerto Rico. Amplification of rainfall accumulations was associated with areas of upslope motion. Elevated low-level cloud water content in regions of upslope motion played an important role in the maximum rainfall accumulations in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were produced by a decaying eye wall mesovortex, which resulted in a 30-45 min period of extreme rainfall rates over the eastern portion of the island. This storm element was responsible for the record flood peak of the Rio Grande de Lo??iza. The role of terrain in development and evolution of the eye wall mesovortex is unclear but is of fundamental importance for assessing extreme flood response from the storm. Hydrologic response is examined through analyses of rainfall and discharge from five pairs of drainage basins, extending from east to west over the island. These analyses point to the

  20. Puerto Rico - 2002 : field studies to resolve aerosol processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Ravelo, R.

    1999-10-05

    A number of questions remain concerning homogeneous aerosol formation by natural organics interacting with anthropogenic pollutants. For example, chlorine has been proposed as a potential oxidant in the troposphere because of its very high reactivity with a wide range of organics (Finlayson-Pitts, 1993). Indeed, sea salt aerosol in the presence of ozone has been shown to produce chlorine atoms in heterogeneous photochemical reactions under laboratory conditions. Whether chlorine can initiate oxidation of natural organics such as monoterpene hydrocarbons and can generate homogeneous nucleation or condensable material that contributes to aerosol loadings needs to be assessed. The nighttime reactions of ozone and nitrate radical can also result in monoterpene reactions that contribute to aerosol mass. We are currently planning field studies in Puerto Rico to assess these aerosol issues and other atmospheric chemistry questions. Puerto Rico has a number of key features that make it very attractive for a field study of this sort. The principal feature is the island's very regular meteorology and its position in the Caribbean Sea relative to the easterly trade winds. This meteorology and the island's rectangular shape (100 x 35 miles) make it highly suitable for simplification of boundary layer conditions. In addition, the long stretch between Puerto Rico and the nearest pollution sources in Africa and southern Europe make the incoming background air relatively clean and constant. Furthermore, Puerto Rico has approximately 3.5 million people with a very well defined source region and a central area of rain forest vegetation. These features make Puerto Rico an ideal locale for assessing aerosol processes. The following sections describe specific areas of atmospheric chemistry that can be explored during the proposed field study.

  1. Collisional zones in Puerto Rico and the northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.

    2014-10-01

    Puerto Rico is an amalgamation of island arc terranes that has recorded the deformational and tectonic history of the North American-Caribbean Plate boundary. Four collisional zones indicate the contractional events that have occurred at the plate boundary. Metamorphism and deformation of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere during the Early Cretaceous indicate the earliest collisional event. Then, an ophiolitic mélange, mostly comprised of blocks of the metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere, was formed and emplaced in the backarc region during the Turonian-Coniacian deformational event. A possible collision with a buoyant block in the North American Plate caused late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene contraction that created fold-and-thrust belts and the remobilization and uplift of serpentinite bodies in the Southwest Block. Late Eocene-early Oligocene transpression was localized along the Southern and Northern Puerto Rico fault zones, which occur north and south of large granodiorite intrusions in the strong Central Block. The deformation was accommodated in pure shear domains of fold-and-thrust belts and conjugate strike-slip faults, and simple shear domains of large mostly left-lateral faults. In addition, it reactivated faults in the weak Southwest Block. This island-wide transpression is the result of a Greater Antilles arc and continental North American collision. The kinematic model of the structures described in Puerto Rico correlate with some structures in Hispaniola and Cuba, and shows how the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate was shortened by collisions with continental lithosphere of the North American Plate throughout its history. The tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles shows a history of collisions, in which the latest collision accretes Cuba to the North American Plate, reorganizes the plate boundary, and deforms with transpression Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The latest collision in Puerto Rico shows the case in which an

  2. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%), and many have less than 8th grade education (48%), and fall below the poverty level (59%). Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26%) and cognitive (7%) impairment, obesity (57%), type 2 diabetes (40%), hypertension (69%), arthritis (50%) and depressive symptomatology (60%). Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities. PMID:20193082

  3. Contextual Risk and Promotive Processes in Puerto Rican Youths’ Internalizing Trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Olazagasti, María A.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J.; Bird, Héctor R.

    2012-01-01

    Research on ethnic-minority youths’ mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority vs. where they are the majority, or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts -- one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico, and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship between social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths’ reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youth in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than youth in Puerto Rico, but similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in the New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

  4. Important Considerations for Recruiting Women to Cancer Genetics Studies in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    August, Euna M.; Quinn, Gwen P.; Perales, Rossybelle; Closser, Zuheily; Dutil, Julie; Puig, Marieva; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    A goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center Partnership between the Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute in Florida is to provide cross-cultural training in cancer research. This is achieved through a collaborative summer exchange program, which provides US students with an opportunity to conduct research in Puerto Rico. As part of this program, students recruited participants and collected data for a study to enhance the understanding of sociocultural factors among Puerto Rican women regarding genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Limited studies have examined cancer genetics issues among Latinos, particularly those specific to the various Latino subgroups, such as Puerto Ricans. As a result of the student training experience, culturally appropriate strategies for the recruitment of women in Puerto Rico have been identified. These recommendations can inform the design of cancer research projects and interventions targeting the Puerto Rican population. PMID:21866412

  5. Real Time Flood Alert System (RTFAS) for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez-Trujillo, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The Real Time Flood Alert System is a web-based computer program, developed as a data integration tool, and designed to increase the ability of emergency managers to rapidly and accurately predict flooding conditions of streams in Puerto Rico. The system includes software and a relational database to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, water levels in streams and reservoirs, and associated storms to determine hazardous and potential flood conditions. The computer program was developed as part of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Water Science Center and the Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency, and integrates information collected and processed by these two agencies and the National Weather Service.

  6. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Guerrero, Puerto Rico, May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2002-01-01

    Lago Guerrero, a small reservoir owned by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, is part of the Isabela Hydroelectric System and is located in Aguadilla, in northwestern Puerto Rico. The reservoir had a storage capacity of about 127,376 cubic meters in May 2001 and a maximum depth of about 5.8 meters. Records on dam construction and original topography and storage capacity were not available; therefore, sedimentation rates could not be determined. However, Lago Guerrero resumably was constructed during the 1930?s because it receives water from lago Guajataca, which was constructed in 1928. The May 2001 bathymetric survey of Lago Guerrero established baseline data that are essential to calculate sedimentation rates, sediment yields, storage loss, and sediment deposition sites within the reservoir.

  7. [Environmental epidemiology of cancer in Puerto Rico: 1987-1988].

    PubMed

    Cerame Vivas, M J

    1991-06-01

    An epidemiological analysis on cancer was run for the years 1987 and 1988 and for each municipal jurisdiction in Puerto Rico. Areas of pronounced incidence were examined on the basis of possible environmental cause-and-effect relationships. The cancer data examined were based on first diagnoses for cancer of all types, respiratory cancer and leukemia. The municipality of Cataño was salient in most incidences. Cataño lies downwind from the largest metropolitan urban center in Puerto Rico (population density 9,559 inhabitants per square mile), from the largest number of industries for the island, from past and present uncontrolled non-compliance air emissions, from the largest number of vehicles, and is surrounded by wetlands. Also salient were other municipalities of historical or current heavy industrial emission activity with lenient or non-existent environmental controls. PMID:1930477

  8. [Psychosocial characteristics of an initial sample of Puerto Rican centenarians].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, José R; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Cruz, Abdiel

    2009-01-01

    This is the first research done in Puerto Rico presenting a basic socio-demographic profile of a sample of Puerto Rican centenary elderly that also includes psychological characteristics. The sample consist of eleven subjects, divided in five women and six men (mean age sample = 102.4 years) evaluated with a battery of psychological instrument that include the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R); the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI-II); the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS); the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS); the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Folstein Mini-Mental. Main findings demonstrate that, with the exception of anxiety and hopelessness symptomatology, this particular sample is with a good psychological health. It is recommended to continue this type of research with a bigger sample and include other psychological and psychiatric screening instruments. PMID:19954093

  9. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  10. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  11. Rainfall-induced landslides in Puerto Rico: An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pando, M.A.; Ruiz, M.E.; Larsen, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are common in Puerto Rico (PR). The presence of steep slopes in mountainous terrain, coupled with weathered soils and intense rainfall, leads to severe slope-stability problems throughout the island. Episodic triggering events such as hurricanes and earthquakes further exacerbate these problems. All physiographic provinces of the island have experienced landslides. The stability of natural and man-made slopes is a serious concern for government authorities and the civil engineering community in Puerto Rico. This paper presents an overview of the rainfall induced landslide problem in PR, a summary of literature published on this subject, and proposes a rainfall intensity landslide threshold based on landslide events data from 1959 to 2003. This threshold can be used as part of a potential landslide warning system.

  12. Epidemic dengue fever in Puerto Rico, 1977: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Von Allmen, S D; López-Correa, R H; Woodall, J P; Morens, D M; Chiriboga, J; Casta-Velez, A

    1979-11-01

    During the period July-December 1977, a widespread epidemic of dengue fever occurred in Puerto Rico. The cost of the epidemic was calculated, using upper and lower limit incidence figures, in terms of direct costs (medical care and epidemic control measures) and indirect costs (lost production of ill workers and parents of ill children). Direct costs were estimated to range between $2.4 and $4.7 million. Indirect costs were calculated by using current (1977) employment and wage data and population extrapolations from the 1970 census, and entailed a loss to the Puerto Rico economy of from $3.7 to $10.9 million. The total cost of this epidemic, therefore, was estimated to be in a range of $6.0 to $15.6 million, of which epidemic control measures comprised 7.8--20.2%.

  13. Media complementarity and health information seeking in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

    2014-01-01

    This investigation incorporates the Orientation1-Stimulus-Orientation2-Response model on the antecedents and outcomes of individual-level complementarity of media use in health information seeking. A secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data suggests that education and gender were positively associated with individual-level media complementarity of health information seeking, which, in turn, was positively associated with awareness of health concepts and organizations, and this awareness was positively associated with a specific health behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. This study extends the research in media complementarity and health information use; it provides an integrative social psychological model empirically supported by the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data.

  14. Gratitude and longing: Meanings of health in aging for Puerto Rican adults in the mainland.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Adams, Wallis E; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Rican adults in the United States mainland live with socioeconomic and health disparities. To understand their contextual experience of aging, we interviewed participants in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Through a Thematic Analysis we identify themes and tensions: normalization and acceptance of aging; gratitude; the importance of aging within social networks; longing to return to Puerto Rico at older age. We address the tensions between 'acceptance' and fatalismo as a cultural belief, and a function of structural barriers. The experience of aging is discussed in the context of Puerto Rico's history and continued dependence on the United States.

  15. A proposed streamflow-data program for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Fields, Fred K.

    1970-01-01

    The streamflow-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Puerto Rico has been one of the principal parts of an overall appraisal of the water resources of the Island since the initiation of a cooperative agreement with agencies of the Commonwealth Government in 1957. The streamflow-station network has increased in direct response to demand for data to support planning for the rapidly accelerated industrial and population growth that has occurred since.

  16. Predicting Heroin and Alcohol Usage Among Young Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Ronald L.; Nuttall, Ena Vazquez

    Using 1968 data collected from junior and senior high school students in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, substance usage patterns for heroin and alcohol were predicted for 1975-6. A sample of 1,000 of the initial 5,000 students were selected for re-interview; half were selected to be at high risk of substance abuse and half were selected randomly. Some 657…

  17. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Patillas, Puerto Rico, March 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2010-01-01

    Lago Patillas is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin, in the municipality of Patillas in southern Puerto Rico, about 3 kilometers north of the town of Patillas and about 8 kilometers northeast of the town of Arroyo (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1914 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico along the towns of Arroyo, Guayama, Patillas, and Salinas. Irrigation releases are made through the outlet works into the Patillas Irrigation Canal that extends 32.2 kilometers from the Patillas dam to Rio Salinas. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill with a structural height of 44.80 meters, a top width of 4.57 meters, a base width of 190.49 meters, and a crest length of 325.21 meters. The spillway structure is physically separated from the earthfill dam, has an elevation of 58.21 meters above mean sea level, and has three radial arm gates (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin. The reservoir has a drainage area of 66.3 square kilometers. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez and others (1999). During March 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PREPA conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Patillas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 bathymetric survey data with previous 1997 data. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since April 1997.

  18. Cenomanian (Cretaceons) Foraminifera from the Puerto Rico Trench

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, R.; Low, D.

    1964-01-01

    An assemblage of predominantly planktonic Foraminifera is discussed from rocks of Cenomanian age dredged from between 3,200 and 3,500 fm on the north slope of the Puerto Rico Trench. Thirty-three planktonic and benthonic species are described. Planomalina pulchella is new; nine species are specifically unidentifiable. Deposition is interpreted as having been at a depth of over 1,000 fm, possibly as deep as where found. ?? 1964.

  19. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  20. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L.

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  1. [Women and health professions in Puerto Rico: 1990].

    PubMed

    León López, L E

    1998-03-01

    The main aim of the present study was to analyse the sex distribución for the health related professions in Puerto Rico. This was a descriptive investigation. The data was obtained from the Census of Population and Housing of Puerto Rico, 1990 and the fifth register of health professionals, 1989-92 from the Health Department of Puerto Rico. It was observed that women in the 90's are still participating, in the health professions, in occupations traditionally of their gender. Nevertheless, it has been observed an increased in the women's participation in those occupations usually performed by men such as: veterinary and podiatry. Women tend to be employed more frequently by the government. Men, on the other hand, are concentrated on those occupations with the highest prestige and status, in the health professions. In addition, a high proportion of men are employed on their own. In terms of income, women earn less income than men for almost all the health occupations taken into account.

  2. Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Warren, Alice Colón

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness. PMID:22073439

  3. Shiny cowbird parasitism in two avian communities in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently expanded its range from South America to Puerto Rico via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and, on reaching Puerto Rico, encounteed avian species with no history of social parasitism. In mangrove habitat study areas, 42% of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized. Some species were heavily parasitized; e.g., yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), 76% of nests parasitized black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus), 82%, Puerto Rican flycatcher (Myiarchus antillarum), 85%, yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus), 95%, troupial (Icterus icterus), 100%, black-cowled oriole (I. dominicensis), 100%. Others suffered low rates of parasitism (2-17% of nests examined); e.g., gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis), red-legged thrush (Turdus plumbeus), bronze mannikin (Lonchura cucullata), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), greater antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger). Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by depressing nest success an average of 41% below non-parasitized nests and reducing host productivity. Parasitized host nests hatched 12% fewer eggs an fledged 67% fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs.

  4. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  5. Epidemiological trends of suicide in Puerto Rico: 1931 to 1985.

    PubMed

    González-Manrique, M A; Rodríguez-Llauger, A

    1988-12-01

    This work fulfills the need for an historic-developmental study of suicide in Puerto Rico. Mortality trends, risk groups and other demographical data with preventive and comparative value is presented. The data for this descriptive study was mainly taken from the Puerto Rico Vital Statistics and the Forensic Institute files. Analysis was done correlating incidence, age, sex and method. Seasonal tendencies were explored. Graphs were designed to illustrate the tendencies and interrelationship of the given variables. The results show that after a decline in incidence in the first 30 years, suicide mortality has been stable for the past 25 years (9.2 x 100,000). Age, sex and method showed certain interrelationships; 1) aging is directly proportional to an increase in suicidal risk. 2) Youth suicide rates have consistently diminished. 3) Adolescents tend to choose the traditional methods in Puerto Rico, with a recent increase in firearms use. 4) At age 16, males differ from females by increasing their suicide rates, particularly by hanging. 5) Adult females show unpredictability as to their methods. Seasonal risk of suicide was found statistically significant (ANOVA) for the Christmas and summer periods and major events affecting the general public.

  6. 78 FR 30270 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...-counter pharmaceutical products, including: Anti-cancer; anti-diabetic and immunosuppressive medicaments... Production Activity, Janssen Ortho LLC (Pharmaceutical Products Production), Gurabo, Puerto Rico The Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company, grantee of FTZ 61, submitted a notification of proposed...

  7. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context and Change in Allostatic Load Among Older Puerto Ricans: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Arevalo, Sandra; Tucker, Katherine L.; Falcon, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood context may influence health and health disparities. However, most studies have been constrained by cross-sectional designs that limit causal inference due to failing to establish temporal order of exposure and disease. We tested the impact of baseline neighborhood context (neighborhood socioeconomic status factor at the block-group level, and relative income of individuals compared to their neighbors) on allostatic load two years later. We leveraged data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a prospective cohort of aging Puerto Rican adults (aged 45–75 at baseline), with change in AL modeled between baseline and the 2nd wave of follow-up using two-level hierarchical linear regression models. Puerto Rican adults with higher income, relative to their neighbors, exhibited lower AL after two years, after adjusting for NSES, age, gender, individual-level SES, length of residence, and city. After additional control for baseline AL, this association was attenuated to marginal significance. We found no significant association of NSES with AL. Longitudinal designs are an important tool to understand how neighborhood contexts influence health and health disparities. PMID:25706323

  8. La Ninez en Puerto Rico: Resultados del Censo 2000. Un informe de KIDS COUNT/PRB sobre el Censo 2000 (Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This Spanish-language report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto…

  9. 78 FR 58273 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico: Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Production Activity; Patheon Puerto Rico, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Products); Caguas and Manat , Puerto Rico The... Pharmaceutical Corporation), located in Caguas and Manat , Puerto Rico. The notification conforming to the requirements of the regulations of the FTZ Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on August 28, 2013....

  10. 75 FR 40795 - Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Board on February 25, 1997 (Board Order 875, 62 FR 10521, 3/7/1997) at the Baxter Healthcare of Puerto... period of five years. On August 25, 2003 (Board Order 1293, 68 FR 53346, 9/10/2003), the subzone was... Puerto Rico (Inhalation Anesthetics Manufacturing), Guayama, Puerto Rico Pursuant to the regulations...

  11. 19 CFR 10.198b - Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... country. 10.198b Section 10.198b Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Basin Initiative § 10.198b Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country. Except in the... of Puerto Rico and that is by any means advanced in value or improved in condition in a...

