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Sample records for puffinus puffinus insights

  1. Ancient DNA of the Extinct Lava Shearwater (Puffinus olsoni) from the Canary Islands Reveals Incipient Differentiation within the P. puffinus Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Oscar; Illera, Juan Carlos; Rando, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Background The loss of species during the Holocene was, dramatically more important on islands than on continents. Seabirds from islands are very vulnerable to human-induced alterations such as habitat destruction, hunting and exotic predators. For example, in the genus Puffinus (family Procellariidae) the extinction of at least five species has been recorded during the Holocene, two of them coming from the Canary Islands. Methodology/Principal Findings We used bones of the two extinct Canary shearwaters (P. olsoni and P. holeae) to obtain genetic data, for use in providing insights into the differentiation process within the genus Puffinus. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences were successfully retrieved from four Holocene specimens of the extinct Lava shearwater (P. olsoni) from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), the P. holeae specimens yielded no DNA. Only one haplotype was detected in P. olsoni, suggesting a low genetic diversity within this species. Conclusions The phylogenetic analyses based on the DNA data reveal that: (i) the “Puffinus puffinus complex”, an assemblage of species defined using osteological characteristics (P. puffinus, P. olsoni, P. mauretanicus, P. yelkouan and probably P. holeae), shows unresolved phylogenetic relationships; (ii) despite the differences in body size and proportions, P. olsoni and the extant P. puffinus are sister species. Several hypotheses can be considered to explain the incipient differentiation between P. olsoni and P. puffinus. PMID:21209838

  2. The Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) as a candidate sentinel of Atlantic Ocean health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Seabirds have been historically used to monitor environmental contamination. The aim of the present study was to test the suitability of a species belonging to the Procellariiformes group, the Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus, as a sentinel of environmental health, by determining contaminant levels (trace metals and organochlorine compounds) from carcass tissues and by isolating Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. from live specimens. To this end, 35 Puffinus puffinus carcasses wrecked on the north-central coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and two carcasses recovered in Aracruz, on the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were sampled, and fragments of muscle and hepatic tissues were collected for contaminant analyses. Swabs from eleven birds found alive at the north-central coast of Rio de Janeiro were collected for isolation of the aforementioned bacteria. Results The average concentration in dry weight (dw) of the trace metals were: mercury 7.19 mg kg-1(liver) and 1.23 mg kg-1 (muscle); selenium 34.66 mg kg-1 (liver) and 7.98 mg kg-1 (muscle); cadmium 22.33 mg kg-1 (liver) and 1.11 mg kg-1 (muscle); and lead, 0.1 mg kg--1 (liver) and 0.16 mg kg-1 (muscle). Organochlorine compounds were detected in all specimens, and hexachlorbiphenyls, heptachlorbiphenyls and DDTs presented the highest levels. Regarding microbiological contamination, bacteria from the Vibrio genus were isolated from 91% of the analyzed specimens. Vibrio harveyi was the predominant species. Bacteria from the Aeromonas genus were isolated from 18% of the specimens. Aeromonas sobria was the only identified species. Conclusions The results indicate that Puffinus puffinus seems to be a competent ocean health sentinel. Therefore, the monitoring of contaminant levels and the isolation of public health interest bacteria should proceed in order to consolidate this species importance as a sentinel. PMID:25191536

  3. Foods of Buller's shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri) associated with driftnet fisheries in the central North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, P.; Ostrom, P.; Walker, W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined digestive tract contents and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (??15N) in breast muscles of Buller's shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri) salvaged from squid and largemesh driftnets in the central North Pacific Ocean. The epipelagic Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) was the predominant prey, making up 71% of prey mass in digestive tracts. The remainder of the diet included small numbers of crustaceans, small fishes, and squids. The high degree of specialization in the diet seems to indicate that in the North Pacific, Buller's Shearwaters usually feed at or near the water surface and rarely pursue food under water. Although these birds have been observed feeding on scraps from fishing vessels, our data suggest that offal comprises less than 10% of the diet. Stable nitrogen isotope values provided quantified information on the timing of arrival of migrants into the North Pacific.

  4. Geolocators Reveal Migration and Pre-Breeding Behaviour of the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Tim; Wynn, Russell; McMinn, Miguel; Rodríguez, Ana; Fayet, Annette; Maurice, Lou; Jones, Alice; Meier, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    Using combined miniature archival light and salt-water immersion loggers, we characterise the year-round individual at-sea movements of Europe's only critically endangered seabird, the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, for the first time. Focusing on the non-breeding period, we show that all of the 26 breeding birds tracked from their breeding site on Mallorca in the Mediterranean Sea successfully made a 2–4 month migration into the Atlantic Ocean, where they utilised well-defined core areas off Portuguese and French coasts. As well as identifying high-risk areas in the Atlantic, our results confirm that breeding birds spend most of the year concentrated around productive waters of the Iberian shelf in the western Mediterranean. Migration phenology appeared largely unrelated to the subsequent (distinctly synchronous) breeding attempt, suggesting that any carry-over effects were compensated for during a long pre-laying period spent over winter in the Mediterranean. Using the light and salt-water immersion data alone we were also able to characterise the pattern of pre-laying visits to the colony in considerable detail, demonstrating that breeding pairs appear to coordinate their over-day visits using a high frequency of night-time visits throughout the winter. Our study shows that geolocation technology is a valuable tool for assessing the spatial distribution of risks to this critically endangered species, and also provides a low-impact method for remotely observing the detailed behaviour of seabird species that may be sensitive to disturbance from traditional study methods. PMID:22470471

  5. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  6. Food of Flesh-footed shearwaters Puffinus carneipes associated with high-seas driftnets in the central North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, Patrick J.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Walker, William

    1997-01-01

    We examined digestive tract contents and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in breast muscles of Flesh-footed Shearwaters Puffinus carneipes associated with high-seas driftnet fisheries in the central North Pacific Ocean. Small fish, Lanternfish (Myctophidae) and Pacific Saury Cololabis saira, were the principal prey found in the digestive tracts. Pieces of unidentified fish, possibly Pacific Pomfret Brama japonica, and shredded squid tissue, mostly Neon Flying Squid Ommastrephes bartrami, in the digestive tracts indicate scavenging at driftnet fishing operations. Although soft-bodied animals such as Velella sp. were rare in the digestive tracts, low stable nitrogen isotope values (δ15N) suggest Flesh-footed Shearwaters feed heavily on such low trophic level animals.

  7. Physical and chemical effects of ingested plastic debris on short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the plastics ingested by short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, that were accidentally caught during experimental fishing in the North Pacific Ocean in 2003 and 2005. The mean mass of plastics found in the stomach was 0.23 g per bird (n=99). Plastic mass did not correlate with body weight. Total PCB (sum of 24 congeners) concentrations in the abdominal adipose tissue of 12 birds ranged from 45 to 529 ng/g-lipid. Although total PCBs or higher-chlorinated congeners, the mass of ingested plastic correlated positively with concentrations of lower-chlorinated congeners. The effects of toxic chemicals present in plastic debris on bird physiology should be investigated.

  8. Comparing plastic ingestion in juvenile and adult stranded short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Heidi; Schuyler, Qamar A; Townsend, Kathy A; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2014-01-15

    Numerous species of seabirds have been shown to ingest anthropogenic debris, but few studies have compared ingestion rates between adults and juveniles of the same species. We investigated marine debris ingestion by short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) obtained through two stranding events on North Stradbroke Island, Australia in 2010 (n=102; adult) and 2012 (n=27; juveniles). Necropsies were conducted and solid contents found in guts were categorized into type and color. Over 67% of birds ingested anthropogenic debris: 399 pieces of debris were identified. We found no significant relationship between body condition of birds which had ingested anthropogenic debris and those that had not. Juvenile birds were more likely to ingest debris than were adult birds and juveniles ingested significantly more pieces of debris than did adults. Male and female birds ingested similar amounts and weights of debris. To determine if P. tenuirostris actively selects for certain types of debris, we compared ingested debris to samples obtained from boat-based tows. Significant differences were found, suggesting that the birds select for hard plastic, rubber and balloons.

  9. Seasonal Sexual Segregation by Monomorphic Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus griseus Reflects Different Reproductive Roles during the Pre-Laying Period

    PubMed Central

    Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A.; Phillips, Richard A.; Fifield, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tracking technology has revolutionized knowledge of seabird movements; yet, few studies have examined sex differences in distribution and behavior of small to medium-sized, sexually-monomorphic seabirds. Application of bird-borne geolocation-immersion loggers revealed seasonal segregation in the sexually-monomorphic Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, mainly in the pre-laying period, when there were clear differences in reproductive roles. Shearwaters first returned to the Falkland Islands on 27 Sept±8 d; males, on average, 8 d earlier than females. Prior to egg-laying, distribution at sea, colony attendance and behaviour depended on sex. Males foraged locally over the southern Patagonian Shelf and Burdwood Bank, spending mainly single days at sea and intervening nights in the burrow. Females, who flew for more of the day during this time, foraged in more distant areas of the northern Patagonian Shelf and Argentine Basin that were deeper, warmer and relatively more productive. Attendance of females at the colony was also more variable than that of males and, overall, males were present for significantly more of the pre-laying period (38 vs. 19% of time). Sex differences were reduced following egg-laying, with males and females using similar foraging areas and making trips of similar mean duration in incubation (7.6±2.7 d) and chick-rearing (1.4±1.3 d). Congruence continued into the non-breeding period, with both sexes showing similar patterns of activity and areas of occupancy in the NW Atlantic. Thus, seasonal changes in reproductive roles influenced patterns of sexual segregation; this occurred only early in the season, when male Sooty Shearwaters foraged locally, returning regularly to the colony to defend (or maintain) the burrow or the mate, while females concentrated on building resources for egg development in distant and relatively more productive waters. PMID:24416429

  10. Breeding biology of a winter-breeding procellariiform in the North Atlantic, the Macaronesian shearwater Puffinus lherminieri baroli.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Ana Isabel; Ramos, Jaime A; Ramos, Urtelinda; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H

    2016-10-01

    The breeding success of burrow-nesting seabirds may be influenced by both nest site characteristics and oceanographic conditions influencing food availability at sea. In this study we describe the breeding biology of the winter-breeding Macaronesian shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri baroli), including nest site characteristics and interspecific competition. We also evaluate the possible effects of changing oceanographic conditions on breeding phenology and breeding success. The study was carried out over two breeding seasons on two islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. Oceanographic characteristics differed between years. On a regional scale, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low and negative in 2011, and on a local scale, birds used areas with significantly lower values of chlorophyll a concentration and significantly higher values of sea surface temperature anomalies. Hatching success was higher in 2012 than in 2011. At both colonies, egg cracking was the main cause of hatching failure, but in 2011 several eggs on Selvagem Grande were deserted. In 2012 birds laid earlier and chicks had longer wings and were heavier. At both colonies, nests that were deeper, were sheltered from prevailing winds and had small chambers and a soil substrate had a higher probability of being used successfully by the birds. Nests occupied solely by Macaronesian shearwaters were much deeper and had less volume than nests shared with other species. Our study suggests that the breeding success of Macaronesian shearwaters is strongly related to nest site characteristics and that at-sea environmental conditions exert a strong influence on reproductive parameters, with birds breeding in a poor year (evaluated in terms of lower marine productivity) laying much later and their chicks growing at a slower rate than in a good year. The influence of nest site characteristics and environmental conditions may be very important for understanding the breeding

  11. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans.

  12. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  13. A cross-fostering experiment with the Newell's race of Manx shearwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, G.V.; Sincock, J.L.; Telfer, T.C.; Moriarty, D.I.; Brady, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on a program that tested suitability of wedge-tailed shear-waters (Puffinus pacificus ) to incubate eggs and rear chicks of Newell's shearwaters, (Puffinus puffinus newelli ) and evaluated the 'normality' of cross-fostered fledglings. The average growth rates of chicks are presented, and the chronology of breeding is compared with that of Kawuai's wild population of Newell's shearwaters.

  14. Trace metals, stable isotope ratios, and trophic relations in seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    Trace elements including mercury, cadmium, selenium, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (sigma15N) were measured in tissues of Pacific seabirds. Two species of albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, Diomedea nigripes), four species of shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri, Puffinus carneipes, Puffinus griseus, Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) were collected opportunistically by an experimental fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. Two species each of petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Oceanodroma furcata) and auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cerorhinca monocerata) were collected at breeding colonies on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. Concentrations of toxic trace metals varied considerably among the pelagic nonbreeders; highest concentrations consistently were in D. nigripes (e.g., Hg), 70-fold greater than F. corniculata (e.g., Cd), eightfold greater than P. tenuirostris (e.g., Se), and fourfold greater than F. corniculata. Most essential trace elements varied little among species, consistent with physiological regulation. Values for sigma15N correlated positively with hepatic Se (r = 0.771, p = 0.025) and negatively with Co (r = 0.817, p = 0.013). Among the four breeding species, there were significant positive associations for sigma15N in muscle and hepatic Se (r = 0.822, p = 0.002), Hg (r = 0.744, p = 0.0001), and Cd (r = 0.589, p = 0.003). Differences in time scales integrated by sigma15N versus trace metals in tissues probably reduced the apparent associations between trace-metal exposure and diet.

  15. Elevated mercury concentrations in the feathers of grey-faced petrels (Pterodroma gouldi) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lyver, P O' B; Aldridge, S P; Gormley, A M; Gaw, S; Webb, S; Buxton, R T; Jones, C J

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to measure the concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the body feathers of grey-faced petrel (Pterodroma gouldi), fluttering shearwater (Puffinus gavia), little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis) and common diving petrel (Pelecanoides urinatrix) from breeding colonies in New Zealand between 2006 and 2013. The mean Hg concentration (36.48ppm; SD=9.59) in grey-faced petrel feathers was approximately 8.5 to 14 times that detected in the other three species sampled. We detected no trend or differences in Hg concentrations in grey-faced petrels over the 8years of this study, but Hg concentrations varied between breeding colonies although there was no strong relationship with latitude. The elevated Hg concentrations detected in grey-faced petrels could pose a risk to the breeding performance of grey-faced petrels and the customary harvest of chicks by Māori (New Zealand's indigenous peoples).

  16. Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-04-15

    We analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in abdominal adipose of oceanic seabirds (short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris) collected in northern North Pacific Ocean. In 3 of 12 birds, we detected higher-brominated congeners (viz., BDE209 and BDE183), which are not present in the natural prey (pelagic fish) of the birds. The same compounds were present in plastic found in the stomachs of the 3 birds. These data suggested the transfer of plastic-derived chemicals from ingested plastics to the tissues of marine-based organisms.

  17. Light attraction in endangered procellariiform birds: Reduction by shielding upward radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.R.; Sincock, J.L.; Hailman, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Autumnal attraction to man-made lighting causes heavy mortality in fledgling Hawaiian seabirds: Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli), dark-rumped petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), and band-rumpted storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro). These threatened, endangered and rare species (respectively) approach and circle lights on their first flight from mountain nesting colonies on the island of Kauai to the sea. Lights of the largest resort were shielded to prevent upward radiation on alternate nights during 2 fledgling seasons. Shielding decreased attraction by nearly 40%. Most attraction occurred 1-4 h after sunset. Full moon dramatically decreased attraction, a phenomenon that has both theoretical and management implications.

  18. Types of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Holly

    1984-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model of insight that is distinct from any theory or philosophy. Six types of insight are described: associative, aggregate, discrete process, ontogenetic process, phylogenetic process, and transcendent process. The model offers counselors a method for the enhancement of empathy and the development of client insight…

  19. Dreaming and insight.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher L; Ruby, Perrine M; Malinowski, Josie E; Bennett, Paul D; Blagrove, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish "aha" experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from "aha" experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  20. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  1. Behavioural mapping of a pelagic seabird: combining multiple sensors and a hidden Markov model reveals the distribution of at-sea behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Ben; Freeman, Robin; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The use of miniature data loggers is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movements and habitat preferences of pelagic seabirds. However, objectively interpreting behavioural information from the large volumes of highly detailed data collected by such devices can be challenging. We combined three biologging technologies—global positioning system (GPS), saltwater immersion and time–depth recorders—to build a detailed picture of the at-sea behaviour of the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) during the breeding season. We used a hidden Markov model to explore discrete states within the combined GPS and immersion data, and found that behaviour could be organized into three principal activities representing (i) sustained direct flight, (ii) sitting on the sea surface, and (iii) foraging, comprising tortuous flight interspersed with periods of immersion. The additional logger data verified that the foraging activity corresponded well to the occurrence of diving. Applying this approach to a large tracking dataset revealed that birds from two different colonies foraged in local waters that were exclusive, but overlapped in one key area: the Irish Sea Front (ISF). We show that the allocation of time to each activity differed between colonies, with birds breeding furthest from the ISF spending the greatest proportion of time engaged in direct flight and the smallest proportion of time engaged in foraging activity. This type of analysis has considerable potential for application in future biologging studies and in other taxa. PMID:23034356

  2. Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G

    2008-08-01

    I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades.

  3. Dual foraging and pair coordination during chick provisioning by Manx shearwaters: empirical evidence supported by a simple model

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Akiko; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Fayet, Annette; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Christopher; Guilford, Tim

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The optimal allocation of time and energy between one's own survival and offspring survival is critical for iteroparous animals, but creates a conflict between what maximises the parent's fitness and what maximises fitness of the offspring. For central-place foragers, provisioning strategies may reflect this allocation, while the distance between central-places and foraging areas may influence the decision. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the link between life history and foraging in the context of resource allocation. Studying foraging behaviour alongside food load rates to chicks provides a useful system for understanding the foraging decisions made during parent–offspring conflict. Using simultaneously deployed GPS and time–depth recorders, we examined the provisioning strategies in free-living Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus, which were caring for young. Our results showed a bimodal pattern, where birds alternate short and long trips. Short trips were associated with higher feeding frequency and larger meals than long trips, suggesting that long trips were performed for self-feeding. Furthermore, most foraging was carried out within 100 km of sea fronts. A simple model based on patch quality and travel time shows that for Manx shearwaters combining chick feeding and self-maintenance, bimodal foraging trip durations optimise feeding rates. PMID:25964419

  4. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    PubMed

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals.

  5. Dual foraging and pair coordination during chick provisioning by Manx shearwaters: empirical evidence supported by a simple model.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Akiko; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Fayet, Annette; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Christopher; Guilford, Tim

    2015-07-01

    The optimal allocation of time and energy between one's own survival and offspring survival is critical for iteroparous animals, but creates a conflict between what maximises the parent's fitness and what maximises fitness of the offspring. For central-place foragers, provisioning strategies may reflect this allocation, while the distance between central-places and foraging areas may influence the decision. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the link between life history and foraging in the context of resource allocation. Studying foraging behaviour alongside food load rates to chicks provides a useful system for understanding the foraging decisions made during parent-offspring conflict. Using simultaneously deployed GPS and time-depth recorders, we examined the provisioning strategies in free-living Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus, which were caring for young. Our results showed a bimodal pattern, where birds alternate short and long trips. Short trips were associated with higher feeding frequency and larger meals than long trips, suggesting that long trips were performed for self-feeding. Furthermore, most foraging was carried out within 100 km of sea fronts. A simple model based on patch quality and travel time shows that for Manx shearwaters combining chick feeding and self-maintenance, bimodal foraging trip durations optimise feeding rates.

  6. Changing Schools: Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    Over 1,000 communities in 45 states, territories, and the District of Columbia, are mobilized under the AMERICA 2000 banner to reach the 6 National Education Goals. This collection of papers, written by those who have wrestled with the process of school reform, offers useful insights to communities as they begin their process of transforming…

  7. New Insights into Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents insights on the controversial issues regarding evolution. This article partitions into the following sections: (1) Mechanisms explaining how evolution happened; (2) Creationist Confusion; (3) Literal Interpretation of the Bible; (4) Public demand for Creationism; (5) No Basis for Debating; and (6) Scientific Creationism is Bible Study.…

  8. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  9. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  10. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  11. Modeling for Insights

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  12. Osho - Insights on sex

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of “Tantra” which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  13. Insights on STEM Careers

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  14. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  15. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  16. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  17. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Newman, Leonard S.; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb – an iconic image of insight – prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving. PMID:20652087

  18. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M; Newman, Leonard S; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-07-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb - an iconic image of insight - prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving.

  19. New insights into Drosophila vision.

    PubMed

    Dolph, Patrick

    2008-01-10

    Studies of the Drosophila visual system have provided valuable insights into the function and regulation of phototransduction signaling pathways. Much of this work has stemmed from or relied upon the genetic tools offered by the Drosophila system. In this issue of Neuron, Wang and colleagues and Acharya and colleagues have further exploited the Drosophila genetic system to characterize two new phototransduction players.

  20. Psychology of Sport. Issues & Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, A. Craig, Ed.

    This book is designed to provide instructors and students in sport psychology courses with a learning instrument that combines the continuity of a textbook with the range of opinion, in-depth treatment of selected issues, and insight into research methods of a book of readings. The subject is divided into four topical categories. Under the heading…

  1. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  2. Insights from a Math Phobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Anne Wescott

    1992-01-01

    The author's personal experiences in overcoming mathematics anxiety provide insights into how teachers can create a classroom environment to help students develop self-confidence by assessing students' feelings, using cooperative-learning techniques, showing more patience, and having students write about their experiences. (MDH)

  3. An assessment of oceanic seabird abundance and distribution off the southern Brazilian coast using observations obtained during deep-water fishing operations.

    PubMed

    Branco, J O; Fracasso, H A A; Pérez, J A A; Rodrigues-Filho, J L

    2014-08-01

    The use of discarded fish over baited hooks used in longline fishery, and fish caught in gillnets, as a food source for gulls, albatrosses and petrels has been intensively studied in northern and southern oceans. This study describes the occurrence and abundance of seabirds observed from 20 foreign vessels which operated during the period between July 2001 and May 2005, off the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. A total of 353,557 seabirds were observed; comprising eight families and 28 species. The most abundant species was Procellaria conspicillata followed by Daption capense, Puffinus gravis, Thalassarche melanophrys and Oceanites oceanicus. Ten species of seabirds (392 individual birds) were incidentally captured in gillnets; and 122 birds (9 species) by longline hooks, with P. gravis, D. capense and Procellaria aequinoctialis having the largest capture rates.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residues in animals of Tasmania, Australia-1975-77.

    PubMed

    Bloom, H; Taylor, W; Bloom, W R; Ayling, G M

    1979-12-01

    Animals taken in Tasmania including duck (Anas superciliosa), eel (Anguilla australis), English perch (Perca fluviatilis), white-faced heron (Ardea pacifica), brown trout (Salmo trutta), European starling (Strunus vulgaris), cat (Felis cattus), cormorant (Phalacrocorax sp.), mutton bird (Puffinus tenuirostris), Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), Tasmanian raven (Corvus mellori), tench (Tinca tinca), and quail (Coturnix sp.) were sampled for p,p'-DDE, pp,p'-TDE, p,p'-DDT, lindane, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene. Pesticide residue levels exceeded 0.1 ppm in at least one animal from each area and in the majority of animals sampled from all areas. Pesticide sources could not be determined, partly because migratory species such as ducks, mutton birds, cormorants, and eels may have ingested pesticides outside of Tasmania.

  5. Climate change impact on Balearic shearwater through a trophic cascade.

    PubMed

    Luczak, C; Beaugrand, G; Jaffré, M; Lenoir, S

    2011-10-23

    A recent study showed that a critically endangered migratory predator species, the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, rapidly expanded northwards in northeast Atlantic waters after the mid-1990s. As a significant positive correlation was found between the long-term changes in the abundance of this seabird and sea temperature around the British Isles, it was hypothesized that the link between the biogeographic shift and temperature occurred through the food web. Here, we test this conjecture and reveal concomitant changes in a regional index of sea temperature, plankton (total calanoid copepod), fish prey (anchovy and sardine) and the Balearic shearwater for the period 1980-2003. All three trophic levels exhibit a significant shift detected between 1994 and 1996. Our findings therefore support the assertion of both a direct and an indirect effect of climate change on the spatial distribution of post-breeding Balearic shearwater through a trophic cascade.

  6. Prevalence of marine debris in marine birds from the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Jennifer F; Bond, Alexander L; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Courchesne, Sarah J; Gilchrist, H Grant; Jamieson, Sarah E; Merkel, Flemming R; Falk, Knud; Durinck, Jan; Mallory, Mark L

    2014-07-15

    Marine birds have been found to ingest plastic debris in many of the world's oceans. Plastic accumulation data from necropsies findings and regurgitation studies are presented on 13 species of marine birds in the North Atlantic, from Georgia, USA to Nunavut, Canada and east to southwest Greenland and the Norwegian Sea. Of the species examined, the two surface plungers (great shearwaters Puffinus gravis; northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of ingested plastic (71% and 51%, respectively). Great shearwaters also had the most pieces of plastics in their stomachs, with some individuals containing as many of 36 items. Seven species contained no evidence of plastic debris. Reporting of baseline data as done here is needed to ensure that data are available for marine birds over time and space scales in which we see changes in historical debris patterns in marine environments (i.e. decades) and among oceanographic regions.

  7. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2012 - 31 March 2012.

    PubMed

    Andris, Malvina; Arias, M C; Barthel, Brandon L; Bluhm, Burton H; Bried, Joël; Canal, D; Chen, X M; Cheng, P; Chiappero, Marina B; Coelho, Manuela M; Collins, Angela B; Dash, M; Davis, Michelle C; Duarte, Margarida; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Françoso, E; Galmes, M A; Gopal, Keshni; Jarne, Philippe; Kalbe, Martin; Karczmarski, Leszek; Kim, Hun; Martella, Mónica B; McBride, Richard S; Negri, Valeria; Negro, J J; Newell, Annakay D; Piedade, Ana F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Raggi, Lorenzo; Samonte, Irene E; Sarasola, J H; See, D R; Seyoum, Seifu; Silva, Mónica C; Solaro, C; Tolley, Krystal A; Tringali, Michael D; Vasemägi, A; Xu, L S; Zanón-Martínez, J I

    2012-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 171 microsatellite marker loci and 27 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bombus pauloensis, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii, Cercospora sojina, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, Hordeum vulgare, Lachnolaimus maximus, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Rhea americana, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, Schistocephalus solidus, Sousa plumbea and Tursiops aduncus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aquila heliaca, Bulweria bulwerii, Buteo buteo, Buteo swainsoni, Falco rusticolus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Halobaena caerulea, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Oceanodroma castro, Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, Puccinia triticina, Rhea pennata and Schistocephalus pungitii. This article also documents the addition of 27 sequencing primer pairs for Puffinus baroli and Bulweria bulwerii and cross-testing of these loci in Oceanodroma castro, Pelagodroma marina, Pelecanoides georgicus, Pelecanoides urinatrix, Thalassarche chrysostoma and Thalassarche melanophrys.

  8. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian darkrumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  9. Climate-driven range expansion of a critically endangered top predator in northeast Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Russell B; Josey, Simon A; Martin, Adrian P; Johns, David G; Yésou, Pierre

    2007-10-22

    Global climate change is driving rapid distribution shifts in marine ecosystems; these are well established for lower trophic levels, but are harder to quantify for migratory top predators. By analysing a 25-year sightings-based dataset, we found evidence for rapid northwards range expansion of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus in northeast Atlantic waters. A 0.6 degrees C sea surface temperature increase in the mid-1990s is interpreted as an underlying controlling factor, while simultaneous northward shifts of plankton and prey fish species suggests a strong bottom-up control. Our results have important conservation implications and provide new evidence for climate-driven regime shift in Atlantic ecosystems.

  10. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two methods to teach radioactive decay to secondary students with wide ranging abilities. Activities are designed to follow classroom discussions of atomic structure, transmutation, half life, and nuclear decay. Includes "The Tasmanian Empire: A Radioactive Dating Activity" and an exercise to teach concepts of half life without…

  11. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an approach to solving oxidation-reduction reactions. The advantage of this procedure for both acidic and basic equations is stressed and emphasizes the electrical nature of redox equations. (KR)

  12. Unexpected hydrogen isotope variation in oceanic pelagic seabirds.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Peggy H; Wiley, Anne E; Rossman, Sam; Stricker, Craig A; James, Helen F

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen isotopes have significantly enhanced our understanding of the biogeography of migratory animals. The basis for this methodology lies in predictable, continental patterns of precipitation δD values that are often reflected in an organism's tissues. δD variation is not expected for oceanic pelagic organisms whose dietary hydrogen (water and organic hydrogen in prey) is transferred up the food web from an isotopically homogeneous water source. We report a 142‰ range in the δD values of flight feathers from the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), an oceanic pelagic North Pacific species, and inquire about the source of that variation. We show δD variation between and within four other oceanic pelagic species: Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newellii), Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Buller's shearwater (Puffinus bulleri). The similarity between muscle δD values of hatch-year Hawaiian petrels and their prey suggests that trophic fractionation does not influence δD values of muscle. We hypothesize that isotopic discrimination is associated with water loss during salt excretion through salt glands. Salt load differs between seabirds that consume isosmotic squid and crustaceans and those that feed on hyposmotic teleost fish. In support of the salt gland hypothesis, we show an inverse relationship between δD and percent teleost fish in diet for three seabird species. Our results demonstrate the utility of δD in the study of oceanic consumers, while also contributing to a better understanding of δD systematics, the basis for one of the most commonly utilized isotope tools in avian ecology.

  13. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ(18)Ocalc and δ(13)Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ(18)Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in (18)O relative to (16)O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ(18)Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ(18)Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ(13)Ccalc and δ(18)Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ(13)Ccalc and high δ(18)Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  14. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  15. Unexpected hydrogen isotope variation in oceanic pelagic seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostrom, Peggy H.; Wiley, Anne E.; Rossman, Sam; Stricker, Craig A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes have significantly enhanced our understanding of the biogeography of migratory animals. The basis for this methodology lies in predictable, continental patterns of precipitation δD values that are often reflected in an organism's tissues. δD variation is not expected for oceanic pelagic organisms whose dietary hydrogen (water and organic hydrogen in prey) is transferred up the food web from an isotopically homogeneous water source. We report a 142% range in the δD values of flight feathers from the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), an oceanic pelagic North Pacific species, and inquire about the source of that variation. We show δD variation between and within four other oceanic pelagic species: Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newellii), Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Buller's shearwater (Puffinus bulleri). The similarity between muscle δD values of hatch-year Hawaiian petrels and their prey suggests that trophic fractionation does not influence δD values of muscle. We hypothesize that isotopic discrimination is associated with water loss during salt excretion through salt glands. Salt load differs between seabirds that consume isosmotic squid and crustaceans and those that feed on hyposmotic teleost fish. In support of the salt gland hypothesis, we show an inverse relationship between δD and percent teleost fish in diet for three seabird species. Our results demonstrate the utility of δD in the study of oceanic consumers, while also contributing to a better understanding of δD systematics, the basis for one of the most commonly utilized isotope tools in avian ecology.

  16. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  17. An integrated perspective on insight.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Øyvind L; Furnham, Adrian; Hærem, Thorvald

    2016-10-01

    The present study on insight is based on an integration of Kaplan and Simon's (1990) information processing theory of insight, a cognitive style theory, and achievement motivation theory. The style theory is the Assimilator (rule oriented, familiarity seeking)-Explorer (novelty seeking, explorative) styles (Kaufmann, 1979). Our hypothesis is that the effectiveness of 2 types of search constraints (prior experience and solution hints) for solving insight problems is moderated by both cognitive style and achievement needs, and depending on optimal levels of achievement motivation for different task conditions. We tested the hypothesis in a randomized experiment in which 3 levels of achievement needs and 1 type of search constraint (solution hints were available or not available) were experimentally manipulated. In addition, participants completed a cognitive style test, a measure of prior problem-solving experience (the second type of search constraint), and controls for intelligence. There were 476 participants (the mean age was 18.4 years). Results revealed 2 similar and significant 3-way interactions between styles, achievement needs, and the 2 types of search constraints. The pattern of interaction supported the idea that stylistic competence for the task characteristics (with and without search constraints available), when combined with manipulated achievement needs, predicted performance in counterintuitive ways but in line with the classic achievement motivation theory. With appropriate stylistic competence for the task characteristics elevated achievement needs led to poorer performance. With less appropriate stylistic competence, performance improved with increasing motivation. Implications for information processing theory are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  19. Theoretical insights into interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Craddock, Deborah; Hammick, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the need for theory in the practice of interprofessional education. It highlights the range of theories available to interprofessional educators and promotes the practical application of these to interprofessional learning and teaching. It summarises the AMEE Guides in Medical Education publication entitled Theoretical Insights into Interprofessional Education: AMEE Guide No. 62, where the practical application of three theories, social capital, social constructivism and a sociological perspective of interprofessional education are discussed in-depth through the lens of a case study. The key conclusions of these discussions are presented in this article.