  12. English Proficiency and Admission and Graduation of Post-Secondary Students at a Puerto Rican University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation has examined English proficiency as a mediating social factor within the occupational structure of Puerto Rico. It included an analysis of the educational records of 641 students majoring in industrial engineering, nursing, education and finance of the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez from 1998-2000. The investigation…

  13. Puerto Rico's PLATO Learning Program: An Independent Evaluation of the PLATO Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillady, Lucinda; Miller, Libbie

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program has become a valuable resource in the implementation of the Puerto Rico Department of Education's educational reform process. To support the process, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico granted computerized equipment, reading and mathematics software and training designed for schools. This included reading…

  14. Dominican and Puerto Rican Women in Partnerships and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Claudia L.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2007-01-01

    This study compares demographic characteristics, sexual risk factors for HIV/STI, and cultural predictors of sexual risk among 254 Dominican and 1,012 Puerto Rican women using outpatient health care in New York City. More Dominicans were born outside continental United States and were employed, whereas more Puerto Ricans were single and less…

  15. Young Puerto Rican Children's Exploration of Racial Discourses within the Figured Worlds of Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrodad-Rodriguez, Patricia Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the racial discourses of six and seven year old Puerto Rican children participating in small group literature circles over one academic year. The main research question is "How do Puerto Rican young children in a multiage classroom construct race through dialogue within the figured worlds of literature circles?" This study…

  16. 42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.204 Payment...

  17. 42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals §...

  18. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals §...

  19. Pilot study of mold populations inside and outside of Puerto Rican residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Puerto Rico has the highest asthma prevalence in the US. In the states, mold exposures have been linked to the development and exacerbation of asthma. For a pilot study of mold populations in Puerto Rico, dust and air samples were collected in January 2013 inside and outside of...

  20. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  2. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  3. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  4. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  5. 78 FR 14963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity; Zimmer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 163--Ponce, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity; Zimmer Manufacturing BV (Medical Devices); Ponce, Puerto Rico On November 1, 2012, CODEZOL, C.D., grantee of FTZ 163, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  6. Sexual Risk Factors for HIV and Violence among Puerto Rican Women in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Claudia L.; Morrill, Allison C.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined sexual factors for HIV risk in 1,003 women of Puerto Rican heritage who attended a community-based New York City hospital clinic. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. Half were born in the continental United States, and half were born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All were sexually active within the past 90…

  7. The Ethnic Queue in the U.S.: The Case of the Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara

    What effects will racial and ethnic discrimination have on Puerto Ricans? Will Puerto Ricans go the route of previous immigrant groups? Or will they be like blacks? What bearings does all this have on other ethnic groups? On blacks? The examination of the historical context begins with a discussion of the origins of ethnic and racial prejudice in…

  8. Equal Access to Income and Union Dissolution among Mainland Puerto Ricans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the implications for union stability of different methods for providing access to income in cohabiting and marital unions among mainland Puerto Ricans. Using the Puerto Rican Maternal and Infant Health Study (N= 836), we show that union dissolution is associated with both union type and type of method. The relatively high…

  9. Genomic Assays for Identification of Chikungunya Virus in Blood Donors, Puerto Rico, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Charles Y; Bres, Vanessa; Yu, Guixia; Krysztof, David; Naccache, Samia N; Lee, Deanna; Pfeil, Jacob; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Stramer, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    A newly developed transcription-mediated amplification assay was used to detect chikungunya virus infection in 3 of 557 asymptomatic donors (0.54%) from Puerto Rico during the 2014-2015 Caribbean epidemic. Viral detection was confirmed by using PCR, microarray, and next-generation sequencing. Molecular clock analysis dated the emergence of the Puerto Rico strains to early 2013.

  10. 78 FR 13625 - Approval of Subzone Status; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, Puerto Rico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Register inviting public comment (77 FR 75145, 12/19/2012). The FTZ staff examiner reviewed the application... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, Puerto Rico On December... the existing activation limit of FTZ 61, on behalf of Sea World, Inc., in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico....

  11. QUANTIFYING SEDIMENT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GUÁNICA BAY PUERTO RICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The island of Puerto Rico faces considerable challenges regarding sustainable land use and effects of land use on adjacent freshwater and marine ecosystem services. In watersheds feeding Guánica Bay (southwestern Puerto Rico), increased soil erosion and sediment loading to strea...

  12. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  13. New genus and species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) from Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus (Borinken) and five new species (Borinken elyunque, Distigmoptera chamorrae, Kiskeya elyunque, Ulrica eltoro, and U. iviei) from Puerto Rico are described and illustrated. A key to all Caribbean Monoplatini genera, a key to all Kiskeya species and to Ulrica species of Puerto Rico are pro...

  14. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. 81.77 Section 81.77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air...

  15. Language Policies in Puerto Rican Higher Education: Conflicting Assumptions of Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the language policies at 38 institutions of higher education on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. As a commonwealth of the US, Spanish and English hold co-official status on Puerto Rico despite the fact that majority of islanders use Spanish as their first language. Given the colonial status of the island, English has held…

  16. The Literature of the Puerto Rican Migration in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta-Belen, Edna

    1988-01-01

    Introduces readers and researchers to the rapidly growing body of work referred to as "Nuyorican" literature, works by second-generation Puerto Ricans of the New York Puerto Rican political and cultural awakening of the late 1960s. Includes anthologies, prose fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, and journals. (SR)

  17. Puerto Rican Women and Children: Issues in Health, Growth, and Development. Topics in Social Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberty, Gontran, Ed.; Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.

    Noting that most socioeconomic and demographic indicators are negative for Puerto Rican mothers and children, this book enhances the current knowledge about the growth and development of Puerto Rican mothers and children, and discusses the likely social origins of their suboptimal experiences. Thirteen papers are presented. The opening chapter…

  18. Co-Evolution in an Outlying Ethnic Community: The Puerto Ricans of Hartford, Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backstrand, Jeffrey R.; Schensul, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing a model of ethnic community/host community co-evolution, describes interactions between the host environment and the Puerto Rican community of Hartford. Proposes a model for understanding smaller Puerto Rican communities--those outside the large urban centers usually studied. (GC)

  19. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  4. Pilot study of mold population inside and outside of Puerto Rican residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Puerto Rico has the highest asthma prevalence in the US. In the states, mold exposures have been linked to the development and exacerbation of asthma. For a pilot study of mold populations in Puerto Rico, dust and air samples were collected in January 2013 inside and ou...

  5. The Social Psychological Adjustment of Migrant and Non-Migrant Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Seilhamer, Emily Stella

    1987-01-01

    Reviews research literature on Puerto Rican youth and summarizes findings on factors influencing return migration and the cultural and physical adjustment of return migrants. Presents findings of a survey of Puerto Rican students, non-migrants and return migrants, which attempted to determine whether there was a relationship between reading…

  6. 42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY 2004. Payments for...

  7. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  8. Assessing the Personality Structure of the Puerto Rican Secondary School Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, John P.; Nuttall, Ronald L.

    The study dealt with the personality structure of Puerto Rican junior and senior high school students examined in one school district in Puerto Rico. The instrument used was a translated and adapted form of the HSPQ, Form A. From a scree test, more than 14 factors, probably 16 factors were to be found in the data. Rotating 14 factors to an oblique…

  9. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia...

  10. The Puerto Rican Community and Natural Support Systems: Implications for the Education of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melvin

    This report explores how service providers and educators can better understand, support, and work with Puerto Rican natural support systems through a variety of collaborative strategies. A first section presents a definition of Puerto Rican natural support systems and a discussion of how they are operationalized, and describes the following four…

  11. The American Pressure Cooker...The Puerto Rican on the Mainland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soy, Rosa H.; Sanchez, Isabel

    The purpose of this essay is to uncover the factors which have so greatly affected the educational and social aspect of the Puerto Rican's life in the New York metropolitan area. It is concluded that school systems are obviously not going to foster disorder or encourage criticism. The initiative is up to the community. The Puerto Rican community…

  12. Puerto Rican Children's Perceptions of Favorite Television Characters as Behavioral Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Megan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents findings of research that studied the influence of television's behavioral models on young Puerto Rican children, including (1) types of models children chose; (2) their perceptions and moral judgments of the appropriateness of certain types of antisocial behavior; and (3) occupational aspirations and their perceptions of Puerto Rican…

  13. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  14. Education and Imperialism: The Puerto Rican Experience in Higher Education, 1898-1986. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Fraticelli, Carlos

    An integrated historical account of the Puerto Rican experience in higher education is presented by the Higher Education Task Force of the Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos of Hunter College, City University of New York. The present situation of Puerto Ricans in higher education on the Island and in the United States reflects the plight Puerto…

  15. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  16. 42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. 412... rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. (a) General rule. CMS determines the Puerto Rico adjusted DRG... Federal fiscal year 1988 for a prospective payment hospital. These rates are determined as described...

  17. 42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. 412... rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. (a) General rule. CMS determines the Puerto Rico adjusted DRG... Federal fiscal year 1988 for a prospective payment hospital. These rates are determined as described...

  18. 42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. 412... rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. (a) General rule. CMS determines the Puerto Rico adjusted DRG... Federal fiscal year 1988 for a prospective payment hospital. These rates are determined as described...

  19. 42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. 412... rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. (a) General rule. CMS determines the Puerto Rico adjusted DRG... Federal fiscal year 1988 for a prospective payment hospital. These rates are determined as described...

  20. English Language Training for Puerto Rican Navy Recruits: Evaluation of Pilot Program. Technical Report 155.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    An evaluation of the effectiveness of the English language training for Navy recruits at the English Technical Language School (ETLS) in Puerto Rico is reported. The study covers the period of December 7, 1981, to September 30, 1983. It tracked Puerto Rican Army National Guard (PRANG) personnel from completion of English language training through…

  1. The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A Phonetic, Phonological, and Intonational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Kenneth Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates four aspects of Puerto Rican Spanish as represented in the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce: the behavior of coda /[alveolar flap]/, the behavior of /r/, the different realizations of coda /s/, and its intonational phonology. Previous studies on Puerto Rican Spanish report that coda /[alveolar flap]/ is normally realized as…

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

  3. Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents scholarly writings and personal reflections on Puerto Rican students in American schools. Following "Introduction and Overview" (Sonia Nieto), there are 12 chapters in five parts. Part 1, "Historical and Sociopolitical Context," includes: (1) "Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools: A Brief History" (Sonia Nieto);…

  4. Self-Identity and Bilingualism among Adolescent Return Migrants to Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucca-Irizarry, Nydia; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Migrant Puerto Rican children born or raised in the United States who moved to Puerto Rico during adolescence experienced drastic changes in their self-esteem and self-identity; in family and interpersonal relations; and in their relations with broader aspects of the new environment, including its physical, interpersonal, and cultural dimensions.…

  5. 42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY 2004. Payments for...

  6. 42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY 2004. Payments for...

  7. 42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY 2004. Payments for...

  8. 77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 70703-70704, 11/15/2011) and the application has... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its... FTZ 61 to include a site in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, adjacent to the San Juan U.S. Customs and...

  9. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto... Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. Moving and fixed security zones are established 50 yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan,...

  10. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto... Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. Moving and fixed security zones are established 50 yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan,...

  11. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  12. Trends in Labor Market Position for Puerto Ricans on the Mainland: 1970-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Luis M; Hirschman, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1970 and 1980 census and the 1987 Current Population Survey presents the trends behind the shift in the economic position of Puerto Ricans. Discusses changes in labor force participation, employment, and average earnings for Puerto Rican males and females with attention to nativity and gender differences. Suggests polarization of…

  13. Perceptions of Dominican Spanish and Dominican Self-Perception in the Puerto Rican Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budenbender, Eva-Maria Suarez

    2009-01-01

    The contact between Dominicans and Puerto Ricans is targeted for study as much for its linguistic import as for its social context. Dominican and Puerto Rican Spanish are considered varieties of Caribbean Spanish that differ only by a few phonological and syntactic patterns and a small number of lexical items. Although both varieties are heavily…

  14. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  15. New records of Bodotriidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from Puerto Rico with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Iorgu; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to describe the cumacean fauna of Puerto Rico we describe three new species of Bodotriidae, a family that has never been reported from Puerto Rico before.  While finding and describing new microcrustacean species may not be an impossible task, if there is available taxonomic expertise, the currently described species were found in large numbers within a short distance from the Marine Laboratories of the University of Puerto Rico where the local reefs have been studied for over half a century, highlighting the large gaps that exist in our estimates of Caribbean marine diversity.  The three new species, Cyclaspis gurui sp. nov., Cyclaspis mariae sp. nov. and Vaunthompsonia budaii sp. nov. are reported from a fringing reef off La Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico and Vaunthompsonia cristata Bate, 1858 represents a new record for Puerto Rico from the mesophotic reefs. PMID:25544235

  16. New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico Trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian D.; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

  17. New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Uri ten; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

  18. An Examination of Neighborhood Effects on Patterns of High School Attrition among Puerto Rican Youth in the New York Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Ronald J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Examined effects of spatial concentration of Puerto Ricans on the likelihood of high school attrition among Puerto Rican adolescents. Using census data, found that neighborhoods with very high concentrations of Puerto Ricans did significantly increase the risk of high school attrition among adolescent Puerto Ricans regardless of family background…

  19. Sedimentation Survey of Lago La Plata, Puerto Rico, July 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago La Plata dam is located between the municipalities of Naranjito and Toa Alta in north central Puerto Rico, about 5 kilometers south of the town of Toa Alta and about 5 kilometers north of the town of Naranjito. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio de La Plata, the Rio Guadiana, and the Rio Ca?as, and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District, which provides about 35 percent of the total water demand for the area (Soler-Lopez and others, 2000). The reservoir has a drainage area of about 469 square kilometers. The dam was constructed in 1974 and is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool elevation of 52.00 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). During October 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to assess the impact of Hurricane Georges on the storage capacity of the reservoir. Between July 17 and 20, 2006, the USGS and the PRASA conducted an additional bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to update the reservoir storage capacity and determine the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 survey data with the 1998 survey data.. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1998. Historical (1974) data are referenced as needed to account for long-term storage capacity loss trends...

  20. Pharmacogenetic Association Study of Warfarin Safety Endpoints in Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Valentín, Isa I.; Rivera, Giselle; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Cruz, Iadelisse; Renta, Jessica Y.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Feliu, Juan F.; Seip, Richard L.; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was intended to determine the incidence rate of warfarin-related adverse events (e.g., bleeding) in Puerto Ricans and whether a genetic association between warfarin pharmacogenes and any of these adverse events was observed over the initiation period (i.e., the first 90 days of therapy). Methods We conducted an observational, retrospective cohort study of pharmacogenetic association in 122 warfarin-treated, male, Puerto Rican patients (69.9 ±9.6 years) from the Veterans Affair Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) who consented to participate. Genotyping was performed using the CYP2C9 and VKORC 1 assays by Luminex. Event-free survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and analyzed by log-rank test. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios (HR) calculated. Results Carriers of functional CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms demonstrated a higher incidence rate of multiple adverse events (i.e., 5.2 vs. 1.0 cases per 100 patient-months; RR = 4.8, p = 0.12) than did wild types. A significant association was observed between multiple adverse events and carrier status (HR = 2.5; 95% CI : 1.0–6.3, p = 0.04). However, no significant associations between genotypes and individual outcomes over the first 90 days of therapy were found. Conclusion The association of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and risks for adverse events due to exposure to warfarin was examined for the first time in Puerto Ricans. Despite a lack of association with individual events in this study population, our findings revealed a potential utility of genotyping for the prevention of multiple adverse events during warfarin therapy. PMID:25244877

  1. Hurricane Hortense: impact on surface water in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto

    1997-01-01

    Late Monday night, September 9, and into the early morning hours of Tuesday, September 10, 1996, Hurricane Hortense passed over the southwestern part of Puerto Rico (inset). Hurricane Hortense made landfall as a Category One Hurricane (74 to 95 miles per hour) on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, with maximum sustained winds of nearly 80 miles per hour. The eye of Hurricane Hortense moved over the towns of Guayanilla, Yauco, Guánica, Lajas, San Germán, Cabo Rojo, Hormigueros, and Mayagüez (fig. 1).

  2. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Guerrero, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, March 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2009-01-01

    Lago Guerrero is located in Aguadilla, northwestern Puerto Rico (fig. 1). The reservoir has a surface area of about 32,000 square meters and is excavated in Aymamon Limestone of Miocene age. This bedrock consists of chalk interbed-ded with solution-riddled hard limestone (Monroe, 1969). The reservoir was constructed in the 1930s as part of the Isabela Hydroelectric System to regulate flows to two hydroelectric plants-Central Isabel No. 2, at an elevation of about 110 meters above mean sea level, and Central Isabel No. 3, at about 55 meters above mean sea level. Hydroelectric power generation was discontinued during the early 1960s, although the exact date is unknown (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2007). The principal use of the reservoir since then has been to regulate flow to two public-supply water filtration plants and supply irrigation water for the Aguadilla area. Flow into the reservoir is derived from Lago Guajataca through a 26-kilometer-long Canal Principal de Diversion concrete canal (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2001). Additional inflow occurs on an incidental basis only during intensive rainfall from the immediate drainage area. The present Lago Guerrero drainage area is undetermined, due to the irregular and complex topography of the limestone terrain and anthropogenic modifications to the stormwater drainage system. Stormwater runoff, however, is presumed to be negligible compared to the almost constant inflow to the reservoir of about 59,300 cubic meters per day from Lago Guajataca (CSA Group, 2000). On March 9, 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guerrero to determine the storage capacity of the reservoir and sedimentation amount since a previous survey conducted on May 30, 2001. The March 2006 survey was made to develop a bathymetric map of the reservoir

  3. Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated during investigation of the summer 2006 seafood related diarrhea outbreaks in two regions of Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Loreto; Armijo, Lorena; Zabala, Beatriz; Hernández, Cristina; Rioseco, M Luisa; Riquelme, Carlos; Espejo, Romilio T

    2007-07-15

    Nine hundred cases of seafood related diarrhea were reported in the region of Puerto Montt, Chile during the austral summer of 2006. This is the continuation of the large outbreaks associated with the consumption of seafood containing the Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovar O3:K6 pandemic clonal group that arose last decade in Chile. The initial outbreaks occurred during the summer of 1998 in Antofagasta (23 degrees 39'S 70 degrees 24'W). Subsequently, outbreaks there were rare, but since 2004 outbreaks have been frequent farther south in Puerto Montt (41 degrees 29'S 72 degrees 24'W). The large outbreaks in Puerto Montt and their rarity in Antofagasta is atypical because the seawater temperature at Puerto Montt is 5 degrees C lower than at Antofagasta and the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood has been associated with higher water temperatures. To better understand the role of seafood in outbreak occurrences in these regions, we analyzed the V. parahaemolyticus populations in clinical cases and shellfish from Puerto Montt during diarrhea outbreaks in 2006 and in shellfish from Antofagasta, where no cases were observed. Enrichment culture from shellfish yielded no V. parahaemolyticus from samples from the north, but its presence was detected in 80% of the samples from the south. Grouping of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates by the fragment restriction pattern of their DNA showed that all pathogenic (tdh+) isolates obtained from Puerto Montt shellfish corresponded to the serovar O3:K6 South East Asian pandemic clone, while the non-pathogenic (tdh-) isolates corresponded to at least six discrete groups. The possible causes for the disappearance of the pandemic strain from the north and its persistence in the south are discussed. PMID:17521760

  4. Potential causes for amphibian declines in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burrowes, P.A.; Joglar, R.L.; Green, David E.

    2004-01-01

    We monitored 11 populations of eight species of Eleutherodactylus in Puerto Rico from 1989 through 2001. We determined relative abundance of active frogs along transects established in the Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque), Carite Forest, San Lorenzo, and in the vicinity of San Juan. Three species (Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti, E. jasperi, and E. eneidae) are presumed to be extinct and eight populations of six different species of endemic Eleutherodactylus are significantly declining at elevations above 400 m. Of the many suspected causes of amphibian declines around the world, we focused on climate change and disease. Temperature and precipitation data from 1970a??2000 were analyzed to determine the general pattern of oscillations and deviations that could be correlated with amphibian declines. We examined a total of 106 tissues taken from museum specimens collected from 1961a??1978 and from live frogs in 2000. We found chytrid fungi in two species collected at El Yunque as early as 1976, this is the first report of chytrid fungus in the Caribbean. Analysis of weather data indicates a significant warming trend and an association between years with extended periods of drought and the decline of amphibians in Puerto Rico. The 1970's and 1990's, which represent the periods of amphibian extirpations and declines, were significantly drier than average. We suggest a possible synergistic interaction between drought and the pathological effect of the chytrid fungus on amphibian populations.

  5. Climate influence on dengue epidemics in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jury, Mark R

    2008-10-01

    The variability of the insect-borne disease dengue in Puerto Rico was studied in relation to climatic variables in the period 1979-2005. Annual and monthly reported dengue cases were compared with precipitation and temperature data. Results show that the incidence of dengue in Puerto Rico was relatively constant over time despite global warming, possibly due to the offsetting effects of declining rainfall, improving health care and little change in population. Seasonal fluctuations of dengue were driven by rainfall increases from May to November. Year-to-year variability in dengue cases was positively related to temperature, but only weakly associated with local rainfall and an index of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Climatic conditions were mapped with respect to dengue cases and patterns in high and low years were compared. During epidemics, a low pressure system east of Florida draws warm humid air over the northwestern Caribbean. Long-term trends in past observed and future projected rainfall and temperatures were studied. Rainfall has declined slowly, but temperatures in the Caribbean are rising with the influence of global warming. Thus, dengue may increase in the future, and it will be necessary to anticipate dengue epidemics using climate forecasts, to reduce adverse health impacts.

  6. [Health in Puerto Rico in the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G

    2000-12-01

    The evolution in physical condition, life expectancy at birth, and access to preventive and curative services rapidly improved the quality of life of Puerto Ricans in the twentieth century. The population quadrupled to almost 4 million inhabitants and the crude mortality rate fell from 38 per thousand in 1900 to 7.7 per thousand in 1997, with its most dramatic change (18.6 to 6.7) occurring from 1941 to 1960. The great promoters of health were the general increase in socioeconomic level, improvements in infrastructure, and vaccines; its great scourges were infectious diseases (from hookworm to AIDS) and social dislocations, such as the war of 1917 (accompanied by epidemics and hunger) or the present war between illicit drug distributors. This article summarizes the events in the century related to health and its political and economic contexts, the developments in public health structures and health care, professional education, volunteer organizations, campaigns against infectious diseases, chronic causes of mortality, and environmental problems. Bringing the capacity to defend public health to the level of sophistication available for clinical care is one of the vital challenges of the twenty-first century for Puerto Rico.

  7. Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

    2011-09-01

    This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

  8. Sedimentation survey of Lago Loco, Puerto Rico, March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2002-01-01

    Lago Loco, a small reservoir property of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and part of the Southwestern Puerto Rico Project, has lost 64 percent of its original storage capacity. In 1951, the original storage capacity was about 2.40 million cubic meters, decreasing to 1.43 million cubic meters in 1986 and to 0.87 million cubic meters in March 2000. The storage loss or longterm sedimentation rate increased from 27,714 cubic meters per year from the period of 1951 to 1986 to 31,224 cubic meters per year for the period of 1951 to 2000. This represents a capacity loss of about 1.1 percent per year for the period of 1951 to 1986 and 1.3 percent per year for 1951 to 2000. The trapping efficiency of the reservoir was about 92 percent in 1951, decreasing to about 87 percent in 1986, and to about 80 percent in March 2000. The sediment yield of the net sediment- contributing drainage area increased from 1,504 megagrams per square kilometer per year between 1951 and 1986 to 1,774 megagrams per square kilometer per year between 1951 and 2000, or about 18 percent. At the current sedimentation rate of the reservoir, the life expectancy of Lago Loco is about 28 more years or until the year 2028.

  9. Mass Measurements of Saharan Dust Aerosols in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. A.; Jimenez, B.; Detres, Y.

    2003-12-01

    During the summer months, Saharan dust aerosols reach maximum values throughout the Caribbean Region. The respirable fraction of this dust, measured as PM 2.5, has the potential to induce regional health impacts, such as asthma and allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Surface measurements of dust aerosols were obtained at Fajardo, on the northeastern corner of Puerto Rico, since November 2000. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 size fractions from the filter samples were related to satellite and sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth before, during, and after Saharan dust events. In 2002, PM 2.5 ranged from 2.5 to 18.4 ug/m-3 while PM 10 ranged from 11 to 60 ug/m-3. The PM 2.5 fraction was approximately 25% of the PM 10. Saharan dust aerosols are also responsible for substantial heavy metal deposition in the tropical western Atlantic. In 2001, Iron increase from less than 4 mg/g during the first four months of the year, to a maximum of 24 mg/g in June, with relatively high values from May through September. An AVHRR 4-year climatology of aerosol optical depth for northeastern Puerto Rico shows a well-defined maximum peak during the last week of June and first week of July.

  10. Atmospheric controls on Puerto Rico precipitation using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramseyer, Craig A.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The growing need for local climate change scenarios has given rise to a wide range of empirical climate downscaling techniques. One of the most critical decisions in these methodologies is the selection of appropriate predictor variables for the downscaled surface predictand. A systematic approach to selecting predictor variables should be employed to ensure that the most important variables are utilized for the study site where the climate change scenarios are being developed. Tropical study areas have been far less examined than mid- and high-latitudes in the climate downscaling literature. As a result, studies analyzing optimal predictor variables for tropics are limited. The objectives of this study include developing artificial neural networks for six sites around Puerto Rico to develop nonlinear functions between 37 atmospheric predictor variables and local rainfall. The relative importance of each predictor is analyzed to determine the most important inputs in the network. Randomized ANNs are produced to determine the statistical significance of the relative importance of each predictor variable. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are shown to be the most important variables at all sites. Results show inter-site variability in u- and v-wind importance depending on the unique geographic situation of the site. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are physically linked to variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the strength and position of the North Atlantic High Pressure cell (NAHP). The changes forced by anthropogenic climate change in regional SSTs and the NAHP will impact rainfall variability in Puerto Rico.

  11. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scatena, F.N.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1991-01-01

    On 18 September 1989 the western part ofHurricane Hugo crossed eastern Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). Storm-facing slopes on the northeastern part of the island that were within 15 km of the eye and received greater than 200 mm of rain were most affected by the storm. In the LEF and nearby area, recurrence intervals associated with Hurricane Hugo were 50 yr for wind velocity, 10 to 31 yr for stream discharge, and 5 yr for rainfall intensity. To compare the magnitudes of the six hurricanes to pass over PuertoRico since 1899, 3 indices were developed using the standardized values of the product of: the maximum sustained wind speed at San Juan squared and storm duration; the square of the product of the maximum sustained wind velocity at San Juan and the ratio of the distance between the hurricane eye and San Juan to the distance between the eye and percentage of average annual rainfall delivered by the storm. Based on these indices, HurricaneHugo was of moderate intensity. However, because of the path of Hurricane Hugo, only one of these six storms (the 1932 storm) caused more damage to the LEF than Hurricane Hugo. Hurricanes of Hugo's magnitude are estimated to pass over the LEF once every 50-60 yr, on average. 

  12. The public controversies of AIDS in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, I

    1989-01-01

    All articles using the word 'AIDS' that have appeared in the five major daily newspapers in Puerto Rico since 1982 were studied to analyze the way in which AIDS has been presented in the daily press. Virtually all of the articles regarding AIDS, at least those pertaining to Puerto Rico, presented controversies. These were of two kinds. Articles regarding prevalence, incidence, and sources of funding were presented as controversies between the two main political parties of the island. They can be considered extensions of other political arguments between the parties. Those regarding risk factors, prevention, and treatment were presented as controversies between representatives of the people, such as union leaders, and government officials. The victims of AIDS, the homosexuals, drug addicts and hemophiliacs, were generally left out of the controversies as participants. The controversies are generally nonmedical and nonscientific, suggesting that the public perceives insufficient interest on the part of medical and political leaders and is expropriating the problem. That the proposed solutions are directed more toward the victims than the causative organims is also characteristics of past epidemics.

  13. Atmospheric controls on Puerto Rico precipitation using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramseyer, Craig A.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-10-01

    The growing need for local climate change scenarios has given rise to a wide range of empirical climate downscaling techniques. One of the most critical decisions in these methodologies is the selection of appropriate predictor variables for the downscaled surface predictand. A systematic approach to selecting predictor variables should be employed to ensure that the most important variables are utilized for the study site where the climate change scenarios are being developed. Tropical study areas have been far less examined than mid- and high-latitudes in the climate downscaling literature. As a result, studies analyzing optimal predictor variables for tropics are limited. The objectives of this study include developing artificial neural networks for six sites around Puerto Rico to develop nonlinear functions between 37 atmospheric predictor variables and local rainfall. The relative importance of each predictor is analyzed to determine the most important inputs in the network. Randomized ANNs are produced to determine the statistical significance of the relative importance of each predictor variable. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are shown to be the most important variables at all sites. Results show inter-site variability in u- and v-wind importance depending on the unique geographic situation of the site. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are physically linked to variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the strength and position of the North Atlantic High Pressure cell (NAHP). The changes forced by anthropogenic climate change in regional SSTs and the NAHP will impact rainfall variability in Puerto Rico.

  14. Meaning of touch to hospitalized Puerto Ricans with cancer.

    PubMed

    Morales, E

    1994-12-01

    This ethnographic study was undertaken to elicit the meaning of nurse's touch for hospitalized Puerto Rican patients with cancer. The key informants were eight cancer patients at a tertiary 12-bed oncology research unit in Puerto Rico. Data gathering methods included participant observation and several ethnographic interviews during a month period. Content analysis was used to identify pattern of behavior and meaning. Analysis of the field notes and interviews was done to search for domains. Theme analysis was used in the search for the relationship among domains. In the analysis of the patient interviews, two types of touch were identified: procedural and affective touch. The predominant theme about perception of nurse's touch was that of conveying confidence. Confidence was related to the patient's increase in positive expectation as much as the possibility of recovery from the cancer illness. The confidence theme was represented by two domains: the enhancement of the abilities of the patient for coping and through the acceptance of the patient as a person during their illness experience. PMID:7820824

  15. Summary of the water resources of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Puerto Rico has considerable variability in geology, hydrology, and topography. Rainfall provides an average of about 11,600 million gallons of water per day. The mountainous interior receives the most rainfall and the southwest coast the least. Surface water accounts for about 90 percent of public supplies but only about 20 percent of industry; agriculture uses about equal amounts of ground water and surface water. Of the average daily 11,600 million gallons of precipitation, about 7,240 Mgal/d is lost by evapotranspiration; about 3,620 Mgal/d by streamflow to the sea; and about 188 Mgal/d by ground-water flow to the sea. Municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses account for about 420 Mgal/d in losses. The south coast is the most stressed area in terms of water deficiency. Changes in water use and the importation of water are alternatives for increasing supplies to meet future demands. Generally the chemical composition of nearly all surface waters in Puerto Rico is about the same (Bogart, 1964, p. 86). The waters are predominantly of the calcium bicarbonate type. However, characteristic differences do occur--especially in dissolved solids and in concentration of specific ions. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Surviving Sepsis Puerto Rico: A Call For Action.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Ronald; Matos, Miguel Laforet; Turbay, Tamid

    2015-01-01

    There are 1.7 million sepsis-related hospitalizations each year making it the sixth most common cause for hospitalization in the United States. Not only are this hospitalizations common, they are expensive to our medical system with $15.3 billion spent yearly (3) and hospitalizations lasting 75% longer than for other conditions. In 2001, Rivers et al published in the NEJM the results of his study "Early Goal Directed Therapy (EGDT) in The Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock". EGDT demonstrated a 16.5% decrease in mortality in septic patients (4). In 2002 the Surviving Sepsis Campaign began as a collaboration between the Society of Critical Care Medicine and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine with goals of reducing worldwide sepsis related mortality by 25% in the next 5 years. Despite the proven benefit of early identification and management, knowledge regarding the topic in Puerto Rico remains scarce. In a study performed in PR by Fernandez et al. in 2006, only an alarming 31.4% of doctors from different specialties correctly identified SIRS criteria. Our goal is to educate physicians about the importance of early identification and treatment of the septic patient. A campaign to increase awareness and improve care is essential and we propose treatment protocols for our Puerto Rican hospitals to help reduce morbidity, mortality, length of stay and costs. PMID:26434083

  17. Dominican, Mexican, and Puerto Rican prostitutes: drug use and sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Deren, S; Shedlin, M; Davis, W R; Clatts, M C; Balcorta, S; Beardsley, M M; Sanchez, J; Des Jarlais, D

    1997-05-01

    HIV-related behaviors are reported in three groups of Hispanic prostitutes recruited in the US: 77 Dominicans recruited in the Washington Heights/Inwood section of New York City; 151 Mexicans recruited in El Paso, Texas; and 48 Puerto Ricans recruited in East Harlem, New York City, during 1989-91 in streets and brothels. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with a subsample of subjects (10 Puerto Ricans, 20 Mexicans, and 20 Dominicans) to examine the cultural meaning of risk behaviors. Structured interviews based on the NIDA AIDS Initial Assessment were conducted with the subjects to describe demographic characteristics and summarize levels of risk behaviors. Qualitative data showed that for the Mexican women in El Paso poverty, violence, drug dealing and transport, tourist clients, and an environment of illegality were the realities more than for the Dominican and Puerto Rican prostitutes. The Dominican sample in New York City transported to their new environment strong family values and proscriptions against drug use as well as prostitution in brothels on account of poverty-related motivations for the support of their children. The Puerto Rican women reflected acculturation evolved in two locations, as well as illicit drugs, violence, and abuse. 92% of the Dominican women, 71% of the Mexican women, and only 25% of the Puerto Rican women were born in their native countries. Only 10% of the Puerto Ricans, 36% of the Mexicans, and 53% of the Dominicans always used condoms. 58% of the Puerto Ricans, 21% of the Mexicans, and 13% of the Dominicans reported ever having a sexually transmitted disease (p 0.001). Of those tested by the project, only 2% of the Mexicans vs. 8% of the Dominicans were HIV positive. Among drug-addicted Puerto Ricans, the HIV seroprevalence rate was 40-50%. 79% of the Puerto Rican prostitutes were sex partners of iv drug users. For effective prevention, cultural diversity must be taken into account.

  18. Four New Ladybug Species Belonging to Decadiomus Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Segarra-Carmona, A E; Otero, M

    2014-12-01

    While searching for native natural enemies attacking invasive insect pests in Puerto Rico, we found four undescribed ladybug species belonging to the Caribbean ladybug genus Decadiomus Chapin. In this article, we describe the following species from Puerto Rico: Decadiomus seini n. sp., Decadiomus ramosi n. sp., Decadiomus hayuyai n. sp., and Decadiomus martorelli n. sp. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus, shape of prosternal carinae, and drawings of male and female genitalia are presented. We also present a key for Diomini of Puerto Rico and discuss their importance as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:27194064

  19. The migratory impact of minimum wage legislation: Puerto Rico, 1970-1987.

    PubMed

    Santiago, C E

    1993-01-01

    "This study examines the impact of minimum wage setting on labor migration. A multiple time series framework is applied to monthly data for Puerto Rico from 1970-1987. The results show that net emigration from Puerto Rico to the United States fell in response to significant changes in the manner in which minimum wage policy was conducted, particularly after 1974. The extent of commuter type labor migration between Puerto Rico and the United States is influenced by minimum wage policy, with potentially important consequences for human capital investment and long-term standards of living."

  20. Hurricanes, climate change and the cholera epidemic in Puerto Rico of 1855-1856.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Hurricanes and global climate changes may affect the environmental factors of cholera dynamics in warm coastal areas, vulnerable to seasonal or sporadic outbreaks. The cholera epidemic of Puerto Rico in 1855-1856 had a profound effect on the Puerto Rican society; but it was not influenced by any climatic events, such as preceding hurricanes or storms based on past documentary sources. Particularly, the environmental non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio Cholerae in Puerto Rican water sources can maintain their pathogenic potential for sporadic or erratic toxigenic cholera outbreaks--if a "perfect storm" ever occurs.