  20. Huygens provides insights about Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Huygens provides insights about Titan Following the Huygens probe's successful 14 January soft landing on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, scientists at a 21 January European Space Agency (ESA) news briefing announced that the moon has Earth-like meteorology and geology, and that there is evidence for liquid methane. Martin Tomasko, principal investigator for the Huygens Descent Imager-Spectral Radiometer, said, ``Geological evidence for precipitation, erosion, mechanical abrasion and other fluvial activity says that the physical processes shaping Titan are much the same as those shaping Earth.''

  1. Insight with hands and things.

    PubMed

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Sirota, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets involving some degree of overlap. Participants were randomly allocated to either a tablet condition where they could use a stylus and an electronic tablet to sketch a solution or a model building condition where participants were given material with which to build enclosures and figurines. In both experiments, participants were much more likely to develop a working solution in the model building condition. The difference in performance elicited by different task ecologies was unrelated to individual differences in working memory, actively open-minded thinking, or need for cognition (Experiment 1), although individual differences in creativity were correlated with problem solving success in Experiment 2. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the prevailing metatheoretical commitment to methodological individualism that places the individual as the ontological locus of cognition.

  2. Insights into electromagnetic interaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Reba; Blank, Martin

    2002-07-01

    Low frequency (< 300 Hz) electromagnetic (EM) fields induce biological changes that include effects ranging from increased enzyme reaction rates to increased transcript levels for specific genes. The induction of stress gene HSP70 expression by exposure to EM fields provides insight into how EM fields interact with cells and tissues. Insights into the mechanism(s) are also provided by examination of the interaction of EM fields with moving charges and their influence on enzyme reaction rates in cell-free systems. Biological studies with in vitro model systems have focused, in general, on the nature of the signal transduction pathways involved in response to EM fields. It is likely, however, that EM fields also interact directly with electrons in DNA to stimulate biosynthesis. Identification of an EM field-sensitive DNA sequence in the heat shock 70 (HSP70) promoter, points to the application of EM fields in two biomedical applications: cytoprotection and gene therapy. EM field induction of the stress protein hsp70 may also provide a useful biomarker for establishing a science-based safety standard for the design of cell phones and their transmission towers.

  3. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  4. Genetic insights in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bettens, Karolien; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new genes in Alzheimer's disease, classic linkage-based and candidate-gene-based association studies have been supplanted by exome sequencing, genome-wide sequencing (for mendelian forms of Alzheimer's disease), and genome-wide association studies (for non-mendelian forms). The identification of new susceptibility genes has opened new avenues for exploration of the underlying disease mechanisms. In addition to detecting novel risk factors in large samples, next-generation sequencing approaches can deliver novel insights with even small numbers of patients. The shift in focus towards translational studies and sequencing of individual patients places each patient's biomaterials as the central unit of genetic studies. The notional shift needed to make the patient central to genetic studies will necessitate strong collaboration and input from clinical neurologists.

  5. On insight and psychosis: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    David, A S

    1990-01-01

    The concept of insight into psychosis has received scant attention in the psychiatric literature. Various types of insight are described after drawing on such sources as phenomenology, clinical observation and experimental psychology. It is proposed that insight is far from an all or none phenomenon but comprises three overlapping dimensions, namely, the recognition that one has a mental illness, compliance with treatment and the ability to re-label unusual mental events (delusions and hallucinations) as pathological. PMID:2199672

  6. Otherness within: aspects of insight in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M

    1998-01-01

    In this paper I consider moments of insight in which the subject consciously experiences the emergence of something alien within the self, usually of a drive-related, affective, and at times uncanny nature. These are crucial, yet neglected, experiences of insight within the therapeutic process. Such experiences do not fit easily into our theory, because usual descriptions of insight stress the ego's integrative capacities. I attempt to demonstrate how aspects of our theory that emphasize rational, narrative explanations, or the social construction of clinical facts, as well as those that emphasize the ego's integrative functions, may prevent our fully appreciating these experiences of insight in our patients.

  7. First insights into disassembled "evapotranspiration"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormański, Jarosław; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present an initial data analysis obtained from a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them fromthe total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its component transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project

  8. Mining Login Data for Actionable Student Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnihotri, Lalitha; Aghababyan, Ani; Mojarad, Shirin; Riedesel, Mark; Essa, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Student login data is a key resource for gaining insight into their learning experience. However, the scale and the complexity of this data necessitate a thorough exploration to identify potential actionable insights, thus rendering it less valuable compared to student achievement data. To compensate for the underestimation of login data…

  9. Working wonders? investigating insight with magic tricks.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We propose a new approach to differentiate between insight and noninsight problem solving, by introducing magic tricks as problem solving domain. We argue that magic tricks are ideally suited to investigate representational change, the key mechanism that yields sudden insight into the solution of a problem, because in order to gain insight into the magicians' secret method, observers must overcome implicit constraints and thus change their problem representation. In Experiment 1, 50 participants were exposed to 34 different magic tricks, asking them to find out how the trick was accomplished. Upon solving a trick, participants indicated if they had reached the solution either with or without insight. Insight was reported in 41.1% of solutions. The new task domain revealed differences in solution accuracy, time course and solution confidence with insight solutions being more likely to be true, reached earlier, and obtaining higher confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, we explored which role self-imposed constraints actually play in magic tricks. 62 participants were presented with 12 magic tricks. One group received verbal cues, providing solution relevant information without giving the solution away. The control group received no informative cue. Experiment 2 showed that participants' constraints were suggestible to verbal cues, resulting in higher solution rates. Thus, magic tricks provide more detailed information about the differences between insightful and noninsightful problem solving, and the underlying mechanisms that are necessary to have an insight.

  10. Insight Into Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Medalia, Alice; Thysen, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Insight into psychotic symptoms is typically poor in schizophrenia; however, it is not known whether insight into neurocognitive impairment is similarly impaired. Most people with schizophrenia experience cognitive dysfunction, and the deficits in attention, memory, and critical thinking have been associated with poor functional outcome. As new treatments are developed for the cognitive impairments, it will be important to know whether patients will be receptive to yet another therapy. Insight is an important factor in treatment compliance and treatment outcome; however, it is not known if patients have insight into their cognitive dysfunction. In order to assess insight into neuro cognitive dysfunction, 75 subjects were administered the Measure of Insight into Cognition–Clinician Rated, a newly created measure based on the Scale to Access the Unawareness of Mental Disorder, that assesses insight into cognitive impairment. Subjects were also administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and Independent Living Scale–Problem Solving to objectively assess neuropsychological status and problem-solving skills needed for independent living. Results demonstrated that virtually all subjects had cognitive impairment, yet insight into their neuro cognitive symptoms was limited. This finding has potential implications for treatment programs seeking to improve cognitive functioning in schizophrenia PMID:18199632

  11. Iron and cancer: recent insights.

    PubMed

    Manz, David H; Blanchette, Nicole L; Paul, Bibbin T; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential dietary element. However, the ability of iron to cycle between oxidized and reduced forms also renders it capable of contributing to free radical formation, which can have deleterious effects, including promutagenic effects that can potentiate tumor formation. Dysregulation of iron metabolism can increase cancer risk and promote tumor growth. Cancer cells exhibit an enhanced dependence on iron relative to their normal counterparts, a phenomenon we have termed iron addiction. Work conducted in the past few years has revealed new cellular processes and mechanisms that deepen our understanding of the link between iron and cancer. Control of iron efflux through the combined action of ferroportin, an iron efflux pump, and its regulator hepcidin appears to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Ferroptosis is a form of iron-dependent cell death involving the production of reactive oxygen species. Specific mechanisms involved in ferroptosis, including depletion of glutathione and inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4, have been uncovered. Ferritinophagy is a newly identified mechanism for degradation of the iron storage protein ferritin. Perturbations of mechanisms that control transcripts encoding proteins that regulate iron have been observed in cancer cells, including differences in miRNA, methylation, and acetylation. These new insights may ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities for treating cancer.

  12. Fick's Insights on Liquid Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2004-10-07

    In 1855, Adolph Fick published ''On Liquid Diffusion'', mathematically treating salt movements in liquids as a diffusion process, analogous to heat diffusion. Less recognized is the fact that Fick also provided a detailed account of the implications of salt diffusion to transport through membranes. A careful look at Fick (1855) shows that his conceptualization of molecular diffusion was more comprehensive than could be captured with the mathematical methods available to him, and therefore his expression, referred to as Fick's Law, dealt only with salt flux. He viewed salt diffusion in liquids as a binary process, with salt moving in one way and water moving in the other. Fick's analysis of the consequences of such a binary process operating in a hydrophilic pore in a membrane offers insights that are relevant to earth systems. This paper draws attention to Fick's rationale, and its implications to hydrogeological systems. Fick (1829-1901; Figure 1), a gifted scientist, published the first book on medical physics (Fick, 1858), discussing the application of optics, solid mechanics, gas diffusion, and heat budget to biological systems. Fick's paper is divisible into two parts. The first describes his experimental verification of the applicability of Fourier's equation to liquid diffusion. The second is a detailed discussion of diffusion through a membrane. Although Fick's Law specifically quantifies solute flux, Fick visualized a simultaneous movement of water and stated, ''It is evident that a volume of water equal to that of the salt passes simultaneously out of the upper stratum into the lower.'' (Fick, 1855, p.30). Fick drew upon Fourier's model purely by analogy. He assumed that concentration gradient impelled salt movement, without inquiring why concentration gradient should constitute a driving force. As for water movement, he stated intuitively, ''a force of suction comes into play on each side of the membrane, proportional to the difference of concentration

  13. Insight Is Not in the Problem: Investigating Insight in Problem Solving across Task Types

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Margaret E.; Little, Daniel R.; Cropper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    The feeling of insight in problem solving is typically associated with the sudden realization of a solution that appears obviously correct (Kounios et al., 2006). Salvi et al. (2016) found that a solution accompanied with sudden insight is more likely to be correct than a problem solved through conscious and incremental steps. However, Metcalfe (1986) indicated that participants would often present an inelegant but plausible (wrong) answer as correct with a high feeling of warmth (a subjective measure of closeness to solution). This discrepancy may be due to the use of different tasks or due to different methods in the measurement of insight (i.e., using a binary vs. continuous scale). In three experiments, we investigated both findings, using many different problem tasks (e.g., Compound Remote Associates, so-called classic insight problems, and non-insight problems). Participants rated insight-related affect (feelings of Aha-experience, confidence, surprise, impasse, and pleasure) on continuous scales. As expected we found that, for problems designed to elicit insight, correct solutions elicited higher proportions of reported insight in the solution compared to non-insight solutions; further, correct solutions elicited stronger feelings of insight compared to incorrect solutions. PMID:27725805

  14. Insight, Knowledge, Science, and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, David

    1981-01-01

    In the field of science, the meaning of insight can be understood by looking at theories which deal with universal laws that have fundamental significance for the totality of matter, independently of conditions of time and space. (JN)

  15. From Hot Flashes to Cool Insights: Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause From Hot Flashes to Cool Insights: Menopause Winter 2017 Table ... experienced the menopausal transition. Researching "the menopause transition" Hot flashes, weight gain, night sweats, insomnia, and moodiness— ...

  16. Mystery patient insight into clinical laboratory service.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, John

    2003-01-01

    Gone are the days when most patients tolerated impersonal service from their physicians and health-care providers in general. Every day, customer and patient satisfaction becomes more critical to a health-care provider's success and survival. Open communications, Internet-informed patients, and aggressive watch groups reveal those health-care providers who consistently deliver poor service. Most health-care providers employ patient satisfaction surveys to monitor their level of service; however, written and telephone surveys seldom provide the surveyor the insight necessary to provide differentiating service because of a large illiteracy rate and fear of reprisal. Toward this end, a well-trained mystery patients offers the health-care provider greater insight into how service is dispensed to its customers and patients. This article offers an aggregate of mystery patient insights into delivering clinical laboratory services both in hospital and medical practice environments, supported with insightful information into creating winning service strategies.

  17. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:25467703

  18. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; La Duc, Myron; Willis, Jason

    The NASA Discovery Program’s next mission, Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSIght), consists of a single spacecraft that will be launched aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base (Space Launch Complex 3E) during the March 2016 timeframe. The overarching mission goal is to illuminate the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system consists of a heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and Lander from the 2008 Phoenix mission. Included in the lander payload are various cameras, a seismometer, an auxiliary sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure, and a mole to penetrate the regolith (<5 meters) and assess the subsurface geothermal gradient of Mars. Being a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, InSight has been designated a PP Category Iva mission. As such, planetary protection bioburden requirements apply which require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reporting. The InSight project is current with required PP documentation, having completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, and a PP Implementation Plan. The InSight mission’s early planetary protection campaign has commenced, coinciding with the fabrication and assembly of payload and flight system hardware and the baseline analysis of existing flight spares. A report on the status of InSight PP activities will be provided.

  19. Is Insight Always the Same? A Protocol Analysis of Insight in Compound Remote Associate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranford, Edward A.; Moss, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Compound Remote Associate (CRA) problems have been used to investigate insight problem solving using both behavioral and neuroimaging techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent CRA problems exhibit characteristics of insight such as impasses and restructuring. CRA problem-solving characteristics were examined in a study in which…

  20. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  1. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  2. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  3. Insight into an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some insights on the characteristics of a person with Asperger's syndrome, a condition on the higher-functioning end of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Born in 1955, the author was raised in rural South Auckland. As a baby, she propelled herself around the floor on her stomach, using her limbs as flippers,…

  4. Insights into Industry and Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, this guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the following cluster concept: insights into industry and technology. An overview of industry and technology is provided to serve as an integrator or unifier of industry…

  5. Insights on the College, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdle, Michael A.; Silverman, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the 2000-2001 issues of Mt. San Antonio College's (Mt. SAC's) "Insights on the College." The first issue, "Mt. SAC Progress Report on Partnership for Excellence Goals," is a report on the self-assessment of the Partnership for Excellence (PFE) program conducted by Mt. SAC. The PFE program addresses the…

  6. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  7. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  8. Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

  9. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; Vaishampayan, Parag; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Willis, Jason; Witte, Joe; Hendrickson, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The InSight Project is a Discovery mission that consists of a single spacecraft with an overarching mission goal of illuminating the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system is comprised of a 2008 Phoenix mission heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and lander. The lander payload contains cameras, a seismometer, a mole to penetrate the regolith (≤5 meters) to measure the geothermal gradient of Mars, and an auxiliary payload sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure. As a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, the InSight mission has been designated PP Category IVa. Therefore, planetary protection bioburden requirements are applicable to this mission and require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reports. Due to primary payload technical issues, InSight's 2016 launch has been delayed by NASA. The mission is currently under a re-planning phase. InSight has completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, PP Implementation Documentation, and ~50% of the PPO verification biological assays. The flight system and additional payloads were assembled and being readied for launch at the launch site at the time of the project stand-down and has since been secured for storage. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  10. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  11. Verbalization and problem solving: insight and spatial factors.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, K J; Fioratou, E; Henretty, N

    2010-02-01

    Two groups of participants attempted eight examples of each of four different problem types formed by combining insight versus non-insight and verbal versus spatial factors. The groups were given different verbalization instructions viz., Silent (N=40) or Direct Concurrent (N=40). There were significant differences between insight and non-insight tasks and between spatial and verbal tasks in terms of solution rates and latencies. Significant interactions between the verbal versus spatial factor and verbalization condition on solution rates and latencies reflected a greater (negative) effect of verbalizing on spatial as against verbal problems. However, no significant interactions of the insight versus non-insight factor with verbalization condition on solution rates or latencies were found. These results favoured the 'business as usual' view of insight problem solving as against the 'special process' view which predicted larger effects of verbalization for insight problems as against non-insight problems.

  12. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  13. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy of rhodopsins: Insights and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Farrens, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has become an established tool at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics because of its exquisite sensitivity and recent technical advancements. However, rhodopsin proteins present the fluorescence spectroscopist with a unique set of challenges and opportunities due to the presence of the light-sensitive retinal chromophore. This review briefly summarizes some approaches that have successfully met these challenges and the novel insights they have yielded about rhodopsin structure and function. We start with a brief overview of fluorescence fundamentals and experimental methodologies, followed by more specific discussions of technical challenges rhodopsin proteins present to fluorescence studies. Finally, we end by discussing some of the unique insights that have been gained specifically about visual rhodopsin and its interactions with affiliate proteins through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24183695

  15. Implementation of Insight Responsibilities in Process Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Deborah M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes an approach for evaluating flight readiness (COFR) and contractor performance evaluation (award fee) as part of the insight role of NASA Process Engineering at Kennedy Space Center. Several evaluation methods are presented, including systems engineering evaluations and use of systems performance data. The transition from an oversight function to the insight function is described. The types of analytical tools appropriate for achieving the flight readiness and contractor performance evaluation goals are described and examples are provided. Special emphasis is placed upon short and small run statistical quality control techniques. Training requirements for system engineers are delineated. The approach described herein would be equally appropriate in other directorates at Kennedy Space Center.

  16. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  17. Strategic Insights: The Battle of Crecy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-20

    United States Army Dr. Richard Meinhart Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t STRATEGIC INSIGHTS: THE BATTLE OF CRECY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL KENNETH ERNEST KOPS United States Army ...reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army , Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle

  18. 2016 Mars Insight Mission Design and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando; Frauenholz, Ray; Fujii, Ken; Wallace, Mark; You, Tung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Scheduled for a launch in the 2016 Earth to Mars opportunity, the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) Mission will arrive to Mars in late September 2016 with the primary objective of placing a science lander on the surface of the Red Planet followed by the deployment of two science instruments to investigate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. In order to achieve a successful landing, the InSight Project has selected a launch/arrival strategy that satisfies the following key and driving requirements: (1) Deliver a total launch mass of 727 kg, (2) target a nominal landing site with a cumulative Delta V99 less than 30 m/s, and (3) approach EDL with a V-infinity upper limit of 3.941 km/s and (4) an entry flight-path angle (EFPA) of -12.5 +/- 0.26 deg, 3-sigma; the InSight trajectories have been designed such that they (5) provide UHF-band communications via Direct-To-Earth and MRO from Entry through landing plus 60 s, (6) with injection aimpoints biased away from Mars such that the probability of the launch vehicle upper stage impacting Mars is less than 1.0 X 10(exp 4) for fifty years after launch, and (7) non-nominal impact probabilities due to failure during the Cruise phase less than 1.0 X 10(exp 2).

  19. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  20. Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2005-12-01

    The number of avian species in which coronaviruses have been detected has doubled in the past couple of years. While the coronaviruses in these species have all been in coronavirus Group 3, as for the better known coronaviruses of the domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV], in Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), there is experimental evidence to suggest that birds are not limited to infection with Group 3 coronaviruses. In China coronaviruses have been isolated from peafowl (Pavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris; also isolated in Brazil), partridge (Alectoris) and also from a non-gallinaceous bird, the teal (Anas), all of which were being reared in the vicinity of domestic fowl. These viruses were closely related in genome organization and in gene sequences to IBV. Indeed, gene sequencing and experimental infection of chickens indicated that the peafowl isolate was the H120 IB vaccine strain, while the teal isolate was possibly a field strain of a nephropathogenic IBV. Thus the host range of IBV does extend beyond the chicken. Most recently, Group 3 coronaviruses have been detected in greylag goose (Anser anser), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and pigeon (Columbia livia). It is clear from the partial genome sequencing of these viruses that they are not IBV, as they have two additional small genes near the 3' end of the genome. Twenty years ago a coronavirus was isolated after inoculation of mice with tissue from the coastal shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). While it is not certain whether the virus was actually from the shearwater or from the mice, recent experiments have shown that bovine coronavirus (a Group 2 coronavirus) can infect and also cause enteric disease in turkeys. Experiments with some Group 1 coronaviruses (all from mammals, to date) have shown that they are not limited to replicating or causing disease in a single host. SARS-coronavirus has a wide host range. Clearly there is the potential for

  1. Ocean warming and seabird communities of the southern California Current System (1987-98): response at multiple temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.

    2003-08-01

    Declines in ocean productivity and shifts in species assemblages along the West Coast of North America during the second half of the XXth century have been attributed to the concurrent warming of the California Current. This paper addresses changes in the avifauna off southern California between May 1987 and September 1998, in response to shifting water mass distributions over short (<1 year) and long (interannual) temporal scales. More specifically, our research focuses on the relative importance of distinct foraging guilds and species assemblages with an affinity for warm and cold water. Over the long term, the avifauna off southern California shifted from a 'high-productivity' community typical of eastern boundary upwelling systems, to a 'low-productivity' assemblage similar to those inhabiting the subtropical gyres. Overall seabird abundance decreased; the relative importance of cold-water seabirds that dive in pursuit of prey declined; and warm-water species that feed at the surface and plunge to capture prey became more numerous. These community-level changes are consistent with the northward shifts in species ranges and the declining ocean productivity anticipated as a result of global warming. However, the response of individual taxa with an affinity for warm-water and cold-water conditions has been more difficult to predict, due to differences in species-specific responses to ocean warming. The three cold-water species investigated (Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, and Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) decreased in abundance during this study. On the other hand, only one of the six warm-water species considered (Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus) increased significantly over the long term. Yet, the warm-water Leach's Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa) increased between 1987 and 1993, and then declined between 1994 and 1998. Moreover, cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted anomalies of

  2. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight.

  3. The new insights into cadmium sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chmielowska-Bąk, Jagna; Gzyl, Jarosław; Rucińska-Sobkowiak, Renata; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Deckert, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is non-essential heavy metal, which in excess, exhibits deleterious effects to the most of the organisms. Mobilization of defense mechanisms against this toxic agent requires rapid activation of signaling pathways. The article presents recent advances in the research concerning cadmium signal transduction in plants. New insights into the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), plant growth regulators, and Cd-induced protein modifications are reviewed. Moreover, the role of recently recognized Cd-associated signal elements, including micro RNAs and several cis- and trans-acting elements is discussed. PMID:24917871

  4. Tumor metastasis: molecular insights and evolving paradigms.

    PubMed

    Valastyan, Scott; Weinberg, Robert A

    2011-10-14

    Metastases represent the end products of a multistep cell-biological process termed the invasion-metastasis cascade, which involves dissemination of cancer cells to anatomically distant organ sites and their subsequent adaptation to foreign tissue microenvironments. Each of these events is driven by the acquisition of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations within tumor cells and the co-option of nonneoplastic stromal cells, which together endow incipient metastatic cells with traits needed to generate macroscopic metastases. Recent advances provide provocative insights into these cell-biological and molecular changes, which have implications regarding the steps of the invasion-metastasis cascade that appear amenable to therapeutic targeting.

  5. Structural insights into microtubule doublet interactions inaxonemes

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Kenneth H.; Sui, Haixin

    2007-06-06

    Coordinated sliding of microtubule doublets, driven by dynein motors, produces periodic beating of the axoneme. Recent structural studies of the axoneme have used cryo-electron tomography to reveal new details of the interactions among some of the multitude of proteins that form the axoneme and regulate its movement. Connections among the several sets of dyneins, in particular, suggest ways in which their actions may be coordinated. Study of the molecular architecture of isolated doublets has provided a structural basis for understanding the doublet's mechanical properties that are related to the bending of the axoneme, and has also offered insight into its potential role in the mechanism of dynein activity regulation.

  6. Orthobunyaviruses: recent genetic and structural insights.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard M

    2014-10-01

    Orthobunyaviruses, which have small, tripartite, negative-sense RNA genomes and structurally simple virions composed of just four proteins, can have devastating effects on human health and well-being, either by causing disease in humans or by causing disease in livestock and crops. In this Review, I describe the recent genetic and structural advances that have revealed important insights into the composition of orthobunyavirus virions, viral transcription and replication and viral interactions with the host innate immune response. Lastly, I highlight outstanding questions and areas of future research.

  7. Treatment of candidiasis: insights from host genetics.

    PubMed

    Delsing, Corine E; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2012-08-01

    Candida species are major causes of mucosal and invasive infections, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the development of new classes of antifungal drugs, mortality in patients with systemic candidiasis remains high. Host-Candida interaction plays an important role in effective elimination of the pathogen. Genetic studies have rendered important insights into antifungal host defense and have identified potential targets for adjunctive therapy. In this article, the authors review the genetic variations in the host defense to Candida and their implications for the treatment of mucosal and systemic candidiasis.

  8. Insights on influenza pathogenesis from the grave.

    PubMed

    Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Kash, John C

    2011-12-01

    The 1918-1919 'Spanish' influenza virus caused the worst pandemic in recorded history and resulted in approximately 50 million deaths worldwide. Efforts to understand what happened and to use these insights to prevent a future similar pandemic have been ongoing since 1918. In 2005 the genome of the 1918 influenza virus was completely determined by sequencing fragments of viral RNA preserved in autopsy tissues of 1918 victims, and using reverse genetics, infectious viruses bearing some or all the 1918 virus gene segments were reconstructed. These studies have yielded much information about the origin and pathogenicity of the 1918 virus, but many questions still remain.

  9. Social cognition and clinical insight in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Ueland, Torill; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2013-06-01

    The association between clinical insight and social cognition assessed with an emotion perception task was investigated in schizophrenia (n = 29) and bipolar I disorder (n = 19). Persons with schizophrenia had reduced auditory emotion perception compared with individuals with bipolar I disorder, but levels of visual emotion perception and clinical insight were comparable. In the schizophrenia group, clinical insight was moderately associated with auditory and visual emotion perception (r = 0.36-0.44) and negative symptoms (r = -0.33). Better insight was associated with better social cognition and fewer negative symptoms. In the bipolar I disorder group, clinical insight showed small associations with social cognition (largest r = -0.28) and moderate to large associations with positive, negative, manic, and depressive symptoms. Poorer insight was associated with higher symptom load. Social cognition seems to be of importance for clinical insight in schizophrenia, whereas symptoms are important in bipolar I disorder.

  10. Insights to regenerate materials: learning from nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aznar, J. M.; Valero, C.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Javierre, E.

    2016-08-01

    Self-healing materials, both biological and engineered, integrate the ability to repair themselves and recover their functionality using the resources inherently available to them. Although significant advances have been made, in recent years, for the design of different concepts of self-healing materials, this work aims to provide some insights into how living materials are able to regenerate or heal when a fracture or injury occurs. The main sensors that regulate this adaptive and regenerative behavior are the cells. These are able to sense the mechanical alterations in their surroundings and regulate their activity in order to remove dead tissue and/or create new tissue. Therefore, understanding how cells are able to regenerate tissues under complex and multiphysics conditions can define the biomimetics guidelines to heal through inert or traditional engineering materials. In this work, we present a combination of experiments and different kinds of multiscale and multiphysics models in order to understand how mechanics regulate some mechanisms at cell and tissue level. This combination of results aims to gain insight into the development of novel strategies for self-healing materials, mimicking the behavior induced by cells and biological tissues.

  11. New insights into asthma pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Szefler, Stanley J; Dakhama, Azzeddine

    2011-12-01

    Although national asthma guidelines help organize standards for asthma care, current asthma management is still primarily symptom based. Recent reports provide insights on how to improve asthma management through steps to better understand the natural history of asthma, individualize asthma care, reduce asthma exacerbations, manage inner city asthma, and some potential new ways to use available medications to improve asthma control. Despite many significant gains in managing asthma, we must now find improved strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations, alter the natural history of the disease, and to reduce health disparities in asthma care. Perhaps new directions in personalized medicine including a systems biology approach, along with improved health care access and communication will lead to better methods to alleviate the burden of asthma. This review will discuss the benefits and limitations of the current approach to asthma management, new studies that could impact new directions in asthma management, and new insights related to mechanisms of asthma and allergic airways inflammation that could eventually lead to improved asthma control.

  12. Insights into chloroplast biogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Barry J; Ganguly, Diep; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    In recent years many advances have been made to obtain insight into chloroplast biogenesis and development. In plants several plastids types exist such as the proplastid (which is the progenitor of all plastids), leucoplasts (group of colourless plastids important for storage including elaioplasts (lipids), amyloplasts (starch) or proteinoplasts (proteins)), chromoplasts (yellow to orange-coloured due to carotenoids, in flowers or in old leaves as gerontoplasts), and the green chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are indispensable for plant development; not only by performing photosynthesis and thus rendering the plant photoautotrophic, but also for biochemical processes (which in some instances can also take place in other plastids types), such as the synthesis of pigments, lipids, and plant hormones and sensing environmental stimuli. Although we understand many aspects of these processes there are gaps in our understanding of the establishment of functional chloroplasts and their regulation. Why is that so? Even though chloroplast function is comparable in all plants and most of the algae, ferns and moss, detailed analyses have revealed many differences, specifically with respect to its biogenesis. As an update to our prior review on the genetic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis and development [1] herein we will focus on recent advances in Angiosperms (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants) that provide novel insights and highlight the challenges and prospects for unravelling the regulation of chloroplast biogenesis specifically during the establishment of the young plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis.

  13. Insight in frontotemporal dementia: conceptual analysis and empirical evaluation of the consensus criterion "loss of insight" in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Evers, Kathinka; Kilander, Lena; Lindau, Maria

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to suggest a new formulation of the core research diagnostic consensus criterion "loss of insight" in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Eight patients with FTD (diagnoses made by interviews, medical and neuropsychological examination, CT scan, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured by positron emission tomography (PET) participated in the study). The results indicated that insight was present in three out of eight patients, and that insight appears to be a heterogeneous concept. Two types of insight emerged: Emotional insight associated with frontotemporal functions, and cognitive insight, related to posterior cognitive functions. These results suggest that loss of insight should not serve as a core criterion on FTD, but serves well as a supportive criterion of the disease.

  14. Insights into sleep's role for insight: Studies with the number reduction task.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Rose, Michael; Wagner, Ullrich; Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vibrant research has developed on "consolidation" during sleep: To what extent are newly experienced impressions reprocessed or even restructured during sleep? We used the number reduction task (NRT) to study if and how sleep does not only reiterate new experiences but may even lead to new insights. In the NRT, covert regularities may speed responses. This implicit acquisition of regularities may become explicitly conscious at some point, leading to a qualitative change in behavior which reflects this insight. By applying the NRT at two consecutive sessions separated by an interval, we investigated the role of sleep in this interval for attaining insight at the second session. In the first study, a night of sleep was shown to triple the number of participants attaining insight above the base rate of about 20%. In the second study, this hard core of 20% discoverers differed from other participants in their task-related EEG potentials from the very beginning already. In the third study, the additional role of sleep was specified as an effect of the deep-sleep phase of slow-wave sleep on participants who had implicitly acquired the covert regularity before sleep. It was in these participants that a specific increase of EEG during slow-wave sleep in the 10-12 Hz band was obtained. These results support the view that neuronal memory reprocessing during slow-wave sleep restructures task-related representations in the brain, and that such restructuring promotes the gain of explicit knowledge.

  15. Anthelmintic metabolism in parasitic helminths: proteomic insights.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Peter M; MacKintosh, Neil; Morphew, Russell M

    2012-08-01

    Anthelmintics are the cornerstone of parasitic helminth control. Surprisingly, understanding of the biochemical pathways used by parasitic helminths to detoxify anthelmintics is fragmented, despite the increasing global threat of anthelmintic resistance within the ruminant and equine industries. Reductionist biochemistry has likely over-estimated the enzymatic role of glutathione transferases in anthelmintic metabolism and neglected the potential role of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily (CYPs). Proteomic technologies offers the opportunity to support genomics, reverse genetics and pharmacokinetics, and provide an integrated insight into both the cellular mechanisms underpinning response to anthelmintics and also the identification of biomarker panels for monitoring the development of anthelmintic resistance. To date, there have been limited attempts to include proteomics in anthelmintic metabolism studies. Optimisations of membrane, post-translational modification and interaction proteomic technologies in helminths are needed to especially study Phase I CYPs and Phase III ABC transporter pumps for anthelmintics and their metabolites.

  16. Iron homeostasis: new players, newer insights.

    PubMed

    Edison, Eunice S; Bajel, Ashish; Chandy, Mammen

    2008-12-01

    Although iron is a relatively abundant element in the universe, it is estimated that more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency results in impaired production of iron-containing proteins, the most prominent of which is hemoglobin. Cellular iron deficiency inhibits cell growth and subsequently leads to cell death. Hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder results in disproportionate absorption of iron and the extra iron builds up in tissues resulting in organ damage. As both iron deficiency and iron overload have adverse effects, cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is critically important. Recent advances in the field of iron metabolism have led to newer understanding of the pathways involved in iron homeostasis and the diseases which arise from alteration in the regulators. Although insight into this complex regulation of the proteins involved in iron homeostasis has been obtained mainly through animal studies, it is most likely that this knowledge can be directly extrapolated to humans.

  17. INSIGHTS FROM GENOMIC PROFILING OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    A crucial question in the field of gene regulation is whether the location at which a transcription factor binds influences its effectiveness or the mechanism by which it regulates transcription. Comprehensive transcription factor binding maps are needed to address these issues, and genome-wide mapping is now possible thanks to the technological advances of ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq. This review discusses how recent genomic profiling of transcription factors gives insight into how binding specificity is achieved and what features of chromatin influence the ability of transcription factors to interact with the genome, and also suggests future experiments to further our understanding of the causes and consequences of transcription factor-genome interactions. PMID:19668247

  18. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A. A.; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  19. Behavioral and mechanistic insight into rodent empathy.

    PubMed

    Sivaselvachandran, Sivaani; Acland, Erinn L; Abdallah, Salsabil; Martin, Loren J

    2016-06-14

    Empathy is a psychological construct that allows individuals to understand and share the emotions of others. The ability to share emotional states relies on basic social mechanisms, such as mimicry and emotional contagion, which are considered building blocks for empathy. Mimicking another's emotional or physical state is essential for successful social interactions and is found in a number of animal species. For the current review we focus on emotional state sharing in rodents, a core feature of empathy that is often measured using pain and fear as proxies; we also discuss prosociality in rodents. The evidence for empathy in rodents shows that rats and mice consistently imitate arousal states and behaviors of conspecifics and will even sacrifice personal gain to relieve the distress of a conspecific. These behaviors support basic processes that are crucial for the survival of individual animals and give us insight into the neural mechanisms that govern empathy-related behaviors.

  20. Insights into enzymatic halogenation from computational studies

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Hans M.

    2014-01-01

    The halogenases are a group of enzymes that have only come to the fore over the last 10 years thanks to the discovery and characterization of several novel representatives. They have revealed the fascinating variety of distinct chemical mechanisms that nature utilizes to activate halogens and introduce them into organic substrates. Computational studies using a range of approaches have already elucidated many details of the mechanisms of these enzymes, often in synergistic combination with experiment. This Review summarizes the main insights gained from these studies. It also seeks to identify open questions that are amenable to computational investigations. The studies discussed herein serve to illustrate some of the limitations of the current computational approaches and the challenges encountered in computational mechanistic enzymology. PMID:25426489

  1. Genomic insights into photosynthesis in eukaryotic phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Giovanni; Moreau, Hervé; Bowler, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The evolution of photosynthesis completely altered the biogeochemistry of our planet and permitted the evolution of more complex multicellular organisms. Curiously, terrestrial photosynthesis is carried out largely by green algae and their descendents the higher plants, whereas in the ocean the most abundant photosynthetic eukaryotes are microscopic and have red algal affiliations. Although primary productivity is approximately equal between the land and the ocean, the marine microbes represent less than 1% of the photosynthetic biomass found on land. This review focuses on this highly successful and diverse group of organisms collectively known as phytoplankton and reviews how insights from whole genome analyses have improved our understanding of the novel innovations employed by them to maximize photosynthetic efficiency in variable light environments.

  2. Insights into Mechanisms of Chronic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Diack, Abigail B.; Alibhai, James D.; Barron, Rona; Bradford, Barry; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of abnormal conformers of a host encoded protein in the central nervous system. The process leading to neurodegeneration is still poorly defined and thus development of early intervention strategies is challenging. Unique amongst these diseases are Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases, which have the ability to transmit between individuals. The infectious nature of these diseases has permitted in vivo and in vitro modelling of the time course of the disease process in a highly reproducible manner, thus early events can be defined. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the cell-to-cell spread of protein aggregates by a “prion-like mechanism” is common among the protein misfolding diseases. Thus, the TSE models may provide insights into disease mechanisms and testable hypotheses for disease intervention, applicable to a number of these chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26771599

  3. Insights into software development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  4. Insights into the evolution of lanthipeptide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Zhang, Qi; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2013-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are a group of posttranslationally modified peptide natural products that contain multiple thioether crosslinks. These crosslinks are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues followed by addition of the thiols of Cys residues to the resulting dehydroamino acids. At least four different pathways to these polycyclic natural products have evolved, reflecting the high efficiency and evolvability of a posttranslational modification route to generate conformationally constrained peptides. The wealth of genomic information that has been made available in recent years has started to provide insights into how these remarkable pathways and their posttranslational modification machineries may have evolved. In this review, we discuss a model for the evolution of the lanthipeptide biosynthetic enzymes that has recently been developed based on the currently available data. PMID:24038659

  5. INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention and Infant Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ian M.; Savage, Jennifer S.; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Marini, Michele E.; Mindell, Jodi A.; Birch, Leann L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Inadequate sleep during infancy is associated with adverse outcomes for infants and families. We sought to improve sleep behaviors and duration through a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention. METHODS The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is a randomized trial comparing a RP intervention with a safety control. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads were randomized after childbirth, and research nurses delivered intervention content at home visits at infant ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks and at a research center visit at 1 year. The RP sleep component included developmentally appropriate messages about bedtime routines, sleep location and behaviors, and responses to wakings. Portions of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire were administered 2, 8, and 52 weeks after birth with expanded sleep-related data collection at 16 and 40 weeks. RESULTS Two hundred and seventy-nine dyads completed the first home visit; 90.7% completed the 1-year visit. Compared with controls, RP group infants were less likely to have prolonged bedtime routines >45 minutes and more likely to have earlier bedtimes at 16 and 40 weeks. They were less likely to be fed immediately before bed and more likely to self-soothe to sleep. At 8, 16, and 40 weeks, RP group nocturnal sleep duration was longer by 35, 25, and 22 minutes, respectively (P < .05 for all). Sleep duration at 1 year was similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS The INSIGHT RP intervention positively influenced developmentally appropriate bedtime routines, sleep-related behaviors, and sleep duration for infants. PMID:27354460

  6. Intertwining Risk Insights and Design Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    The state of systems engineering is such that a form of early and continued use of risk assessments is conducted (as evidenced by NASA's adoption and use of the 'Continuous Risk Management' paradigm developed by SEI). ... However, these practices fall short of theideal: (1) Integration between risk assessment techniques and other systems engineering tools is weak. (2) Risk assessment techniques and the insights they yield are only informally coupled to design decisions. (3) Individual riskassessment techniques lack the mix of breadth, fidelity and agility required to span the gamut of the design space. In this paper we present an approach that addresses these shortcomings. The hallmark of our approach is a simple representation comprising objectives (what the system is to do), risks (whose occurrence would detract from attainment of objectives) and activities (a.k.a. 'mitigations') that, if performed, will decrease those risks. These are linked to indicate by how much a risk would detract from attainment of an objective, and by how much an activity would reduce a risk. The simplicity of our representational framework gives it the breadth to encompass the gamut of the design space concerns, the agility to be utilized in even the earliest phases of designs, and the capability to connect to system engineering models and higher-fidelity risk tools. It is through this integration that we address the shortcomings listed above, and so achieve the intertwining between risk insights and design decisions needed to guide systems engineering towards superior final designs while avoiding costly rework to achieve them. The paper will use an example, constructed to be representative of space mission design, to illustrate our approach.

  7. Impact of interpersonal factors on insight in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hélène, Tastet; Hélène, Verdoux; Jean, Bouisson; Jean-Marc, Destaillats; Antoinette, Prouteau

    2014-11-01

    Whereas clinical insight in schizophrenia has been consistently associated with personal factors (i.e. sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms or cognition), little is known about its relationships with interpersonal factors (i.e. close environment and personal characteristics involved in social interactions). Most of the few studies available have focused on one particular interpersonal factor, such as social cognition, contact frequencies or therapeutic alliance. To date, no study has explored the specificity of associations between clinical insight and different levels of interpersonal factors, neither if these associations are independent of personal factors. Associations between insight and interpersonal factors were explored through multiple regression in a sample of 80 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Lower insight was associated with lower interpersonal functioning, independently from personal factors such as age, gender, age at first hospitalization, executive functioning and symptoms. Our findings replicate previous studies with regard to the associations between clinician-rated insight and social cognition or social contact frequencies. They also provide new information about specific associations between clinician-rated insight and perceived social support as well as between patient-rated insight and therapeutic alliance. Finally, models of insight based on personal factors were significantly improved by the inclusion of interpersonal factors. These results strongly support the crucial role of interpersonal factors in insight, both from the clinician's and the patient's point of view. These exploratory data require further replication.

  8. Insights into sleep's role for insight: Studies with the number reduction task

    PubMed Central

    Verleger, Rolf; Rose, Michael; Wagner, Ullrich; Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vibrant research has developed on “consolidation” during sleep: To what extent are newly experienced impressions reprocessed or even restructured during sleep? We used the number reduction task (NRT) to study if and how sleep does not only reiterate new experiences but may even lead to new insights. In the NRT, covert regularities may speed responses. This implicit acquisition of regularities may become explicitly conscious at some point, leading to a qualitative change in behavior which reflects this insight. By applying the NRT at two consecutive sessions separated by an interval, we investigated the role of sleep in this interval for attaining insight at the second session. In the first study, a night of sleep was shown to triple the number of participants attaining insight above the base rate of about 20%. In the second study, this hard core of 20% discoverers differed from other participants in their task-related EEG potentials from the very beginning already. In the third study, the additional role of sleep was specified as an effect of the deep-sleep phase of slow-wave sleep on participants who had implicitly acquired the covert regularity before sleep. It was in these participants that a specific increase of EEG during slow-wave sleep in the 10-12 Hz band was obtained. These results support the view that neuronal memory reprocessing during slow-wave sleep restructures task-related representations in the brain, and that such restructuring promotes the gain of explicit knowledge. PMID:24605175

  9. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  10. Knowing, Insight Learning, and the Integrity of Kinetic Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Thom, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Psychologists, philosophers, and educators have traditionally interpreted the phenomenon of insight learning as the result of the sudden comprehension of abstract/conceptual ideas. The present article shows that such phenomenon may also follow and emerge from the kinetic movements of the human body; that is, we conceptualize insight learning as a…

  11. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  12. Insight and Action Analytics: Three Case Studies to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David; Malcolm, Laura; Kil, David

    2014-01-01

    Civitas Learning was conceived as a community of practice, bringing together forward-thinking leaders from diverse higher education institutions to leverage insight and action analytics in their ongoing efforts to help students learn well and finish strong. We define insight and action analytics as drawing, federating, and analyzing data from…

  13. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  14. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  15. Posterior Beta and Anterior Gamma Oscillations Predict Cognitive Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheth, Bhavin R.; Sandkuhler, Simone; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    Pioneering neuroimaging studies on insight have revealed neural correlates of the emotional "Aha!" component of the insight process, but neural substrates of the cognitive component, such as problem restructuring (a key to transformative reasoning), remain a mystery. Here, multivariate electroencephalogram signals were recorded from human…

  16. Latest insights on adenovirus structure and assembly.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  17. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies. PMID:22754652

  18. Genetic Insights into Sporadic Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chou; Lim, Kah-Leong

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research over the last 15 years has led to the identification of several autosomal recessive and dominant genes that cause familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). Importantly, the functional characterization of these genes has shed considerable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of PD. Collectively; these studies implicate aberrant protein and mitochondrial homeostasis as key contributors to the development of PD, with oxidative stress likely acting as an important nexus between the two pathogenic events. Interestingly, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed variations in at least two of the identified familial PD genes (i.e. α-synuclein and LRRK2) as significant risk factors for the development of sporadic PD. At the same time, the studies also uncovered variability in novel alleles that is associated with increased risk for the disease. Additionally, in-silico meta-analyses of GWAS data have allowed major steps into the investigation of the roles of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in sporadic PD. The emergent picture from the progress made thus far is that the etiology of sporadic PD is multi-factorial and presumably involves a complex interplay between a multitude of gene networks and the environment. Nonetheless, the biochemical pathways underlying familial and sporadic forms of PD are likely to be shared. PMID:24532982

  19. Biophysical insight into mechanisms of sonoporation

    PubMed Central

    Helfield, Brandon; Chen, Xucai; Watkins, Simon C.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a unique approach to understanding the biophysical mechanisms of ultrasound-triggered cell membrane disruption (i.e., sonoporation). We report direct correlations between ultrasound-stimulated encapsulated microbubble oscillation physics and the resulting cellular membrane permeability by simultaneous microscopy of these two processes over their intrinsic physical timescales (microseconds for microbubble dynamics and seconds to minutes for local macromolecule uptake and cell membrane reorganization). We show that there exists a microbubble oscillation-induced shear-stress threshold, on the order of kilopascals, beyond which endothelial cellular membrane permeability increases. The shear-stress threshold exhibits an inverse square-root relation to the number of oscillation cycles and an approximately linear dependence on ultrasound frequency from 0.5 to 2 MHz. Further, via real-time 3D confocal microscopy measurements, our data provide evidence that a sonoporation event directly results in the immediate generation of membrane pores through both apical and basal cell membrane layers that reseal along their lateral area (resealing time of ∼<2 min). Finally, we demonstrate the potential for sonoporation to indirectly initiate prolonged, intercellular gaps between adjacent, confluent cells (∼>30–60 min). This real-time microscopic approach has provided insight into both the physical, cavitation-based mechanisms of sonoporation and the biophysical, cell-membrane–based mechanisms by which microbubble acoustic behaviors cause acute and sustained enhancement of cellular and vascular permeability. PMID:27551081

  20. Can Economics Provide Insights into Trust Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishik, Claire

    Many security technologies require infrastructure for authentication, verification, and other processes. In many cases, viable and innovative security technologies are never adopted on a large scale because the necessary infrastructure is slow to emerge. Analyses of such technologies typically focus on their technical flaws, and research emphasizes innovative approaches to stronger implementation of the core features. However, an observation can be made that in many cases the success of adoption pattern depends on non-technical issues rather than technology-lack of economic incentives, difficulties in finding initial investment, inadequate government support. While a growing body of research is dedicated to economics of security and privacy in general, few theoretical studies in this area have been completed, and even fewer that look at the economics of “trust infrastructure” beyond simple “cost of ownership” models. This exploratory paper takes a look at some approaches in theoretical economics to determine if they can provide useful insights into security infrastructure technologies and architectures that have the best chance to be adopted. We attempt to discover if models used in theoretical economics can help inform technology developers of the optimal business models that offer a better chance for quick infrastructure deployment.

  1. Palmitoylation in plants: new insights through proteomics.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Weimar, Thilo; Lilley, Kathryn; Dupree, Paul; Grierson, Claire

    2013-08-01

    Palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of lipids to proteins though thioester bonds and acts to promote association with membranes. Palmitoylation also acts to target proteins to specific membrane compartments, control residence in and movement between membrane microdomains and regulate protein conformation and activity. Palmitoylation is unique among lipid modifications of proteins as it is reversible, allowing for dynamic control over all palmitoylation dependent processes. Palmitoylation cannot be predicted from protein sequence and as a result is understudied when compared with other post-translational modifications. We recently published a proteomic analysis of palmitoylation in plants and increased the number of proposed palmitoylated proteins in plants from ~30 to over 500. The wide range of identified proteins indicates that palmitoylation is likely important for a variety of different functions in plants. Many supposedly well characterized proteins were identified as palmitoylated and our new data provides novel insight into regulatory mechanisms and potential explanations for observed phenomena. These data represent a new resource for plant biologist and will allow the study of palmitoylated proteins in plants to expand and move forward.

  2. Causal inference, probability theory, and graphical insights.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G

    2013-11-10

    Causal inference from observational studies is a fundamental topic in biostatistics. The causal graph literature typically views probability theory as insufficient to express causal concepts in observational studies. In contrast, the view here is that probability theory is a desirable and sufficient basis for many topics in causal inference for the following two reasons. First, probability theory is generally more flexible than causal graphs: Besides explaining such causal graph topics as M-bias (adjusting for a collider) and bias amplification and attenuation (when adjusting for instrumental variable), probability theory is also the foundation of the paired availability design for historical controls, which does not fit into a causal graph framework. Second, probability theory is the basis for insightful graphical displays including the BK-Plot for understanding Simpson's paradox with a binary confounder, the BK2-Plot for understanding bias amplification and attenuation in the presence of an unobserved binary confounder, and the PAD-Plot for understanding the principal stratification component of the paired availability design.

  3. Insights into decision making using choice probability.

    PubMed

    Crapse, Trinity B; Basso, Michele A

    2015-12-01

    A long-standing question in systems neuroscience is how the activity of single neurons gives rise to our perceptions and actions. Critical insights into this question occurred in the last part of the 20th century when scientists began linking modulations of neuronal activity directly to perceptual behavior. A significant conceptual advance was the application of signal detection theory to both neuronal activity and behavior, providing a quantitative assessment of the relationship between brain and behavior. One metric that emerged from these efforts was choice probability (CP), which provides information about how well an ideal observer can predict the choice an animal makes from a neuron's discharge rate distribution. In this review, we describe where CP has been studied, locational trends in the values found, and why CP values are typically so low. We discuss its dependence on correlated activity among neurons of a population, assess whether it arises from feedforward or feedback mechanisms, and investigate what CP tells us about how many neurons are required for a decision and how they are pooled to do so.

  4. Neuroinvasion of prions: insights from mouse models.

    PubMed

    Brandner, S; Klein, M A; Frigg, R; Pekarik, V; Parizek, P; Raeber, A; Glatzel, M; Schwarz, P; Rülicke, T; Weissmann, C; Aguzzi, A

    2000-11-01

    The prion was defined by Stanley B. Prusiner as the infectious agent that causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. A pathological protein accumulating in the brain of scrapie-infected hamsters was isolated in 1982 and termed prion protein (PrPSc). Its cognate gene Prnp was identified more than a decade ago by Charles Weissmann, and shown to encode the host protein PrP(C). Since the latter discovery, transgenic mice have contributed many important insights into the field of prion biology, including the understanding of the molecular basis of the species barrier for prions. By disrupting the Prnp gene, it was shown that an organism that lacks PrP(C) is resistant to infection by prions. Introduction of mutant PrP genes into PrP-deficient mice was used to investigate the structure-activity relationship of the PrP gene with regard to scrapie susceptibility. Ectopic expression of PrP in PrP knockout mice proved a useful tool for the identification of host cells competent for prion replication. Finally, the availability of PrP knockout mice and transgenic mice overexpressing PrP allows selective reconstitution experiments aimed at expressing PrP in neurografts or in specific populations of haemato- and lymphopoietic cells. The latter studies have allowed us to clarify some of the mechanisms of prion spread and disease pathogenesis.

  5. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  6. Structural insights into calicivirus attachment and uncoating.

    PubMed

    Bhella, David; Gatherer, Derek; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Pink, Rebecca; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family comprises positive-sense RNA viruses of medical and veterinary significance. In humans, caliciviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, while in animals respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, and hemorrhagic disease are documented. Investigation of virus-host interactions is limited by a lack of culture systems for many viruses in this family. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a member of the Vesivirus genus, provides a tractable model, since it may be propagated in cell culture. Feline junctional adhesion molecule 1 (fJAM-1) was recently identified as a functional receptor for FCV. We have analyzed the structure of this virus-receptor complex by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, combined with fitting of homology modeled high-resolution coordinates. We show that domain 1 of fJAM-1 binds to the outer face of the P2 domain of the FCV capsid protein VP1, inducing conformational changes in the viral capsid. This study provides the first structural view of a native calicivirus-protein receptor complex and insights into the mechanisms of virus attachment and uncoating.

  7. InSight Instrument Deployment Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischner, Richard

    2013-09-01

    The Mars InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Program will utilize a special lightweight robotic arm termed the Instrument Deployment Arm (IDA). This paper will focus on the mechanical implementation of the IDA.The IDA originated as the robotic arm built for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the cancelled Mars 2001 Surveyor mission in 1998. The IDA is slated for refurbishment, followed by subsystem testing of its actuators, and then system testing of the full arm.This paper will delve into the specifics of the IDA electro-mechanical design, which includes light-weight actuators, multi-conductor flex-print cable, and a self- triggered launch-restraint system. The history of the design, which draws from elements as far back as the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner rover, will be discussed.Also discussed will be the specifics of the refurbishment, decisions made governing the level of refurbishment enacted, and planned post-refurbishment testing.

  8. Thermodynamics Insights for the Redshift Drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    The secular redshift drift is a potential measurement to directly probe the cosmic expansion. Previous study on the redshift drift mainly focused on the model-dependent simulation. Apparently, the physical insights on the redshift drift are very necessary. So in this paper, it is investigated using thermodynamics on the apparent, Hubble and event horizons. Thermodynamics could analytically present the model-independent upper bounds of redshift drift. For specific assumption on the cosmological parameters, we find that the thermodynamics bounds are nearly one order of magnitude larger than the expectation in standard ΛCDM model. We then examine ten observed redshift drift from Green Bank Telescope at redshift 0.09 < z < 0.69, and find that these observational results are inconsistent with the thermodynamics. The size of the errorbars on these measurements is about three orders of magnitude larger than the effect of thermodynamical bounds for the redshift drift. Obviously, we have not yet hit any instrumental systematics at the shift level of 1m s-1 yr-1.

  9. Understanding cochleate formation: insights into structural development.

    PubMed

    Nagarsekar, Kalpa; Ashtikar, Mukul; Steiniger, Frank; Thamm, Jana; Schacher, Felix; Fahr, Alfred

    2016-04-20

    Understanding the structure and the self-assembly process of cochleates has become increasingly necessary considering the advances of this drug delivery system towards the pharmaceutical industry. It is well known that the addition of cations like calcium to a dispersion of anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserines results in stable, multilamellar cochleates through a spontaneous assembly. In the current investigation we have studied the intermediate structures generated during this self-assembly of cochleates. To achieve this, we have varied the process temperature for altering the rate of cochleate formation. Our findings from electron microscopy studies showed the formation of ribbonlike structures, which with proceeding interaction associate to form lipid stacks, networks and eventually cochleates. We also observed that the variation in lipid acyl chains did not make a remarkable difference to the type of structure evolved during the formation of cochleates. More generally, our observations provide a new insight into the self-assembly process of cochleates based on which we have proposed a pathway for cochleate formation from phosphatidylserine and calcium. This knowledge could be employed in using cochleates for a variety of possible biomedical applications in the future.

  10. Plant grafting: insights into tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticulture where it provides an efficient means for asexual propagation. Grafting also combines desirable roots and shoots to generate chimeras that are more vigorous, more pathogen resistant and more abiotic stress resistant. Thus, it presents an elegant and efficient way to improve plant productivity in vegetables and trees using traditional techniques. Despite this horticultural importance, we are only beginning to understand how plants regenerate tissues at the graft junction. By understanding grafting better, we can shed light on fundamental regeneration pathways and the basis for self/non‐self recognition. We can also better understand why many plants efficiently graft whereas others cannot, with the goal of improving grafting so as to broaden the range of grafted plants to create even more desirable chimeras. Here, I review the latest findings describing how plants graft and provide insight into future directions in this emerging field. PMID:28316790

  11. Structural insight into Slit-Robo signalling.

    PubMed

    Hohenester, Erhard

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila Slit and its vertebrate orthologues Slit1-Slit3 are secreted glycoproteins that play important roles in the development of the nervous system and other organs. Human Slits are also involved in a number of pathological situations, such as cancer and inflammation. Slits exert their effects by activating receptors of the Robo (Roundabout) family, which resemble cell adhesion molecules in their ectodomains and have large, mainly unstructured cytosolic domains. HS (heparan sulfate) is required for Slit-Robo signalling. The hallmark of Slit proteins is a tandem of four LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domains, which mediate binding to the IG (immunoglobulin-like) domains of Robos. A major question is how Slit binding is translated into the recruitment of effector molecules to the cytosolic domain of Robo. Detailed structure-function studies have shown that the second LRR domain of Slit (D2) binds to the first two IG domains of Robo, and that HS serves to stabilize the Slit-Robo interaction and is required for biological activity of Slit D2. Very recently, the crystal structure of a minimal Slit-Robo complex revealed that the IG1 domain of Robo is bound by the concave face of Slit D2, confirming earlier mutagenesis data. To define the mechanism of Robo transmembrane signalling, these structural insights will have to be complemented by new cell biology and microscopy approaches.

  12. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Bax, Nicholas J.; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K.; Hayes, Keith R.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E.; Punt, André E.; Savina-Rolland, Marie; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Smith, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructuring and range shifts. Modelling tools allow planners to explore a range of options, such as basing MPAs on the presence of dynamic oceanic features, and to evaluate the potential future impacts of alternative interventions compared with ‘no-action’ counterfactuals, under a range of environmental and development scenarios. The modelling environment allows the analyst to test if indicators and management strategies are robust to uncertainties in how the ecosystem (and the broader human–ecosystem combination) operates, including the direct and indirect ecological effects of protection. Moreover, modelling results can be presented at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and relative to ecological, economic and social objectives. This helps to reveal potential ‘surprises', such as regime shifts, trophic cascades and bottlenecks in human responses. Using illustrative examples, this paper briefly covers the history of the use of simulation models for evaluating MPA options, and discusses their utility and limitations for informing protected area management in the marine realm. PMID:26460131

  13. Statistical insights into major human muscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shakti; Kim, Sung-Min; Wang, Yu; Dinasarapu, Ashok Reddy; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2014-07-15

    Muscular diseases lead to muscle fiber degeneration, impairment of mobility, and in some cases premature death. Many of these muscular diseases are largely idiopathic. The goal of this study was to identify biomarkers based on their functional role and possible mechanisms of pathogenesis, specific to individual muscular disease. We analyzed the muscle transcriptome from five major muscular diseases: acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) using pairwise statistical comparison to identify uniquely regulated genes in each muscular disease. The genome-wide information encoded in the transcriptome provided biomarkers and functional insights into dysregulation in each muscular disease. The analysis showed that the dysregulation of genes in forward membrane pathway, responsible for transmitting action potential from neural excitation, is unique to AQM, while the dysregulation of myofibril genes, determinant of the mechanical properties of muscle, is unique to ALS, dysregulation of ER protein processing, responsible for correct protein folding, is unique to DM, and upregulation of immune response genes is unique to PM. We have identified biomarkers specific to each muscular disease which can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Insights from the downhole dynamometer database

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Downhole Dynamometer Database is a compilation of test data collected with a set of five downhole tools built by Albert Engineering under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The downhole dynamometer tools are memory tools deployed in the sucker rod string with sensors to measure pressure, temperature, load, and acceleration. The acceleration data is processed to yield position, so that a load vs. position dynagraph can be generated using data collected downhole. With five tools in the hole at one time, all measured data and computed dynagraphs from five different positions in the rod string are available. The purpose of the Database is to provide industry with a complete and high quality measurement of downhole sucker rod pumping dynamics. To facilitate use of the database, Sandia has developed a Microsoft Windows-based interface that functions as a visualizer and browser to the more than 40 MBytes of data. The interface also includes a data export feature to allow users to extract data from the database for use in their own programs. Following a brief description of the downhole dynamometer tools, data collection program, and database content, this paper will illustrate a few of the interesting and unique insights gained from the downhole data.

  15. Monoamine transporters: insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Grouleff, Julie; Ladefoged, Lucy Kate; Koldsø, Heidi; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The human monoamine transporters (MATs) facilitate the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft. Imbalance in monoaminergic neurotransmission is linked to various diseases including major depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of the MATs is thus an important strategy for treatment of such diseases. The MATs are sodium-coupled transport proteins belonging to the neurotransmitter/Na+ symporter (NSS) family, and the publication of the first high-resolution structure of a NSS family member, the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT, in 2005, proved to be a major stepping stone for understanding this family of transporters. Structural data allows for the use of computational methods to study the MATs, which in turn has led to a number of important discoveries. The process of substrate translocation across the membrane is an intrinsically dynamic process. Molecular dynamics simulations, which can provide atomistic details of molecular motion on ns to ms timescales, are therefore well-suited for studying transport processes. In this review, we outline how molecular dynamics simulations have provided insight into the large scale motions associated with transport of the neurotransmitters, as well as the presence of external and internal gates, the coupling between ion and substrate transport, and differences in the conformational changes induced by substrates and inhibitors. PMID:26528185

  16. The Association of DRD2 with Insight Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings. PMID:27933030

  17. The Association of DRD2 with Insight Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings.

  18. New geochemical insights into volcanic degassing.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Marie

    2008-12-28

    Magma degassing plays a fundamental role in controlling the style of volcanic eruptions. Whether a volcanic eruption is explosive, or effusive, is of crucial importance to approximately 500 million people living in the shadow of hazardous volcanoes worldwide. Studies of how gases exsolve and separate from magma prior to and during eruptions have been given new impetus by the emergence of more accurate and automated methods to measure volatile species both as volcanic gases and dissolved in the glasses of erupted products. The composition of volcanic gases is dependent on a number of factors, the most important being magma composition and the depth of gas-melt segregation prior to eruption; this latter parameter has proved difficult to constrain in the past, yet is arguably the most critical for controlling eruptive style. Spectroscopic techniques operating in the infrared have proved to be of great value in measuring the composition of gases at high temporal resolution. Such methods, when used in tandem with microanalytical geochemical investigations of erupted products, are leading to better constraints on the depth at which gases are generated and separated from magma. A number of recent studies have focused on transitions between explosive and effusive activity and have led to a better understanding of gas-melt segregation at basaltic volcanoes. Other studies have focused on degassing during intermediate and silicic eruptions. Important new results include the recognition of fluxing by deep-derived gases, which buffer the amount of dissolved volatiles in the melt at shallow depths, and the observation of gas flow up permeable conduit wall shear zones, which may be the primary mechanism for gas loss at the cusp of the most explosive and unpredictable volcanic eruptions. In this paper, I review current and future directions in the field of geochemical studies of volcanic degassing processes and illustrate how the new insights are beginning to change the way in

  19. New Insights Into Southeastern Canadian Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J.; Bent, A. L.; Ma, S.; McCormack, D.

    2002-12-01

    Since the Saguenay earthquake of 1988 four moderate magnitude earthquakes - 19901019 Mont-Laurier (Mw 4.5, depth=13 km), 19971106 Cap-Rouge (Mw 4.5, z=22), 19990316 Cote-Nord (Mw 4.5, z=19) and 20000101 Kipawa (Mw 4.7, z=12) - have occurred in southeastern Canada (together with three adjacent US events of similar size: 1998 Pymatuning, 2002 Au Sable Forks and 2002 Evansville). Improvements to seismograph coverage (particularily installation of digital broadband 3-cpt sensors) have provided higher quality data and allowed more detailed modelling of their rupture properties. Aftershock studies and seismotectonic investigations have provided new insights (we thank Maurice Lamontage for his contribution to these studies). We sumarize the published conclusions from the four earthquakes together with new surface-wave deduced parameters. These were typically thrust faulting events in response to NE-directed compression, and can be related to broad seismotectonic features in their vicinity, though seldom to specific faults. The study of these events requires not only the interpretation of time series data but also consideration of the spectral content of the energy received. A major constraint in studying these and smaller earthquakes is poor knowledge of the crustal properties (velocity layering and attenuation as a function of frequency) and often a disconcerting uncertainty in starting parameters (focal mechanism, depth, moment, stress drop, number of sub-events, rupture velocity) together with the potential for significant trade-off errors (e.g. between moment and attenuation). Such detailed studies can be very rewarding but extremely time consuming. Taken with the results for the 1988 Saguenay (Mw 5.9, z=29), 1989 Ungava (Mw 6.3, z<5) and a dozen Mw=4 events we conclude that the stable craton is seismogenic from the surface to >30 km. Both Saguenay and Ungava earthquakes had Mw 4 1/2 foreshocks, suggesting that the rapid study of future moderate events may be fruitful.