  1. A rainfall intensity-duration threshold for landslides in a humid- tropical environment, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Simon, A.

    1993-01-01

    The leading cause of landslides in Puerto Rico is intense and/or prolonged rainfall. A rainfall threshold for rainfall-triggered landsliding is delimited by 256 storms that occurred between 1959 and 1991 in the central mountains of Puerto Rico, where mean annual rainfall is close to or in excess of 2000mm. Forty-one of the 256 storms produced intense and/or prolonged rainfall that resulted in tens to hundreds of landslides. As storm durations approach 100 h, the rainfall conditions necessary to initiate landsliding in Puerto Rico converge with those defined for temperate regions. -from Authors

  2. Surveillance for an emerging disease: dengue hemorrhagic fever in Puerto Rico, 1988-1997. Puerto Rico Association of Epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G

    1999-12-01

    Surveillance for emerging diseases is critically dependent on four factors: reporting methods, case definition, laboratory diagnosis, and knowledge of the disease among health-care professionals. The dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) surveillance system in Puerto Rico collects patient data from three sources: dengue case investigation (DCI) forms sent with diagnostic samples, clinical reports from hospital infection control nurses (ICNs), and hospital records. Recruitment of ICN reporting produced a marked increase in notifications (67 to 294). Hospital records of possible DHF cases showed that tests for ascertaining diagnosis (e.g., blood in stool, serum albumin) were frequently not performed. DCI and ICN reports underestimated severity. After hospital record review, the ratio of total DHF cases to cases detected by surveillance was approximately 3:1, whether using clinical criteria or using clinical and dengue laboratory diagnosis. An important determinant for the low sensitivity (28.4%) and high specificity (96.5%) of the surveillance system was the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical definition for DHF. In spite of such limitations, DHF surveillance data in Puerto Rico provide abundant, reliable information for monitoring disease trends. These methods may be applied to other situations to define the characteristics and incidence trends of emerging infections.

  3. Shoreline changes in Puerto Rico (1936-1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-Orta, Maritza

    A study of historic shoreline changes was conducted at 29 selected sites in Puerto Rico from 1936 to 1993, to document changes in shoreline position and describe qualitatively and quantitatively the possible causes that could produce these changes. Shoreline changes were measured by overlays developed from aerial photos. Descriptions of physical and geomorphological variables were done to identify the possible causes of shoreline changes. These were studied using remote sensing techniques, published reports, maps and field observations. Monthly beach profiles were measured at nine of the 29 sites from 1992 to 1993. These data were organized in a databank for ease in understanding the data and to perform statistical tests (Krustal-Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation). Based on the results, many factors caused shoreline changes on beaches around Puerto Rico from 1964 to 1987. These were: (1) human activities, (2) lack of sand deposits in the nearshore area, (3) variability in the wave regime, (4) flood events of all magnitudes and frequencies, (5) the presence of submarine canyons, and (6) increase in tropical storm occurrence in the vicinity of the island. None of the variables were significant in causing shoreline changes based on the statistical significance at alphasp' of 0.006. According to probability values, however, some general trends were defined. These are: (1) Sediment composition, storm occurrence, wave heights, presence of submarine canyons and dams are most likely to cause shoreline changes; (2) Lithology, beach location, sediment composition, barrier proximity and rainfall are moderately likely to cause shoreline changes on the island; and (3) Human activities such as sand extraction and the presence of coastal structures are moderately likely to have caused shoreline changes from 1977 to 1987 on the beaches. Most of the beaches included in the profiling study were transitional from 1992 to 1993. Reflective and dissipative stages were measured on

  4. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  6. Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and WISC Correlations for Puerto Rican, White and Negro Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorale, Ann M.; Brown, Fred

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated whether a positive relationship between Bender-Gestalt performance and intelligence test scores would be found for Puerto Rican children and, as well, the generalizability of previous results obtained with Negro children. (Author/RK)

  7. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    PubMed

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  8. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  9. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  10. Hero/heroine modeling for Puerto Rican adolescents: a preventive mental health intervention.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Rogler, L H; Costantino, G

    1990-08-01

    Culturally sensitive treatments of the special mental health needs of high-risk Puerto Rican adolescents are lacking. The hero/heroine intervention was based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. 90 nonclinical Puerto Rican 8th and 9th graders were screened for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. After 19 sessions, the intervention significantly increased adolescents' ethnic identity and self-concept and reduced anxiety. Treatment outcomes varied as a function of grade level, sex, and household composition. Self-concept was negatively affected among girls from intact families. The study supports the effectiveness of the culturally sensitive modality as a preventive mental health intervention for high-risk Puerto Rican adolescents, especially from single-parent families.

  11. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in lettuce in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) in lettuce in Puerto Rico. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  12. And a Child Shall Lead Them: Learning Lives in the Project Hallways of Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Caryn

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Puerto Rico's teenage tutor, Jorge Aneudy Villalba, leads a children's learning crusade through an urban desert of poverty and despair, determined to prove the kids from the projects can make their own future. (Author/EV)

  13. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412... system for inpatient hospital capital-related costs....

  14. 77 FR 61381 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 36997, 6/20... Activity, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, (Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Intravenous Bags...

  15. 27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which are unfit for beverage purposes and which are brought into the United States from Puerto Rico or the...

  16. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412... system for inpatient hospital capital-related costs....

  17. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412... system for inpatient hospital capital-related costs....

  18. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412... system for inpatient hospital capital-related costs....

  19. 10x10 comes full circle: Spanish version back to United States in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Alvaro; Joglar, Francisco; de Quirós, Fernán González Bernaldo; Baum, Analía; Fernández, Antonio; García, Sofía; Arredondo, Antonio López; Hersh, William R

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of the 10x10 certificate program in health information systems for a Puerto Rican audience is described. The 10x10 program was initially developed in the USA by the Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU), then adapted to Latin America by Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Puerto Rico is in the intersection of the United States and Latin America, in terms of government, health care system, culture and language. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to re-adapt the program back to the USA, in Spanish, taking into account these facts and the experience of the team in delivering blended learning adapted to local needs. Forty professionals from Puerto Rico are currently taking the first version of the course, supported by the Regional Extension Center for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, and endorsed by the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA).

  20. Recreational sun exposure in Puerto Rico: trends and cancer risk awareness.

    PubMed

    Ross, S A; Sánchez, J L

    1990-12-01

    Persons who sunbathe or engage in other activities at the beach are exposed to large amounts of UV radiation. Four hundred seven adults who visited the beaches of Puerto Rico were surveyed to determine their knowledge about the risks of sun exposure and to evaluate sunscreen use. The group consisted of 195 year-round Puerto Rican residents and 212 tourists. Ninety-five percent believed that the sun can cause skin cancer, although only half of the subset who lived all year in Puerto Rico believed that they personally received enough exposure to be at risk. The majority of the group (83%) understood the meaning of the sun protection factor numbers, although 35% used either nothing or a nonscreening oil. Half of Puerto Rican residents rarely or never used sunscreen protection while sunbathing. When sunscreen was used, the most important factor sought was given as sun protection factor (64%), followed by a perceived ability to aid in tanning (26%).

  1. AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

  2. Physical, chemical, and biological measurements off Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, S.; Fanning, K.; Hopkins, T.; Michel, H.; Vargo, G.; Hartwig, E.; Jones, A.

    1981-06-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological measurements were made during three quarterly sampling cruises at the PROTEC benchmark site on the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. Physical measurements at the site were expendable bathythermographs (XBT), conductivity/temperature/depth (CTD) profiles, and temperature profiles using reversing thermometers. Chemical measurements made at the site were salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients (phosphate, silicate, ammonia, nitrate + nitrite, organic phosphorous, and organic nitrogen). Biological measurements were made on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and micronekton. Both structural (biomass, species abundance, and species composition) and functional (primary production) measurements were made. Measurements indicate that the thermal resource is adequate for OTEC plant operation during all seasons. The physical, chemical, and biological measurements made at the site were generally within values reported for other tropical-subtropical regions. There was considerable seasonal and diurnal variability in the data. (LEW)

  3. Sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas, Puerto Rico, February 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the ratio of storage capacity to inflow rate, the estimated trapping efficiency of Lago Caonillas is about 93 percent for 2000. The sediment yield of the Lago Caonillas net sediment-contributing drainage area (total drainage area minus the reservoir surface area) of 218.74 square kilometers, is about 1 ,266 megagrams per square kilometer per year. This represents an increase of about 69 percent in the material transport and deposition process of the Lago Caonillas basin between 1990 and 2000. The life expectancy of Lago Caonillas was more than 300 years in 1995; however, at the storm-accelerated sedimentation rate, the life expectancy has decreased to about 164 years. This implies that the reservoir could be filled with sediments by the year 2164 if major hurricanes continue to pass through Puerto Rico regularly (every 2 to 4 years).

  4. Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Bessoff, Kovi; Diaz, Annette; Amador, Manuel; Young, Ginger; Seda, Rafael; Perez, Taonex; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) ecology in neotropical ecosystems is poorly understood, and vertebrate hosts responsible for infecting mosquitoes remain unidentified throughout the Caribbean Basin. After a period of intense WNV transmission among sentinel chickens near Ceiba, Puerto Rico, we measured abundance of resident birds and species-specific prevalence of WNV infection. Taking the product of these measures indicates the relative number of WNV infections by species. Greater Antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger) accounted for the most WNV infections among birds in our 100-km(2) study site. In urban habitats, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) was frequently infected. Immature birds less than one year of age were more likely to have detectable WNV-reactive antibodies than older birds of the same species.

  5. Mercury bioaccumulation in organisms from three Puerto Rican estuaries.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Cooper, K; Saliva, J; Gochfeld, D; Lipsky, D; Gochfeld, M

    1992-09-01

    We analyzed mercury levels in shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.), Blue Crabs (Callinectes sp.), fish (Tarpon Megalops atlantica and Tilapia Tilapia mossambica), lizards (Ameiva exsul), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) and Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) in three estuaries in Puerto Rico in 1988. There were no quantifiable concentrations greater than the method detection limit of mercury in shrimp, crabs and lizards from any site. Mercury levels were also below detection limits in Tilapia, except for specimens collected at Frontera Creek, allegedly contaminated with mercury. However, mercury levels ranged from 92-238 μg/kg (wet weight) in Tarpon, a predaceous fish that feeds on smaller fish. Few of the birds had detectable levels of mercury. Our results indicate relatively low concentrations of mercury in biota collected in all of the three estuaries at most trophic levels, although 10 of 12 Tarpon fillet samples from Frontera had detectable mercury compared to 3 of 12 fillet samples for the other two lagoons. PMID:24226951

  6. CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

  7. Sequential Episodes of Dengue—Puerto Rico, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Margolis, Harold S.; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Of 53,633 suspected dengue cases reported to a passive dengue surveillance system in Puerto Rico during 2005–2010, 949 individuals were reported on more than one occasion and 21 had laboratory-confirmed dengue on two separate occasions. Median time between illness episodes was 2.9 years (range: 62 days–5.3 years). Seventeen (81%) individuals with sequential episodes of dengue were male, and seven (33%) were adults. All 21 individuals experienced one episode and seven (33%) individuals experienced both episodes during a large epidemic that occurred in 2010. These observations show that heterotypic dengue virus immunity that protects against illness may have considerable variability but typically does not last longer than 3 years. PMID:24891464

  8. Trematodes associated with mangrove habitat in Puerto Rican salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hechinger, R.F.; Lorda, J.; Soler, L.

    2005-01-01

    Batillaria minima is a common snail in the coastal estuaries of Puerto Rico. This snail is host to a variety of trematodes, the most common being Cercaria caribbea XXXI, a microphallid species that uses crabs as second intermediate hosts. The prevalence of infection was higher (7.1%) near mangroves than on mudflats away from man-groves (1.4%). Similarly, there was a significant positive association between the proportion of a site covered with mangroves and the prevalence of the microphallid. The association between mangroves and higher trematode prevalence is most likely because birds use mangroves as perch sites and this results in local transmission to snails. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  9. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, June 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Melendez, Frank; Bonnet, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Dos Bocas reservoir, in central Puerto Rico, was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the capacity of the reservoir has declined from 30,420 acre-ft in 1942 to about 19,620 acre-ft. Sediment is accumulating in the reservoir at an average rate of about 251 acre-ft/yr, or about 0.83%/yr of the original capacity. The expected usable life of the reservoir on the basis of the long-term sedimentation rate is about 78 years. However, the sedimentation rate appears to have increased significantly since 1979. During the last six years, the average sedimentation rate has exceeded 600 acre-ft/yr. If this rate is maintained, the expected usable life of the reservoir would be about 32 years. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Bartonella spp. in a Puerto Rican bat community.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Dittmar, Katharina; Bai, Ying; Rostal, Melinda K; Lei, Bonnie R; Daszak, Peter; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We captured and sampled 68 bats of six species from a shared roosting site in Puerto Rico in April 2012. Bats were screened for Bartonella spp. by culture and confirmed by PCR and sequencing for the gltA gene. Bartonella cultures were obtained from blood specimens of 9/51 (18%) individuals from three species (Artibeus jamaicensis, Brachyphylla cavernarum, and Monophyllus redmani). Phylogenetic analysis of the gltA sequences showed that M. redmani was infected with multiple, diverse Bartonella strains, and A. jamaicensis was infected with a strain related to a strain from a congeneric host. Ectoparasite load could possibly explain observed differences in Bartonella diversity and prevalence between bat species in this community, and we suggest future research to substantiate these preliminary findings.

  11. Meteor wind results from Atlanta, USA, and Ramey, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained using the French (CNET) meteor wind radar at Ramey, Puerto Rico, and the Georgia Tech radio meteor wind facility in Atlanta, U.S.A., are presented and compared. Prevailing wind, diurnal, and semidiurnal wind amplitudes are considerably larger over Ramey than over Atlanta, but the mean zonal circulation over Atlanta is more characteristic of the equatorial circulation than winds measured by stations at higher midlatitudes. The value of continuous observations, with a height resolution of + or - 2 km, is emphasized, as is the need for the application of several techniques, groundbased, in situ and satellite, if projects such as the MAP GLOBMET are to succeed in delineating the global meteorology of the mesopause.

  12. Bioactive Cycloperoxides Isolated from the Puerto Rican Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Ortiz, Idelisse; Vicente, Jan; Vera, Brunilda; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Nam, Sangkil; Jove, Richard

    2010-10-22

    Two new five-membered-ring polyketide endoperoxides, epiplakinic acid F methyl ester (1) and epiplakinidioic acid (3), and a peroxide-lactone, plakortolide J (2), were isolated from the Puerto Rican sponge Plakortis halichondrioides, along with two previously reported cyclic peroxides, 4 and 5. The structures of the new metabolites were determined by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. The absolute stereostructures of 1, 2, and 5 were determined by degradation reactions followed by application of Kishi's method for the assignment of absolute configuration of alcohols. Biological screening of cycloperoxides 1-5 and semisynthetic analogues 7-12 for cytotoxic activity against various human tumor cell lines revealed that compounds 3, 4, and 11 are very active. Upon assaying for antimalarial and antitubercular activity, some of the compounds tested showed strong activity against the pathogenic microbes Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  14. [Anthropometric and physiologic profile of Puerto Rican athletes: female softball].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Rivas, C A; Rivera-Brown, A M

    1994-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe and compare various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 12 female athletes, members of the Puerto Rico national softball team. The subjects were divided into three categories according to their game specific requirements (game position): infielders (n = 5), outfielders (n = 4), and pitchers (n = 3). The mean and standard deviations of all the variables in each group was calculated. These athletes demonstrated high levels of body fat and below optimal levels of flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular strength and endurance. The results revealed deficiencies in the health related fitness components and in the physical preparation for sports competition. These results also suggest that the subjects are at risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, sport injuries, and poor sport performance.

  15. Dengue outbreak associated with multiple serotypes--Puerto Rico, 1998.

    PubMed

    1998-11-13

    Dengue is an acute viral disease caused by any of the four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4). The principal mosquito vector is Aedes aegypti, which has a worldwide distribution in tropical and many subtropical areas. All four virus serotypes produce a similar illness characterized by fever, headache, myalgias, arthralgias, rash, nausea and vomiting and induce life-long immunity that is specific to the infecting serotype. A small proportion of infected persons may develop the severe form of disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), but with early diagnosis and proper supportive management, fatality rates may be <1%. This report summarizes an epidemic of dengue in Puerto Rico in 1998 associated with multiple dengue serotypes.

  16. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    PubMed

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  17. New Seafloor Map of the Puerto Rico Trench Helps Assess Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brink, Uri; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure 1). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico, although their ages are unknown. The Puerto Rico Trench is atypical of oceanic trenches. Subduction is highly oblique (10°-20°) to the trench axis with a large component of left-lateral strike-slip motion. Similar convergence geometry is observed at the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest point on Earth. In addition to its extremely deep seafloor, the Puerto Rico Trench is also characterized by the most negative free-air gravity anomaly on Earth, -380 mGal, located 50 km south of the trench, where water depth is 7950 m (Figure 2). A tilted carbonate platform provides evidence for extreme vertical tectonism in the region. This platform was horizontally deposited over Cretaceous to Paleocene arc rocks starting in the Late Oligocene. Then, at 3.5 Ma, the carbonate platform was tilted by 4° toward the trench over a time period of less than 40 kyr, such that its northern edge is at a depth of 4000 m and its reconstructed elevation on land in Puerto Rico is at +1300 m (Figures 1 and 2).