  20. Psychosomatic pain: new insights and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jay J

    2005-11-01

    insight about the relationship between abuse and their current symptoms leads to decreased health care utilization. Practical guidelines are provided for identifying psychopathology, communicating effectively, and achieving better treatment outcomes for these unfortunate patients.

  1. (210)Polonium and (210)lead content of marine birds from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Siciliano, Salvatore; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; Tavares, Davi C; de Moura, Jaílson Fulgencio; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we report the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentrations of bone, muscle and liver samples that were obtained from twelve different marine bird species stranded on beaches in the central-north region of Rio de Janeiro State. Both radionuclides were highly concentrated in the liver samples; however, the lowest mean (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio (1.3) was observed in bones compared with liver and muscle (16.8 and 13.8, respectively). Among the species that were studied, Fregata magnificens, with a diet based exclusively on fish, had the lowest (210)Pb and (210)Po concentrations and the lowest (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio. The (210)Po concentrations in Puffinus spp. liver samples followed a log-normal distribution, with a geometric mean of 300 Bq kg(-1)wet weight. Only two references pertaining to (210)Po in marine birds were found in a Web of Science search of the literature, and each study reported a different concentration value. The values determined in this experiment are consistent with those in one of the previous studies, which also included one of the species studied in this work. No values for (210)Pb in marine birds have been published previously.

  2. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  3. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. M.; Piatt, J. F.; Shuntov, V. P.; Van Vliet, G. B.; Vladimirov, V. L.; Kuzin, A. E.; Perlov, A. S.

    1999-03-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters ( Puffinus spp. ) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury ( Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel ( Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  4. Population-Scale Foraging Segregation in an Apex Predator of the North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Vitor H.; Fagundes, Ana I.; Romão, Vera; Gouveia, Cátia; Ramos, Jaime A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigated the between-colony spatial, behavioural and trophic segregation of two sub-populations of the elusive Macaronesian shearwaters Puffinus baroli breeding only ~340 km apart in Cima Islet (Porto Santo Island) and Selvagem Grande Island. Global location sensing (gls) loggers were used in combination with the trophic ecology of tracked individuals, inferred from the isotopic signatures of wing feathers. Results suggest that these two Macaronesian shearwater sub-populations do segregate during the non-breeding period in some ‘sub-population-specific’ regions, by responding to different oceanographic characteristics (habitat modelling). Within these disparate areas, both sub-populations behave differently (at-sea activity) and prey on disparate trophic niches (stable isotope analysis). One hypothesis would be that each sub-population have evolved and adapted to feed on particular and ‘sub-population-specific’ resources, and the segregation observed at the three different levels (spatial, behavioural and trophic) might be in fact a result of such adaptation, from the emergence of ‘cultural foraging patterns’. Finally, when comparing to the results of former studies reporting on the spatial, behavioural and trophic choices of Macaronesian shearwater populations breeding on Azores and Canary Islands, we realized the high ecological plasticity of this species inhabiting and foraging over the North-East Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27003687

  5. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an “uninhabited” island

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Olson, Storrs L.

    1985-01-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with 14C dates of ≈800 and ≈500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention. Images PMID:16593606

  6. Population-Scale Foraging Segregation in an Apex Predator of the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Vitor H; Fagundes, Ana I; Romão, Vera; Gouveia, Cátia; Ramos, Jaime A

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigated the between-colony spatial, behavioural and trophic segregation of two sub-populations of the elusive Macaronesian shearwaters Puffinus baroli breeding only ~340 km apart in Cima Islet (Porto Santo Island) and Selvagem Grande Island. Global location sensing (gls) loggers were used in combination with the trophic ecology of tracked individuals, inferred from the isotopic signatures of wing feathers. Results suggest that these two Macaronesian shearwater sub-populations do segregate during the non-breeding period in some 'sub-population-specific' regions, by responding to different oceanographic characteristics (habitat modelling). Within these disparate areas, both sub-populations behave differently (at-sea activity) and prey on disparate trophic niches (stable isotope analysis). One hypothesis would be that each sub-population have evolved and adapted to feed on particular and 'sub-population-specific' resources, and the segregation observed at the three different levels (spatial, behavioural and trophic) might be in fact a result of such adaptation, from the emergence of 'cultural foraging patterns'. Finally, when comparing to the results of former studies reporting on the spatial, behavioural and trophic choices of Macaronesian shearwater populations breeding on Azores and Canary Islands, we realized the high ecological plasticity of this species inhabiting and foraging over the North-East Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  8. Shearwaters as ecosystem indicators: Towards fishery-independent metrics of fish abundance in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyday, Shannon E.; Ballance, Lisa T.; Field, David B.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2015-06-01

    Shearwaters are ideal for monitoring ocean conditions in the California Current because these predators are abundant, conspicuous, and responsive to oceanographic variability. Herein we evaluated black-vented (Puffinus opisthomelas), Buller's (P. bulleri), flesh-footed (P. carneipes), pink-footed (P. creatopus), short-tailed (P. tenuirostris), and sooty (P. griseus) shearwaters as fishery-independent indicators of predatory or prey fish availability. We analyzed four years (1996, 2001, 2005, 2008) of monthly (August-November) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seabird surveys, and United States Geological Survey Pacific Coast Fisheries Database catch, from the California coast to 200 nm offshore. An ordination of shearwater abundance and fish catch revealed that the shearwaters and 11 fish/squid species were significantly correlated with one or more of three principal components, which explained 86% of the variation and revealed distinct species assemblages. We evaluated multiple linear regression models for 19 fisheries using five shearwater metrics: density, aggregation, and behavior (traveling, stationary, feeding), three oceanographic indices, and latitude. Eight of these models had a shearwater metric as the primary predictor. In particular, feeding black-vented shearwater abundance explained 75% of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) longline catch. This research illustrates the utility of shearwaters as ecosystem indicators, with direct application for predicting fishery catch of commercial importance.

  9. Seasonal and distributional patterns of seabirds along the Aleutian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renner, M.; Hunt, G.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Byrd, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is of global importance to seabirds during the northern summer, but little is known about seabird use of these waters during winter. We compare summer and winter abundances of seabirds around 3 islands: Buldir in the western, Kasatochi in the central, and Aiktak in the eastern Aleutians. The density of combined seabird biomass in nearshore marine waters was higher in summer than in winter at Buldir and Kasatochi, but was higher in winter at Aiktak, despite the departure of abundant migratory species. Comparing foraging guilds, we found that only piscivores increased at the western and central sites in winter, whereas at the eastern site several planktivorous species increased as well. The only planktivore remaining in winter at the central and western sites in densities comparable to summer densities was whiskered auklet Aethia pygmaea. Crested auklet Aethia cristatella and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia showed the greatest proportional winter increase at the eastern site. The seasonal patterns of the seabird communities suggest a winter breakdown of the copepod-based food web in the central and western parts of the archipelago, and a system that remains rich in euphausiids in the eastern Aleutians. We suggest that in winter crested auklets take the trophic role that short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris occupy during summer. We hypothesize that advection of euphausiids in the Aleutian North Slope Current is important for supporting the high biomass of planktivores that occupy the Unimak Pass region on a year-round basis. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  10. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.

  11. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  12. Top predator distribution and abundance across the eastern Gulf of Alaska: Temporal variability and ocean habitat associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Peggy P. W.; Sydeman, William J.; Morgan, Ken H.; Whitney, Frank A.

    2005-03-01

    We studied interannual variation in marine bird and mammal distribution and abundance in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) over 8 years, 1996-2003. We identified and enumerated seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans along a replicated 1500 km survey path, representing 450 km 2 of coastal and 2000 km 2 of oceanic habitat. Near-surface temperature (5 m depth) fluctuated considerably from year to year, in part due to the timing of the survey, with an early survey in 1996 and a late survey in 2002. Many species were observed across the entire gradient, particularly procellariiform (tubenose) seabirds and Dall's porpoise ( Phocoenoides dalli). We observed peaks in abundance in the oceanic zone in 1998, 2001, and 2002, owing primarily to influxes of dark shearwaters ( Puffinus spp.) and Leach's storm-petrels ( Oceanodroma leuchora). Rank correlations indicated similar year-to-year changes in density between species, and species-specific responses to temperature and ocean productivity as indexed by nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations. We developed topographic/bathymetric models of habitat selection for the coastal zone. Although we found some distinct habitat preferences in this zone, overall we observed a continuum in the marine bird and mammal community across the entire eastern GOA. The strength of the coupling between coastal and oceanic environments as provided by variation in top predator dispersion appears related to large-scale variations in oceanography, though we have yet to fully investigate causal mechanisms.

  13. Mortality of seabirds in the Japanese land-based gillnet fishery for salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Day, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Mortality rates of seabirds in the Japanese land-based drift gillnet fishery for salmon were assessed from 413 gillnet sets made by Japanese research vessels in offshore areas used by the commercial fleet. Sixteen species of seabirds were recorded in nets. Shearwaters, primarily Short-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris), and to a lesser extent Sooty Shearwaters (P. griseus), predominated in the catches, followed by lesser numbers of Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia). Catch-rates of seabirds varied by oceanographic zone, with most being caught in oceanic waters north of the Subarctic Front. Approximately 151,000 seabirds were killed in the offshore component of the land-based fishery in 1977. Mortality was reduced to about 57,000 seabirds in 1987 because of a reduction in fishing effort. No estimates are available of seabird mortality in the nearshore component of the fishery. Mortality of seabirds in the land-based fishery is discussed with respect to other major drift gillnet fisheries in the North Pacific.

  14. Seabirds at risk around offshore oil platforms in the north-west Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Wiese, F K; Montevecchi, W A; Davoren, G K; Huettmann, F; Diamond, A W; Linke, J

    2001-12-01

    Seabirds aggregate around oil drilling platforms and rigs in above average numbers due to night lighting, flaring, food and other visual cues. Bird mortality has been documented due to impact on the structure, oiling and incineration by the flare. The environmental circumstances for offshore hydrocarbon development in North-west Atlantic are unique because of the harsh climate, cold waters and because enormous seabird concentrations inhabit and move through the Grand Banks in autumn (storm-petrels, Oceanodroma spp), winter (dovekies, Alle alle, murres, Uria spp), spring and summer (shearwaters, Puffinus spp). Many species are planktivorous and attracted to artificial light sources. Most of the seabirds in the region are long-distance migrants, and hydrocarbon development in the North-west Atlantic could affect both regional and global breeding populations. Regulators need to take responsibility for these circumstances. It is essential to implement comprehensive, independent arm's length monitoring of potential avian impacts of offshore hydrocarbon platforms in the North-west Atlantic. This should include quantifying and determining the nature, timing and extent of bird mortality caused by these structures. Based on existing evidence of potential impacts of offshore hydrocarbon platforms on seabirds, it is difficult to understand why this has not been, and is not being, systematically implemented.

  15. Marine birds and mammals of the Pacific Subarctic Gyres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, A.M.; Piatt, J.F.; Shuntov, V.P.; Van Vliet, Gus B.; Vladimirov, V.L.; Kuzin, A.E.; Perlov, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of the subarctic gyres of the North Pacific Ocean to marine birds and mammals is poorly known because of a paucity of data spanning appropriate scales of time and space. The little information that is available indicates the western subarctic gyre (WSAG) is more productive than the eastern subarctic gyre (ESAG). In summer the WSAG supports a greater density and higher biomass of seabirds than the ESAG, including at least two species that are more abundant at nesting colonies in the eastern subarctic. Perhaps most revealing of the seabird distributions in this regard is that of southern hemisphere shearwaters (Puffinus spp.) that overwinter in the North Pacific. Their biomass is an order of magnitude greater than that of any northern hemisphere species and is three-fold greater in the WSAG than in the ESAG. Several species of cetaceans also appear to be, or to have been prior to commercial depletions, more abundant in the WSA. Among the many prey species consumed by marine birds and mammals, squids and fishes in the family Myctophidae predominate overall. Other forage species, notably euphausiids, Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) are important at times to certain species. The principal exceptions to this generalization are baleen whales and small seabirds that consume zooplankton. Interannual and decadal-scale variability in the physical environment and food web production affect seabirds and marine mammals at sea and at coastal breeding locations around the margins of the gyres.

  16. Posterior Beta and anterior gamma oscillations predict cognitive insight.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Bhavin R; Sandkühler, Simone; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-07-01

    Pioneering neuroimaging studies on insight have revealed neural correlates of the emotional "Aha!" component of the insight process, but neural substrates of the cognitive component, such as problem restructuring (a key to transformative reasoning), remain a mystery. Here, multivariate electroencephalogram signals were recorded from human participants while they solved verbal puzzles that could create a small-scale experience of cognitive insight. Individuals responded as soon as they reached a solution and provided a rating of subjective insight. For unsolved puzzles, hints were provided after 60 to 90 sec. Spatio-temporal signatures of brain oscillations were analyzed using Morlet wavelet transform followed by exploratory parallel-factor analysis. A consistent reduction in beta power (15-25 Hz) was found over the parieto-occipital and centro-temporal electrode regions on all four conditions-(a) correct (vs. incorrect) solutions, (b) solutions without (vs. with) external hint, (c) successful (vs. unsuccessful) utilization of the external hint, and d) self-reported high (vs. low) insight. Gamma band (30-70 Hz) power was increased in right fronto-central and frontal electrode regions for conditions (a) and (c). The effects occurred several (up to 8) seconds before the behavioral response. Our findings indicate that insight is represented by distinct spectral, spatial, and temporal patterns of neural activity related to presolution cognitive processes that are intrinsic to the problem itself but not exclusively to one's subjective assessment of insight.

  17. Antidunes: new insights on processes and deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclair, Suzanne

    2014-05-01

    This talk presents :1) a brief review of the development of our understanding of antidune processes and deposits; 2) results from the author's current collaborative studies, and; 3) points out key issues to be addressed in future research on upper-regime bedforms and sedimentary structures. Antidunes deposits may be overlooked or incorrectly interpretated in the sedimentary record. In alongstream direction, their preserved sedimentary structures resemble dune trough-cross stratification while accros-stream sections show mostly planar beds. Antidune strata can be structureless, and hence similar to some chute-and-pool, or hydraulic-jumps deposits. Moreover, recognition of antidune stratification in nature may also be hampered by the spatial limitation of exposures compared to the scale of the formative bedforms. However, antidune signature presents internal distinctive stratal and textural features that were revealed by experimental investigation and observation in modern fluvial deposits. The main results come from the comparative image analysis of video records and photographs of sediment samples (sediment peels) from flume experiments with upper-stage, open-flow conditions. These results brough new insights on antidune migration processes and deposition /erosion sequences, allowing to revise the traditional model typically presented in texbooks. Differences do occur between deposition/erosion patterns of 'progresive' antidunes (not all antidunes break) and breaking antidunes, resulting in the (potential) preservation of spatially-limited strata with boundaries that define a sort of polygone within the overall deposits, and that can show 'clusters' of gravel (antidune signature may then be more apparent in sand-and-gravel sediment than in well-sorted sand). This specific sedimentary feature was obverved in modern deposits from a dryland river (where antidune can occur during flash floods). Otherwise, limited experimental data on submarine, super-critical , high

  18. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    compatibility with existing CBP expertise and already-planned activities. Based on these criteria, the five original topics were down-selected to two: external sulfate attack and mechanistic geochemical prediction. For each of the selected topics, the CBP communicated with the PA analysts and subject matter experts at Savannah River to acquire input data specific to the Saltstone facility and related laboratory experiments. Simulations and analyses were performed for both topics using STADIUM (SIMCO 2008), LeachXS/ORCHESTRA (ECN 2007, Meeussen 2003), and other software tools. These supplemental CBP analyses produced valuable technical insights that can be used to strengthen the Saltstone PA using the ongoing PA maintenance process. This report in part summarizes key information gleaned from more comprehensive documents prepared by Sarkar et al. (2010), Samson (2010), and Sarkar (2010).

  19. Decision insight into stakeholder conflict for ERN.

    SciTech Connect

    Siirola, John; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Benz, Zachary O.; Stansbury, Melanie; Richards, Elizabeth H.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Warrender, Christina E.; Morrow, James Dan

    2012-02-01

    Participatory modeling has become an important tool in facilitating resource decision making and dispute resolution. Approaches to modeling that are commonly used in this context often do not adequately account for important human factors. Current techniques provide insights into how certain human activities and variables affect resource outcomes; however, they do not directly simulate the complex variables that shape how, why, and under what conditions different human agents behave in ways that affect resources and human interactions related to them. Current approaches also do not adequately reveal how the effects of individual decisions scale up to have systemic level effects in complex resource systems. This lack of integration prevents the development of more robust models to support decision making and dispute resolution processes. Development of integrated tools is further hampered by the fact that collection of primary data for decision-making modeling is costly and time consuming. This project seeks to develop a new approach to resource modeling that incorporates both technical and behavioral modeling techniques into a single decision-making architecture. The modeling platform is enhanced by use of traditional and advanced processes and tools for expedited data capture. Specific objectives of the project are: (1) Develop a proof of concept for a new technical approach to resource modeling that combines the computational techniques of system dynamics and agent based modeling, (2) Develop an iterative, participatory modeling process supported with traditional and advance data capture techniques that may be utilized to facilitate decision making, dispute resolution, and collaborative learning processes, and (3) Examine potential applications of this technology and process. The development of this decision support architecture included both the engineering of the technology and the development of a participatory method to build and apply the technology

  20. Insight solutions are correct more often than analytic solutions

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Bricolo, Emanuela; Kounios, John; Bowden, Edward; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    How accurate are insights compared to analytical solutions? In four experiments, we investigated how participants’ solving strategies influenced their solution accuracies across different types of problems, including one that was linguistic, one that was visual and two that were mixed visual-linguistic. In each experiment, participants’ self-judged insight solutions were, on average, more accurate than their analytic ones. We hypothesised that insight solutions have superior accuracy because they emerge into consciousness in an all-or-nothing fashion when the unconscious solving process is complete, whereas analytic solutions can be guesses based on conscious, prematurely terminated, processing. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that participants’ analytic solutions included relatively more incorrect responses (i.e., errors of commission) than timeouts (i.e., errors of omission) compared to their insight responses. PMID:27667960

  1. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-04-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the dreamer gains insight into his state of mind during dreaming. Recent electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the first time allow very specific hypotheses about the dream-psychosis relationship: if dreaming is a reasonable model for psychosis, then insight into the dreaming state and insight into the psychotic state should share similar neural correlates. This indeed seems to be the case: cortical areas activated during lucid dreaming show striking overlap with brain regions that are impaired in psychotic patients who lack insight into their pathological state. This parallel allows for new therapeutic approaches and ways to test antipsychotic medication.

  2. Insightful Imagery is Related to Working Memory Updating

    PubMed Central

    Nęcka, Edward; Żak, Piotr; Gruszka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Available body of evidence concerning the relationship between insight problem solving and working memory (WM) is ambiguous. Several authors propose that restructuring of the problem representation requires controlled search processes, which needs planning and involvement of WM. Other researchers suggest that the restructuring is achieved through the automatic spread of activation in long-term memory, assigning a limited role to WM capacity. In the present study we examined the correlations between insight problem solving performance and measures of WM updating function (n-back task), including general intelligence (as measured by Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). The results revealed that updating function shared up to 30% of variance with the insight problem task performance, even when the influence of general mental ability was controlled for. These results suggest that insight problem solving is constrained by individual ability to update the content of WM. PMID:26973549

  3. Troubling 'insight': power and possibilities in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, B; Roper, C

    2006-08-01

    This paper critiques the conventional concept of 'insight' within the mental status assessment, seeking to unseat its taken-for-granted definition and the status it has acquired in research and practice. Drawing on social theory, consumer perspective and interdisciplinary research, the paper focuses on the impact of 'thin' biomedical understandings of insight, in disqualifying and demoralizing persons subjected to assessment and at the same time creating punitive scrutineers out of well-intentioned practitioners. Nurses and their mental health colleagues are encouraged to reconsider their reliance on the concept of insight. We entertain the alternative idea that insight is a quality of perception that mental health practitioners can cultivate, to more deeply understand their work, culture and the self.

  4. SEIS Experiment for the INSIGHT Mission: Towards 2018 Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdier, N.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.; De Raucourt, S.; IJpelaan, F.; Jerjean, L.; Pont, G.; Sylvestre-Baron, A.; Laudet, P.; Bousquet, P.; Hohhman, T.; Umland, J.; Bone, B.; Hurst, K.; Giardini, D.; Zweifel, P.; Bramanti, C.; Pike, W. T.; Calcutt, S.; Mimoun, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Christensen, U.

    2016-10-01

    After giving an outline of the InSight mission, with a focus on SEIS activities on Mars, we will describe the SEIS instrument and its performances, and provide a status of its development at the time of the workshop.

  5. Insight without cortex: lessons from the avian brain.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Janina A; Güntürkün, Onur; Rose, Jonas

    2008-06-01

    Insight is a cognitive feature that is usually regarded as being generated by the neocortex and being present only in humans and possibly some closely related primates. In this essay we show that especially corvids display behavioral skills within the domains of object permanence, episodic memory, theory of mind, and tool use/causal reasoning that are insightful. These similarities between humans and corvids at the behavioral level are probably the result of a convergent evolution. Similarly, the telencephalic structures involved in higher cognitive functions in both species show a high degree of similarity, although the forebrain of birds has no cortex-like lamination. The neural substrate for insight-related cognitive functions in mammals and birds is thus not necessarily based on a laminated cortical structure but can be generated by differently organized forebrains. Hence, neither is insight restricted to mammals, as predicted from a "scala naturae", nor is the laminated cortex a prerequisite for the highest cognitive functions.

  6. Some User's Insights Into ADIFOR 2.0D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesy, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    Some insights are given which were gained by one user through experience with the use of the ADIFOR 2.0D software for automatic differentiation of Fortran code. These insights are generally in the area of the user interface with the generated derivative code - particularly the actual form of the interface and the use of derivative objects, including "seed" matrices. Some remarks are given as to how to iterate application of ADIFOR in order to generate second derivative code.

  7. InSight: An innovative multimedia training tool

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Crites, D.C.; Forsmann, J.H.; Walters, B.G.

    1996-05-01

    InSight is an innovative computer-based multimedia training tool that provides a navigable virtual environment and links to related information. It provides training and guidance for touring and observing operations at any facility or site in a realistic virtual environment. This presentation identifies unique attributes of InSight and describes the initial application at ANL-West. A brief description of the development of this tool, production steps, and an onscreen demonstration of its operation are also provided.

  8. Insight Across the Different Mood States of Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Cheniaux, Elie

    2015-09-01

    In bipolar disorder, levels of insight vary as a function of the mood state and appear to influence pharmacology compliance, quality of life, the presence of suicidal ideations, and aggressive behavior. To establish a comparison among different mood states in bipolar with regard to level of insight. Forty-eight patients were evaluated in different affective states (i.e., euthymia, mania, depression, and mixed state). Identifying information, sociodemographic data, and clinical records were recorded. The following scales were applied: Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive symptoms subscale, and Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar disorder. Insight was evaluated using items 11 and 17 of the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale, respectively. Insight in bipolar disorder was found to be more compromised during manic phases and mixed episodes than during periods of depression or euthymia. The factors associated with lower levels of insight were the following: shorter illness duration, older age, and greater severity in mania; the female gender and older age in depression; and shorter illness duration and more severe depressive symptoms in mixed episodes. In the same individual, levels of insight vary as a function of the affective state over the course of bipolar disorder and appear to be influenced by several clinical variables.

  9. Cratering at the Icy Satellites: Experimental Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck Syal, M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    calculate that 0.6% of the initial kinetic energy of the impactor is partitioned into the internal energy of the vapor plume. This is slightly higher than values determined in prior studies for non-porous CO2 ice (0.2%) [Schultz, 1996]. As CO2 ice possesses a lower vaporization temperature than water ice, this effect strongly suggests a role for porosity in enhancing vaporization. This is expected, as the compaction of porous materials performs additional, irreversible PdV work on the target, causing enhanced partitioning of kinetic energy into internal energy. At oblique impact angles, plume morphology changes dramatically while vaporization is enhanced. Comparing shock wave velocity attenuation in porous materials, including mixes of materials (e.g., quartz sand and porous ice), to numerical results obtained from shock physics codes such as CTH, provides insight into how impacts into porous ice-rich materials can be most accurately numerically modeled.

  10. Astrobiology, Evolution, and Society: Public Engagement Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    frequently was “my religious beliefs.” A review of religious identification in this country will be presented in the context of offering insights for public engagement on the topic of evolution, and the contribution that astrobiology could make to encouraging a positive relationship between science and religion. A widespread acceptance of evolution in the United States may require that the scientific community go beyond a simple contrast approach to science and religion and be willing to encourage, and participate in, a program of in-depth and long-term engagement with theologians and religious community leaders. Astrobiology as a discipline is particularly burdened, perhaps blessed, with the responsibility to engage this issue. After all, humanity itself may be inherently defined by the ability we collectively posses to ask “Where did we come from?,” “Are we alone?,” and “Where are we going?”

  11. Is creative insight task-specific? A coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on insightful problem solving.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wangbing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Luo, Jing; Gong, Zhe

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether creative insight varies across problem types has recently come to the forefront of studies of creative cognition. In the present study, to address the nature of creative insight, the coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique was utilized to individually conduct three quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging experiments that used the compound remote associate (CRA) task, the prototype heuristic (PH) task and the Chinese character chunk decomposition (CCD) task. These tasks were chosen because they are frequently used to uncover the neurocognitive correlates of insight. Our results demonstrated that creative insight reliably activates largely non-overlapping brain regions across task types, with the exception of some shared regions: the CRA task mainly relied on the right parahippocampal gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus; the PH task primarily depended on the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG), the bilateral superior parietal lobule/precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the left lingual gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus; and the CCD task activated a broad cerebral network consisting of most dorsolateral and medial prefrontal regions, frontoparietal regions and the right MOG. These results provide the first neural evidence of the task dependence of creative insight. The implications of these findings for resolving conflict surrounding the different theories of creative cognition and for defining insight as a set of heterogeneous processes are discussed.

  12. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (p<0.05, surviving FDR correction). Patients with low IS also showed significantly thinner right insula, STG, and parahippocampal cortex compared to healthy controls (p<0.05, surviving FDR correction). Regions of observed CT reductions have been hypothesized to subserve self-monitoring, error awareness, and ability to identify hallucinations. Results highlight an important association between right insula abnormalities and impaired IS in schizophrenia. The diverse clinical presentation of patients further suggests an independent relationship between symptomology and insight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia.

  13. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices.

  14. Neurocognitive insight and objective cognitive functioning in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Cynthia Z.; Harvey, Philip D.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a core component of schizophrenia affecting everyday functioning; the extent to which individuals with schizophrenia show awareness of neurocognitive impairment (neurocognitive insight) is unclear. This study investigated neurocognitive insight and examined the cross-sectional relationships between neurocognitive insight and objective neurocognition and functional capacity performance in a large outpatient sample. 214 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders completed measures of neurocognition, functional capacity, and self-reported neurocognitive problems. Latent profile analysis classified participants with regard to neuropsychological performance and self-report of neurocognitive problems. The resulting classes were then compared on executive functioning performance, functional capacity performance, and psychiatric symptom severity. More than three quarters of the sample demonstrated objective neurocognitive impairment (global deficit score ≥ 0.50). Among the participants with neurocognitive impairment, 54% were classified as having “impaired” neurocognitive insight (i.e., reporting few neurocognitive problems despite having objective neurocognitive impairment). Participants with impaired vs. intact neurocognitive insight did not differ on executive functioning measures or measures of functional capacity or negative symptom severity, but those with intact neurocognitive insight reported higher levels of positive and depressive symptoms. A substantial portion of individuals with schizophrenia and objectively measured neurocognitive dysfunction appear unaware of their deficits. Patient self-report of neurocognitive problems, therefore, is not likely to reliably assess neurocognition. Difficulty self-identifying neurocognitive impairment appears to be unrelated to executive functioning, negative symptoms, and functional capacity. For those with intact neurocognitive insight, improving depressive and psychotic symptoms

  15. Insight and gender in schizophrenia and other psychoses.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Jesus; Nieto, Lourdes; Ochoa, Susana; Pousa, Esther; Usall, Judith; Baños, Iris; González, Beatriz; Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz, Ada I

    2016-09-30

    This study aimed to evaluate gender differences in the deficit of insight in psychosis and determine influences of clinical, functional, and sociodemographic variables. A multicenter sample of 401 adult patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders who agreed to participate was evaluated in four centers of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia). Psychopathological assessment was performed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Lindenmayers' Factors. Insight and its dimensions were assessed by means of the Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder. Significant differences were apparent neither between men and women in the three dimensions of insight, nor in the total awareness, nor in the total attribution subscales. However, statistically significant differences were found in awareness and attribution of particular symptoms. Women showed a worse awareness of thought disorder and alogia and a higher misattribution of apathy. Higher cognitive and positive symptoms, early stage of the illness, and having been married explained deficits of insight dimensions in women. In men, other variables such as lower functioning, higher age, other psychosis diagnosis, and, to a lower extent, higher scores in cognitive, positive, and excitative symptoms, explained deficits of insight dimensions. These data could help to design gender-specific preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  16. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  17. Insights into dendritic cell function using advanced imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Jatin M

    2012-11-15

    The application of advanced imaging techniques to fundamental questions in immunology has provided insight into dendritic cell function and has challenged dogma created using static imaging of lymphoid tissue. The history of dendritic cell biology has a storied past and is tightly linked to imaging. The development of imaging techniques that emphasize live cell imaging in situ has provided not only breath-taking movies, but also novel insights into the importance of spatiotemporal relationships between antigen presenting cells and T cells. This review serves to provide a primer on two-photon microscopy, TIRF microscopy, spinning disk confocal microscopy and optical trapping and provides selective examples of insights gained from these tools on dendritic cell biology.

  18. The relationship between insight and symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sevy, Serge; Nathanson, Kay; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Amador, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    We examined the relationship between insight and the positive, negative, active, dysphoric, and autistic dimensions of symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Ninety-six patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed using the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, Revised Version (SUMD-R) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The PANSS data were analyzed based on a five-factor model defined by White et al (1997). The percentage of patients having a lack of awareness was 32.7% for illness, 58.2% for symptoms, 18.4% for treatment response, and 41.8% for social consequences. Lack of awareness of symptoms was significantly correlated with all five symptom factors. Lack of awareness of the illness and its social consequences was only correlated with the positive dimension. Lack of awareness of achieved effects of medication was correlated with the autistic preoccupation factor. There was no correlation between current misattributions for symptoms and PANSS factors. We conclude that poor insight is a common feature of schizophrenia and has a complex relationship to other symptoms of the illness. Our results suggest that (1) unawareness of symptoms is related to severity of illness; (2) insight into illness and its social consequences is more closely tied to positive symptoms than other aspects of insight; and (3) insight into the effects of medication is more closely related to cognitive impairment. Treatment studies that measure insight could answer the question of whether these deficits in awareness improve along with positive and cognitive symptoms.

  19. New Insight into the Cosmic Renaissance Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    at even higher redshifts" , adds Matthew Lehnert. "With a larger sample of such distant objects, we can then obtain insight into their nature and the variation of their density in the sky." A British Premiere The observations presented here are among the first major discoveries by British scientists since the UK became a member of ESO in July 2002. Richard Wade from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council ( PPARC), which funds the UK subscription to ESO, is very pleased: " In joining the European Southern Observatory, UK astronomers have been granted access to world-leading facilities, such as the VLT. These exciting new results, of which I am sure there will be many more to come, illustrate how UK astronomers are contributing with cutting-edge discoveries. " More information The results described in this Press Release are about to appear in the research journal Astrophysical Journal (" Luminous Lyman Break Galaxies at z>5 and the Source of Reionization" by M. D. Lehnert and M. Bremer). It is available electronically as astro-ph/0212431 . Notes [1]: This is a coordinated ESO/PPARC Press Release. The PPARC version of the release can be found here. [2]: This work was carried out by Malcolm Bremer (University of Bristol, The United Kingdom) and Matthew Lehnert (Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany). [3]: The measured redshifts of the galaxies in the Bremer Deep Field are z = 4.8-5.8, with one unexpected (and surprising) redshift of 6.6. In astronomy, the redshift denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a remote galaxy provides an estimate of its distance. The distances indicated in the present text are based on an age of the Universe of 13.7 billion years. At the indicated redshift, the Lyman-alpha line of atomic hydrogen (rest wavelength 121.6 nm) is observed at 680 to 920 nm, i.e. in the red spectral region.

  20. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  1. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  2. Insights on Teaching Speaking in TESOL. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tim, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) field continues to experience increased valuing of experiential practitioner knowledge. A welcome result of this evolution has been the broadening of research perspectives. The 16 practitioner narratives in "Insights on Teaching Speaking in TESOL" are written by…

  3. Recent insights into Groucho co-repressor recruitment and function.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Aamna K; Schuster, Eugene F; Jennings, Barbara H

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is often controlled by transcriptional repressors during development. Many transcription factors lack intrinsic repressive activity but recruit co-factors that inhibit productive transcription. Here we discuss new insights and models for repression mediated by the Groucho/Transducin-Like Enhancer of split (Gro/TLE) family of co-repressor proteins.

  4. Insight into children's prosocial lies: Comment on Warneken and Orlins.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A; Helm, Rebecca K

    2015-09-01

    In their article, Warneken and Orlins () provide insight into children's prosocial lie-telling. Their work adds to a growing body of literature regarding the development of prosocial behaviour and indicates that young children will tell 'white lies' in order to improve the mood of others. This work has important implications for forensic contexts that we note.

  5. Nursing Home Care Quality: Insights from a Bayesian Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Justin; Jang, Wooseung; Rantz, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold. The first purpose is to utilize a new methodology (Bayesian networks) for aggregating various quality indicators to measure the overall quality of care in nursing homes. The second is to provide new insight into the relationships that exist among various measures of quality and how such measures…

  6. Interdisciplinary Expansion of Conceptual Foundations: Insights from beyond Our Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2005-01-01

    The field of gifted education is very complex, covering broad and deep conceptual terrain. Insights about giftedness and talent are available from diverse academic disciplines and at multiple levels of analysis. These levels are captured in an interpretive framework that moves from the macrolevels of broad sociopolitical, cultural, and economic…

  7. Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

  8. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  9. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  10. Extinction risks from climate change: macroecological and historical insights.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Roland

    2009-06-09

    Human-induced climate change may threaten a large proportion of Earth's biota, but the uncertainties involved in projecting the future geographical distributions of species make quantitative predictions of extinction risk difficult to make. I discuss how insight from recent advances in macroecology and knowledge about species responses to past climate change can help predict extinction risks more accurately.

  11. The Practice of Field Ecology: Insights for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, G. Michael; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorises science as it is actually done. There currently exist two gaps in the literature. First, most research in science studies are concerned with the practices…

  12. A Cognitive Procedure for Representation Change in Verbal Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John; Ahmed, Afia; Smy, Victoria; Seeby, Helen; Sambrooks, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel cognitive procedure for operationalizing how the re-encoding and constraint relaxation, suggested by representational change theory (RCT) (Ohlsson, 1992, 2011), can effect representational change in verbal insight problem solving, thus circumventing the constraints imposed by past experience. Some…

  13. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes Internationally: Insights and Frontiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    As higher education systems and institutions expand, more energy is being invested in ensuring that sufficient learning has been achieved to warrant the award of a qualification. Many commonly used assessment approaches do not scale well, and there remains a pressing need for reform. This paper distils insights from international investigations of…

  14. Insight and Strategy in Multiple-Cue Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Newell, Ben R.; Kahan, Steven; Shanks, David R.

    2006-01-01

    In multiple-cue learning (also known as probabilistic category learning) people acquire information about cue-outcome relations and combine these into predictions or judgments. Previous researchers claimed that people can achieve high levels of performance without explicit knowledge of the task structure or insight into their own judgment…

  15. The Empty Shops Project: Developing Rural Students' Sociological Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Evan; Burns, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    An informal research project with high local relevance was developed for a first-year sociology course at an Australian rural university campus. The project developed students' sociological insight by challenging them to investigate "truths" about their own region, rather than immediately pushing them to comprehend new and different…

  16. How Can Visual Arts Help Doctors Develop Medical Insight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Kathleen; Hammond, Margaret F.

    2012-01-01

    This research project examines how using the visual arts can develop medical insight, as part of a pilot programme for two groups of medical students. It was a UK study; a collaboration between Liverpool and Glyndw University's and Tate Liverpool's learning team. Tate Liverpool is the home of the National Collection of Modern Arts in the North of…

  17. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Bone Cancer, Version 2.2017.

    PubMed

    Biermann, J Sybil; Chow, Warren; Reed, Damon R; Lucas, David; Adkins, Douglas R; Agulnik, Mark; Benjamin, Robert S; Brigman, Brian; Budd, G Thomas; Curry, William T; Didwania, Aarati; Fabbri, Nicola; Hornicek, Francis J; Kuechle, Joseph B; Lindskog, Dieter; Mayerson, Joel; McGarry, Sean V; Million, Lynn; Morris, Carol D; Movva, Sujana; O'Donnell, Richard J; Randall, R Lor; Rose, Peter; Santana, Victor M; Satcher, Robert L; Schwartz, Herbert; Siegel, Herrick J; Thornton, Katherine; Villalobos, Victor; Bergman, Mary Anne; Scavone, Jillian L

    2017-02-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Bone Cancer provide interdisciplinary recommendations for treating chordoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumor of bone, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Bone Cancer Panel's guideline recommendations for treating Ewing sarcoma. The data underlying these treatment recommendations are also discussed.

  18. Becoming Bilingual: Children's Insights about Making Friends in Bilingual Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Theobald, Maryanne

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the world speaks more than one language, yet the impact of learning a second language has rarely been studied from a child's perspective. This paper describes monolingual children's insights into becoming bilingual at four time points: 2 months before moving to another country (while living in Australia), as well as 1, 6, and…

  19. Teachers' Planning Processes: Seeking Insights from Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter; Clarke, Doug M.; Albright, James; Clarke, David J.; Farrell, Lesley; Freebody, Peter; Gerrard, Jessica; Michels, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics (AC:M) prompts consideration of planning processes teachers typically use (as a whole school, in grade levels, and at the classroom level). In order to gain insights into the nature of the planning decisions teachers make, Australian teachers drawn from every state and territory were invited to respond to a…

  20. The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new phenomenology," which is a phenomenological movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new phenomenology suggest…

  1. A Community of Practice in Teacher Education: Insights and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Olson, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in the construct of community of practice, the authors discuss the Teacher-Learner Community (TLC), where the goal is to support the development of pre-service teachers' understanding of culture, community, and background in learning. Insights and perceptions of pre-service teachers were gathered after implementing a TLC designed to…

  2. Insights into Action: Successful School Leaders Share What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, William L.

    2011-01-01

    What does it take to be a great school leader? An award-winning former principal poses this question to renowned school leaders and experts in the field to provide you with insight into the actions that lead to success. These giants in the field of educational leadership--including Baruti Kafele, Rick DuFour, Carol Ann Tomlinson, and James…

  3. New Insight in Mathematics by Live CAS Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnop, Ivan

    Traditional education in mathematics is mostly a matter of hindsight, and many mathematics texts offer little opportunity for students and learners to gain insight. This paper shows how experiments in CAS (computer algebra systems) can lead to new ways of handling problems, new conjectures, new visualizations, new proofs, new correspondences…

  4. The Training of Microcomputer Users: Insights from Two Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Walter D.; Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    1992-01-01

    Research in human computer interaction and instructional design can provide insights into effective methods for training microcomputer users. Suggestions include utilizing error recognition and recovery, development of mental models, simplification of documentation, and using cognitive approaches that allow transfer of knowledge to new situations.…

  5. Bringing Insights from Research into the Teaching of Intermediate Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffrin, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that incorporating research into teaching intermediate macroeconomics can present challenging material to students thereby increasing their critical and evaluative thinking. Recommends sacrificing advanced textbook topics, historical perspectives on theories and policies, and current debates in favor of theoretical insights and empirical…

  6. Insights into the Support Services for Students with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Poulomee; Palmer, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    There is a general need for research in Australia on whether the support services provided in schools prove useful for students with disabilities (Datta, 2015; O'Rourke & Houghton, 2006), especially students with vision impairment. This qualitative study aimed to provide insights into the influence of the support services delivered in South…

  7. Children's Books in Review. Books That Give Cultural Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a selection of children's books that feature a variety of topics and literary representations with insight into other cultures. The books focus on foods, historical events, reliance on the environment, folktales, family experiences, community heritage, words and phrases, and linguistic eccentricities. (SM)

  8. Deception Detection: An Educator's Guide to the Art of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Jeffrey

    This book argues that developing insight into the ordinary is a major part of education. Each of the five chapters contains ideas and activities designed to help students and teachers sharpen their perception of their day-to-day physical and social environment. "Survival Skills in a Consumer Society" examines the way people are persuaded to…

  9. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Multiple Myeloma, Version 3.2016.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kenneth C; Alsina, Melissa; Atanackovic, Djordje; Biermann, J Sybil; Chandler, Jason C; Costello, Caitlin; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Fung, Henry C; Gasparetto, Cristina; Godby, Kelly; Hofmeister, Craig; Holmberg, Leona; Holstein, Sarah; Huff, Carol Ann; Kassim, Adetola; Krishnan, Amrita Y; Kumar, Shaji K; Liedtke, Michaela; Lunning, Matthew; Raje, Noopur; Reu, Frederic J; Singhal, Seema; Somlo, George; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith; Treon, Steven P; Weber, Donna; Yahalom, Joachim; Shead, Dorothy A; Kumar, Rashmi

    2016-04-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the 2016 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Multiple Myeloma. These changes include updated recommendations to the overall management of multiple myeloma from diagnosis and staging to new treatment options.

  10. Reading skills, creativity, and insight: exploring the connections.

    PubMed

    Mourgues, Catalina V; Preiss, David D; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-08-04

    Studies of the relationship between creativity and specific reading disabilities have produced inconclusive results. We explored their relationship in a sample of 259 college students (age range: 17 to 38 years-old) from three Chilean universities. The students were tested on their verbal ability, creativity, and insight. A simple linear regression was performed on the complete sample, and on high- and low-achievement groups that were formed based on reading test scores. We observed a significant correlation in the total sample between outcomes on the verbal ability tasks, and on the creativity and insight tasks (range r =. 152 to r =. 356, ps <.001). Scores on the reading comprehension and phonological awareness tasks were the best predictors of performance on creativity and insight tasks (range β = .315 to β = .155, ps <.05). A comparison of the low- and high-scoring groups on verbal ability tasks yielded results to the same effect. These findings do not support the hypothesis that specific reading disability is associated with better performance on creative tasks. Instead, higher verbal ability was found to be associated with higher creativity and insight.

  11. Insight in Frontotemporal Dementia: Conceptual Analysis and Empirical Evaluation of the Consensus Criterion ''Loss of Insight'' in Frontotemporal Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Kathinka; Kilander, Lena; Lindau, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to suggest a new formulation of the core research diagnostic consensus criterion ''loss of insight'' in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Eight patients with FTD (diagnoses made by interviews, medical and neuropsychological examination, CT scan, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured by positron emission…

  12. Mentalization, insightfulness, and therapeutic action. The importance of mental organization.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Alan

    2006-08-01

    Continuing debates over the relative importance of the role of interpretation leading to insight versus the relationship with the analyst as contributing to structural change are based on traditional definitions of insight as gaining knowledge of unconscious content. This definition inevitably privileges verbal interpretation as self-knowledge becomes equated with understanding the contents of the mind. It is suggested that a way out of this debate is to redefine insight as a process, one that is called insightfulness. This term builds on concepts such as mentalization, or theory of mind, and suggests that patients present with difficulties being able to fully mentalize. Awareness of repudiated content will usually accompany the attainment of insightfulness. But the point of insightfulness is to regain access to inhibited or repudiated mentalization, not to specific content, per se. Emphasizing the process of insightfulness integrates the importance of the relationship with the analyst with the facilitation of insightfulness. A variety of interventions help patients gain the capacity to reflect upon and become aware of the intricate workings of their minds, of which verbal interpretation is only one. For example, often it seems less important to focus on a particular conflict than to show interest in our patients' minds. Furthermore, analysands develop insightfulness by becoming interested in and observing our minds in action. Because the mind originates in bodily experience, mental functioning will always fluctuate between action modes of experiencing and expressing and verbal, symbolic modes. The analyst's role becomes making the patient aware of regressions to action modes, understanding the reasons for doing so, and subordinating this tendency to the verbal, symbolic mode. All mental functions work better and facilitate greater self-regulation when they work in abstract, symbolic ways. Psychopathology can be understood as failing to develop or losing the

  13. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty) of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be useful for measuring

  14. Medicine in 2035: Selected Insights From ACGME's Scenario Planning.

    PubMed

    Nasca, Thomas J; Thomas, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has the responsibility for overseeing the preparation of future physician specialists and subspecialists to serve the American public. To ensure ACGME's ability to adapt and sustain its accreditation activities in a future marked by significant uncertainty, its administration and board of directors embarked on a planning process that would frame its strategic actions in support of this responsibility. We describe the scenario planning process, and report key insights that resulted from it. We also discuss in greater depth a subset of those insights, which challenge certain conventional truths, call for new collaborative directions for the ACGME, and reaffirm the importance of professionalism in service of the public across all future scenarios evaluated.

  15. Insights on the poster preparation and presentation process.

    PubMed

    Moore, L W; Augspurger, P; King, M O; Proffitt, C

    2001-05-01

    Dissemination of research findings and effective clinical innovations is key to the growth and development of the nursing profession. Several avenues exist for the dissemination of information. One forum for communication that has gained increased recognition over the past decade is the poster presentation. Poster presentations are often a significant part of regional, national, and international nursing conferences. Although posters are frequently used to disseminate information to the nursing community, little is reported about actual poster presenters' experiences with preparation and presentation of their posters. The purpose of this article is to present insights derived from information shared by poster presenters regarding the poster preparation and presentation process. Such insights derived from the personal experiences of poster presenters may assist others to efficiently and effectively prepare and present scholarly posters that disseminate information to the nursing community.

  16. Swinging into thought: directed movement guides insight in problem solving.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura E; Lleras, Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions affected participants' ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier's two-string problem while occasionally taking exercise breaks during which they moved their arms either in a manner related to the problem's solution (swing group) or in a manner inconsistent with the solution (stretch group). Although most of the participants were unaware of the relationship between their arm movement exercises and the problem-solving task, the participants who moved their arms in a manner that suggested the problem's solution were more likely to solve the problem than were those who moved their arms in other ways. Consistent with embodied theories of cognition, these findings show that actions influence thought and, furthermore, that we can implicitly guide people toward insight by directing their actions.

  17. Evolutionary ecology of specialization: insights from phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vamosi, Jana C.; Armbruster, W. Scott; Renner, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    In this Special feature, we assemble studies that illustrate phylogenetic approaches to studying salient questions regarding the effect of specialization on lineage diversification. The studies use an array of techniques involving a wide-ranging collection of biological systems (plants, butterflies, fish and amphibians are all represented). Their results reveal that macroevolutionary examination of specialization provides insight into the patterns of trade-offs in specialized systems; in particular, the genetic mechanisms of trade-offs appear to extend to very different aspects of life history in different groups. In turn, because a species may be a specialist from one perspective and a generalist in others, these trade-offs influence whether we perceive specialization to have effects on the evolutionary success of a lineage when we examine specialization only along a single axis. Finally, how geographical range influences speciation and extinction of specialist lineages remains a question offering much potential for further insight. PMID:25274367

  18. Quantum-chemical insights from deep tensor neural networks.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Kristof T; Arbabzadah, Farhad; Chmiela, Stefan; Müller, Klaus R; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-01-09

    Learning from data has led to paradigm shifts in a multitude of disciplines, including web, text and image search, speech recognition, as well as bioinformatics. Can machine learning enable similar breakthroughs in understanding quantum many-body systems? Here we develop an efficient deep learning approach that enables spatially and chemically resolved insights into quantum-mechanical observables of molecular systems. We unify concepts from many-body Hamiltonians with purpose-designed deep tensor neural networks, which leads to size-extensive and uniformly accurate (1 kcal mol(-1)) predictions in compositional and configurational chemical space for molecules of intermediate size. As an example of chemical relevance, the model reveals a classification of aromatic rings with respect to their stability. Further applications of our model for predicting atomic energies and local chemical potentials in molecules, reliable isomer energies, and molecules with peculiar electronic structure demonstrate the potential of machine learning for revealing insights into complex quantum-chemical systems.

  19. Quantum-chemical insights from deep tensor neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütt, Kristof T.; Arbabzadah, Farhad; Chmiela, Stefan; Müller, Klaus R.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Learning from data has led to paradigm shifts in a multitude of disciplines, including web, text and image search, speech recognition, as well as bioinformatics. Can machine learning enable similar breakthroughs in understanding quantum many-body systems? Here we develop an efficient deep learning approach that enables spatially and chemically resolved insights into quantum-mechanical observables of molecular systems. We unify concepts from many-body Hamiltonians with purpose-designed deep tensor neural networks, which leads to size-extensive and uniformly accurate (1 kcal mol-1) predictions in compositional and configurational chemical space for molecules of intermediate size. As an example of chemical relevance, the model reveals a classification of aromatic rings with respect to their stability. Further applications of our model for predicting atomic energies and local chemical potentials in molecules, reliable isomer energies, and molecules with peculiar electronic structure demonstrate the potential of machine learning for revealing insights into complex quantum-chemical systems.

  20. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma, Version 3.2016.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, David S; Wood, Douglas E; Akerley, Wallace; Bazhenova, Lyudmila A; Borghaei, Hossein; Camidge, David Ross; Cheney, Richard T; Chirieac, Lucian R; D'Amico, Thomas A; Dilling, Thomas; Dobelbower, Michael; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Hennon, Mark; Horn, Leora; Jahan, Thierry M; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lackner, Rudy P; Lanuti, Michael; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Lin, Jules; Loo, Billy W; Martins, Renato; Otterson, Gregory A; Patel, Jyoti D; Pisters, Katherine M; Reckamp, Karen; Riely, Gregory J; Schild, Steven E; Shapiro, Theresa A; Sharma, Neelesh; Swanson, Scott J; Stevenson, James; Tauer, Kurt; Yang, Stephen C; Gregory, Kristina; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM). These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss systemic therapy regimens and surgical controversies for MPM. The NCCN panel recommends cisplatin/pemetrexed (category 1) for patients with MPM. The NCCN panel also now recommends bevacizumab/cisplatin/pemetrexed as a first-line therapy option for patients with unresectable MPM who are candidates for bevacizumab. The complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for MPM, available at NCCN.org, addresses all aspects of management for MPM including diagnosis, evaluation, staging, treatment, surveillance, and therapy for recurrence and metastasis; NCCN Guidelines are intended to assist with clinical decision-making.

  1. New insights into the molecular pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy and is one of the most devastating cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. The molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of these cancers are not well understood. The recognition and distinction of these cancers from other tumors such as extrahepatic or ductal cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma have been important in defining the pathogenesis. New insights into molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathogenesis are emerging from recent epidemiological, genome-wide profiling and laboratory based studies. These have contributed to an improved understanding of risk factors, genetic mutations and pathophysiological mechanisms that are associated with these tumors. The contribution of well-established risk factors such as biliary tract inflammation and key signaling pathways involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are being further defined. These new insights have several important implications for both molecular diagnosis and therapy of these cancers. PMID:24145988

  2. Pilot study of INSIGHT therapy in African American women.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Wicks, Mona; Bolden, Lois

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if treatment with INSIGHT therapy, designed specifically for women, could reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and loneliness in African American women. Prevalence of mental illness differs in African Americans and Caucasians. The nonexperimental one-group pretest posttest design study examined the effectiveness of a 12-week INSIGHT group intervention. Due to the stigma of mental illness, groups met at an African American church. Reliability and validity of instruments were effectively demonstrated. Statistically significant difference was found in the level of depression but the study was underpowered to detect statistically significant differences in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness. Clinically significant improvement occurred for some participants in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness.

  3. Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.

  4. Fetal programming by maternal stress: Insights from a conflict perspective.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has pervasive effects on the offspring's physiology and behavior, including the development of anxious, reactive temperament and increased stress responsivity. These outcomes can be seen as the result of adaptive developmental plasticity: maternal stress hormones carry useful information about the state of the external world, which can be used by the developing fetus to match its phenotype to the predicted environment. This account, however, neglects the inherent conflict of interest between mother and fetus about the outcomes of fetal programming. The aim of this paper is to extend the adaptive model of prenatal stress by framing mother-fetus interactions in an evolutionary conflict perspective. In the paper, I show how a conflict perspective provides many new insights in the functions and mechanisms of fetal programming, with particular emphasis on human pregnancy. I then take advantage of those insights to make sense of some puzzling features of maternal and fetal physiology and generate novel empirical predictions.

  5. Adolescents and cancer: discrepancy between untroubled appearance and insight disturbance.

    PubMed

    Massimo, L M; Caprino, D

    2011-04-01

    The care of adolescents suffering from high risk disease is a demanding challenge. At times, adolescents may well be too old for the pediatrician and Pediatric Units, and yet too young for the adult practitioner. A dedicated approach that builds on the insight deriving from special attention to, and reflection on the adolescent patient's true desire to share feelings is pivotal to the efforts that must be made to improve the perceived quality of life. The specific age class of adolescence is the focus of few papers, and we feel that a broader discussion of the subject would be useful. In our short article we report the pieces written by three very positive-minded girls suffering from cancer for the journal of our Department. They show deep and severe insight disturbance.

  6. Perioperative leadership: managing change with insights, priorities, and tools.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David L

    2014-07-01

    The personal leadership of the perioperative director is a critical factor in the success of any change management initiative. This article presents an approach to perioperative nursing leadership that addresses obstacles that prevent surgical departments from achieving high performance in clinical and financial outcomes. This leadership approach consists of specific insights, priorities, and tools: key insights include self-understanding of personal barriers to leadership and accuracy at understanding economic and strategic considerations related to the OR environment; key priorities include creating a customer-centered organization, focusing on process improvement, and concentrating on culture change; and key tools include using techniques (e.g., direct engagement, collaborative leadership) to align surgical organizations with leadership priorities and mitigate specific perioperative management risks. Included in this article is a leadership development plan for perioperative directors.

  7. Leveraging data to transform nursing care: insights from nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Nincic, Vera; White, Peggy; Hayes, Laureen; Lo, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to gain insight into how nurse leaders are influencing the use of performance data to improve nursing care in hospitals. Two themes emerged: getting relevant, reliable, and timely data into the hands of nurses, and the leaders' ability to "connect the dots" in working with different stakeholders. Study findings may inform nurse leaders in their efforts to leverage data to transform nursing care.

  8. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Library Typography , New York, 1993, 162. 3 Additionally, these models may provide insights as to what an adversary may do depending on the nature of...11. 7 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War (edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 73...Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 88. 8 common enemy. Minimizing the amount of allies an adversary has may also limit its

  9. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 1, Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Britain Since 1700, 306. 28 Ibid. 29 Ibid. Strategic Insights • Spring 2011 Volume 10, Issue 1 58 Bretton Woods – An Example of Structural Power...The creation of the Bretton Woods System during World War II provides an example of structural power and the role of economic strength as its...foundation. American and British policy makers developed a joint plan for post war monetary arrangements that was adopted by 44 nations at the 1944 Bretton

  10. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 3, Winter 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    The cover on this edition of Strategic Insights features the NATO sigil overlaid with Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man. The original Vitruvian...Man was designed by the Roman architect Vitruvius in an attempt to define artistic proportions for the human body. Da Vinci made adjustments to...Vitruvius’s proportions, making them more accurate. Specifically, da Vinci realized that the circle and square that outline the limits of the man’s limbs

  11. Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma: Current Insights in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Matthyssens, Lucas E.; Creytens, David; Ceelen, Wim P.

    2015-01-01

    Retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RLS) is a rare, biologically heterogeneous tumor that present considerable challenges due to its size and deep location. As a consequence, the majority of patients with high-grade RLS will develop locally recurrent disease following surgery, and this constitutes the cause of death in most patients. Here, we review current insights and controversies regarding histology, molecular biology, extent of surgery, (neo)adjuvant treatment, and systemic treatment including novel targeted agents in RLS. PMID:25713799

  12. Genomic Insights into the Saccharomyces sensu stricto Complex

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, Anthony R.; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2015-01-01

    The Saccharomyces sensu stricto group encompasses species ranging from the industrially ubiquitous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to those that are confined to geographically limited environmental niches. The wealth of genomic data that are now available for the Saccharomyces genus is providing unprecedented insights into the genomic processes that can drive speciation and evolution, both in the natural environment and in response to human-driven selective forces during the historical “domestication” of these yeasts for baking, brewing, and winemaking. PMID:25657346

  13. Canadian insights: The challenges of an integrated environmental assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    McCaig, Karen . E-mail: mccaig@interchange.ubc.ca

    2005-10-15

    The paper draws results from a review of literature to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the integrated environmental assessment framework in Canada with respect to the inclusion of health impact assessment. Insights include the legislative nature, rigid structure and priority for the natural environment that may restrict progress and the pool of government agencies that need to be convinced of the benefits of health impact assessment that may provide a strong structure for compliance in the long term.

  14. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  15. Model year 2010 Honda insight level-1 testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.

    2011-03-22

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Honda Insight was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were tested. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D3). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation when available. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Insight and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  16. New insights from well responses to fluctuations in barometric pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Jin, W.; Mohammed, G.A.; Reboulet, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologists have long recognized that changes in barometric pressure can produce changes in water levels in wells. The barometric response function (BRF) has proven to be an effective means to characterize this relationship; we show here how it can also be utilized to glean valuable insights into semi-confined aquifer systems. The form of the BRF indicates the degree of aquifer confinement, while a comparison of BRFs between wells sheds light on hydrostratigraphic continuity. A new approach for estimating hydraulic properties of aquitards from BRFs has been developed and verified. The BRF is not an invariant characteristic of a well; in unconfined or semi-confined aquifers, it can change with conditions in the vadose zone. Field data from a long-term research site demonstrate the hydrostratigraphic insights that can be gained from monitoring water levels and barometric pressure. Such insights should be of value for a wide range of practical applications. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  17. The TWINS Instrument On Board Mars Insight Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Tirso; Rodríguez-Manfredi, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the TWINS (Temperature and Wind sensors for INSight mission) instrument developed for the JPL Mars Insight Mission, to be launched by JPL in 2016. TWINS will provide high performance wind and and air temperature measurements for the mission platform TWINS is based on the heritage from REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) on board Curiosity Rover, which has been working successfully on Mars surface since August 2012. The REMS Booms Spare Hardware, comprising the Wind and Temperature Sensors, have been refurbished into TWINS Booms, with enhanced performances in terms of dynamic range and resolution. Its short-term development time and low cost, have shown the capability of REMS design and technologies developed for Curiosity to be adapted to a new mission and new scientific requirements, with increased performances. It is also an example of international cooperation in Planetary Missions that has been carried out in the frame of science instrments within Curiosity and InSight Missions.

  18. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  19. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  20. The effects of aging on insight into illness in schizophrenia: a review†

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, Philip; Plitman, Eric; Rajji, Tarek K.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Impaired insight into illness is a prevalent feature of schizophrenia, which negatively influences treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Little is known about the effects of aging on insight impairment. We aimed to review the available research literature on the effects of aging on insight into illness in schizophrenia, in relation to positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Ultimately, we propose a trajectory of insight in schizophrenia across the lifespan. Method A systematic Medline® literature search was conducted, searching for English language studies describing the relationship of insight into illness in schizophrenia with aging. Results We identified 62 studies. Insight impairment is associated with illness severity, premorbid intellectual function (i.e. IQ), executive function, and memory. Insight impairment improves modestly during midlife, worsening again in late life. It tends to fluctuate with each episode of psychosis, likely in relation to worsening positive symptoms that improve with antipsychotic treatment. The relationship between insight impairment and cognitive dysfunction appears to attenuate with age, while the relationship with lower premorbid intellectual function is preserved. The association between impaired insight and negative symptoms is unclear. Conclusions The available literature suggests that the course of insight impairment follows a U-shaped curve, where insight impairment is severe during the first episode of psychosis, modestly improves over midlife, and declines again in late life. Future studies are required to investigate the trajectory of insight into illness and its core domains across the lifespan from prodromal phase to late life. PMID:25055980

  1. Right Hemispheric Dominance of Creative Insight: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Wangbing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemispheric effect of creative insight. This study used high-density ERPs to record participants' brain activity while they performed an insight task. Results showed that both insight solutions and incomprehension solutions elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N320~550) than noninsight solutions…

  2. The relationship between consumer insight and provider-consumer agreement regarding consumer's quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Kravetz, Shlomo; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Meir, Taly

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between insight and mental health consumers and providers agreement regarding consumers rated quality of life (QoL). Seventy mental health consumers and their 23 care providers filled-out parallel questionnaires designed to measure consumer QoL. Consumers' insight was also assessed. For most QoL domains, agreement between consumers and providers was higher for persons with high insight. For the Psychological well being dimension a negative correlation was uncovered for persons with low insight indicating disagreement between consumer and provider. These findings are discussed within the context of the literature on insight and agreement between consumer and provider as related to the therapeutic alliance.

  3. New insights into the evolutionary history of biological nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Peters, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogenase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), accounts for roughly half of the bioavailable nitrogen supporting extant life. The fundamental requirement for fixed forms of nitrogen for life on Earth, both at present and in the past, has led to broad and significant interest in the origin and evolution of biological N2 fixation. One key question is whether the limited availability of fixed nitrogen was a factor in life's origin or whether there were ample sources of fixed nitrogen produced by abiotic processes or delivered through the weathering of bolide impact materials to support this early life. If the latter, the key questions become what were the characteristics of the environment that precipitated the evolution of this oxygen sensitive process, when did this occur, and how was its subsequent evolutionary history impacted by the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis and the rise of oxygen in the Earth's biosphere. Since the availability of fixed sources of nitrogen capable of supporting early life is difficult to glean from the geologic record, there are limited means to get direct insights into these questions. Indirect insights, however, can be gained through phylogenetic studies of nitrogenase structural gene products and additional gene products involved in the biosynthesis of the complex metal-containing prosthetic groups associated with this enzyme complex. Insights gained from such studies, as reviewed herein, challenge traditional models for the evolution of biological nitrogen fixation and provide the basis for the development of new conceptual models that explain the stepwise evolution of this highly complex life sustaining process. PMID:23935594

  4. Experimental hydrodynamics of fish locomotion: functional insights from wake visualization.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Eliot G; Lauder, George V

    2002-04-01

    Despite enormous progress during the last twenty years in understanding the mechanistic basis of aquatic animal propulsion-a task involving the construction of a substantial data base on patterns of fin and body kinematics and locomotor muscle function-there remains a key area in which biologists have little information: the relationship between propulsor activity and water movement in the wake. How is internal muscular force translated into external force exerted on the water? What is the pattern of fluid force production by different fish fins (e.g., pectoral, caudal, dorsal) and how does swimming force vary with speed and among species? These types of questions have received considerable attention in analyses of terrestrial locomotion where force output by limbs can be measured directly with force plates. But how can forces exerted by animals moving through fluid be measured? The advent of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has provided an experimental hydrodynamic approach for quantifying the locomotor forces of freely moving animals in fluids, and has resulted in significant new insights into the mechanisms of fish propulsion. In this paper we present ten "lessons learned" from the application of DPIV to problems of fish locomotion over the last five years. (1) Three-dimensional DPIV analysis is critical for reconstructing wake geometry. (2) DPIV analysis reveals the orientation of locomotor reaction forces. (3) DPIV analysis allows calculation of the magnitude of locomotor forces. (4) Swimming speed can have a major impact on wake structure. (5) DPIV can reveal interspecific differences in vortex wake morphology. (6) DPIV analysis can provide new insights into the limits to locomotor performance. (7) DPIV demonstrates the functional versatility of fish fins. (8) DPIV reveals hydrodynamic force partitioning among fins. (9) DPIV shows that wake interaction among fins may enhance thrust production. (10) Experimental hydrodynamic analysis can provide

  5. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia: novel insights into the mechanisms of cure.