  18. 40 CFR 52.2723 - EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Public Policy Act, Law No. 9 of June 18, 1970, is replaced with Law 416 of September 22, 2004..., Public Hearings and Public Notice 2/18/11 3/22/12, 77 FR 16676 Puerto Rico's Environmental Public Policy...—Penalties 2/18/11 3/22/12, 77 FR 16676 Puerto Rico's Environmental Public Policy Act, Law No. 9 of June...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2723 - EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Public Policy Act Law No. 9 of June 18, 1970 was replaced with Law 416 of September 22, 2004. Rule..., Public Hearings and Public Notice 2/18/11 8/29/12, 77 FR 52235 Puerto Rico's Environmental Public Policy...— Penalties 2/18/11 8/29/12, 77 FR 52235 Puerto Rico's Environmental Public Policy Act Law No. 9 of June...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2723 - EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Public Policy Act Law No. 9 of June 18, 1970 was replaced with Law 416 of September 22, 2004. Rule..., Public Hearings and Public Notice 2/18/11 8/29/12, 77 FR 52235 Puerto Rico's Environmental Public Policy...— Penalties 2/18/11 8/29/12, 77 FR 52235 Puerto Rico's Environmental Public Policy Act Law No. 9 of June...

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

  2. Medical practices for prevention of perinatal infections in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Caquías, Carmen Rodríguez; García, Yaniré; Malik, Tasneem; Copeland, John; Bi, Daoling; Reef, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for screening for maternal infections and interventions to prevent disease in the fetus or newborn have been in place in Puerto Rico for more than 10 years. However, compliance with these recommendations has not been widely documented. We evaluated compliance with rubella/hepatitis B prenatal screening and vaccination recommendations, assessed hospital screening practices for syphilis and HIV, and determined risk factors for suboptimal prenatal care. Records of a random, stratified sample of 2003 pregnant women delivering in eight maternity hospitals in Puerto Rico in 2002 were reviewed. Obstetric prenatal and postnatal records were also reviewed when rubella/hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening was not available at the hospital, and to document rubella postpartum vaccination (PPV). Prenatal screening rates were 98.4% for rubella and 98.8% for HBsAg. Overall, 5.4% [95% CI 4.4, 6.5] of women were susceptible to rubella. No eligible women received rubella PPV at the hospital and only 1.5% had documented rubella vaccine prescription at the obstetric records. Only one woman was found to be HBsAg positive and her newborn was adequately treated. However, only 0.9% newborns born to mothers with unknown HBsAg status received hepatitis B vaccine. Screening was documented in 85.7% of the hospital records for HIV and 87.9% for syphilis. Suboptimal prenatal care was more likely among teenagers, low-educated women, and women with >3 previous pregnancies. Screening rates for rubella and hepatitis B were high; however, implementation of recommendations for prevention of rubella and hepatitis B needs to be improved. PMID:18173782

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied.

  4. Sedimentation History of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico, 1913-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2003-01-01

    The Lago Guayabal dam, located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1913 for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 11.82 million cubic meters and a drainage area upstream of the dam of 112 square kilometers. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity to 6.12 million cubic meters in 2001, which represents a storage loss of about 48 percent. However, the actual sediment accumulation in the reservoir during the 88 years is greater, because some sediment removal was conducted between 1940 and 1948 by dredging and sluicing. This report summarizes the historical data from a 1913 land survey and eight bathymetric surveys conducted between 1914 and 2001, and the relation of high sedimentation to agricultural land practices within the Lago Guayabal basin and six major hurricanes which made landfall on the island. The reservoir had an area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 1,863 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1913 and 1936 from a 112 square kilometer basin. In 1972, a new dam upstream along the Rio Toa Vaca impounded runoff from 57.5 square kilometers, and sediment transport to Lago Guayabal was reduced. A comparison of bathymetric survey results between 1972 and 2001 indicates an area-normalized sedimentation rate of 1,120 cubic meters per square kilometer per year or about 60 percent of the rate between 1913 and 1936. The significant reduction (almost half) of the sedimentation rate after the Toa Vaca dam was built may indicate that erosion susceptibility of the Rio Toa Vaca watershed is about twice that of the Rio Jacaguas watershed impounded by Lago Guayabal.

  5. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Icacos, Puerto Rico, March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Icacos, a small reservoir built in 1930 and owned by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, is part of the Rio Blanco Hydroelectric Power System. The reservoir is located in Naguabo, within the Caribbean National Forest in eastern Puerto Rico. The original storage capacity of the reservoir was 19,119 cubic meters in 1930. The bathymetric survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in March 2004 indicates a storage capacity of 7,435 cubic meters or 39 percent of the original storage capacity, and a maximum depth of 5.3 meters. The reservoir has been dredged several times to restore lost storage capacity caused by high sediment loads and the frequent landslides that occur upstream from the dam, which have partially or completely filled the Lago Icacos. Because sediment removal activities have not been documented, sedimentation rates could not be determined using storage volume comparisons. A reservoir sedimentation rate was calculated using the daily sediment load data gathered at the U.S. Geological Survey Rio Icacos streamflow station upstream of the reservoir, the estimated Lago Icacos sediment trapping efficiency, and the estimated sediment yield of the Lago Icacos basin extrapolated from the Rio Icacos sediment load data. Using these properties, the Lago Icacos sedimentation rate was estimated as 71 cubic meters per year, equivalent to about 1 percent of the original storage capacity per year. The Lago Icacos 7.47-square-kilometer drainage area sediment yield was estimated as 7,126 tonnes per year or about 954 tonnes per square kilometer per year. Based on the current estimated sedimentation rate of 71 cubic meters per year, Lago Icacos has a useful life of about 105 years or to year 2109.

  6. Sedimentation survey of Lago de Matrullas, Puerto Rico, December 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2003-01-01

    Lago de Matrullas reservoir, constructed in 1934, is located at an altitude of approximately 730 meters above mean sea level in the municipality of Orocovis in central Puerto Rico, and has a drainage area of 11.45 square kilometers. The reservoir is part of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority Toro Negro Hydroelectric Project, which also includes the Lago El Guineo reservoir and a hydroelectric plant to the south of the insular hydrographic divide. Historically, the drainage area had been protected from soil erosion by dense vegetation and the lack of basin development. However, transportation, potable water, and electric power infrastructure construction has facilitated development in rural areas resulting in the clearing of land. This trend in land-use changes is impacting the useful life of Lago de Matrullas. The reservoir storage capacity has been reduced from 3.71 million cubic meters in 1934 to 3.08 million cubic meters in 2001. This represents a total storage-capacity loss of 0.63 million cubic meters by 2001 (17 percent), or a long-term annual storage loss of 0.25 percent per year. The sediment trapping efficiency of Lago de Matrullas has been estimated at approximately 90 percent. If the current long-term sedimentation rate continues, Lago de Matrullas would fill by the year 2328. However, this life expectancy could be reduced at a faster than predicted rate as a result of rural development in the Lago de Matrullas basin and the high sediment trapping efficiency of the reservoir.

  7. Sedimentation Survey of Lago de Cidra, Puerto Rico, August 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2010-01-01

    Lago de Cidra is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana, and Quebrada Prieta, in the municipality of Cidra in east-central Puerto Rico, about 3.0 kilometers northeast of the town of Cidra. The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1946 as a 6.54-million-cubic-meter supplemental water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir impounds the waters of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana and Quebrada Prieta. The reservoir has a drainage area of 21.4 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity and earthfill structure with a length of approximately 165 meters and a structural height of 24 meters. The spillway portion of the dam is an ungated ogee crest about 40 meters long with a crest elevation of 403.00 meters above mean sea level. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez (1999). During August 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago de Cidra to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1997 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago de Cidra during August 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1997.

  8. Deglacial palaeoclimate at Puerto del Hambre, subantarctic Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, Calvin J.; Heusser, Linda E.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Moreira M., Andrés; Moreira M., Simón

    2000-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to further substantiate multistep climatic forcing of late-glacial vegetation in southern South America. A secondary objective is to establish the age of deglaciation in Estrecho de Magallanes-Bahía Inútil. Pollen assemblages at 2-cm intervals in a core of the mire at Puerto del Hambre (53°3621S, 70°5553W) provide the basis for reconstructing the vegetation and a detailed account of palaeoclimate in subantarctic Patagonia. Chronology over the 262-cm length of core is regulated by 20 AMS radiocarbon dates between 14 455 and 10 089 14C yr BP. Of 13 pollen assemblage zones, the earliest representing the Oldest Dryas chronozone (14 455-13 000 14C yr BP) records impoverished steppe with decreasing frequencies and loss of southern beech (Nothofagus). Successive 100-yr-long episodes of grass/herbs and of heath (Empetrum/Ericaceae) before 14 000 14C yr BP infer deglacial successional communities under a climate of increased continentality prior to the establishment of grass-dominated steppe. The Bølling-Allerød (13 000-11 000 14C yr BP) is characterised by mesic grassland under moderating climate that with abrupt change to heath dominance after 12 000 14C yr BP was warmer and not as humid. At the time of the Younger Dryas (11 000-10 000 14C yr BP), grass steppe expanded with a return of colder, more humid climate. Later, with gradual warming, communities were invaded by southern beech. The Puerto del Hambre record parallels multistep, deglacial palaeoclimatic sequences reported elsewhere in the Southern Andes and at Taylor Dome in Antarctica. Deglaciation of Estrecho de Magallanes-Bahía Inútil is dated close to 14 455 14C yr BP, invalidating earlier dates of between 15 800 and 16 590 14C yr BP.

  9. Cardiovascular health in Puerto Ricans compared to other population groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, E A

    1991-01-01

    It has been determined that the prevalence and incidence of coronary artery disease has been lower in Puerto Rico than in the United States. In a controlled comparison with a matched cohort of men from Framingham, Mass, Puerto Rican men were found to have lower serum cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure, to smoke less, to be more active physically, and to be less sensitive to coronary risk factors. Community surveys have shown that there is moderately less hypertension but more diabetes and possibly more obesity in Puerto Rico than in the United States. Hispanic groups in the United States have shown similar characteristics. Possible reasons for the relative protection from coronary artery disease in Puerto Rico include genetic factors, diet, and life-style. Recent epidemiologic data show that, although mortality from coronary disease and stroke has been steadily decreasing in the United States, it is increasing in Puerto Rico. Recent life-style and dietary changes, social stress, increased life expectancy, and a high death rate from diabetes and hypertension may be contributing to this reversal. Stronger efforts to control cardiovascular risk factors and to improve the management of diabetes and hypertension are needed in Puerto Rico.

  10. Cardiovascular health in Puerto Ricans compared to other population groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, E A

    1994-01-01

    It has been determined that the prevalence and incidence of coronary artery disease has been lower in Puerto Rico than in the United States. In a controlled comparison with a matched cohort of men from Framingham, Mass, Puerto Rican men were found to have lower serum cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure, to smoke less, to be more active physically, and to be less sensitive to coronary risk factors. Community surveys have shown that there is moderately less hypertension but more diabetes and possibly more obesity in Puerto Rico than in the United States. Hispanic groups in the United States have shown similar characteristics. Possible reasons for the relative protection from coronary artery disease in Puerto Rico include genetic factors, diet, and life-style. Recent epidemiologic data show that, although mortality from coronary disease and stroke has been steadily decreasing in the United States, it is increasing in Puerto Rico. Recent life-style and dietary changes, social stress, increased life expectancy, and a high death rate from diabetes and hypertension may be contributing to this reversal. Stronger efforts to control cardiovascular risk factors and to improve the management of diabetes and hypertension are needed in Puerto Rico.

  11. Environmental Assessment for Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Rincon, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to consent to a proposal by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow public access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) reactor building located near Rincon, Puerto Rico for use as a museum. PREPA, the owner of the BONUS facility, has determined that the historical significance of this facility, as one of only two reactors of this design ever constructed in the world, warrants preservation in a museum, and that this museum would provide economic benefits to the local community through increased tourism. Therefore, PREPA is proposing development of the BONUS facility as a museum.

  12. Clinical manifestations of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Puerto Rico, 1990-1991. Puerto Rico Association of Epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to demonstrate that dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs in Puerto Rico, that it is underreported, and that this underreporting is due partly to underdiagnosis in hospitals. Surveillance for severe dengue identified 986 hospitalizations for suspected dengue in 1990-1991. At the time, on the basis of available clinical and laboratory data, the surveillance system routinely identified 20 DHF cases, including three with dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Our subsequent review of these 986 patients' hospital records identified 102 whose records supported a clinical diagnosis of DHF (88) or DSS (14). Of the 102, there were 57 with positive virologic or serologic results for dengue and that met the World Health Organization criteria for DHF (fever, hemorrhagic manifestations, thrombocytopenia, and excessive capillary permeability). This group of 57 patients had a mean age of 38 years, contained a preponderance of males (34, 59.3%), included eight cases of DSS, and involved two (3.5%) fatalities (in females 16 and 55 years old). Hemorrhagic manifestations were mild; hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) levels were frequently encountered. The median duration of hospitalization was five days. The clinical description of these laboratory-positive DHF cases in Puerto Rico is consistent with previous descriptions of DHF in the medical literature; but the patients' age distribution is similar to the pattern typically found in the Americas (where all age groups tend to be affected), as opposed to Southeast Asia (where mostly younger children are affected). The number of DHF cases identified by our study was nearly three times that reported through the established surveillance system. Our findings indicate that recognition and reporting of DHF by local clinicians needs to be improved.

  13. Local Transmission of Zika Virus--Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Sharp, Tyler M; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R; Martinez-Quiñones, Alma; Arias-Berríos, José; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-García, Brenda

    2016-02-19

    Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors

  14. Local Transmission of Zika Virus--Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Sharp, Tyler M; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R; Martinez-Quiñones, Alma; Arias-Berríos, José; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-García, Brenda

    2016-02-19

    Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors

  15. Where Are the Academically Successful Puerto Rican Students? Five Success Factors of High Achieving Puerto Rican High School Students. JSRI Working Paper No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    High achieving Puerto Rican high school students are largely missing not only from urban high schools, but also from the educational research. The purpose of this article, then, is to describe the five success factors that ten low-income urban high school students from this ethnic group attributed to their high academic achievement. These success…

  16. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  17. Los Jovenes en Puerto Rico: ?Quienes Son y Que Hacen? (The Youth of Puerto Rico: Who Are They and What Do They Do?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldan, Norma Rodriguez

    1993-01-01

    Answers questions about young people in Puerto Rico, drawing on governmental databases. Demographic characteristics and how young people fit into the social structure are described. A description of the physical and mental health of this population presents data on mortality, morbidity, adolescent pregnancy, and drug and alcohol use. (SLD)

  18. Proceedings of the Conference on Ecological and Cultural Factors Related to Emotional Disturbances in Puerto Rican Children and Youth, Barranquitas, Puerto Rico, December 8-10, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Roberto E., Ed.

    The Conference on Ecological and Cultural Factors Related to Emotional Disturbance in Puerto Rican Children and Youth was the primary attempt to bring together a group of behavioral scientists, medical doctors, and educators, so that the scientific findings of the former--behavioral and medical scientists--may be used by the latter--educators--in…

  19. Sexual risk factors for HIV and violence among Puerto Rican women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Claudia L; Morrill, Allison C; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2011-05-01

    The authors examined sexual factors for HIV risk in 1,003 women of Puerto Rican heritage who attended a community-based NewYork City hospital clinic. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. Half were born in the continental United States, and half were born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All were sexually active within the past 90 days with a male partner.The authors compared sociodemographic characteristics, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), and HIV sexual risk factors (number of partners, history of sexually transmitted infections [STIs],condom use, and so on).Multiple regression analyses considering sociodemographic characteristics were a predictor for IPV and sexual risk behaviors. The authors found differences in sexual risk behaviors by place of birth (continental United States versus Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) and language chosen for the interview (Spanish or English).Puerto Rican women reported fewer sexual partners and STIs. Mainland-born and English-preference women reported more IPV, risky partners, and condom use. Birth in the continental United States and preference for English appear to be indicators of greater risk for IPV, risky sexual practices, and risky partners. HIV prevention intervention strategies for Puerto Rican women must address differences in heterosexual risk according to language and place of birth.

  20. Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees. To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different locations in Puerto Rico, we used eight known polymorphic microsatellite loci. Results In Puerto Rico, gAHB population does not show any genetic structure (Fst = 0.0783), and is best described as one honey bee population, product of hybridization of AHB and EHB. The genetic variability in this Africanized population was similar to that reported in studies from Texas. We observed that European private allele frequencies are high in all but one locus. This contrasts with mainland Africanized populations, where European allele frequencies are diminished. Two loci with European private alleles, one on Linkage Group 7, known to carry two known defensiveness Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs), and the other on Linkage Group 1, known to carry three functionally studied genes and 11 candidate genes associated with Varroa resistance mechanisms were respectively, significantly greater or lower in European allele frequency than the other loci with European private alleles. Conclusions Genetic structure of Puerto Rico gAHB differs from mainland AHB populations, probably representing evolutionary processes on the island. PMID:23915100

  1. The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

    2012-12-01

    On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

  2. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  3. Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Mineral Occurrences and Mineral Resource Assessment for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawiec, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has been investigated over a very long period of time by earth scientists from many disciplines and with diverse objectives in the studies. This publication attempts to apply much of the geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral occurrence information to a single objective focused on producing a mineral resource assessment for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. However, the value of this publication lies not within the results of the mineral resource assessment nor within the interactive PDF files which can be viewed on the screen, but within the geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral occurrence digital map coverages and databases which can be used for their own unique applications. The mineral resource assessment of Puerto Rico represents compilation of several decades of mineral investigations and studies. These investigations have been the joint efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources, and the University of Puerto Rico. This report contains not only the mineral-resource assessment, but also much of the scientific evidence upon which the assessment was based.

  4. Peer and parental influences on longitudinal trajectories of smoking among African Americans and Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Pahl, Kerstin; Ning, Yuming

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of smoking behavior during a period extending from adolescence (mean age = 14 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 26 years) among African American and Puerto Rican adolescents/young adults, to examine ethnic and gender differences in group membership, and to assess the ability of peer and parental smoking to distinguish among trajectory groups. A community-based sample of 451 African American and Puerto Rican adolescents was interviewed four times during adolescence and in early adulthood, covering a span of 12 years. For both ethnic/racial groups, four distinct trajectories were identified: Nonsmokers, maturing-out smokers, late-starting smokers, and early-starting continuous smokers. Compared with Puerto Ricans, African Americans were over-represented in the nonsmoking group, whereas Puerto Ricans were over-represented in the early-starting continuous group. Females were more likely than males to be early-starting continuous smokers than late starters. Adolescents who were exposed to peer and parental smoking in early adolescence were more likely to belong to trajectory groups characterized by higher levels of smoking. These findings show that exposure to peer and parental smoking in early adolescence constitutes a risk factor for engaging in elevated levels of smoking behavior at an early age and for continued smoking into adulthood for urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans. To be most effective, smoking prevention programs should address peer group and family influences on adolescent smoking.