    PubMed

    de Thé, Hugues; Chen, Zhu

    2010-11-01

    The fusion oncogene, promyelocytic leukaemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor-α (RARA), initiates acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) through both a block to differentiation and increased self-renewal of leukaemic progenitor cells. The current standard of care is retinoic acid (RA) and chemotherapy, but arsenic trioxide also cures many patients with APL, and an RA plus arsenic trioxide combination cures most patients. This Review discusses the recent evidence that reveals surprising new insights into how RA and arsenic trioxide cure this leukaemia, by targeting PML-RARα for degradation. Drug-triggered oncoprotein degradation may be a strategy that is applicable to many cancers.

  6. New Insight into Cataract Formation: Enhanced Stability through Mutual Attraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stradner, A.; Schurtenberger, P.; Foffi, G.; Dorsaz, N.; Thurston, G.

    2007-11-09

    Small-angle neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations combined with an application of concepts from soft matter physics to complex protein mixtures provide new insight into the stability of eye lens protein mixtures. Exploring this colloid-protein analogy we demonstrate that weak attractions between unlike proteins help to maintain lens transparency in an extremely sensitive and nonmonotonic manner. These results not only represent an important step towards a better understanding of protein condensation diseases such as cataract formation, but provide general guidelines for tuning the stability of colloid mixtures, a topic relevant for soft matter physics and industrial applications.

  7. Fluorescein angiography: insight and serendipity a half century ago.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F; Ravin, James G

    2011-07-01

    It has been 50 years since fluorescein angiography was developed as a clinical procedure by 2 medical students at Indiana University. The story of its discovery and the recognition of its value to ophthalmology involve a combination of insight and serendipity. Fluorescein had been in use clinically for more than half a century, but it took a pulmonary medicine laboratory to provide the stimulus for the development of flash and barrier filters that would make vascular photography practical. The first article was rejected by the ophthalmology literature, but several clinics heard about it and soon documented the enormous diagnostic value of the procedure.

  8. Lessons for Health From Insights into Environmental Crises.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon; Poland, Blake

    2016-10-01

    The health of whole populations within nations and globally and the implications of climate change are two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Both are components of a complex global crisis that must be acknowledged and addressed. Here we draw the attention of health professionals to some emerging threats and insights from key works of environmentalists in the hope that these may catalyze reflection on the broader challenges facing human health at a time of deep planetary malaise.

  9. The human selenoproteome: recent insights into functions and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, M. A.; Hoffmann, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a nutritional trace mineral essential for various aspects of human health that exerts its effects mainly through its incorporation into selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Twenty-five selenoprotein genes have been identified in humans and several selenoproteins are broadly classified as antioxidant enzymes. As progress is made on characterizing the individual members of this protein family, however, it is becoming clear that their properties and functions are quite diverse. This review summarizes recent insights into properties of individual selenoproteins such as tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and regulation of expression. Also discussed are potential roles the different selenoproteins play in human health and disease. PMID:19399585

  10. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, John W; Wilson, Jeff M

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are heterogeneous airway diseases of the lower and upper airways, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies indicate that these diseases can be categorized into unique endotypes, which have therapeutic implications. One such endotype is aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which encompasses the triad of asthma, aspirin (or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) hypersensitivity, and nasal polyposis. AERD has unique pathophysiological features that distinguish it from aspirin-tolerant asthma and other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. This review details molecular and cellular features of AERD and highlights current and future therapies that are based on these insights. PMID:27022293

  11. Novel insights into immunotherapy for hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Jahan, Munira; Yoshida, Osamu; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The possible use of immunotherapy for hepatitis B has emerged for two major reasons: (1) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an immune-mediated pathological condition, and (2) commercially available antiviral drugs are of limited efficacy. Although various immunomodulatory agents have been used to treat patients with CHB during the last three decades, there is currently no consensus among physicians and hepatologists regarding the suitability of immunotherapy for patients with CHB. However, new insights into immunotherapy for CHB have emerged; these may facilitate design of effective and tolerable immunotherapy regimens for these patients. This review provides a comprehensive overview of immunotherapy for CHB.

  12. Recently characterized soft tissue tumors that bring biologic insight.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2014-01-01

    Previously unrecognized but clinicopathologically (and often molecularly) distinct types of soft tissue tumor continue to be characterized, allowing wider recognition, more consistent application of diagnostic criteria, more reliable prediction of tumor behavior and enhancement of existing classification schemes. Examples of such 'entities' that have become much better understood over the past decade or so include deep 'benign' fibrous histiocytoma, hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, PEComa, spindle cell liposarcoma, myoepithelial tumors of soft tissue and spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. These tumor types, as well as the insights which they have engendered, are briefly reviewed here.

  13. Opioid receptors: Structural and mechanistic insights into pharmacology and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yi; Filizola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Opioid receptors are important drug targets for pain management, addiction, and mood disorders. Although substantial research on these important subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors has been conducted over the past two decades to discover ligands with higher specificity and diminished side effects, currently used opioid therapeutics remain suboptimal. Luckily, recent advances in structural biology of opioid receptors provide unprecedented insights into opioid receptor pharmacology and signaling. We review here a few recent studies that have used the crystal structures of opioid receptors as a basis for revealing mechanistic details of signal transduction mediated by these receptors, and for the purpose of drug discovery. PMID:25981301

  14. Opioid receptors: Structural and mechanistic insights into pharmacology and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yi; Filizola, Marta

    2015-09-15

    Opioid receptors are important drug targets for pain management, addiction, and mood disorders. Although substantial research on these important subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors has been conducted over the past two decades to discover ligands with higher specificity and diminished side effects, currently used opioid therapeutics remain suboptimal. Luckily, recent advances in structural biology of opioid receptors provide unprecedented insights into opioid receptor pharmacology and signaling. We review here a few recent studies that have used the crystal structures of opioid receptors as a basis for revealing mechanistic details of signal transduction mediated by these receptors, and for the purpose of drug discovery.

  15. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. Over the last 2 yr, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only approx. 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the Brookhaven National Lab. program to develop generic boiling water reactor (BWR) PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs.

  16. Amoebic anal fistula: new insight into an old disease.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vivek; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Mishra, Kiran; Mohanty, Debajyoti

    2014-04-01

    A 67-year-old gentleman underwent fistulectomy for low trans-sphincteric anal fistula along with curettage for an associated abscess extending proximally for half a centimeter into the intersphincteric plane. The roof of the cavity became clearly visible after satisfactory culmination of the surgical procedure. Histopathological examination of the fistulous tract and the curetted granulation tissue revealed presence of multiple trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica exhibiting erythrophagocytosis in the background of mixed inflammatory infiltrate. This case report provides the outlook that yields the novel insight into the possible role of Entamoeba histolytica in the pathogenesis and persistence of the fistulous tract.

  17. New insights into the formation of fungal aromatic polyketides

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Jason M.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal aromatic polyketides constitute a large family of bioactive natural products and are synthesized by the non-reducing group of iterative polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs). Their diverse structures arise from selective enzymatic modifications of reactive enzyme-bound poly-β-keto intermediates. How iterative PKSs control starter unit selection, polyketide chain initiation and elongation, intermediate folding and cyclization, selective redox or modification reactions during assembly, and product release are central mechanistic questions underlying iterative catalysis. This review highlights recent insights into these questions, with a particular focus on the biosynthetic programming of fungal aromatic polyketides, and draws comparisons to the allied biosynthetic processes in bacteria. PMID:21079635

  18. Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-02-01

    Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research.

  19. Stroke rehabilitation 2009: old chestnuts and new insights.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Lalit

    2010-02-01

    The past year has continued to see growth in stroke rehabilitation literature, ranging from important insights into the basic science of stroke recovery to broader multidisciplinary aspects aimed at improving global quality of life in stroke survivors. The areas that particularly stand out include 1) new evidence on old treatment strategies in clinical rehabilitation; 2) developments in the treatment of "neglected" impairments, such as hemianopia and sensory loss; 3) evaluation of the use of technology in stroke rehabilitation; and 4) advances in neurorestorative treatments after stroke.

  20. New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Lionakis, Michail S

    2014-08-01

    Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic disorders in antifungal immune factors that are associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to the infection have provided new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of protective innate immune responses against Candida. In this review, the new developments in our understanding of how the mammalian immune system responds to systemic Candida challenge are synthesized and important future research directions are highlighted.

  1. How Does the Mind Work? Insights from Biology

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive scientists must understand not just what the mind does, but how it does what it does. In this paper, I consider four aspects of cognitive architecture: how the mind develops, the extent to which it is or is not modular, the extent to which it is or is not optimal, and the extent to which it should or should not be considered a symbol-manipulating device (as opposed to, say, an eliminative connectionist network). In each case, I argue that insights from developmental and evolutionary biology can lead to substantive and important compromises in historically vexed debates. PMID:19890489

  2. New insights into the molecular mechanisms of general anaesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Chau, P-L

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new insights of how general anaesthetic research should be carried out in the future by an analysis of what we know, what we do not know and what we would like to know. I describe previous hypotheses on the mechanism of action of general anaesthetics (GAs) involving membranes and protein receptors. I provide the reasons why the GABA type A receptor, the NMDA receptor and the glycine receptor are strong candidates for the sites of action of GAs. I follow with a review on attempts to provide a mechanism of action, and how future research should be conducted with the help of physical and chemical methods. PMID:20735416

  3. The attentive brain: insights from developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Amso, Dima; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-10-01

    Visual attention functions as a filter to select environmental information for learning and memory, making it the first step in the eventual cascade of thought and action systems. Here, we review studies of typical and atypical visual attention development and explain how they offer insights into the mechanisms of adult visual attention. We detail interactions between visual processing and visual attention, as well as the contribution of visual attention to memory. Finally, we discuss genetic mechanisms underlying attention disorders and how attention may be modified by training.

  4. Big Data-Led Cancer Research, Application, and Insights.

    PubMed

    Brown, James A L; Ni Chonghaile, Triona; Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-11-01

    Insights distilled from integrating multiple big-data or "omic" datasets have revealed functional hierarchies of molecular networks driving tumorigenesis and modifiers of treatment response. Identifying these novel key regulatory and dysregulated elements is now informing personalized medicine. Crucially, although there are many advantages to this approach, there are several key considerations to address. Here, we examine how this big data-led approach is impacting many diverse areas of cancer research, through review of the key presentations given at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Meeting and importantly how the results may be applied to positively affect patient outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6167-70. ©2016 AACR.

  5. Cucurbitacins – An insight into medicinal leads from nature

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ujjwal; Aeri, Vidhu; Mir, Showkat R.

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins which are structurally diverse triterpenes found in the members of Cucurbitaceae and several other plant families possess immense pharmacological potential. This diverse group of compounds may prove to be important lead molecules for future research. Research focused on these unattended medicinal leads from the nature can prove to be of immense significance in generating scientifically validated data with regard to their efficacy and possible role in various diseases. This review is aimed to provide an insight into the chemical nature and medicinal potential of these compounds exploring their proposed mode of action, probable molecular targets and to have an outlook on future directions of their use as medicinal agents. PMID:26009687

  6. Virus discovery and recent insights into virus diversity in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Drosten, Christian

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies on virus discovery have focused mainly on mammalian and avian viruses. Arbovirology with its long tradition of ecologically oriented investigation is now catching up, with important novel insights into the diversity of arthropod-associated viruses. Recent discoveries include taxonomically outlying viruses within the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, and even novel virus families within the order Nidovirales. However, the current focusing of studies on blood-feeding arthropods has restricted the range of arthropod hosts analyzed for viruses so far. Future investigations should include species from other arthropod taxa than Ixodita, Culicidae and Phlebotominae in order to shed light on the true diversity of arthropod viruses.

  7. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  8. Insights into the role of patents in R&D.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst has called on a group of international experts to explore key themes relating to intellectual property within the context of the fields of medical and pharmaceutical science. Topics include a reflection on how worrying the patent cliff really is, and adapting to life beyond it; to the ways in which social media is affecting how lawyers share information, and steps for protecting IP against the risks posed by hacking and cybersurveillance. We hope you enjoy these insightful contributions. Commissioned and edited by Gino D'Oca, Head of Commissioning.

  9. Structural and mechanistic insights into hepatitis C viral translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Christopher S; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus uses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to control viral protein synthesis by directly recruiting ribosomes to the translation-start site in the viral mRNA. Structural insights coupled with biochemical studies have revealed that the IRES substitutes for the activities of translation-initiation factors by binding and inducing conformational changes in the 40S ribosomal subunit. Direct interactions of the IRES with initiation factor eIF3 are also crucial for efficient translation initiation, providing clues to the role of eIF3 in protein synthesis.

  10. Brief report: Insight into illness and social attributional style in Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Shad, Mujeeb U; Kandalaft, Michelle R; Allen, Tandra T; Tamminga, Carol A; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Chapman, Sandra B

    2012-12-01

    A number of psychiatric illnesses have been recognized to have some level of insight deficits, including developmental disorders, such as Asperger's Syndrome (ASP). However insight into illness has not been empirically investigated in ASP and little research has examined how individuals with ASP view their deficits. This is the first study to assess insight and the relationship between insight and externalizing bias (EB) in ASP. Participants with ASP (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 24) were recruited. Attributional style was assessed with the internal, personal, and situational attribution questionnaire. Insight was assessed with both a clinician-administered and a self-administered measure. Results revealed that EB was negatively correlated with insight as assessed with the clinician-administered but not the self-administered measure of insight.

  11. Categories of Insight and Their Correlates: An Exploration of Relationships among Classic-Type Insight Problems, Rebus Puzzles, Remote Associates and Esoteric Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.; Gibb, Jenny; Haar, Jarrod

    2009-01-01

    A central question in creativity concerns how insightful ideas emerge. Anecdotal examples of insightful scientific and technical discoveries include Goodyear's discovery of the vulcanization of rubber, and Mendeleev's realization that there may be gaps as he tried to arrange the elements into the Periodic Table. Although most people would regard…

  12. Patterns of cetacean vaginal folds yield insights into functionality

    PubMed Central

    Orbach, Dara N.; Marshall, Christopher D.; Mesnick, Sarah L.; Würsig, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Complex foldings of the vaginal wall are unique to some cetaceans and artiodactyls and are of unknown function(s). The patterns of vaginal length and cumulative vaginal fold length were assessed in relation to body length and to each other in a phylogenetic context to derive insights into functionality. The reproductive tracts of 59 female cetaceans (20 species, 6 families) were dissected. Phylogenetically-controlled reduced major axis regressions were used to establish a scaling trend for the female genitalia of cetaceans. An unparalleled level of vaginal diversity within a mammalian order was found. Vaginal folds varied in number and size across species, and vaginal fold length was positively allometric with body length. Vaginal length was not a significant predictor of vaginal fold length. Functional hypotheses regarding the role of vaginal folds and the potential selection pressures that could lead to evolution of these structures are discussed. Vaginal folds may present physical barriers, which obscure the pathway of seawater and/or sperm travelling through the vagina. This study contributes broad insights to the evolution of reproductive morphology and aquatic adaptations and lays the foundation for future functional morphology analyses. PMID:28362830

  13. Atmospheric Seismology on Mars with InSight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, L. M.; Larmat, C. S.; Remillieux, M.; Karakostas, F. G.; Dessa, J. X.; Garcia, R.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. This mission is planned to be launched in March 2016, with first data return expected by the end of the year. Meteorological sensors onboard the lander will provide a continuous dataset of pressure, air temperature and wind speed and direction. The unprecedented sensitivity of the pressure sensor should allow catching signatures of a breath of infrasound sources from bolides to dust devils. In this presentation, we will show how acoustic and gravity waves propagation in the atmosphere of Mars, that is not only much more tenuous (~ 6 mbar) than the Earth atmosphere but also CO2-rich and extremely windy. This demonstration will make use of acoustic ray tracing through an atmosphere modeled using the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MarsGram-2010) and also of the Spectral Element Method and normal modes summation for cross-benchmarking. In particular, the latter method allows the integration of dissipation processes due to viscosity and CO2 relaxation. We will evaluate the maturity of the diverse numerical tools to model real Earth data, selected among ionospheric observations of chemical surface explosions, volcano eruptions and earthquakes. Eventually, we will investigate the efficiency of potential external sources to excite seismic waves to be sensed by the Insight seismometer SEIS and thus illuminating the interior of the planet.

  14. Unanticipated Insights into Biomedicine from the Study of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R.; Davis, Robert T.; Harris, Richard E.; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M.; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J.; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M.; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies. PMID:26745452

  15. Insights from advanced analytics at the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Fihn, Stephan D; Francis, Joseph; Clancy, Carolyn; Nielson, Christopher; Nelson, Karin; Rumsfeld, John; Cullen, Theresa; Bates, Jack; Graham, Gail L

    2014-07-01

    Health care has lagged behind other industries in its use of advanced analytics. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has three decades of experience collecting data about the veterans it serves nationwide through locally developed information systems that use a common electronic health record. In 2006 the VHA began to build its Corporate Data Warehouse, a repository for patient-level data aggregated from across the VHA's national health system. This article provides a high-level overview of the VHA's evolution toward "big data," defined as the rapid evolution of applying advanced tools and approaches to large, complex, and rapidly changing data sets. It illustrates how advanced analysis is already supporting the VHA's activities, which range from routine clinical care of individual patients--for example, monitoring medication administration and predicting risk of adverse outcomes--to evaluating a systemwide initiative to bring the principles of the patient-centered medical home to all veterans. The article also shares some of the challenges, concerns, insights, and responses that have emerged along the way, such as the need to smoothly integrate new functions into clinical workflow. While the VHA is unique in many ways, its experience may offer important insights for other health care systems nationwide as they venture into the realm of big data.

  16. Emerging Mechanistic Insights into AAA Complexes Regulating Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M.; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates. The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases, shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship. Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

  17. Membrane Active Antimicrobial Peptides: Translating Mechanistic Insights to Design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianguo; Koh, Jun-Jie; Liu, Shouping; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Verma, Chandra S.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising next generation antibiotics that hold great potential for combating bacterial resistance. AMPs can be both bacteriostatic and bactericidal, induce rapid killing and display a lower propensity to develop resistance than do conventional antibiotics. Despite significant progress in the past 30 years, no peptide antibiotic has reached the clinic yet. Poor understanding of the action mechanisms and lack of rational design principles have been the two major obstacles that have slowed progress. Technological developments are now enabling multidisciplinary approaches including molecular dynamics simulations combined with biophysics and microbiology toward providing valuable insights into the interactions of AMPs with membranes at atomic level. This has led to increasingly robust models of the mechanisms of action of AMPs and has begun to contribute meaningfully toward the discovery of new AMPs. This review discusses the detailed action mechanisms that have been put forward, with detailed atomistic insights into how the AMPs interact with bacterial membranes. The review further discusses how this knowledge is exploited toward developing design principles for novel AMPs. Finally, the current status, associated challenges, and future directions for the development of AMP therapeutics are discussed. PMID:28261050

  18. An insight of traditional plasmid curing in Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    As the causative agent of foodborne related illness, Vibrio species causes a huge impact on the public health and management. Vibrio species is often associated with seafood as the latter plays a role as a vehicle to transmit bacterial infections. Hence, antibiotics are used not to promote growth but rather to prevent and treat bacterial infections. The extensive use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry and environment has led to the emerging of antibiotic resistant strains. This phenomenon has triggered an alarming public health concern due to the increase number of pathogenic Vibrio strains that are resistant to clinically used antibiotics and is found in the environment. Antibiotic resistance and the genes location in the strains can be detected through plasmid curing assay. The results derived from plasmid curing assay is fast, cost effective, sufficient in providing insights, and influence the antibiotic management policies in the aquaculture industry. This presentation aims in discussing and providing insights on various curing agents in Vibrio species. To our best of knowledge, this is a first review written discussing on plasmid curing in Vibrio species.

  19. Cyclone Center: Insights on Historical Tropical Cyclones from Citizen Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, P.; Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K. R.; Schreck, C. J., III; Stevens, S. E.; Kossin, J. P.; Rennie, J.; Hennon, P. A.; Kruk, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cyclonecenter.org project started in fall 2012 and has been collecting citizen scientist volunteer tropical cyclone intensity estimates ever since. The project is hosted by the Citizen Science Alliance (zooniverse) and the platform is supported by a range of scientists. We have over 30 years of satellite imagery of tropical cyclones but the analysis to date has been done on an ocean-basin by ocean-basin basis and worse still practices have changed over time. We therefore do not, presently, have a homogeneous record relevant for discerning climatic changes. Automated techniques can classify many of the images but have a propensity to be challenged during storm transitions. The problem is fundamentally one where many pairs of eyes are invaluable as there is no substitute for human eyes in discerning patterns. Each image is classified by ten unique users before it is retired. This provides a unique insight into the uncertainty inherent in classification. In the three years of the project much useful data has accrued. This presentation shall highlight some of the results and analyses to date and touch on insights as to what has worked and what perhaps has not worked so well. There are still many images left to complete so its far from too late to jump over to www.cyclonecenter.org and help out.

  20. Unanticipated Insights into Biomedicine from the Study of Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Hugh; Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R; Davis, Robert T; Harris, Richard E; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-02-01

    Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies.

  1. Patterns of cetacean vaginal folds yield insights into functionality.

    PubMed

    Orbach, Dara N; Marshall, Christopher D; Mesnick, Sarah L; Würsig, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Complex foldings of the vaginal wall are unique to some cetaceans and artiodactyls and are of unknown function(s). The patterns of vaginal length and cumulative vaginal fold length were assessed in relation to body length and to each other in a phylogenetic context to derive insights into functionality. The reproductive tracts of 59 female cetaceans (20 species, 6 families) were dissected. Phylogenetically-controlled reduced major axis regressions were used to establish a scaling trend for the female genitalia of cetaceans. An unparalleled level of vaginal diversity within a mammalian order was found. Vaginal folds varied in number and size across species, and vaginal fold length was positively allometric with body length. Vaginal length was not a significant predictor of vaginal fold length. Functional hypotheses regarding the role of vaginal folds and the potential selection pressures that could lead to evolution of these structures are discussed. Vaginal folds may present physical barriers, which obscure the pathway of seawater and/or sperm travelling through the vagina. This study contributes broad insights to the evolution of reproductive morphology and aquatic adaptations and lays the foundation for future functional morphology analyses.

  2. Repeat instability during DNA repair: Insights from model systems

    PubMed Central

    Usdin, Karen; House, Nealia C. M.; Freudenreich, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of repeated sequences is the cause of over 30 inherited genetic diseases, including Huntington disease, myotonic dystrophy (types 1 and 2), fragile X syndrome, many spinocerebellar ataxias, and some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Repeat expansions are dynamic, and disease inheritance and progression are influenced by the size and the rate of expansion. Thus, an understanding of the various cellular mechanisms that cooperate to control or promote repeat expansions is of interest to human health. In addition, the study of repeat expansion and contraction mechanisms has provided insight into how repair pathways operate in the context of structure-forming DNA, as well as insights into non-canonical roles for repair proteins. Here we review the mechanisms of repeat instability, with a special emphasis on the knowledge gained from the various model systems that have been developed to study this topic. We cover the repair pathways and proteins that operate to maintain genome stability, or in some cases cause instability, and the cross-talk and interactions between them. PMID:25608779

  3. New insights into TB physiology suggest untapped therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Christina E.; Rubin, Eric J.; Sassetti, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The current drug regimens used to treat tuberculosis are largely comprised of serendipitously discovered drugs that are combined based on clinical experience. Despite curing millions, these drug regimens are limited by the long course of therapy, the emergence of resistance, and permanent tissue damage. The last two decades have produced only a single new drug but have represented a renaissance in our understanding of the physiology of TB infection. The advent of mycobacterial genetics, sophisticated immunological methods, and imaging technologies has transformed our understanding of bacterial physiology as well as the contribution of the host response to disease outcome. Specific alterations in bacterial metabolism, heterogeneity in bacterial state, and drug penetration all limit the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. This review summarizes these new biological insights and discusses strategies to exploit them for the rational development of more effective therapeutics. Three general strategies are discussed. First, our emerging insight into bacterial physiology suggests new pathways that might be targeted to accelerate therapy. Second, we explore whether the concept of genetic synergy can be used to design effective combination therapies. Finally, we outline possible approaches to modulate the host response to accentuate antibiotic efficacy. These biology-driven strategies promise to produce more effective therapies. PMID:25703570

  4. Insights into phase transitions and entanglement from density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has met great success in solid state physics, quantum chemistry and in computational material sciences. In this work we show that DFT could shed light on phase transitions and entanglement at finite temperatures. Specifically, we show that the equilibrium state of an interacting quantum many-body system which is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath at a fixed temperature is a universal functional of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters respectively. This insight from DFT enables us to express the average value of any physical observable and any entanglement measure as a universal functional of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters. Since phase transitions are marked by the nonanalytic behavior of free energy with respect to control parameters, the physical quantities and entanglement measures may present nonanalytic behavior at critical point inherited from their dependence on the first derivative of free energy. We use two solvable models to demonstrate these ideas. These results give new insights for phase transitions and provide new profound connections between entanglement and phase transitions in interacting quantum many-body physics.

  5. Quantum-chemical insights from deep tensor neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Schütt, Kristof T.; Arbabzadah, Farhad; Chmiela, Stefan; Müller, Klaus R.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Learning from data has led to paradigm shifts in a multitude of disciplines, including web, text and image search, speech recognition, as well as bioinformatics. Can machine learning enable similar breakthroughs in understanding quantum many-body systems? Here we develop an efficient deep learning approach that enables spatially and chemically resolved insights into quantum-mechanical observables of molecular systems. We unify concepts from many-body Hamiltonians with purpose-designed deep tensor neural networks, which leads to size-extensive and uniformly accurate (1 kcal mol−1) predictions in compositional and configurational chemical space for molecules of intermediate size. As an example of chemical relevance, the model reveals a classification of aromatic rings with respect to their stability. Further applications of our model for predicting atomic energies and local chemical potentials in molecules, reliable isomer energies, and molecules with peculiar electronic structure demonstrate the potential of machine learning for revealing insights into complex quantum-chemical systems. PMID:28067221

  6. Simulations in Medicine and Biology: Insights and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology have been transformed into quantitative sciences of high complexity, with challenging objectives. The aims of medicine are related to early diagnosis, effective therapy, accurate intervention, real time monitoring, procedures/systems/instruments optimization, error reduction, and knowledge extraction. Concurrently, following the explosive production of biological data concerning DNA, RNA, and protein biomolecules, a plethora of questions has been raised in relation to their structure and function, the interactions between them, their relationships and dependencies, their regulation and expression, their location, and their thermodynamic characteristics. Furthermore, the interplay between medicine and biology gives rise to fields like molecular medicine and systems biology which are further interconnected with physics, mathematics, informatics, and engineering. Modelling and simulation is a powerful tool in the fields of Medicine and Biology. Simulating the phenomena hidden inside a diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedure, we are able to obtain control on the whole system and perform multilevel optimization. Furthermore, modelling and simulation gives insights in the various scales of biological representation, facilitating the understanding of the huge amounts of derived data and the related mechanisms behind them. Several examples, as well as the insights and the perspectives of simulations in biomedicine will be presented.

  7. Fish locomotion: insights from both simple and complex mechanical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2015-11-01

    Fishes are well-known for their ability to swim and maneuver effectively in the water, and recent years have seen great progress in understanding the hydrodynamics of aquatic locomotion. But studying freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. Mechanical models of aquatic locomotion have many advantages over studying live animals, including the ability to manipulate and control individual structural or kinematic factors, easier measurement of forces and torques, and the ability to abstract complex animal designs into simpler components. Such simplifications, while not without their drawbacks, facilitate interpretation of how individual traits alter swimming performance and the discovery of underlying physical principles. In this presentation I will discuss the use of a variety of mechanical models for fish locomotion, ranging from simple flexing panels to complex biomimetic designs incorporating flexible, actively moved, fin rays on multiple fins. Mechanical devices have provided great insight into the dynamics of aquatic propulsion and, integrated with studies of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes, provide new insights into how fishes move through the water.

  8. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  9. Insights on why graphic correlation (Shaw's method) works.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1964 A.B.Shaw presented a method of correlating fossilferous sedimentary rocks based on interpretation of graphic plots of first- and last-occurrences of taxa. Because there is no way to determine the true total ranges of fossil taxa, it is instructive to test the accuracy of the method using hypothetical datasets. The dataset used here consists of 16 taxa in six sections with differing known rates of rock accumulation. In all graphs, a single straight-line correlation was a reasonable interpretation. The resulting ranges after the first and third rounds of compositing reproduce the 'true' ranges but with small errors. Slight errors in the positioning of individual correlation lines are more likely to lengthen ranges artificially than to shorten them. Shaw's method works well because, whereas actually sampled ranges will be shorter than true ranges, errors in correlation will be likely to extend some ranges. This or any exercise using simulated data is useful only if the hypothetical situation resembles real geologic situations and if insights derived from the hypothetical dataset provide insights into real situations. The method is only as good as the available data. -Author

  10. Mechanistic insights into influenza vaccine-associated narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S. Sohail; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported an increased frequency of antibodies to hypocretin (HCRT) receptor 2 in sera obtained from narcoleptic patients who received the European AS03-adjuvanted vaccine Pandemrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, s.a.) for the global influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09]. These antibodies cross-reacted with a particular fragment of influenza nucleoprotein (NP) – one of the proteins naturally contained in the virus used to make seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic influenza vaccines. The purpose of this commentary is to provide additional insights and interpretations of the findings and share additional data not presented in the original paper to help the reader appreciate the key messages of that publication. First, a brief background to narcolepsy and vaccine-induced narcolepsy will be provided. Then, additional insights and clarification will be provided on the following topics: 1) the critical difference identified in the adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, 2) the contributing factor likely for the discordant association of narcolepsy between the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccines Pandemrix and Arepanrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, s.a.), 3) the significance of detecting HCRT receptor 2 (HCRTr2) antibodies in some Finnish control subjects, 4) the approach used for the detection of HCRTr2 antibodies in vaccine-associated narcolepsy, and 5) the plausibility of the proposed mechanism involving HCRTr2 modulation in vaccine-associated narcolepsy. PMID:27031682

  11. Mechanistic insights into acyclovir-polyethylene glycol 20000 binary dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Venkateskumar, Krishnamoorthy; Parasuraman, Subramani; Gunasunderi, Raju; Sureshkumar, Krishnan; Nayak, M. Muralidhar; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Kassen, Khoo; Kai, Heng Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to provide a mechanistic insight into solubility enhancement and dissolution of acyclovir (ACY) by polyethylene glycol20000 (PEG20000). Materials and Methods: Solid dispersions with differing ratios of drug (ACY) and carrier (PEG20000) were prepared and evaluated by phase solubility, in vitro release studies, kinetic analysis, in situ perfusion, and in vitro permeation studies. Solid state characterization was also done by Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and surface morphology was assessed by Polarizing Microscopic Image (PMI) analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. Results: Thermodynamic parameters proved the solubilization effect of carrier. The aqueous solubility and dissolution of ACY were increased in all samples. Formation of solid solution, crystallinity reduction, and absence of interaction between drug and carrier was proved by XRD, DSC, and FTIR analysis. The particle size reduction and change in surface morphology were confirmed by SEM and AFM and analysis. The permeation coefficient and amount of drug diffused was higher in samples as compared to ACY. The stability was high in dispersions, and it was proved by NMR analysis. Conclusion: The mechanical insights into the enhancement of solubility and dissolution could be used as a platform to improve the aqueous solubility for other poor water soluble drugs. PMID:28123988

  12. Can observing a Necker cube make you more insightful?

    PubMed

    Laukkonen, Ruben E; Tangen, Jason M

    2017-02-01

    It is a compelling idea that an image as simple as a Necker cube, or a duck-rabbit illusion, can reveal something about a person's creativity. Surprisingly, there are now multiple examples showing that people who are better at discovering 'hidden' images in a picture, are also better at solving some creative problems. Although this idea goes back at least a century, little is known about how these two tasks-that seem so different on the surface-are related to each other. At least some forms of creativity (and indeed scientific discoveries) may require that we change our perspectives in order to discover a novel solution to a problem. It's possible that such problems involve a similar cognitive process, and perhaps the same cognitive capacities, as switching perspectives in an ambiguous image. We begin by replicating previous work, and also show metacognitive similarities between the sudden appearance of hidden images in consciousness, and the sudden appearance of solutions to verbal insight problems. We then show that simply observing a Necker cube can improve subsequent creative problem-solving and lead to more self-reported insights. We speculate that these results may in part be explained by Conflict Monitoring Theory.

  13. Structural and functional insights into asymmetric enzymatic dehydration of alkenols.

    PubMed

    Nestl, Bettina M; Geinitz, Christopher; Popa, Stephanie; Rizek, Sari; Haselbeck, Robert J; Stephen, Rosary; Noble, Michael A; Fischer, Max-Philipp; Ralph, Erik C; Hau, Hoi Ting; Man, Henry; Omar, Muhiadin; Turkenburg, Johan P; van Dien, Stephen; Culler, Stephanie J; Grogan, Gideon; Hauer, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    The asymmetric dehydration of alcohols is an important process for the direct synthesis of alkenes. We report the structure and substrate specificity of the bifunctional linalool dehydratase isomerase (LinD) from the bacterium Castellaniella defragrans that catalyzes in nature the hydration of β-myrcene to linalool and the subsequent isomerization to geraniol. Enzymatic kinetic resolutions of truncated and elongated aromatic and aliphatic tertiary alcohols (C5-C15) that contain a specific signature motif demonstrate the broad substrate specificity of LinD. The three-dimensional structure of LinD from Castellaniella defragrans revealed a pentamer with active sites at the protomer interfaces. Furthermore, the structure of LinD in complex with the product geraniol provides initial mechanistic insights into this bifunctional enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed active site amino acid residues essential for its dehydration and isomerization activity. These structural and mechanistic insights facilitate the development of hydrating catalysts, enriching the toolbox for novel bond-forming biocatalysis.

  14. Genomics in Coccidioides: insights into evolution, ecology, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Whiston, Emily; Taylor, John W

    2014-02-01

    Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, the causative agents of the mammalian disease coccidioidomycosis, are dimorphic fungal pathogens distributed throughout desert-like environments in North and South America. Coccidioides spp. are members of the Onygenales, a diverse group of pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi. Recently, full genomes have been published for Coccidioides and a number of other Onygenales species. Phylogenomic comparisons and additional studies in Coccidioides population genomics and gene expression have shed light on the ecology and pathogenesis of Coccidioides and the other medically important species in this clade. Observed patterns of gene family expansion/contraction and evidence of gene flow have provided insight to the evolution of Coccidioides and greatly broadened our understanding of the diversity and sources of genetic variation found in fungi. In the future, expansion of the number of sequenced isolates from all populations will allow deeper insight into the evolutionary processes that have shaped this unique human pathogen. In addition, deep sequencing of isolates from a single Coccidioides population and pairing of those data with phenotype information on growth and pathogenicity for genome-wide association analysis will allow researchers to find genes responsible for any phenotype, virulence included, that shows variation in the population.

  15. Big Data Offers Novel Insights for Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Stephanie L.; Stojdl, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale assays, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing and various “omics” technologies, have explored multiple aspects of the immune response following virus infection, often from a public health perspective. Yet a lack of similar data exists for monitoring immune engagement during oncolytic virus immunotherapy (OVIT) in the cancer setting. Tracking immune signatures at the tumour site can create a snapshot or longitudinally analyse immune cell activation, infiltration and functionality within global populations or individual cells. Mapping immune changes over the course of oncolytic biotherapy—from initial infection to tumour stabilisation/regression through to long-term cure or escape/relapse—has the potential to generate important therapeutic insights around virus-host interactions. Further, correlating such immune signatures with specific tumour outcomes has significant value for guiding the development of novel oncolytic virus immunotherapy strategies. Here, we provide insights for OVIT from large-scale analyses of immune populations in the infection, vaccination and immunotherapy setting. We analyse several approaches to manipulating immune engagement during OVIT. We further explore immunocentric changes in the tumour tissue following immunotherapy, and compile several immune signatures of therapeutic success. Ultimately, we highlight clinically relevant large-scale approaches with the potential to strengthen future oncolytic strategies to optimally engage the immune system. PMID:26861383

  16. Membrane Active Antimicrobial Peptides: Translating Mechanistic Insights to Design.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Koh, Jun-Jie; Liu, Shouping; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Verma, Chandra S; Beuerman, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising next generation antibiotics that hold great potential for combating bacterial resistance. AMPs can be both bacteriostatic and bactericidal, induce rapid killing and display a lower propensity to develop resistance than do conventional antibiotics. Despite significant progress in the past 30 years, no peptide antibiotic has reached the clinic yet. Poor understanding of the action mechanisms and lack of rational design principles have been the two major obstacles that have slowed progress. Technological developments are now enabling multidisciplinary approaches including molecular dynamics simulations combined with biophysics and microbiology toward providing valuable insights into the interactions of AMPs with membranes at atomic level. This has led to increasingly robust models of the mechanisms of action of AMPs and has begun to contribute meaningfully toward the discovery of new AMPs. This review discusses the detailed action mechanisms that have been put forward, with detailed atomistic insights into how the AMPs interact with bacterial membranes. The review further discusses how this knowledge is exploited toward developing design principles for novel AMPs. Finally, the current status, associated challenges, and future directions for the development of AMP therapeutics are discussed.

  17. An insight of traditional plasmid curing in Vibrio species

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    As the causative agent of foodborne related illness, Vibrio species causes a huge impact on the public health and management. Vibrio species is often associated with seafood as the latter plays a role as a vehicle to transmit bacterial infections. Hence, antibiotics are used not to promote growth but rather to prevent and treat bacterial infections. The extensive use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry and environment has led to the emerging of antibiotic resistant strains. This phenomenon has triggered an alarming public health concern due to the increase number of pathogenic Vibrio strains that are resistant to clinically used antibiotics and is found in the environment. Antibiotic resistance and the genes location in the strains can be detected through plasmid curing assay. The results derived from plasmid curing assay is fast, cost effective, sufficient in providing insights, and influence the antibiotic management policies in the aquaculture industry. This presentation aims in discussing and providing insights on various curing agents in Vibrio species. To our best of knowledge, this is a first review written discussing on plasmid curing in Vibrio species. PMID:26347714

  18. Oximetry: recent insights into retinal vasopathies and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Boeckaert, J; Vandewalle, E; Stalmans, I

    2012-01-01

    This review will highlight a new technology and recent insights into measuring retinal oxygen saturation in several ophthalmic diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that disturbances in retinal blood flow and oxygenation are related to several retinopathies and glaucoma, which can severely impair vision. The retinal oximeter may allow researchers and physicians to gain deeper insights into retinal physiology and clarify the impact of ischemia on retinal health and function. There are two commercially available systems to measure retinal oxygen saturation: the Oxymap retinal oximeter (Reykjavik, Iceland) and the Imedos Systems UG (Jena, Germany). In this review we will focus on the results obtained with Oxymap. Direct and non-invasive measurement of retinal oxygen saturation have potentially useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications in various eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, central retinal vein and artery occlusion, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Despite several limitations, oxygen saturation assessment in the retinal vessels is a significant advancement in the understanding of ocular diseases. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to validate the use of oximetry in retinal vasopathies and glaucoma.

  19. Do people have insight into their face recognition abilities?

    PubMed

    Palermo, Romina; Rossion, Bruno; Rhodes, Gillian; Laguesse, Renaud; Tez, Tolga; Hall, Bronwyn; Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta; Irons, Jessica; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Taylor, Libby C; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor

    2017-02-01

    Diagnosis of developmental or congenital prosopagnosia (CP) involves self-report of everyday face recognition difficulties, which are corroborated with poor performance on behavioural tests. This approach requires accurate self-evaluation. We examine the extent to which typical adults have insight into their face recognition abilities across four experiments involving nearly 300 participants. The experiments used five tests of face recognition ability: two that tap into the ability to learn and recognize previously unfamiliar faces [the Cambridge Face Memory Test, CFMT; Duchaine, B., & Nakayama, K. (2006). The Cambridge Face Memory Test: Results for neurologically intact individuals and an investigation of its validity using inverted face stimuli and prosopagnosic participants. Neuropsychologia, 44(4), 576-585. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.07.001; and a newly devised test based on the CFMT but where the study phases involve watching short movies rather than viewing static faces-the CFMT-Films] and three that tap face matching [Benton Facial Recognition Test, BFRT; Benton, A., Sivan, A., Hamsher, K., Varney, N., & Spreen, O. (1983). Contribution to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press; and two recently devised sequential face matching tests]. Self-reported ability was measured with the 15-item Kennerknecht et al. questionnaire [Kennerknecht, I., Ho, N. Y., & Wong, V. C. (2008). Prevalence of hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA) in Hong Kong Chinese population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 146A(22), 2863-2870. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32552]; two single-item questions assessing face recognition ability; and a new 77-item meta-cognition questionnaire. Overall, we find that adults with typical face recognition abilities have only modest insight into their ability to recognize faces on behavioural tests. In a fifth experiment, we assess self-reported face recognition ability in people with CP and find that some people who expect to

  20. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-30

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  1. Gaining insights from social media language: Methodologies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Park, Gregory; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Smith, Laura K; Ungar, Lyle H

    2016-12-01

    Language data available through social media provide opportunities to study people at an unprecedented scale. However, little guidance is available to psychologists who want to enter this area of research. Drawing on tools and techniques developed in natural language processing, we first introduce psychologists to social media language research, identifying descriptive and predictive analyses that language data allow. Second, we describe how raw language data can be accessed and quantified for inclusion in subsequent analyses, exploring personality as expressed on Facebook to illustrate. Third, we highlight challenges and issues to be considered, including accessing and processing the data, interpreting effects, and ethical issues. Social media has become a valuable part of social life, and there is much we can learn by bringing together the tools of computer science with the theories and insights of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome: insights from monogenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rinki; Carroll, Richard W; Krebs, Jeremy D

    2013-01-01

    Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1) severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2) pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3) severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.

  3. "Omics" Insights into PAH Degradation toward Improved Green Remediation Biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    El Amrani, Abdelhak; Dumas, Anne-Sophie; Wick, Lukas Y; Yergeau, Etienne; Berthomé, Richard

    2015-10-06

    This review summarizes recent knowledge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biotransformation by microorganisms and plants. Whereas most research has focused on PAH degradation either by plants or microorganisms separately, this review specifically addresses the interactions of plants with their rhizosphere microbial communities. Indeed, plant roots release exudates that contain various nutritional and signaling molecules that influence bacterial and fungal populations. The complex interactions of these populations play a pivotal role in the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs and other complex molecules. Emerging integrative approaches, such as (meta-) genomics, (meta-) transcriptomics, (meta-) metabolomics, and (meta-) proteomics studies are discussed, emphasizing how "omics" approaches bring new insight into decipher molecular mechanisms of PAH degradation both at the single species and community levels. Such knowledge address new pictures on how organic molecules are cometabolically degraded in a complex ecosystem and should help in setting up novel decontamination strategies based on the rhizosphere interactions between plants and their microbial associates.

  4. Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Marina; Farcot, Etienne; Vernoux, Teva

    2013-02-01

    Recent years have seen an impressive increase in our knowledge of the topology of plant hormone signaling networks. The complexity of these topologies has motivated the development of models for several hormones to aid understanding of how signaling networks process hormonal inputs. Such work has generated essential insights into the mechanisms of hormone perception and of regulation of cellular responses such as transcription in response to hormones. In addition, modeling approaches have contributed significantly to exploring how spatio-temporal regulation of hormone signaling contributes to plant growth and patterning. New tools have also been developed to obtain quantitative information on hormone distribution during development and to test model predictions, opening the way for quantitative understanding of the developmental roles of hormones.

  5. Aesthetics and ethics in engineering: insights from Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Dias, Priyan

    2011-06-01

    Polanyi insisted that scientific knowledge was intensely personal in nature, though held with universal intent. His insights regarding the personal values of beauty and morality in science are first enunciated. These are then explored for their relevance to engineering. It is shown that the practice of engineering is also governed by aesthetics and ethics. For example, Polanyi's three spheres of morality in science--that of the individual scientist, the scientific community and the wider society--has parallel entities in engineering. The existence of shared values in engineering is also demonstrated, in aesthetics through an example that shows convergence of practitioner opinion to solutions that represent accepted models of aesthetics; and in ethics through the recognition that many professional engineering institutions hold that the safety of the public supersedes the interests of the client. Such professional consensus can be seen as justification for studying engineering aesthetics and ethics as inter-subjective disciplines.

  6. Consciousness, awareness of insight and neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Touskova, Tereza; Bob, Petr

    2015-01-01

    According to recent research, disturbances of self-awareness and conscious experience have a critical role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and in this context, schizophrenia is currently understood as a disorder characterized by distortions of acts of awareness, self-consciousness, and self-monitoring. Together, these studies suggest that the processes of disrupted awareness and conscious disintegration in schizophrenia might be related and represented by similar disruptions on the brain level, which, in principle, could be explained by various levels of disturbed connectivity and information disintegration that may negatively affect usual patterns of synchronous activity constituting adaptive integrative functions of consciousness. On the other hand, mental integration based on self-awareness and insight may significantly increase information integration and directly influence neural mechanisms underlying basic pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia.

  7. A decade of 3C technologies: insights into nuclear organization

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Elzo; de Laat, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and the subsequent genomic variants thereof have enabled the analysis of nuclear organization at an unprecedented resolution and throughput. The technology relies on the original and, in hindsight, remarkably simple idea that digestion and religation of fixed chromatin in cells, followed by the quantification of ligation junctions, allows for the determination of DNA contact frequencies and insight into chromosome topology. Here we evaluate and compare the current 3C-based methods (including 4C [chromosome conformation capture-on-chip], 5C [chromosome conformation capture carbon copy], HiC, and ChIA-PET), summarize their contribution to our current understanding of genome structure, and discuss how shape influences genome function. PMID:22215806

  8. Extracting insights from the shape of complex data using topology

    PubMed Central

    Lum, P. Y.; Singh, G.; Lehman, A.; Ishkanov, T.; Vejdemo-Johansson, M.; Alagappan, M.; Carlsson, J.; Carlsson, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies topological methods to study complex high dimensional data sets by extracting shapes (patterns) and obtaining insights about them. Our method combines the best features of existing standard methodologies such as principal component and cluster analyses to provide a geometric representation of complex data sets. Through this hybrid method, we often find subgroups in data sets that traditional methodologies fail to find. Our method also permits the analysis of individual data sets as well as the analysis of relationships between related data sets. We illustrate the use of our method by applying it to three very different kinds of data, namely gene expression from breast tumors, voting data from the United States House of Representatives and player performance data from the NBA, in each case finding stratifications of the data which are more refined than those produced by standard methods. PMID:23393618

  9. Current insights into the biology and pathogenesis of Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Charles F; Limper, Andrew H

    2007-04-01

    The fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia is the most prevalent opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Although the analysis of this opportunistic fungal pathogen has been hindered by the inability to isolate it in pure culture, the use of molecular techniques and genomic analysis have brought insights into its complex cell biology. Analysis of the intricate relationship between Pneumocystis and the host lung during infection has revealed that the attachment of Pneumocystis to the alveolar epithelium promotes the transition of the organism from the trophic to the cyst form. It also revealed that Pneumocystis infection elicits the production of inflammatory mediators, culminating in lung injury and impaired gas exchange. Here we discuss these and other recent findings relating to the biology and pathogenesis of this intractable fungus.

  10. Next generation sequencing in epigenetics: insights and challenges.

    PubMed

    Meaburn, Emma; Schulz, Reiner

    2012-04-01

    The epigenetics community was an early adopter of next generation sequencing (NGS). NGS-based studies have provided detailed and comprehensive views of epigenetic modifications for the genomes of many species and cell types. Recently, DNA methylation has attracted much attention due to the discovery of 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine and its role in epigenetic reprogramming and pluripotency. This renewed interest has been concomitant with methodological progress enabling, for example, high coverage and single base resolution profiling of the mammalian methylome in small numbers of cells. We summarise this progress and highlight resulting key findings about the complexity of eukaryotic DNA methylation, its role in metazoan genome evolution, epigenetic reprogramming, and its close ties with histone modifications in the context of transcription. Finally, we discuss how fundamental insights gained by NGS, particularly the discovery of widespread allele-specific epigenetic variation in the human genome, have the potential to significantly contribute to the understanding of human common complex diseases.

  11. Emerging insights on intestinal dysbiosis during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tu Anh N; Lawley, Trevor D

    2014-02-01

    Infection of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly linked to pathological imbalances of the resident microbiota, termed dysbiosis. In recent years, advanced high-throughput genomic approaches have allowed us to examine the microbiota in an unprecedented manner, revealing novel biological insights about infection-associated dysbiosis at the community and individual species levels. A dysbiotic microbiota is typically reduced in taxonomic diversity and metabolic function, and can harbour pathobionts that exacerbate intestinal inflammation or manifest systemic disease. Dysbiosis can also promote pathogen genome evolution, while allowing the pathogens to persist at high density and transmit to new hosts. A deeper understanding of bacterial pathogenicity in the context of the intestinal microbiota should unveil new approaches for developing diagnostics and therapies for enteropathogens.

  12. New insights into the mechanism of DNA mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Gloria X.; Schmidt, Tobias T.; Kolodner, Richard D.; Hombauer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The genome of all organisms is constantly being challenged by endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage. Errors like base:base mismatches or small insertions and deletions, primarily introduced by DNA polymerases during DNA replication are repaired by an evolutionary conserved DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. The MMR system, together with the DNA replication machinery, promote repair by an excision and resynthesis mechanism during or after DNA replication, increasing replication fidelity by upto-three orders of magnitude. Consequently, inactivation of MMR genes results in elevated mutation rates that can lead to increased cancer susceptibility in humans. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of MMR with a focus on the different MMR protein complexes, their function and structure. We also discuss how recent findings have provided new insights in the spatio-temporal regulation and mechanism of MMR. PMID:25862369

  13. New insights into Prevotella diversity and medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Alauzet, Corentine; Marchandin, Hélène; Lozniewski, Alain

    2010-11-01

    In light of recent studies based on cultivation-independent methods, it appears that the diversity of Prevotella in human microbiota is greater than was previously assumed from cultivation-based studies, and that the implication of these bacteria in several human diseases was unrecognized. While some Prevotella taxa were found during opportunistic infections, changes in Prevotella abundance and diversity were discovered during dysbiosis-associated diseases. As member of the microbiota, Prevotella may also be considered as a reservoir for resistance genes. Greater knowledge on Prevotella diversity, as well as new insights into its pathogenic potential and implication in dysbiosis are expected from the use of human microbe identification microarrays, from whole-genome sequence analyse, and from the NIH Human Microbiome Project data. New approaches, including molecular-based methods, could contribute to improve the diagnosis of Prevotella infections.

  14. Distributed representations in memory: insights from functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    Forging new memories for facts and events, holding critical details in mind on a moment-to-moment basis, and retrieving knowledge in the service of current goals all depend on a complex interplay between neural ensembles throughout the brain. Over the past decade, researchers have increasingly utilized powerful analytical tools (e.g., multivoxel pattern analysis) to decode the information represented within distributed functional magnetic resonance imaging activity patterns. In this review, we discuss how these methods can sensitively index neural representations of perceptual and semantic content and how leverage on the engagement of distributed representations provides unique insights into distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. We emphasize that, in addition to characterizing the contents of memories, analyses of distributed patterns shed light on the processes that influence how information is encoded, maintained, or retrieved, and thus inform memory theory. We conclude by highlighting open questions about memory that can be addressed through distributed pattern analyses.

  15. Insights derived from hydrodynamic interpretations of atomic-scale interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David

    2014-05-01

    Many of the properties and much of the behavior of gaseous or plasma environments are governed by interactions at the atomic-scale, that is, interactions among electrons, photons, ions, atoms, and molecules. New insight into the fundamental dynamics of these interactions, such as how energy and momentum are transferred, can be gained by considering a hydrodynamic view of the evolution of the electronic probability density. In particular, the creation, evolution, interaction, dissipation, and asymptotic survival of zeroes of the probability density, and the corresponding vortices in the electronic probability current, play significant and often dominant roles in energy and momentum transfer that has not heretofore been well recognized. Recent work to elucidate the role of these phenomena in atomic collisions and photoionization will be described as well as collaboration with the Frankfurt group to experimentally demonstrate the persistence of the predicted zeroes to macroscopic scales in reaction microscope measurements.

  16. Making New Connections: Insights from Primate-Parasite Networks.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, Julie; Bisanzio, Donal; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2017-03-06

    Social interactions are important in everyday life for primates and many other group-living animals; however, these essential exchanges also provide opportunities for parasites to spread through social groups. Network analysis is a unique toolkit for studying pathogen transmission in a social context, and recent primate-parasite network studies shed light on linkages between behavior and infectious disease dynamics, providing insights for conservation and public health. We review existing literature on primate-parasite networks, examining determinants of infection risk, issues of network scale and temporal dynamics, and applications for disease control. We also discuss analytical and conceptual gaps that should be addressed to improve our understanding of how individual and group-level factors affect infection risk, while highlighting interesting areas for future research.

  17. Electrokinetics: insights from simulation on the microscopic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, Benjamin; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2013-04-01

    Electrokinetic effects, i.e. the coupled hydrodynamic and electric phenomena which occur near charged interfaces, constitute a challenge to theorists due to the variety of length and time scales involved. We discuss recent advances in the modelling of these phenomena, emphasising the interplay between the molecular specificity and the collective induced flows that emerge. We discuss the complementary simulation methodologies that have been developed either to focus on the molecular aspects of electrokinetics or on their effective properties on larger scales, as well as the proposed hybrid schemes that can incorporate both aspects. We highlight the insights that molecular studies have brought on the nature of interfacial charges and their implications for kinetic phenomena in confined fluids and also discuss advances in a number of relevant contexts.

  18. Structural insight into CIDE domains: the Janus face of CIDEs.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ho

    2015-02-01

    Cell-death inducing DFF45-like effect domain (CIDE domain) is a protein interaction module that was initially found in DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) proteins DFF40 and DFF45. Several other CIDE-containing proteins, CIDE-A, CIDE-B, and CIDE-3, have since been identified in humans. Although the main function of these proteins is associated with apoptosis, recent studies have identified roles of CIDE-containing proteins in energy metabolism, especially involvement in control of the size of lipid droplets. Because CIDE-containing proteins perform critical tasks in apoptosis and energy metabolism and have been linked to many human diseases including cancer and obesity, studies of CIDE domains and CIDE-containing proteins are of great biological importance. This review summarizes the structural insight into CIDE and the CIDE-CIDE complex and speculates on a generalized strategy for the CIDE-CIDE interaction based on the available CIDE structures and molecular modelling.

  19. Molecular population genetic analysis of emerged bacterial pathogens: selected insights.

    PubMed Central

    Musser, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Research in bacterial population genetics has increased in the last 10 years. Population genetic theory and tools and related strategies have been used to investigate bacterial pathogens that have contributed to recent episodes of temporal variation in disease frequency and severity. A common theme demonstrated by these analyses is that distinct bacterial clones are responsible for disease outbreaks and increases in infection frequency. Many of these clones are characterized by unique combinations of virulence genes or alleles of virulence genes. Because substantial interclonal variance exists in relative virulence, molecular population genetic studies have led to the concept that the unit of bacterial pathogenicity is the clone or cell line. Continued new insights into host parasite interactions at the molecular level will be achieved by combining clonal analysis of bacterial pathogens with large-scale comparative sequencing of virulence genes. PMID:8903193

  20. Insights into drug discovery from natural medicines using reverse pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haiping; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Guangji

    2014-04-01

    Natural medicines (NMs) are indispensable sources for the development of modern drugs. However, the targets for most natural compounds are unknown and the current pharmacokinetic evaluation systems developed for target-defined drugs may not be directly applicable to NM-based drug discovery, which is a major hindrance in bringing natural compounds to the clinic. Here, we propose the concept of 'reverse pharmacokinetics' and discuss how a 'reverse pharmacokinetics' perspective could help clarify key questions in modern drug discovery from NMs with validated clinical benefits, thereby strengthening the translational potential. Reverse pharmacokinetics can provide physiologically relevant clues to the target identification and mechanistic study of NMs, which may also innovate drug discovery for complex diseases. We anticipate that an evolving deep understanding of the novel mode of action of natural compounds with a reverse pharmacokinetic insight may improve discovery of both single ingredient and multiple-component modern drugs from NMs.

  1. Insights into Bacteriophage Application in Controlling Vibrio Species

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Goh, Bey-Hing; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however, this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non-antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages – viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy. PMID:27486446

  2. New Insights into the Mechanism of Visible Light Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Swagata; Pillai, Suresh C; Falaras, Polycarpos; O'Shea, Kevin E; Byrne, John A; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-08-07

    In recent years, the area of developing visible-light-active photocatalysts based on titanium dioxide has been enormously investigated due to its wide range of applications in energy and environment related fields. Various strategies have been designed to efficiently utilize the solar radiation and to enhance the efficiency of photocatalytic processes. Building on the fundamental strategies to improve the visible light activity of TiO2-based photocatalysts, this Perspective aims to give an insight into many contemporary developments in the field of visible-light-active photocatalysis. Various examples of advanced TiO2 composites have been discussed in relation to their visible light induced photoconversion efficiency, dynamics of electron-hole separation, and decomposition of organic and inorganic pollutants, which suggest the critical need for further development of these types of materials for energy conversion and environmental remediation purposes.

  3. Blind insight: metacognitive discrimination despite chance task performance.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan B; Dienes, Zoltan; Barrett, Adam B; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2014-12-01

    Blindsight and other examples of unconscious knowledge and perception demonstrate dissociations between judgment accuracy and metacognition: Studies reveal that participants' judgment accuracy can be above chance while their confidence ratings fail to discriminate right from wrong answers. Here, we demonstrated the opposite dissociation: a reliable relationship between confidence and judgment accuracy (demonstrating metacognition) despite judgment accuracy being no better than chance. We evaluated the judgments of 450 participants who completed an AGL task. For each trial, participants decided whether a stimulus conformed to a given set of rules and rated their confidence in that judgment. We identified participants who performed at chance on the discrimination task, utilizing a subset of their responses, and then assessed the accuracy and the confidence-accuracy relationship of their remaining responses. Analyses revealed above-chance metacognition among participants who did not exhibit decision accuracy. This important new phenomenon, which we term blind insight, poses critical challenges to prevailing models of metacognition grounded in signal detection theory.

  4. CRISPR-Cas adaptation: insights into the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2016-02-01

    Since the first demonstration that CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids, numerous studies have yielded key insights into the molecular mechanisms governing how these systems attack and degrade foreign DNA. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation stage, in which new immunological memory is formed, have until recently represented a major unresolved question. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that have shown both how foreign DNA is identified by the CRISPR-Cas adaptation machinery and the molecular basis for its integration into the chromosome to form an immunological memory. Furthermore, we describe the roles of each of the specific CRISPR-Cas components that are involved in memory formation, and consider current models for their evolutionary origin.

  5. Insights into cytokine-receptor interactions from cytokine engineering.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Jamie B; Moraga, Ignacio; Mendoza, Juan L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines exert a vast array of immunoregulatory actions critical to human biology and disease. However, the desired immunotherapeutic effects of native cytokines are often mitigated by toxicity or lack of efficacy, either of which results from cytokine receptor pleiotropy and/or undesired activation of off-target cells. As our understanding of the structural principles of cytokine-receptor interactions has advanced, mechanism-based manipulation of cytokine signaling through protein engineering has become an increasingly feasible and powerful approach. Modified cytokines, both agonists and antagonists, have been engineered with narrowed target cell specificities, and they have also yielded important mechanistic insights into cytokine biology and signaling. Here we review the theory and practice of cytokine engineering and rationalize the mechanisms of several engineered cytokines in the context of structure. We discuss specific examples of how structure-based cytokine engineering has opened new opportunities for cytokines as drugs, with a focus on the immunotherapeutic cytokines interferon, interleukin-2, and interleukin-4.

  6. Inositol 5-phosphatases: insights from the Lowe syndrome protein OCRL.

    PubMed

    Pirruccello, Michelle; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    The precise regulation of phosphoinositide lipids in cellular membranes is crucial for cellular survival and function. Inositol 5-phosphatases have been implicated in a variety of disorders, including various cancers, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and rare genetic conditions. Despite the obvious impact on human health, relatively little structural and biochemical information is available for this family. Here, we review recent structural and mechanistic work on the 5-phosphatases with a focus on OCRL, whose loss of function results in oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and Dent 2 disease. Studies of OCRL emphasize how the actions of 5-phosphatases rely on both intrinsic and extrinsic membrane recognition properties for full catalytic function. Additionally, structural analysis of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of OCRL provides insight into the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease.

  7. Insights into shaving and its impact on skin.

    PubMed

    Cowley, K; Vanoosthuyze, K

    2012-03-01

    Male grooming has its roots in antiquity. Control and styling of facial hair has invariably required the development and use of metal instrumentation. Once crude and unreliable, it has latterly become sophisticated and subject to intense research and development at the highest scientific level. This paper describes how male grooming is being impacted by improvements in fundamental understanding of male skin. Skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common, but are often overlooked or their aetiology misunderstood by patients and physicians. By incorporating advanced scientific measurement and imaging technology into clinical testing, insights are being gained into both the common concerns which men express and optimal solutions for these concerns. Specific aspects such as the study of nicks and cuts and the identification and release of trapped hairs are discussed. Finally, details are presented on how the individual elements of technologically advanced razors play a role in managing the skin and hair, highlighting further the complexity of the shaving process.

  8. Insight into hydroxides-activated coals: chemical or physical activation?

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaniz-Monge, J.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to get an insight into the chemical activation mechanism using KOH and NaOH as activated agents. Three coals have been selected as carbon precursors. It was found that KOH and NaOH develop a similar narrow microporosity, independently of the coal rank, whereas only KOH generates supermicroporosity. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments, carried out with impregnated anthracite, show differences on the gas evolved during the activated carbon preparation using the two activating agents. Thus, whereas hydrogen profiles are quite similar for both activated agents, the CO and H{sub 2}O profiles are different. It is remarkable the high amount of H{sub 2}O evolved at the maximum treatment temperature for both activating agents. The results obtained to allow conclusion that the chemical activation is due to a combination of different process driving the development of material porosity.

  9. Detailed proteomic analysis on DM: insight into its hypoallergenicity.

    PubMed

    Bertino, Enrico; Gastaldi, Daniela; Monti, Giovanna; Baro, Cristina; Fortunato, Donatella; Perono Garoffo, Lorenza; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Mussap, Michele; Conti, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    Successful therapy in cow milk (CM) protein allergy rests upon completely eliminating CM proteins from the child's diet: it is thus necessary to provide a replacement food. Donkey milk (DM) has recently aroused scientific and clinical interest, above all among paediatric allergologists. A deeper knowledge of proteins in DM is necessary to evaluate the immunological and physiological properties of this natural substitute for cow's milk. The paper offers a detailed comparative analysis among the protein fractions of DM, CM and human milk, following an extensive proteomic study of the casein and whey proteins of DM performed by narrow pH range 2-DE. The detailed protein composition and structural features reported in this study provide insight into the molecular reasons for the hypoallergenicity of DM. Whole DM might constitute a valid substitute of CM in feeding children with CM protein allergy and it might also constitute the basis for formulas suitable for allergic subjects in the first year of life.