  5. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species. PMID:26771321

  6. Sedimentation Survey of Lago El Guineo, Puerto Rico, October 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2003-01-01

    Lago El Guineo has lost about 17.5 percent of its original storage capacity in 70 years because of sediment accumulation. The water volume has been reduced from 2.29 million cubic meters in 1931, to 2.03 million cubic meters in 1986, and to 1.89 million cubic meters in 2001. The average annual storage-capacity loss (equal to the sedimentation rate) of Lago El Guineo was 4,727 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to July 1986 (or 0.21 percent per year), increasing to 5,714 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to October 2001 (or 0.25 percent per year). Discrepancies that could lead to substantial errors in volume calculations in a small reservoir like Lago El Guineo, were found when transferring the field-collected data into the geographic information system data base 1:20,000 U.S. Geological Survey Jayuya, Puerto Rico quadrangle. After verification and validation of field data, the Lago El Guineo shoreline was rectified using digital aerial photographs and differential global positioning data.

  7. Biodegradation of toxic chemicals in Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Baqar R; Hinkey, Lynne M; Rodríguez, Nydia R; Govind, Nadathur S; Imam, Syed H

    2003-04-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the factors that may influence the rate and extent of biodegradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and p-nitrophenol in water samples collected from the Guayanilla Bay (18 degrees N; 67.45 degrees W), southwest of Puerto Rico. In vitro studies mediated slow degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene and phenanthrene substrates by natural microbial flora present in the Bay. Addition of KNO(3) as a source of inorganic N greatly enhanced the degradation of phenanthrene but not of naphthalene, suggesting that effects on degradation due to nutrient limitation were compound specific. The rate and extent of degradation of naphthalene and PCP were higher in water samples collected closer to the source of contamination, i.e. the petrochemical complex. The identity of a phenanthrene degrading bacterium, previously identified by conventional phenotypic method (Zaidi et al., Utilizing Nature's Advanced Materials, Oxford Unviersity Press, 1999) as Alteromonas sp., was confirmed by partial DNA sequencing of the small subunit rRNA gene. PMID:12705914

  8. Radar investigation of barium releases over Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, Frank T.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign was successfully carried out in Puerto Rico during the period 18 May through 12 July 1992. This report describes five chemical release experiments in the upper ionosphere supported by Geospace Research, Inc. during the El Coqui campaign. Additional spin-off science is also discussed. The El Coqui releases are designated AA-1 (rocket 36-082), AA-2 (rocket 36-081), AA-3b (rocket 36-064), AA-4 (rocket 36-065), and AA-7 (rocket 36-083). Particular attention is paid to releases AA-2 and AA-4. These two experiments involved the illumination of ionospheric release regions with powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves transmitted from the Arecibo HF facility. In the AA-2 experiment, microinstabilities excited by the HF wave in a Ba(+) plasma were examined. This release yielded a smooth plasma cloud that helped clarify several fundamental issues regarding the physics of wave plasma instabilities. During AA-2 extremely strong HF-induced Langmuir turbulence was detected with the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. CF3Br was released in the AA-4 study to create an ionospheric hole that focused the HF beam. This experiment successfully explored wave-plasma coupling in an O(+) ionosphere under conditions of very high HF electric field strengths.

  9. Home range and movements of juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied home range and movements of 15 radio-marked, juvenile Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) fledging from wild nests during summer and fall, 1985-87. When juvenile parrots remained in the nest valley, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 32 .+-. 10 [SE] ha, n = 4) were larger (P = 0.0079) than during 1987 (.hivin.x = 13 .+-. 6 ha, n = 5). After radio-marked parrots integrated into adult flocks, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 1,075 .+-. 135 ha, n = 3) were similar (P = 0.10) to 1987 (.hivin.x = 416 .+-. 62 ha, n = 2). Juvenile parrots restricted their movements to nest valleys an average of 58 .+-. 29 days following fledging. After joining adult flocks, juvenile parrots routinely flew between the east and west slopes of the Luquillo Mountains but did not exhibit a seaonal pattern of movement. We recommend that captive-raised, juvenile parrots used in release programs be .gtoreq. 5 months old to ensure they are mature enough to integrate into wild flocks.

  10. Biobehavioral factors are associated with obesity in Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Tanasescu, M; Ferris, A M; Himmelgreen, D A; Rodriguez, N; Pérez-Escamilla, R

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to identify predictors of obesity among Puerto Rican children from Hartford, CT. The study included 53 prepubertal children, 31 girls and 22 boys, between 7 and 10 y of age. Children were classified as obese [n = 29, body mass index (BMI) >/= 85th percentile] or controls (n = 24, BMI < 85th percentile). Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that frequency of fruit juice consumption [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI); 4.02, 1.48-10.95], hours of daily TV viewing (1.86, 1.02-3.42), maternal BMI (1.39, 1.10-1.77) and lower dairy product intake (0.41, 0.19-0.93) were associated with obesity. Television viewing was correlated (P < 0.05) with lower physical activity in girls, and with higher snacking frequency and sweets consumption in boys. Obese children were more likely than controls to have higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and to have experienced more ear infections and diarrhea during the previous year. Results provide evidence of the multifactorial nature of childhood obesity in this community.

  11. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. from Puerto Madryn, Argentina (Polychaeta, Polynoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included. PMID:26798303

  12. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  13. Floods of September 6, 1960, in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Harry Hawthorne; Bogart, Dean Butler

    1961-01-01

    The floods of September 6, 1960, were the greatest known on many streams in eastern Puerto Rico. There were 117 lives lost, 30 persons missing, and 136 injured. Total damage was estimated in excess of $7 million. Several thousand persons were forced from their homes by the floods as 484, houses were destroyed and more than 3,600 others were. damaged. All main highways and most secondary roads were impassable for a short period during the floods and damage to them was heavy. Following the passage of Hurricane Donna off the northeast coast, rains of very high intensity fell over parts of the eastern half of the island, beginning about 9 p.m. September 5. By dawn September 6, rains totaling more than 10 inches over a large area produced floods in every river basin from the Rio Grande de Manati eastward. Flood discharges on the Rio Humacao, Rio Turabo, and Rio Valenciano were the greatest known and rank high among the notable floods on streams that drain from 6 to ]5 square miles. An outstanding feature of the floods was the unusually high magnitude of peak discharges--9 of the 24 peak discharges determined had Myers ratings greater than 80 percent.

  14. On the circulation in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, C.; Candela, J.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Sheinbaum, J.; López, M.; Ocampo-Torres, F. J.

    2007-03-01

    For a period of 22 months beginning in September 2003, an array of four current profilers were deployed on the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon, a microtidal Caribbean environment characterised by the influence of the Yucatan Current (YC) and a Trade Wind regime. The dataset includes water currents, bottom pressure, and surface waves complemented with coastal meteorological data and surface currents from an acoustic Doppler current profiler moored 12 km offshore. Normal circulation conditions consisted of a surface wave-induced flow entering the lagoon over a shallow reef flat and strong flows exiting through northern and southern channels. This wave induced flow was modulated by a low-frequency sea level change related to a geostrophic response to the YC variability offshore, with tidal and direct wind forcing playing additional minor roles. Under extended summer low-wave height conditions, together with a decrease in sea level from the intensification of the offshore current, the exchange of the lagoon with the adjacent ocean was drastically reduced. Under normal wave conditions ( H S = 0.8 ± 0.4 m, mean ± SD), water residence time was on average 3 h, whereas during Hurricane Ivan’s extreme swell ( H S = 6 m) it decreased to 0.35 h.

  15. Factors related to diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rican men.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vidal, M; Costas, R; García-Palmieri, M R; Sorlie, P D; Hertzmark, E

    1979-04-01

    Urban-rural comparisons of the prevalence of diabetes were made in a cohort of 2567 rural and 6190 urban participants aged 45 to 64, in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program. The prevalence of diabetes in the urban population was more than double that in the rural. Consistent with this, blood glucose concentrations were significantly higher in urban than in rural populations. The prevalence of diabetes increased with age and relative weight. It was associated with elevations of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting serum triglycerides. A positive family history was found more commonly in diabetics than in nondiabetics. If there was a history in both a sibling and a parent, there was at least a threefold increased prevalence over those with no family history. The reason for the higher prevalence of diabetes in the urban than in the rural area is elusive. In obese men, the urban and rural prevalence rates are the same, but, among relatively lean men, the prevalence in the urban area is twice that of the rural men.

  16. Puerto Rico water resources planning model program description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, D.W.; Maddock, Thomas; Karlinger, M.R.; Lloyd, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Because the use of the Mathematical Programming System -Extended (MPSX) to solve large linear and mixed integer programs requires the preparation of many input data cards, a matrix generator program to produce the MPSX input data from a much more limited set of data may expedite the use of the mixed integer programming optimization technique. The Model Definition and Control Program (MODCQP) is intended to assist a planner in preparing MPSX input data for the Puerto Rico Water Resources Planning Model. The model utilizes a mixed-integer mathematical program to identify a minimum present cost set of water resources projects (diversions, reservoirs, ground-water fields, desalinization plants, water treatment plants, and inter-basin transfers of water) which will meet a set of future water demands and to determine their sequence of construction. While MODCOP was specifically written to generate MPSX input data for the planning model described in this report, the program can be easily modified to reflect changes in the model's mathematical structure.

  17. [Bulimic and depressive symptomatology in Puerto Rican adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D; Rosselló, Jeannette

    2003-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa and depression have been identified as frequent mental health problems among adolescents. Bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder has been associated with depression especially among female population. The literature has established a high comorbidity between these disorders. Although depression was initially conceptualized as an adult disorder, recent research evidenced this disorder among adolescents. For this study, it was hypothesized that participants who presented bulimic symptomatology were going to present a higher depressive symptomatology than those who had no bulimic symptoms. The Bulimia Test (Bulit) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were administered to 309 students from a private high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Correlation analyses and group comparisons were performed to investigate the relationship between bulimia nervosa and depression among participants. As hypothesized, a significant correlation (p < .01) was found between depression and bulimia nervosa symptomatology. Females showed a higher average of bulimic symptomatology than males. Early identification for treatments with bulimia and depression would be helpful in preventing future problems in later adulthood. Implications of this study are discussed.

  18. Puerto Ricans and Higher Education Policies. Volume 1: Issues of Scholarship, Fiscal Policies and Admissions. Higher Education Task Force Discussion Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Camille, Ed.; Bosque-Perez, Ramon, Ed.

    This volume explores issues of scholarship, fiscal policies, and admissions in the higher education of Puerto Ricans, with the emphasis on Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland and a particular focus on Puerto Rican admissions to the City University of New York. The first paper, "The Centro's Models of Scholarship: Present Challenges to Twenty Years…

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(C)-1 - Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico by citizen of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration for services performed in Puerto... Source § 31.3401(a)(8)(C)-1 Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico by citizen of the United States. (a) Remuneration paid for services performed within Puerto Rico for an employer (other than...

  20. 27 CFR 19.624 - Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal of Puerto Rican... separate accounts, in proof gallons, of Puerto Rican spirits having an alcoholic content of at least 92 percent rum, of Virgin Islands spirits having an alcoholic content of at least 92 percent rum, and of...

  1. 77 FR 74170 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto...-purpose subzone status for the facility of Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, located in Toa...

  2. Guide to Puerto Rican Studies in Institutions of Higher Education in the United States, 1985-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Fraticelli, Carlos, Comp.; Alvarez, Emmo, Comp.

    This guide profiles 36 Puerto Rican Studies programs at colleges, universities, and research centers throughout the United States, which comprise the majority of such programs that are available. Only those courses dealing specifically with Puerto Rican issues, and only faculty and staff members who work full-time, are listed. Each profile…

  3. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  4. Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Force’s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Guánica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by…

  6. Puerto Ricans in California: A Staff Report of the Western Regional Office, United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Philip; Pilla, Thomas V.

    This study was undertaken to provide insight into the circumstances of California's Puerto Ricans who are only now surfacing as a distinct Latino bloc within the State's larger Hispanic population. Research methods consisted of a demographic analysis of Puerto Ricans in California and interviews with community representatives and public officials…

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  10. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. (a) In... have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  12. 77 FR 75145 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World... for the facility of Sea World, Inc., located in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. The application was...

  13. Technical Report of the NAEP Mathematics Assessment in Puerto Rico: Focus on Statistical Issues. NCES 2007-462

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, G. P.; Ahmed, S.; Sikali, E.; Waits, T.; Sloan, M.; Salvucci, S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, a trial National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment was administered in Spanish to public school students at grades 4 and 8 in Puerto Rico. Based on preliminary analyses of the 2003 data, changes were made in administration and translation procedures for the 2005 NAEP administration in Puerto Rico. This…

  14. Technical Report of the NAEP Mathematics Assessment in Puerto Rico: Focus on Statistical Issues (NCES 2007-462rev)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, G. P.; Ahmed, S.; Sikali, E.; Waits, T.; Sloan, M.; Salvucci, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Nation's Report Card[TM] informs the public about the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students in the United States and its jurisdictions, including Puerto Rico. In 2003, a trial NAEP mathematics assessment was administered in Spanish to public school students at grades 4 and 8 in Puerto Rico. Based on preliminary analyses of…

  15. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  16. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto Rico and the Virgin...

  17. My Cousin Talks Bad like You: Relationships between Language and Identity in a Rural Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazak, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study uses participant observation and interviewing to explore the multiple, complex relationships between language and identities in a particular Puerto Rican community. Participants included students and teachers from a K-9 school-turned-community center in a rural municipality in Puerto Rico. Participants did not think…

  18. Use of Puerto Rican Natural Support Systems as a Bridge between Community and Schools. Report No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melvin; Rivera, Hilda

    This study examined a sample of 24 Puerto Rican families from two kindergarten and first grade bilingual classes at the Blackstone School in the South End of Boston. The typical family in the sample was headed by a woman aged 32.9, with three preschool and elementary school age children. The typical mother arrived from Puerto Rico in 1974, and has…

  19. An Evaluation and Analysis of Past Landfill Closures in Puerto Rico as Guidance for Current and Future Closures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The island of Puerto Rico has faced several challenges related to the issue of closed landfills – historically, many municipal landfills in Puerto Rico were not closed properly or abandoned, while others were closed in accordance with applicable rules but have sustained physical ...

  20. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that...

  1. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that...

  2. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that...

  3. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that...

  4. "Que Assimilated, Brother, Yo Soy Asimilao": The Structuring of Puerto Rican Identity in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the cultural identity and experiences of Puerto Ricans residing in New York City. Explores, through excerpts of poetry by "Nuyoricans," the themes of assimilation, attachment to the island of Puerto Rico, relations with Black and White New Yorkers, and bilingualism. (GC)

  5. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  6. 42 CFR 412.211 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and... § 412.211 Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years. (a) General rule... each inpatient hospital discharge occurring in Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal...

  7. 42 CFR 412.211 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and... § 412.211 Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years. (a) General rule... each inpatient hospital discharge occurring in Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal...

  8. 42 CFR 412.211 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and... § 412.211 Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years. (a) General rule... each inpatient hospital discharge occurring in Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal...

  9. 75 FR 35315 - Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band; New 800 MHz Band Plan for Puerto Rico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... public safety and other land mobile communication systems operating in the band, 69 FR 67823, November 22... Puerto Rico market compared to other markets, 72 FR 39756, July 20, 2007. Rather than specify a band plan... 800 MHz band reconfiguration in Puerto Rico as well as alternative band plans, 73 FR 40274, July...

  10. Pintando Tambien se Aprende. Aspectos de la Cultura Puertorriquena (One Can Also Learn From Coloring. Aspects of Puerto Rican Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This workbook-style text is intended to introduce the Puerto Rican child and Spanish speaking children generally to the history, geography, customs and traditions of Puerto Rico. The introduction in the form of a teacher's guide provides objectives, suggested procedures, and additional activities. The student portion of the text is divided into…

  11. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  12. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  13. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  14. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  15. Variables Associated with Successful Learning-to-Read Experiences of Children When they Enter School in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Francisca

    The relative effectiveness of several testing instruments in predicting the reading achievement of Puerto Rican first graders was investigated in this dissertation. One hundred seventy-four students were tested by the "Reading Readiness Test (Prueba de Apresto)," the "Collective Puerto Rican Test of Mental Capacity (Prueba Colectiva de Capacidad…

  16. Addressing the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Among Puerto Rican People Who Inject Drugs: The Need for a Multiregion Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Albizu-García, Carmen E.; González, Ángel; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Santiago-Negrón, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    High levels of HIV risk behaviors and prevalence have been reported among Puerto Rican people who inject drugs (PRPWID) since early in the HIV epidemic. Advances in HIV prevention and treatment have reduced HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. We examined HIV-related data for PRPWID in Puerto Rico and the US Northeast to assess whether disparities continue. Injection drug use as a risk for HIV is still overrepresented among Puerto Ricans. Lower availability of syringe exchanges, drug abuse treatment, and antiretroviral treatment for PWID in Puerto Rico contribute to higher HIV risk and incidence. These disparities should be addressed by the development of a federally supported Northeast–Puerto Rico collaboration to facilitate and coordinate efforts throughout both regions. PMID:25211722

  17. Dengue severity throughout seasonal changes in incidence in Puerto Rico, 1989-1992. The Puerto Rico Association of Epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Rigau-Perez, J G; Ayuso-Lamadrid, A; Wolff, D R; Reiter, P; Kuno, G

    1994-10-01

    To determine whether the proportion of severe dengue cases increased with the yearly seasonal increase in dengue incidence, we examined reports of disease symptoms in case surveillance data and laboratory testing results in Puerto Rico from January 1989 to July 1992. A computer algorithm was designed to identify severe cases, i.e., those that fulfilled three or all four of the World Health Organization criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). A monthly severity index (SI) was defined as the ratio of severe cases to laboratory-positive and indeterminate (all non-negative) cases for each month, while a more restrictive severity rate (SR) was defined as the ratio of severe laboratory-positive cases to the total number of laboratory-positive cases for each month. Monthly SI and SR were compared in two ways: within an epidemic cycle, and month-by-month. Linear regression analysis was performed over the monthly averages of the SI and SR. For a month-by-month examination of SI and SR, we examined the 43-month sequence by means of a linear model with autocorrelated disturbances. We found no statistically significant or cyclical change in the proportion of severe cases from month to month in this period. Our conclusions differ from the observations during the Cuban DHF epidemic of 1981, in which case severity was shown to increase markedly as the epidemic progressed; they agree with the conclusions of most previous studies in that dengue severity does not change significantly throughout a period of increased incidence.

  18. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about.

  19. Perceived discrimination and health among Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans: buffering effect of the Lazo matrimonial?

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2009-06-01

    An emerging body of research shows that perceived discrimination adversely influences the mental health of minority populations, but is it also deleterious to physical health? If yes, can marriage buffer the effect of perceived discrimination on physical health? We address these questions with data from Puerto Rican and Mexican American residents of Chicago. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that perceived discrimination is associated with more physical health problems for both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans. In addition, an interaction effect between marital status and perceived discrimination was observed: married Mexican Americans with higher perceived discrimination had fewer physical health problems than their unmarried counterparts even after adjusting for differential effects of marriage by nativity. The findings reveal that perceived discrimination is detrimental to the physical health of both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans, but that the stress-buffering effect of marriage on physical health exists for Mexican Americans only.

  20. Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors’ Perspectives on Exercise: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Rose A.; Vallejo, Liliana; Hughes, Daniel C.; Gonzalez, Velda; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative data was collected from Mexican-American (MA) and Puerto Rican (PR) breast cancer survivors to gain their perspectives on the relevant issues surrounding breast cancer survivorship and exercise. Six focus groups, a total of 31 participants were convened (three in Puerto Rico and three in Texas). Responses were analyzed and compared between the Mexican-American and Puerto Rican groups. Follow-up sessions were conducted at the sites to review the initial results and to validate a culturally adapted exercise intervention trial. A total of 900 responses were catalogued into 27 codes. Both groups had similar descriptions of exercise and barriers to exercise. Both groups expressed lack of information regarding their exercise capabilities. The groups differed in their responses to perceived safety in their community and how to deliver a culturally adapted exercise intervention in their community. We found important cultural differences and similarities in relevant factors of exercise and breast cancer survivorship. PMID:22610693

  1. Physicians and pharmacists in Puerto Rico during the Wars of Independence, 1810-1830.

    PubMed

    Perez Vega, Ivette

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th Century, there was a "chronic lack of physicians, medications, and hospital facilities, easily overwhelmed epidemics" in Puerto Rico. But, the arrival of newcomers from various parts of the world to the Island contributed to socio-economic development and the improvement of health conditions and health care. The Wars of Independence throughout Spanish American colonies (1808-1826), resulted in population movements into the Island, particularly from Tierra Firme (Venezuela), as well as from Spain (1808-1814). In 30 years the population doubled. Puerto Rico had 44 physicians, 13 pharmacists, and 45 "curanderos" or "healers"; the municipality of Ponce had 6 physicians and 2 pharmacists. The progress made by the southern society was remarkable. Those arriving from Venezuela were at the time the most benefited of the Spanish emigrants. They were educated people mastering languages, commerce, agriculture, science and medicine. This, in turn, stimulated progress, and economic and social wellbeing in Puerto Rico.

  2. Techniques for water demand analysis and forecasting: Puerto Rico, a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Close, E.R.; Lopez, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of the Commonwealth-of Puerto Rico since 1947 has brought public pressure on Government agencies for rapid development of public water supply and waste treatment facilities. Since 1945 the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority has had the responsibility for planning, developing and operating water supply and waste treatment facilities on a municipal basis. The purpose of this study was to develop operational techniques whereby a planning agency, such as the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, could project the temporal and spatial distribution of .future water demands. This report is part of a 2-year cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Environmental Quality Board of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, for the development of systems analysis techniques for use in water resources planning. While the Commonwealth was assisted in the development of techniques to facilitate ongoing planning, the U.S. Geological Survey attempted to gain insights in order to better interface its data collection efforts with the planning process. The report reviews the institutional structure associated with water resources planning for the Commonwealth. A brief description of alternative water demand forecasting procedures is presented and specific techniques and analyses of Puerto Rico demand data are discussed. Water demand models for a specific area of Puerto Rico are then developed. These models provide a framework for making several sets of water demand forecasts based on alternative economic and demographic assumptions. In the second part of this report, the historical impact of water resources investment on regional economic development is analyzed and related to water demand .forecasting. Conclusions and future data needs are in the last section.

  3. Late Quaternary seismic stratigraphy and structure of the western insular shelf margin of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzlik, M.; Mann, P.; Abrams, L.; Grindlay, N.

    2005-12-01

    725 km of high-resolution seismic data were collected over the insular shelf of western Puerto Rico to better understand its late Quaternary depositional and structural history. Due to low tectonic uplift rates of onshore areas in this region, well dated late Quaternary sediments and corals have only been identified in a few scattered onland localities around Puerto Rico. Seismic data from the Rio Anasco delta area of western Puerto Rico reveals four main units with characteristic stratal reflection terminations that total about 25 m in thickness. Because of a lack of well information, age estimates of these late Quaternary units are based on correlations with sea level curves derived from dated coral samples from Puerto Rico, St. Croix, and Antigua. Units include: Unit 1 - a gently folded and faulted basal section correlated to the Oliogene-early Pliocene? carbonate shelf of Puerto Rico; deeper penetration, industry MCS lines show that these rocks are deformed in a broad EW-trenching arch; Unit 2 - chaotic channel fill deposits in incisions related to the lowstand equivalent of the Rio Anasco likely formed during the Last Glacial Maximum about 25-15 ka; Unit 3 - roughly stratified deposits onlapping the top of Unit 2; these are interpreted as an estuarine facies deposited during Holocene sea level transgression; Unit 4 - highly stratified deposits related to progradation of the Anasco delta during sea level rise. The base of unit 4 is a downlap surface interpreted as a maximum flooding surface likely formed about 6 ka. East-northeast-striking faults are observed breaking the younger late Quaternary units in three separate zones off the west coast of Puerto Rico. Onland continuations of these faults have not been identified likely due to cultural overprint of natural scarps on late Quaternary floodplains.

  4. Maps Showing Composition of Surficial Sediments on the Insular Shelf of Southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.

    1980-01-01

    The limited availability of onshore sand deposits for use in construction appears to be a future major problem in Puerto Rico (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972; Committee on Puerto Rico and the Sea, 1974). Consequently, the mining of offshore sand deposits as supplemental sources of construction aggregate may becom e necessary. For this reason, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Natural Resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have conducted investigations of potential offshore sand deposits on the Puerto Rico insular shelf. This report provides information on the composition of surficial sediments on the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf (fig. 1), an area that may be one of the more favorable potential sites for offshore sand resources. Water depths over most of the study area are less than 22 meters (m). The sea floor is composed of live and dead patch and fringing reefs, areas of rock exposures, and sedim ent-covered areas. The adjacent coastline includes prominent embaym ents and a conspicuous rock promontory (Cabo Rojo) connected by a tombolo to the mainland of Puerto Rico. The study area is in the belt of northeast trade winds. Waves approach the coast predominantly from the southeast, resulting in a predominantly westward littoral drift along the south coast (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). Local sand movement on the southern shelf is shown by an active sand wave field south of Bah1a Sucia in which the sand wave crests have migrated toward the southwest (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). The presence of the sand wave field suggests that large volumes of sand having potential for mining are locally present in the study area.

  5. The social psychological adjustment of migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prewitt Diaz, J O; Seilhamer, E S

    1987-01-01

    The great migration of Puerto Ricans to the US occurred during the 1950s, when there was promise of employment in the US. Migration decreased in the 1960s when the promise of employment decreased. Many Puerto Ricans returned to the island during the 1960s and 1970s because they could not find work on the mainland; return migration has continued for the last 12 years. The migrant student population in Puerto Rico is composed of migrants, return migrants, and circulatory migrants. The circulatory migrants are those children of Puerto Rican parents who have traveled to and from the island to the mainland several times; these migrants are not served by either educational system. A program that serves the circulatory migrant students is the Puerto Rico Migrant Education Program. 3 factors influence return migration: 1) the shorter the distance of emigration, the higher the incidence of return migration; 2) the longer the emigrants stay away, the less chance they will return; and 3) changes in the economic balance between the place of origin and the place of destination directly affect the volume of return migration. A source of conflict in the adjustment of Puerto Rican return migrants is the difference in cultural values of the 2 settings in which the return migrant student has to live. This study of 273 students shows that there were differences between nonmigrants and circulatory migrants in reading achievement. There were a large number of young people with serious reading problems in their primary school language (English) and the 2nd language (Spanish). A negative relationship between physical adjustment and reading achievement suggests that achievement in reading will increase as soon as the physical adjustment takes place. PMID:12341276

  6. Allostatic load is associated with chronic conditions in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Demissie, Serkalem; Falcon, Luis M; Ordovas, Jose M; Tucker, Katherine

    2010-06-01

    Puerto Ricans living in the United States mainland present multiple disparities in prevalence of chronic diseases, relative to other racial and ethnic groups. Allostatic load (AL), or the cumulative wear and tear of physiological responses to stressors such as major life events, social and environmental burden, has been proposed as a possible mechanism for the inequalities observed in minority groups, but has not been studied in Puerto Ricans. The aim of this study was to determine the association of AL to six chronic diseases (abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD), arthritis and cancer) in Puerto Ricans, and to contrast AL to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Participants of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n=1116, ages 45-75 years) underwent a home-based interview, where questionnaires were completed and biological samples collected. A summary definition of AL was constructed using clinically-defined cutoffs and medication use for 10 physiological parameters in different body systems. Logistic regression models were run to determine associations between AL score and disease status, controlling for age, sex, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, total fat intake and energy intake. Parallel models were also run with MetS score replacing AL. We found that increasing categories of AL score were significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and arthritis, but not with self-reported cancer. The strength of associations of AL with all conditions, except diabetes and cancer, was similar to or larger than those of MetS score. In conclusion, Puerto Rican older adults experienced physiological dysregulation that was associated with increased odds of chronic conditions. AL was more strongly associated with most conditions, compared to MetS, suggesting that this cumulative measure may be a better predictor of disease. These results have prospective

  7. Bibliometric assessment of cancer research in Puerto Rico, 1903–2005

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ana P.; Calo, William A.; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos; Maura-Sardo, Mariano; Suárez, Erick

    2010-01-01

    Objective The analysis of scientific production in Puerto Rico is largely unexplored. The main aim of this study is to present the characteristics and trends of cancer publications in Puerto Rico’s biomedical journals and their relationship with the island’s cancer mortality. Methods A PubMed and a hard-copy search were performed to retrieve cancer-related articles published in the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal and the Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico from 1903 to 2005. Bibliometric indicators studied included the number of authors and references by article, first author’s institutional affiliation and country, document type, and language. The study type and tumor classification were also recorded. Cancer proportional mortality (M%) in Puerto Rico and the proportion of cancer-related articles (P%) published were also evaluated. The annual percent change (APC) was estimated to assess trends. Results A total of 369 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were universities (39.6%), English was the predominant publication language (72.1%), and the principal document type was original papers (69.6%). Epidemiologic studies were the dominant study type (62.1%), and the most studied cancers were digestive (15.4%) and gynecologic (9.6%). Although the P% has increased since 1913 (APC = 1.2%), the M% increased at a faster pace (APC = 2.7%). Conclusions Although a growth in the number of cancer publications is observed in these journals, it does not parallel the increase in proportional mortality. A better understanding of the cancer publications in Puerto Rico is essential to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop cancer control strategies. PMID:19531324

  8. Cryptosporidium in small water systems in Puerto Rico: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Guy; Minnigh, Harvey A; Hunter, Paul R; Chalmers, Rachel M; Ramírez Toro, Graciela I

    2015-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in four very small drinking water systems supplying communities in rural Puerto Rico. Water samples (40 L) were collected and oocysts were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation, recovered by immunomagnetic separation and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in all four systems. This is the first report of evidence of the potential public health risk from this chlorine-resistant pathogen in Puerto Rican small water systems. Further work is warranted to fully assess the health risks that Cryptosporidium and other protozoa pose to populations served by community-managed small drinking water systems. PMID:26322771

  9. Religion and HIV/AIDS stigma in Puerto Rico: a cultural challenge for training future physicians.

    PubMed

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Santos-Figueroa, Axel; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Marques, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma continues to be a challenge for HIV prevention and treatment. When health professionals manifest stigma it can limit access to quality treatment. With an ever-growing epidemic among Latinos, including Puerto Ricans living on the Caribbean Island, the social and structural factors that foster HIV/AIDS stigma need to be understood. In this study, we documented the association of religion with HIV/AIDS stigma in a sample of medical students in Puerto Rico. Findings suggest that importance placed on religion, and participation in religious activities, is associated with HIV/AIDS stigma for this population.

  10. Cryptosporidium in small water systems in Puerto Rico: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Guy; Minnigh, Harvey A; Hunter, Paul R; Chalmers, Rachel M; Ramírez Toro, Graciela I

    2015-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in four very small drinking water systems supplying communities in rural Puerto Rico. Water samples (40 L) were collected and oocysts were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation, recovered by immunomagnetic separation and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in all four systems. This is the first report of evidence of the potential public health risk from this chlorine-resistant pathogen in Puerto Rican small water systems. Further work is warranted to fully assess the health risks that Cryptosporidium and other protozoa pose to populations served by community-managed small drinking water systems.

  11. Exploratory study of the role of family in the treatment of eating disorders among Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Guadalupe-Rodríguez, Elizabeth; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    In Latino culture, the family is a major source of social support. We explored the needs and the role of the Puerto Rican eating disorders patient’s family in the treatment process by conducting a focus group with five close relatives of youth with eating disorders. Qualitative analyses indicated the need to integrate the family into treatment and to provide management guidelines to assist with the resolution of situations that emerge frequently during recovery. These results underscored the importance of developing and incorporating psychosocial interventions that include family support and guidance for relatives of Puerto Rican youth patients with eating disorders. PMID:24971160

  12. Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

  13. Surveys of Puerto Rican screech-owl populations in large-tract and fragmented forest habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Pagan, M.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted road surveys of Puerto Rican Screech-Owls (Otus nudipes) by playing conspecific vocalizations in secondary wet forest and fragmented secondary moist forest in rural areas of eastern Puerto Rico. Six paired surveys were conducted bi-weekly beginning in April. We recorded number of owl responses, cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, and number of passing cars during 5-min stops at 60 locations. Owls responded in similar numbers (P > 0.05) in both habitat types. Also, we detected no association with cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, or passing cars.

  14. Dengue fever with hemorrhagic manifestations: a report of three cases from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    López-Correa, R H; Cline, B L; Ramirez-Ronda, C; Bermudez, R; Sather, G E; Kuno, G

    1978-11-01

    During the 1975 dengue epidemic in Puerto Rico, we studied three patients who had serologically confirmed dengue with hemorrhagic manifestations. None of the patients went into shock and none died. Only one of the patients had disease that resembled dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as observed in Southeast Asia. This patient was a 14-year-old boy who had epistaxis, a positive tourniquet test, moderate thrombocytopenia, and significant hemoconcentration. The other two patients had hemorrhagic disease which was of clinical importance, but was not typical of DHF. These cases of dengue with hemorrhagic manifestations are the only ones known to have been documented in Puerto Rico.

  15. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first

  16. Ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeast Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal humid tropical mountains are major sources of sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved fluxes to the ocean. They are also important sources of food, fiber, municipal and agricultural water. Unlike water-limited drylands their ecohydrology is influenced by excess water and a high frequency of natural and hydrologically induced disturbances. However, like water-limited drylands, the spatial distribution of water across the landscape can play a fundamental role on biogeochemical and ecological processes. This paper reviews the influence of water on the critical zones and ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeastern Puerto Rico. Over a horizontal distance of 10 to 20 km, Luquillo life zones change from subtropical dry conditions at the coast to cloud enshrouded mountain peaks where the vegetation is stunted, evapotranspiration is reduced, and cloud water interception adds to annual precipitation such that annual rainfall approaches annual runoff. Along this elevational gradient there are systematic changes in climate, vegetation structure and diversity, gross and net primary productivity, carbon storage, and hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. At the scale of hillslopes within the elevational gradients, soil nutrients, soil moisture, and soil oxygen vary systematically from ridge tops to adjacent valleys and topographic position is correlated to landscape stability and vegetation composition and structure. At landscape scales, hurricanes are the major control on forest age and structure and their associated defoliation and biomass loss can have large influences on both hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, because of the rapid re-growth of hurricane disturbed forests, the fluxes of most hydrologic pathways return to pre-hurricane rates within a year. Biogeochemical can take years to decades to return to pre-hurricane conditions. This presentation reviews these relationships and the challenges and opportunities related to

  17. The ecology of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Harold W.; Aldrich, David V.

    1958-01-01

    Variations in the distribution of the water-snail Australorbis glabratus, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have been studied in Puerto Rico, and an attempt made to correlate the distribution with environmental factors. The main sources of bilharziasis infection are flowing waters, but the evidence indicates that the snail is not found in fast-flowing, high-gradient reaches with falls of more than 20 meters per kilometre. The influence of physiographical features on stream gradient is examined and these findings correlated with the biota, water chemistry and human use of the stream. The alluvial areas of the island have many habitats favourable to A. glabratus and constitute the major foci for the transmission of bilharziasis. In general, artificial reservoirs and puddles do not appear to be suitable habitats for the snail. The numerous sink ponds in the Tertiary limestone area on the north coast contain the snail, yet the area is relatively free from bilharziasis, possibly because the ponds are little used. Although the size of A. glabratus populations is limited by many natural enemies, no organism has been found which could be deemed useful for artificial control. Some migratory birds, insects and amphibians may aid the dispersal of the snail. There are indications that the ionic composition of the water may be an important factor in limiting the distribution of A. glabratus. It is suggested that large amounts of carbonates and bicarbonates relative to the amounts of chlorides and sulfates may account for the absence of the snail from some habitats (e.g., limestone streams) and that copper and zinc may be limiting agents in some waters containing small amounts of dissolved solids. Concentrations of 0.050-0.100 p.p.m. of zinc, copper, cadmium or silver in distilled water produce a distress syndrome in the snails, and concentrations of more than 1.0 p.p.m. are rapidly fatal in most cases. PMID:13573114

  18. PRO-FAMILIA -- projects for today's social realities. Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Central Office of AIDS Issues of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico reported in September 1992 that 26% of the island's known cases of AIDS occur in people younger than 29 years old. Since approximately 10 years are needed for an initial HIV infection to develop into AIDS, it is logical to assume that young adults of less than 29 years old. Since approximately 10 years are needed for an initial HIV infection to develop into AIDS it is logical to assume that young adults of less than 29 years with AIDS were infected during adolescence. The Executive Director of PROFAMILIA notes also the significant public health problems tied to the increase in unwanted adolescent pregnancies, the beginning of sexual activity in people younger than 12 years old, and the increase in AIDS cases among people younger than 29 years old. In response, the organization mounted a program of preventive education enabling youths and adults to use peer counseling techniques to teach young people about responsible sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Project for Adolescents is a new initiative in which young people, through peer education, learn about STDs and HIV/AIDS prevention. The design is innovative due to its departure from a model in which the adult provides sex education from an authoritative point of view. PROFAMILIA has also formed 8 Family Planning Information Centers strategically located around the island to increase residents' accessibility to family planning. These successful and well-accepted centers offer a range of medical and laboratory services, as well as affordably priced contraceptives.

  19. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  20. A Review of HR Practices in Knowledge-Intensive Firms and MNEs: 2000-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majeed, Zahid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show the association which exists among the wide range of knowledge management, knowledge sharing and HRM practices in the knowledge-intensive firms. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed literature review includes the systematic process of research in the following manner; after identifying the main area…

  1. The IAU 2000/2006 Changes to Celestial Reference Systems: a Bluffer's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, P.

    2008-08-01

    No sooner had we all learnt to write ``FK5 J2000'' next to RA,Decs than the IAU went and changed everything. What are ICRS, BCRS, GCRS, CIRS, TIRS and ITRS? And the CIP and CIO? And the mysterious ``quantity s''? There have even been rumours that sidereal time no longer exists. What is going on, and what difference does any of this make to data analysis?

  2. The Puerto Rico 5.8 MW Earthquake of May 16, 2010, and the Distribution of Peak Ground Motion in the Puerto Rico Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suarez, L. E.; López, R. R.; Caro-Cortes, J. A.; Upegui-Botero, F. M.; Ramirez-Gaytan, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    On may 16, 2010 a 5.8 MW earthquake occurred in the northwest region of Puerto Rico Island (18.4o Lat., -67.07o Lon., and focal depth 113.1 km) at 05:16:10 UTC, reporting an intensity of VI in the city of Añasco, which is located at approximately at 15 km from its epicenter, while in some cases the intensity hardly reach an intensity of III in towns located at closer epicentral distances. This earthquake was widely felt in Puerto Rico, the eastern Dominican Republic, and The Virgin Islands. It was recorded also by 59 stations of the Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) providing a reliable set of acceleration records distributed around the island. According to the USGS Centroid Moment Tensor solution, this earthquake occurred in an inclined seismic zone that dips south from the Puerto Rico Trench and that consists of subducted lithosphere of the North America plate. Earthquakes that have focal-depths between 70 and 300 km, are commonly termed "intermediate-depth" earthquakes and typically cause less damage on the ground surface above their foci than is the case with similar magnitude shallow-focus earthquakes. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes may be felt at great distance from their epicenters. In terms of the observed maximum peak ground acceleration it was: (i) 0.0651 of g at Añasco (AÑS1 station, located at an epicentral distance of 15 km in alluvial soil), and (ii) 0.2301 of g at station UTD2 located at an epicentral distance of 42 km on rock. The instrumental intensity (MMI) estimated with Wald et al., (1999) relationship was V and VII, respectively for these two previously described sites. An analysis and discussion is presented with the aim to explain the anomalous distribution of peak ground motions, which may be associated not only by local site effects due to the presence of soft soils.

  3. Time since migration and HIV risk behaviors among Puerto Ricans who inject drugs in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Gelpí-Acosta, C; Pouget, ER; Reilly, KH; Hagan, H; Neaigus, A; Wendel, T; Marshall, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the U.S., those who initiated drug injection in Puerto Rico (immigrant Puerto Rican PWID) engage in more injection and sexual risk behaviors, and have higher HIV incidence than non-Hispanic whites. OBJECTIVE Understand the persistence of HIV risk behaviors. METHODS In a cross-sectional study conducted in New York City (NYC) in 2012 (National HIV Behavioral Surveillance), PWID aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, interviewed, and tested for HIV. Participants were categorized into 5 different groups: (1) US-born non-Hispanic PWID, (2) US-born Puerto Rican PWID, (3) recent immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (≤ 3 years in NYC), (4) medium-term immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (> 3 and ≤ 10 years in NYC), and (5) long-term immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (> 10 years in NYC). We examined the relationship between time since migrating on sexual and injection risk behaviors among immigrant Puerto Rican PWID, compared with U.S.-born Puerto Rican PWID and US-born non-Hispanic PWID. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS A total of 481 PWID were recruited. In adjusted analyses using US-born non-Hispanic PWID as the comparison group, syringe sharing was significantly more likely among medium-term immigrants; and unprotected sex with casual partners was more likely among recent and long-term immigrants. CONCLUSIONS The risk-acculturation process for immigrant Puerto Rican PWID may be non-linear and may not necessarily lead to risk reduction over time. Research is needed to better understand this process. PMID:27100322

  4. Puerto Rican Families Caring for an Adult with Mental Retardation: Role of Familism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 72 Puerto Rican mothers with children with mental retardation living at home found better maternal well-being was predicted by larger social support networks, greater satisfaction with social support, and more minor children living in the household. Mothers faced many socioeconomic challenges and were in poor health. (Contains…

  5. Income Allocation in Marital and Cohabiting Unions: The Case of Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S.; Kenkre, Tanya

    2003-01-01

    The rise of cohabitation and the growing share of births to cohabiting couples have led to speculation that the boundary between marriage and cohabitation is blurring. Examines this issue with an analysis of the financial arrangements of fathers of mainland Puerto Rican children. Reveals that married fathers are more likely than cohabiting fathers…

  6. Code Switching and Interactions Among Puerto Rican Children, Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, No. 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentella, Ana Celia

    This study of code switching among Puerto Rican children attending a New York City public school focuses primarily upon the correlation between interaction rules, as perceived by the participants, and code switching. Code switching strategies of a seven-year-old boy, an eight-year-old girl, and a 10-year-old girl in the bilingual third grade class…

  7. 33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS... Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (a) Security zone. A moving and fixed security zone...

  8. University-Industry Partnership: An Important Cornerstone for Puerto Rico's Biotechnology Cluster Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Buxeda, R.; Rivera, E.; Hormaza, M.; Morell, L.

    2003-01-01

    Successful knowledge-based economic models rely on synergy between government, industry and academia. This paper reviews the efforts to convert the island of Puerto Rico from a manufacturing to a high-tech manufacturing/research and development economy, with information technology and biotechnology as the main development strongholds. The…

  9. AIDS/HIV among Hispanics in the Northeast and Puerto Rico: Report of Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia

    1991-01-01

    Discusses six findings of the Northeast Hispanic Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) consortium's assessment of 2,527 members of the Hispanic community of the northeast United States and Puerto Rico. Highlights the subjects' needs for information, education, risk reduction, and services related to AIDS and the human immunodeficiency virus…

  10. Earthquakes and tsunamis in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nealon, J.W.; Dillon, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Many earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred in the northeastern Caribbean, where the movements of the Earth's surface plates are rapid and complicated. Future such events pose serious hazards to the 3.7 million people who live in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  11. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  12. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  13. 42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment of certain hospitals located in... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto...

  14. Evaluation Report: Projects in Personnel Services from the Department of Education, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    This mammoth document consists of a random series of project reports and proposals from the Puerto Rican Department of Education. Each report is a distinct entity, and lists the school districts involved in the project under discussion. The papers all focus on those aspects of strategies and services which will help students to remain in school,…

  15. Communication Ethics in the Communication Curriculum: United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy; Leavitt, Michelle A.; Hoffer, Melba; Charron, Lori N.; Ballard, Robert L.; Bell McManus, Leeanne M.; Holba, Annette M.; Jovanovic, Spoma; Tompkins, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of communication ethics pedagogy at colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Data were collected from 193 institutions that responded to an online survey. Results showed an increase in communication ethics courses compared with 19 years ago, with 51% now offering a required or…

  16. Issues for an Evaluation of Freire-Inspired Programs in the United States and Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facundo, Blanca

    Paulo Freire is a Brazilian educator whose theories link educational processes with revolutionary political aims. This report describes attempts by predominantly Latino proponents of his theories to develop "liberating education" (educacion liberadora) in the United States and in Puerto Rico. Section 1 describes the national, political, and…

  17. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  18. NCI-supported facility to conduct cancer trials breaks ground in Puerto Rico

    Cancer.gov

    The Puerto Rican government has allocated $196 million dollars to build a 287,000 sq. ft., 96-bed, cancer hospital in San Juan. The new hospital, which will provide cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials, is the first of its kind in the Caribbean.

  19. International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) in Puerto Rico: Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, C. A.; Atschuler, D. R.; Lebrón, M. E.; Alonso, J. L.

    2010-08-01

    The IYA2009 inauguration in Puerto Rico was in January 2009. The local organizing committee includes members from the NASA Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Arecibo Observatory, the two astronomical societies of the island, private and public universities, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in science education. The events are throughout the island, taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from disadvantaged communities. All the activities emphasize the value of personal effort to achieve your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected eight core activities for Puerto Rico. Three of them have been completed (Inauguration, Theatrical performance of "La Vida en Marte y otras Crueles Realidades", 40th Anniversary of the first human on the Moon), three of them are underway (star parties, conference series, "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) exhibition) and the other two are under plan for the fall of 2009. A group of volunteer students ("Starry Messengers") are assisting in the activities. We present a project plan for the rest of 2009. The details of the Puerto Rico IYA events may be found at \\url{http://www.astronomy2009pr.org}.

  20. Building a Long Distance Training Program to Enhance Clinical Cancer Research Capacity in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Caroline B.; Antonia, Scott J.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G.; Cáceres, William; Velez, Hector; Torres-Ruiz, Jose A.; Wright, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers persist in the development and delivery of effective cancer therapies to under-represented minority populations. In Puerto Rico, cancer is the second leading cause of death, yet cancer research awareness and training opportunities remain somewhat limited on the island. These limitations hinder progress toward decreasing the cancer health disparities that exist within the Puerto Rican population. The predominantly Hispanic population of Puerto Rico is the focus of a partnership between the Ponce Health Sciences University-Medical School and Ponce Research Institute (PHSU) in Ponce, Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida. The Partnership goals are to reduce these barriers through an integrated, multipronged approach of training and education alongside outreach and research components. This report describes the approaches, successes and challenges of enhancing clinical cancer research capacity on the island and the unique challenges of a partnership between two institutes physically separated by long distances. Once fully developed this model may be exportable to other Latin American countries where the need is even greater. PMID:25626061

  1. West Nile virus from blood donors, vertebrates, and mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007.

    PubMed

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; McElroy, Kate L; Bessoff, Kovi; Colón, Candimar; Barrera, Roberto; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L

    2009-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America. PMID:19751597

  2. A Decision Framework to Protect Coral Reefs in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Watershed Management Plan (WMP) for Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, was introduced in 2008 by a nonprofit organization, the Center for Watershed Protection, with the intent of protecting coral reefs from damage related to watershed discharges. The plan was initially generated with th...

  3. Linking Decisions to Stakeholder Values in the Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation lays the foundation for the session by introducing the Structured Decision-Making (SDM) approach that is being used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Guánica Bay watershed of southwestern Puerto Rico. EPA is working with other agencies i...

  4. Demonstration of a Graywater Management Project at a Community Level on the Island of Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Housing development practices in Puerto Rico, especially in rural areas, have often not considered the proper treatment and disposal of wastewater or the collection and treatment of stormwater. These practices have created a legacy of communities without proper sewage disposal in...

  5. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  6. The Support System and Coping Patterns of the Female Puerto Rican Single Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez

    1979-01-01

    Counselors who want to offer culturally meaningful services to Puerto Rican, single-parent women should concentrate on providing educational services. Teaching them to read and write English is most important, followed by career and vocational training for those with competence in English. (Author)

  7. Interactions of a Rhabditis sp. on the virulence of Heterorhabditis and Steinernema in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhabditis sp. nematodes were recovered from Galleria melonella cadavers exposed to soil collected from three regions of Puerto Rico. This nematode was then assayed for virulence to last instar larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus, both alone and in conjunction with the entomopathogenic nematode species, ...

  8. The condition of scleractinian corals and associated reef fauna in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals, octocorals, sponges, fishes, and foraminifera were assessed at 24 sites near La Parguera, Puerto Rico in fall 2008. Sites were selected to coincide with locations sampled by NOAA in 2005 for sediment contaminants. Our goals were to evaluate the sensitivity o...

  9. Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Guánica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November – December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

  10. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…

  11. First published record of urban malaria in Puerto Gaitán, Meta, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Luz Stella; Brochero, Helena Luisa; McKeon, Sascha N; Lainhart, William; Conn, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of malaria cases were compared between the department of Meta and the municipality of Puerto Gaitán, Colombia, to examine temporal change in malaria from 2005-2010. During this time frame in Meta the mean ratio was 2.53; in contrast, in Puerto Gaitán it was 1.41, meaning that a surprisingly high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum cases were reported from this municipality. A detailed analysis of data from Puerto Gaitán for 2009 and 2010 detected a significant difference (χ2, p < 0.001) in the distribution of plasmodia, with Plasmodium vivax more prevalent in 2009 and P. falciparum in 2010. Males had the highest number of cases but there was no difference in the distribution of cases between sexes and years. In both years, for both sexes, people 16-40 accounted for the majority of cases (58.9% in 2009; 60.4% in 2010). There were significant differences in the distribution of both P. vivax (χ2, p < 0.01) and P. falciparum cases (χ2, p < 0.05) by geographic setting (urban vs. non-urban) between years. Urban cases of both P. vivax and P. falciparum are recorded in this study for the first time in Puerto Gaitán, possibly the result of area wide displacement and migration due to armed conflict. PMID:24402157

  12. Estimating recharge thresholds in tropical karst island aquifers: Barbados, Puerto Rico and Guam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ian C.; Banner, Jay L.

    2003-07-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater in tropical island aquifers, such as Barbados, Guam and Puerto Rico, are significantly influenced by tropical climatic conditions. Recharge to these aquifers is the product of regional and local climate patterns that control rainfall. Oxygen isotopes can be used to estimate the amount and timing of recharge on these islands because seasonal fluctuations of rainwater oxygen isotopic compositions are related to the amount of rainfall. The karst aquifers on Barbados, Guam and Puerto Rico have similar rainwater and groundwater oxygen isotopic compositions. Comparison of groundwater and rainwater oxygen isotopic compositions in the three aquifers indicates that: (1) recharge occurs by rapid infiltration with little evaporation prior to recharge; and (2) recharge is associated with similar monthly rainfall thresholds of 190-200 mm. These rainfall thresholds are remarkably similar for three aquifers in different geographic locations. Differences between the spatial variations of groundwater oxygen isotopic compositions on Barbados and Puerto Rico can be attributed to the more complex groundwater flow system on Puerto Rico. The surprising similarities of hydrologic conditions under which recharge will take place can be attributed to similarities in climate and geologic conditions, such as soils and limestone bedrock, that exist on the three islands. We therefore speculate that similar recharge-rainfall thresholds may be observed in other tropical karst aquifers.

  13. Health Characteristics as Precursors of Substance Abuse in Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haran, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    In a longitudinal study of precursors of drug usage, data collected in 1968 on health variables was related to substance usage patterns obtained in 1975-76. Some 657 young Puerto Ricans were interviewed for this study, drawn from a pool of about 5,000 questionnaired in 1968. The major findings were that the health factors associated with drug…

  14. Citizen-volunteer and professional monitoring to identify fecal sources of contamination in southwestern Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    High concentrations of nutrients, fecal microorganisms, and sediments in surface waters can be a public health threat and can impact fringing coral reefs in Guánica Bay in southwestern Puerto Rico. Yet, the main factors and sources contributing to water quality degradation...

  15. Settlement effects on Favia fragum (Scleractinia, Faviidae) exposed to different sediment sources from Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural production and urban development in Puerto Rico have increased the rate of sedimentation to the marine coastal environment, which has the potential to adversely affect coral-reef ecosystems. Settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae are integral to the maintenance...

  16. Anglos Are Weird People For Me. Interviews with Chicanos and Puerto Ricans. Materialien 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Wolfgang

    The book presents the statements of 8 Mexican Americans and 10 Puerto Ricans, aged from 19 to 29, who were interviewed to reveal their degree of acculturation. Questions include attitude, behavior and/or fact-finding items and cover habitat; family background; intactness of family; educational, income, and occupational levels of parents and…

  17. Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera:Liviidae) abundance in Puerto Rico declines with elevation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri is the primary vector of Hunglongbing disease, the most devastating disease of citrus. Diaphorina citri populations in Puerto Rico were monitored with yellow sticky traps on citrus trees at different elevations, ranging from 10 to 880 m above sea level. Trapping was conducted in Mar...

  18. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  19. Pesticide Use and Transport Pathways Within a Coastal Watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, studies were begun to quantify impacts of agricultural crop production on coastal water quality within the watershed of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR). The reserve is located on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast and includes sensitive mangrove, sea-grass meadow, a...

  20. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...