  10. Structural insights into the transport of small molecules across membranes

    PubMed Central

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    While hydrophobic small molecules often can freely permeate a lipid bilayer, ions and other polar molecules cannot and require transporters to mediate their transport. Recently, a number of important structures have been reported which have advanced our understanding of how membrane protein transporters function to transport small molecules. Structures of TbpA/B and HmuUV provided new insight into iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria while the structures of NarK, ASBT, and VcINDY revealed molecular details about the transport of nitrate, bile acids and dicarboxylates, respectively. The structure of the folate ECF transporter indicated that the S component likely undergoes a large conformational shift to mediate folate transport, while the cellulose synthase/transporter contains an elongated translocation pore for passage through the inner membrane. PMID:24681594

  11. Survivors' coping with intimate partner violence: Insights and limitations.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the article, "Coping with intimate partner violence: Qualitative findings from the study of dynamics of husband to wife abuse," by Foster et al., (see record 2015-24688-001). However, most intimate partner violence relationships do not escalate to these levels, and the partnerships continue over time. Questions remain regarding how we can understand the dynamics of these continuing relationships while also effectively enhancing the safety of these women and offering them support. Fortunately, the research of Foster and colleagues reported in this issue begins to answer some of these questions. The authors of this study describe how women living with violent partners report various coping approaches that help them maintain their circumstances and survive each day. The results of this study describe the useful boundaries of the COPE Inventory in these settings, add insight to our understanding of IPV family dynamics, and provide information to support clinicians who serve these women.

  12. New insights into erythrocyte membrane organization and microelasticity.

    PubMed

    Discher, D E

    2000-03-01

    The erythrocyte membrane's ability to withstand the stresses of circulation has its origins in various levels of structural organization. Central to this membrane's structure-function relationships is a quasi-two-dimensional meshwork of spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 that imparts a resilence to the overlying plasma membrane. New insights into the nonlinear microelasticity of this substructure are being provided by experiments that range from elegant atomic force microscopy tests of single spectrin chains to patterned photobleaching of the micropipette-deformed network. Breakthroughs in atomic level structure determinations are further complemented by emerging biophysical studies of transgenically engineered mice lacking specific erythrocyte membrane proteins. Recent theoretical efforts (computational approaches most notably) also have begun to correlate molecular scale aspects of structure with mechanical measures. All of this recent activity in the biophysics of erythrocyte structure-function is certain to challenge and refine some of the most basic tenets in cell membrane structure-function.

  13. Understanding the vertebrate immune system: insights from the reptilian perspective.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, L M; Vogel, L A; Bowden, R M

    2010-03-01

    Reptiles are ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotic fishes and amphibians, and endothermic amniotic birds and mammals. A greater understanding of reptilian immunity will provide important insights into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity as well as the growing field of eco-immunology. Like mammals, reptile immunity is complex and involves innate, cell-mediated and humoral compartments but, overall, there is considerably less known about immune function in reptiles. We review the current literature on each branch of the reptilian immune system, placing this information in context to other vertebrates. Further, we identify key areas that are prime for research as well as areas that are lagging because of lack of reagents in non-model systems.

  14. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke CM

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed. PMID:27942239

  15. Structure-function insights into prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Myasnikov, Alexander G; Simonetti, Angelita; Marzi, Stefano; Klaholz, Bruno P

    2009-06-01

    Translation initiation is the rate-limiting and most complexly regulated step of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the last few years, cryo-electron microscopy has provided several novel insights into the universal process of translation initiation. Structures of prokaryotic 30S and 70S ribosomal initiation complexes with initiator transfer RNA (tRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and initiation factors have recently revealed the mechanism of initiator tRNA recruitment to the assembling ribosomal machinery, involving molecular rearrangements of the ribosome and associated factors. First three-dimensional pictures of the particularly complex eukaryotic translation initiation machinery have been obtained, revealing how initiation factors tune the ribosome for recruiting the mRNA. A comparison of the available prokaryotic and eukaryotic structures shows that--besides significant differences--some key ribosomal features are universally conserved.

  16. Advances in imaging ultrastructure yield new insights into presynaptic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Zhan, Hong; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses are the fundamental functional units of neural circuits, and their dysregulation has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders. At presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles are released in response to calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels activated by the arrival of an action potential. Decades of electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies have contributed to a growing understanding of presynaptic biology. Imaging studies are yielding new insights into how synapses are organized to carry out their critical functions. The development of techniques for rapid immobilization and preservation of neuronal tissues for electron microscopy (EM) has led to a new renaissance in ultrastructural imaging that is rapidly advancing our understanding of synapse structure and function. PMID:26052269

  17. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    SciTech Connect

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  18. Novel Insights into Chromosome Evolution in Birds, Archosaurs, and Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho T.; Damas, Joana; Auvil, Loretta; Li, Cai; Jarvis, Erich D.; Burt, David W.; Griffin, Darren K.; Larkin, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) and evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) in mammalian chromosomes are enriched for distinct DNA features, contributing to distinct phenotypes. To reveal HSB and EBR roles in avian evolution, we performed a sequence-based comparison of 21 avian and 5 outgroup species using recently sequenced genomes across the avian family tree and a newly-developed algorithm. We identified EBRs and HSBs in ancestral bird, archosaurian (bird, crocodile, and dinosaur), and reptile chromosomes. Genes involved in the regulation of gene expression and biosynthetic processes were preferably located in HSBs, including for example, avian-specific HSBs enriched for genes involved in limb development. Within birds, some lineage-specific EBRs rearranged genes were related to distinct phenotypes, such as forebrain development in parrots. Our findings provide novel evolutionary insights into genome evolution in birds, particularly on how chromosome rearrangements likely contributed to the formation of novel phenotypes. PMID:27401172

  19. Recent molecular insights from mutated IKS channels in cardiac arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Meidan; Peretz, Asher; Haitin, Yoni; Attali, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Co-assembly of KCNQ1 with KCNE1 generates the IKS potassium current that is vital for the proper repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Mutations in either KCNQ1 or KCNE1 genes lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias causing long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation. Findings emerging from recent studies are beginning to provide a picture of how gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations are associated with pleiotropic cardiac phenotypes in the clinics. In this review, we discuss recent molecular insights obtained from mutations altering different structural modules of the channel complex that are essential for proper IKS function. We present the possible molecular mechanisms underlying mutations impairing the voltage sensing functions, as well as those altering the channel regulation by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, calmodulin and protein kinase A. We also discuss the significance of diseased IKS channels for adequate pharmacological targeting of cardiac arrhythmias.

  20. BAYESIAN INSIGHTS ON DISCLOSURE LIMITATION: MASK OR IMPUTE?

    SciTech Connect

    S. KELLER-MCNULTY; G. DUNCAN

    2000-10-01

    Statistical agencies seek to disseminate useful data while keeping low the risk of statistical confidentiality disclosure. Recognizing that reidentification of data is generally inadequate to protect its confidentiality against attack by a data snooper, agencies restrict the data they release for general use. Typically, these restricted data procedures have involved transformation or masking of the original, collected data through such devices as adding noise, topcoding, data swapping, and recoding. Recently, proposals have been put forth for the release of synthetic data, simulated from models constructed from the original data. This paper gives a framework for the comparison of masking and synthetic data as two approaches to disclosure limitation. Particular attention is paid to data utility and disclosure risk. Examples of instantiation of masking and of synthetic data construction are provided to illustrate the concepts. Particular attention is paid to data swapping. Insights drawn from the Bayesian paxadigm are provided.

  1. "Omics of the mammalian gut new insights into function

    SciTech Connect

    Lamendella, Regina; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Jansson, Janet

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of gut microbes in host health, it is imperative to probe their genetic potential, expression, and ecological status. The current high-throughput sequencing revolution, in addition to advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, have recently enabled deep access to these complex environments, and are revealing important insights into the roles of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in host physiology and health. This review discusses examples of how the integration of cutting-edge meta-omics technologies are providing new knowledge about the relationships between host health status in mammals and the microbes inhabiting the GI tract. In addition, we address some promises that these techniques hold for future therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  2. New insights in leptin resistance mechanisms in mice.

    PubMed

    Balland, Eglantine; Cowley, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Leptin resistance is one of the main challenges of obesity. To date, two levels of resistance have been identified, first a decreased rate of leptin uptake into the brain and secondly a diminished central response to leptin. New findings have identified the mechanisms of leptin transport and demonstrated that it can be rescued in obesity, but it did not overcome the problem of central resistance. Alteration in the actions of leptin following diet-induced obesity (DIO) appears to be a multifactorial condition. Several phosphatases are inhibiting leptin signaling pathways in a pathological way. Besides, hypothalamic inflammation alters the neuronal circuits that control metabolism. Recent studies describing both mechanisms (inhibition of leptin signaling and inflammation), have provided key insights to potential new targets for treatment. However, recent data showing that DIO mice may conserve a cellular and physiological response to endogenous leptin, highlights the need to redefine the concept of "leptin resistance".

  3. APP physiological and pathophysiological functions: insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinxi; Wang, Zilai; Li, Hongmei; Wiese, Mary; Zheng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been under intensive study in recent years, mainly due to its critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides generated from APP proteolytic cleavage can aggregate, leading to plaque formation in human AD brains. Point mutations of APP affecting Aβ production are found to be causal for hereditary early onset familial AD. It is very likely that elucidating the physiological properties of APP will greatly facilitate the understanding of its role in AD pathogenesis. A number of APP loss- and gain-of-function models have been established in model organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse. These in vivo models provide us valuable insights into APP physiological functions. In addition, several knock-in mouse models expressing mutant APP at a physiological level are available to allow us to study AD pathogenesis without APP overexpression. This article will review the current physiological and pathophysiological animal models of APP.

  4. Appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors: Recent insights and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Griniatsos, John; Michail, Othon

    2010-04-15

    New insights emerged last decade that enriched our knowledge regarding the biological behavior of appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which range from totally benign tumors less than 1cm to goblet cell carcinomas which behave similarly to colorectal adenocarcinoma. The clinical implication of that knowledge reflected to surgical strategies which also vary from simple appendicectomy to radical abdominal procedures based on specific clinical and histological characteristics. Since the diagnosis is usually established post-appendicectomy, current recommendations focus on the early detection of: (1) the subgroup of patients who require further therapy; (2) the recurrence based on the chromogranin a plasma levels; and (3) other malignancies which are commonly developed in patients with appendiceal NETs.

  5. Appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors: Recent insights and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Griniatsos, John; Michail, Othon

    2010-01-01

    New insights emerged last decade that enriched our knowledge regarding the biological behavior of appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which range from totally benign tumors less than 1cm to goblet cell carcinomas which behave similarly to colorectal adenocarcinoma. The clinical implication of that knowledge reflected to surgical strategies which also vary from simple appendicectomy to radical abdominal procedures based on specific clinical and histological characteristics. Since the diagnosis is usually established post-appendicectomy, current recommendations focus on the early detection of: (1) the subgroup of patients who require further therapy; (2) the recurrence based on the chromogranin a plasma levels; and (3) other malignancies which are commonly developed in patients with appendiceal NETs. PMID:21160597

  6. What is crop heterosis: new insights into an old topic.

    PubMed

    Fu, Donghui; Xiao, Meili; Hayward, Alice; Jiang, Guanjie; Zhu, Longrong; Zhou, Qinghong; Li, Jiqiang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-01

    Heterosis (or hybrid vigor) refers to a natural phenomenon whereby hybrid offspring of genetically diverse individuals out-perform their parents in multiple traits including yield, adaptability and resistances to biotic and abiotic stressors. Innovations in technology and research continue to clarify the mechanisms underlying crop heterosis, however the intrinsic relationship between the biological basis of heterosis remain unclear. In this review, we aim to provide insight into the molecular genetic basis of heterosis by presenting recent advances in the 'omics' of heterosis and the role of non-coding regions, particularly in relation to energy-use efficiency. We propose that future research should focus on integrating the expanding datasets from different species and hybrid combinations, to mine key heterotic genes and unravel interactive 'omics' networks associated with heterosis. Improved understanding of heterosis and the biological basis for its manipulation in agriculture should help to streamline its use in enhancing crop productivity.

  7. Genomic and epigenetic insights into the molecular bases of heterosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigour, is widespread in plants and animals, but the molecular bases for this phenomenon remain elusive. Recent studies in hybrids and allopolyploids using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, epigenomic and systems biology approaches have provided new insights. Emerging genomic and epigenetic perspectives suggest that heterosis arises from allelic interactions between parental genomes, leading to altered programming of genes that promote the growth, stress tolerance and fitness of hybrids. For example, epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes in hybrids and allopolyploids can alter complex regulatory networks of physiology and metabolism, thus modulating biomass and leading to heterosis. The conceptual advances could help to improve plant and animal productivity through the manipulation of heterosis.

  8. Saccharina genomes provide novel insight into kelp biology

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Naihao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Miao; Fan, Xiao; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Dong; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Wenyu; Ji, Peifeng; Li, Demao; Guan, Zheng; Shao, Changwei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Gao, Zhengquan; Qi, Ji; Zhao, Fangqing

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds are essential for marine ecosystems and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of Saccharina japonica, one of the most economically important seaweeds. The 537-Mb assembled genomic sequence covered 98.5% of the estimated genome, and 18,733 protein-coding genes are predicted and annotated. Gene families related to cell wall synthesis, halogen concentration, development and defence systems were expanded. Functional diversification of the mannuronan C-5-epimerase and haloperoxidase gene families provides insight into the evolutionary adaptation of polysaccharide biosynthesis and iodine antioxidation. Additional sequencing of seven cultivars and nine wild individuals reveal that the genetic diversity within wild populations is greater than among cultivars. All of the cultivars are descendants of a wild S. japonica accession showing limited admixture with S. longissima. This study represents an important advance toward improving yields and economic traits in Saccharina and provides an invaluable resource for plant genome studies. PMID:25908475

  9. New Insights into Mechanism and Regulation of Actin Capping Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, John A.; Sept, David

    2008-01-01

    The heterodimeric actin capping protein, referred to here as “CP,” is an essential element of the actin cytoskeleton, binding to the barbed ends of actin filaments and regulating their polymerization. In vitro, CP has a critical role in the dendritic nucleation process of actin assembly mediated by Arp2/3 complex, and in vivo, CP is important for actin assembly and actin-based process of morphogenesis and differentiation. Recent studies have provided new insight into the mechanism of CP binding the barbed end, which raises new possibilities for the dynamics of CP and actin in cells. In addition, a number of molecules that bind and regulate CP have been discovered, suggesting new ideas for how CP may integrate into diverse processes of cell physiology. PMID:18544499

  10. Predictions penetrate perception: Converging insights from brain, behaviour and disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Claire; Kveraga, Kestutis; Shine, James M; Adams, Reginald B; Bar, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    It is argued that during ongoing visual perception, the brain is generating top-down predictions to facilitate, guide and constrain the processing of incoming sensory input. Here we demonstrate that these predictions are drawn from a diverse range of cognitive processes, in order to generate the richest and most informative prediction signals. This is consistent with a central role for cognitive penetrability in visual perception. We review behavioural and mechanistic evidence that indicate a wide spectrum of domains-including object recognition, contextual associations, cognitive biases and affective state-that can directly influence visual perception. We combine these insights from the healthy brain with novel observations from neuropsychiatric disorders involving visual hallucinations, which highlight the consequences of imbalance between top-down signals and incoming sensory information. Together, these lines of evidence converge to indicate that predictive penetration, be it cognitive, social or emotional, should be considered a fundamental framework that supports visual perception.

  11. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPP) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. However, precisely what is important, and what is not important. What should one focus inspection efforts on. Over the last two years Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PR) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only about 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the BNL program to develop generic BWR PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs.

  12. Pathogenesis of depression: Insights from human and rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Ménard, C; Hodes, G E; Russo, S J

    2016-05-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) will affect one out of every five people in their lifetime and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Nevertheless, mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of MDD have yet to be completely understood and current treatments remain ineffective in a large subset of patients. In this review, we summarize the most recent discoveries and insights for which parallel findings have been obtained in human depressed subjects and rodent models of mood disorders in order to examine the potential etiology of depression. These mechanisms range from synaptic plasticity mechanisms to epigenetics and the immune system where there is strong evidence to support a functional role in the development of specific depression symptomology. Ultimately we conclude by discussing how novel therapeutic strategies targeting central and peripheral processes might ultimately aid in the development of effective new treatments for MDD and related stress disorders.

  13. Insights into Newer Antimicrobial Agents Against Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Kaur, Harsimran

    2016-01-01

    Currently, drug resistance, especially against cephalosporins and carbapenems, among gram-negative bacteria is an important challenge, which is further enhanced by the limited availability of drugs against these bugs. There are certain antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, temocillin, and rifampicin) that have been revived from the past to tackle the menace of superbugs, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas species. Very few newer antibiotics have been added to the pool of existing drugs. There are still many antibiotics that are passing through various phases of clinical trials. The initiative of Infectious Disease Society of America to develop 10 novel antibiotics against gram-negative bacilli by 2020 is a step to fill the gap of limited availability of drugs. This review aims to provide insights into the current and newer drugs in pipeline for the treatment of gram-negative bacteria and also discusses the major challenging issues for their management. PMID:27013887

  14. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  15. Model insights into energetic photoelectrons measured at Mars by MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shotaro; Rahmati, Ali; Mitchell, David L.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Mazelle, Christian; Peterson, W. K.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Fontenla, Juan M.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2015-11-01

    Photoelectrons are important for heating, ionization, and airglow production in planetary atmospheres. Measured electron fluxes provide insight into the sources and sinks of energy in the Martian upper atmosphere. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer instrument on board the MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft measured photoelectrons including Auger electrons with 500 eV energies. A two-stream electron transport code was used to interpret the observations, including Auger electrons associated with K shell ionization of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. It explains the processes that control the photoelectron spectrum, such as the solar irradiance at different wavelengths, external electron fluxes from the Martian magnetosheath or tail, and the structure of the upper atmosphere (e.g., the thermal electron density). Our understanding of the complex processes related to the conversion of solar irradiances to thermal energy in the Martian ionosphere will be advanced by model comparisons with measurements of suprathermal electrons by MAVEN.

  16. Visualization of elusive structures using intracardiac echocardiography: Insights from electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Szili-Torok, T; McFadden, EP; Jordaens, LJ; Roelandt, JRTC

    2004-01-01

    Electrophysiological mapping and ablation techniques are increasingly used to diagnose and treat many types of supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias. These procedures require an intimate knowledge of intracardiac anatomy and their use has led to a renewed interest in visualization of specific structures. This has required collaborative efforts from imaging as well as electrophysiology experts. Classical imaging techniques may be unable to visualize structures involved in arrhythmia mechanisms and therapy. Novel methods, such as intracardiac echocardiography and three-dimensional echocardiography, have been refined and these technological improvements have opened new perspectives for more effective and accurate imaging during electrophysiology procedures. Concurrently, visualization of these structures noticeably improved our ability to identify intracardiac structures. The aim of this review is to provide electrophysiologists with an overview of recent insights into the structure of the heart obtained with intracardiac echocardiography and to indicate to the echo-specialist which structures are potentially important for the electrophysiologist. PMID:15253772

  17. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  18. Phenomenological nursing research: methodological insights derived from Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Sandra

    2005-02-01

    The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilised as the method structure for nursing research studies. However, the nursing literature is beginning to reflect a concern with nurse researchers' adoption of phenomenological methods without, at the same time, laying the philosophical and methodological foundations on which the method is built. It is important for nursing knowledge development through research that the choice of research methodology can be argued for, and is judged to be coherent with, both the philosophical tone of the research and the nature of the research question. In this article the concepts underpinning Heidegger's interpretive phenomenological philosophy are examined and discussed in terms of the methodological insights they provide for the conduct of nursing phenomenological research.

  19. Simple Sugar Intake and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiological and Mechanistic Insight

    PubMed Central

    Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta; Roglans, Núria

    2014-01-01

    Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, all of these metabolic alterations have also been related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence coming from epidemiological studies and data from animal models relating the consumption of simple sugars, and specifically fructose, with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and to gain insight into the putative molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:25533006

  20. Teaching and Learning Physics: Performance Art Evoking Insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Wilfried

    2015-12-01

    Doing experiments in physics lessons can create a magical moment if students become really intrigued with the experimental progression. They add a new quality to what the experiment shows. Their attention and nature's revelations flow together: a performance is taking place. It's similar to a moment during a theatrical performance, when the spectators' and actors' energy flow together and their feeling of being separated from one another dissolves. Together with the atmosphere of the stage scenery they reform something new, unique, and volatile, and the fourth wall, that imaginary wall between actors and audience, breaks down. Erika Fischer-Lichte refers to such moments as "the transformative power of performance: a new aesthetics." Below, I will discuss what this transformative power with respect to teaching and learning physics can be, particularly how the involvement in experimental demonstrations develops deeper insights into the way in which the laws of physics are "prodigious."

  1. Insights into the Neural and Genetic Basis of Vocal Communication

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of vocalizations to communicate information and elaborate social bonds is an adaptation seen in many vertebrate species. Human speech is an extreme version of this pervasive form of communication. Unlike the vocalizations exhibited by the majority of land vertebrates, speech is a learned behavior requiring early sensory exposure and auditory feedback for its development and maintenance. Studies in humans and a small number of other species have provided insights into the neural and genetic basis for learned vocal communication and are helping to delineate the roles of brain circuits across the cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum in generating vocal behaviors. This Review provides an outline of the current knowledge about these circuits, the genes implicated in vocal communication, and a perspective on future research directions in this field. PMID:26967292

  2. Analytical insights into optimality and resonance in fish swimming.

    PubMed

    Kohannim, Saba; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-03-06

    This paper provides analytical insights into the hypothesis that fish exploit resonance to reduce the mechanical cost of swimming. A simple body-fluid fish model, representing carangiform locomotion, is developed. Steady swimming at various speeds is analysed using optimal gait theory by minimizing bending moment over tail movements and stiffness, and the results are shown to match with data from observed swimming. Our analysis indicates the following: thrust-drag balance leads to the Strouhal number being predetermined based on the drag coefficient and the ratio of wetted body area to cross-sectional area of accelerated fluid. Muscle tension is reduced when undulation frequency matches resonance frequency, which maximizes the ratio of tail-tip velocity to bending moment. Finally, hydrodynamic resonance determines tail-beat frequency, whereas muscle stiffness is actively adjusted, so that overall body-fluid resonance is exploited.

  3. Saccharina genomes provide novel insight into kelp biology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Naihao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Miao; Fan, Xiao; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Dong; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Wenyu; Ji, Peifeng; Li, Demao; Guan, Zheng; Shao, Changwei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Gao, Zhengquan; Qi, Ji; Zhao, Fangqing

    2015-04-24

    Seaweeds are essential for marine ecosystems and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of Saccharina japonica, one of the most economically important seaweeds. The 537-Mb assembled genomic sequence covered 98.5% of the estimated genome, and 18,733 protein-coding genes are predicted and annotated. Gene families related to cell wall synthesis, halogen concentration, development and defence systems were expanded. Functional diversification of the mannuronan C-5-epimerase and haloperoxidase gene families provides insight into the evolutionary adaptation of polysaccharide biosynthesis and iodine antioxidation. Additional sequencing of seven cultivars and nine wild individuals reveal that the genetic diversity within wild populations is greater than among cultivars. All of the cultivars are descendants of a wild S. japonica accession showing limited admixture with S. longissima. This study represents an important advance toward improving yields and economic traits in Saccharina and provides an invaluable resource for plant genome studies.

  4. FROM SELECTIVE VULNERABILITY TO CONNECTIVITY: INSIGHTS FROM NEWBORN BRAIN IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven P.; Ferriero, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    The ability to image the newborn brain during development has provided new information regarding the effects of injury on brain development at different vulnerable time periods. Studies in animal models of brain injury correlate beautifully with what is now observed in the human newborn. We now know that injury at term results in a predilection for gray matter injury while injury in the premature brain results in a white matter predominant pattern although recent evidence suggests a blurring of this distinction. These injuries affect how the brain matures subsequently and again, imaging has led to new insights that allow us to match function and structure. This review will focus on these patterns of injury that are so critically determined by age at insult. In addition, this review will highlight how the brain responds to these insults with changes in connectivity that have profound functional consequences. PMID:19712981

  5. Genomic insights into WNT/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluh, Joseph; Wang, Xiaoxing; Hahn, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The canonical WNT pathway regulates the stability of the proto-oncogene β-catenin and is aberrantly activated in many cancer types. Studies in a wide range of experimental models confirm that β-catenin activity is required for tumor initiation in cancers where this pathway is deregulated. However, to date this pathway has proven to be challenging to target therapeutically. Moreover, several lines of evidence suggest that other components and regulators of β-catenin exist. Here we will describe recent structural and functional studies describing genomic alterations and new regulators of β-catenin that lead to aberrant activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. These findings provide new insights into the biology of WNT/β-catenin signaling and suggest potential therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24365576

  6. Insights into the mechanisms of sterol transport between organelles.

    PubMed

    Mesmin, Bruno; Antonny, Bruno; Drin, Guillaume

    2013-09-01

    In cells, the levels of sterol vary greatly among organelles. This uneven distribution depends largely on non-vesicular routes of transfer, which are mediated by soluble carriers called lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). These proteins have a domain with a hydrophobic cavity that accommodates one sterol molecule. However, a demonstration of their role in sterol transport in cells remains difficult. Numerous LTPs also contain membrane-binding elements, but it is not clear how these LTPs couple their ability to target organelles with lipid transport activity. This issue appears critical, since many sterol transporters are thought to act at contact sites between two membrane-bound compartments. Here, we emphasize that biochemical and structural studies provide precious insights into the mode of action of sterol-binding proteins. Recent studies on START, Osh/ORP and NPC proteins suggest models on how these proteins could transport sterol between organelles and, thereby, influence cellular functions.

  7. Interaction of peptides with cell membranes: insights from molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen-lu; Ding, Hong-ming; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of the interaction of peptides with cell membranes is the focus of active research. It can enhance the understanding of basic membrane functions such as membrane transport, fusion, and signaling processes, and it may shed light on potential applications of peptides in biomedicine. In this review, we will present current advances in computational studies on the interaction of different types of peptides with the cell membrane. Depending on the properties of the peptide, membrane, and external environment, the peptide-membrane interaction shows a variety of different forms. Here, on the basis of recent computational progress, we will discuss how different peptides could initiate membrane pores, translocate across the membrane, induce membrane endocytosis, produce membrane curvature, form fibrils on the membrane surface, as well as interact with functional membrane proteins. Finally, we will present a conclusion summarizing recent progress and providing some specific insights into future developments in this field.

  8. Arthropod evolution and development: recent insights from chelicerates and myriapods.

    PubMed

    Leite, Daniel J; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-08-01

    Research on arthropod genetics and development has added much to our understanding of animal evolution. While this work has mainly focused on insects, a growing body of research on the less studied myriapods and chelicerates is providing important new insights into arthropod genomics and development. Multiple chelicerate lineages have a high incidence of gene duplication, which is suggestive of large-scale and even whole genome duplications. Furthermore, the duplication and divergence of genes is associated with the evolution of appendage morphology and other phenotypes in chelicerates and myriapods. Recent studies of these arthropods have also helped to understand the evolution and development of segmented bodies. Further research on chelicerate and myriapod models as well as species from other orders of these subphyla has great potential to expand our understanding of the evolution of animal genomes and development.

  9. Insights into the function of IgD.

    PubMed

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Bengten, Eva; Wilson, Melanie

    2011-12-01

    IgD, previously thought to be a recent addition to the immunoglobulin classes, has long been considered an enigmatic molecule. For example, it was debated if IgD had a specific function other than as an antigen receptor co-expressed with IgM on naive B cells and if it had an important role in mammalian immunity. However, during the past decade extensive sequencing of vertebrate genomes has shown that IgD homologs are present in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Moreover, recent functional studies indicate that IgD likely performs a unique role in vertebrate immune responses. The goal of this review is to summarize the IgD gene organization and structural data, which demonstrate that IgD has an ancient origin, and discuss the findings in catfish and humans that provide insight into the possible function of this elusive immunoglobulin isotype.

  10. Personal semantic memory: insights from neuropsychological research on amnesia.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of personal semantic memory, knowledge that is specific and unique to individuals, by reviewing neuropsychological research on stable amnesia secondary to medial temporal lobe damage. The results reveal that personal semantic memory does not depend on a unitary set of cognitive and neural mechanisms. Findings show that autobiographical fact knowledge reflects an experience-near type of personal semantic memory that relies on the medial temporal lobe for retrieval, albeit less so than personal episodic memory. Additional evidence demonstrates that new autobiographical fact learning likely relies on the medial temporal lobe, but the extent to which remains unclear. Other findings show that retrieval of personal traits/roles and new learning of personal traits/roles and thoughts/beliefs are independent of the medial temporal lobe and thus may represent highly conceptual types of personal semantic memory that are stored in the neocortex.

  11. Unraveling Mixed Hydrate Formation: Microscopic Insights into Early Stage Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2016-12-29

    The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH4/H2S/H2O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.

  12. Insights into the Dynamic Response of Tunnels in Jointed Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F E

    2004-11-01

    Tunnels in jointed rocks can be subjected to severe dynamic loads because of rock bursts, coal bumps, and large earthquakes. A series of 3-dimensional simulations was performed, based on discrete element analysis to gain insights into the parameters that influence the response of such tunnels. The simulations looked at the effect of joint set orientation, the effect of joint spacing, the effect of pulse shape for a given displacement, and the influence of using rigid versus deformable blocks in the analyses. The results of this modeling were also compared to field evidence of dynamic tunnel failures. This comparison reinforced the notion that 3-dimensional discrete element analysis can capture very well the kinematics of structures in jointed rock under dynamic loading.

  13. Drosophila models reveal novel insights into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ryan D; Workman, Jerry L; Abmayr, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    The SAGA chromatin modifying complex functions as a transcriptional coactivator for a large number of genes, and SAGA dysfunction has been linked to carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative disease. The protein complex is comprised of approximately 20 subunits, arranged in a modular fashion, and includes 2 enzymatic subunits: the Gcn5 acetyltransferase and the Non-stop deubiquitinase. As we learn more about SAGA, it becomes evident that this complex functions through sophisticated mechanisms that support very precise regulation of gene expression. Here we describe recent findings in which a Drosophila loss-of-function model revealed novel mechanisms for regulation of SAGA-mediated histone H2B deubiquitination. This model also yielded novel and surprising insights into mechanisms that underlie progressive neurodegenerative disease. Lastly, we comment on the utility of Drosophila as a model for neurodegenerative disease through which crucial and conserved mechanisms may be revealed. PMID:25483136

  14. Unifying niche shift studies: insights from biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Guisan, Antoine; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Daehler, Curtis; Kueffer, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Assessing whether the climatic niche of a species may change between different geographic areas or time periods has become increasingly important in the context of ongoing global change. However, approaches and findings have remained largely controversial so far, calling for a unification of methods. Here, we build on a review of empirical studies of invasion to formalize a unifying framework that decomposes niche change into unfilling, stability, and expansion situations, taking both a pooled range and range-specific perspective on the niche, while accounting for climatic availability and climatic analogy. This framework provides new insights into the nature of climate niche shifts and our ability to anticipate invasions, and may help in guiding the design of experiments for assessing causes of niche changes.

  15. Insights into the nature of human testicular peritubular cells.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Human testicular peritubular cells are myofibroblast-like cells that surround the seminiferous tubules and are responsible for tubular contractility and sperm transport. In the last few years, several reports have augmented this simplified view, showing that peritubular cells are not only structural cells but also actively secrete paracrine mediators, thereby influencing the homeostasis of the testicular environment. This review is focussed on general aspects and functions of testicular peritubular cells, their potential role in male infertility and also on the recently described in vitro culture systems of human testicular peritubular cells, which will enable us to gain deeper insight into the regulation and functions of this peculiar cell type in health and disease.

  16. Mechanisms of inflammasome activation: recent advances and novel insights.

    PubMed

    Vanaja, Sivapriya K; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2015-05-01

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein platforms assembled in response to invading pathogens and other danger signals. Typically inflammasome complexes contain a sensor protein, an adaptor protein, and a zymogen - procaspase-1. Formation of inflammasome assembly results in processing of inactive procaspase-1 into an active cysteine-protease enzyme, caspase-1, which subsequently activates the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL-1β and IL-18, and induces pyroptosis, a highly-pyrogenic inflammatory form of cell death. Studies over the past year have unveiled exciting new players and regulatory pathways that are involved in traditional inflammasome signaling, some of them even challenging the existing dogma. This review outlines these new insights in inflammasome research and discusses areas that warrant further exploration.

  17. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-21

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  18. Allosteric mechanisms of nuclear receptors: insights from computational simulations.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Jonathan A G; Gallastegui, Nerea; Osguthorpe, David J; Hagler, Arnold T; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva

    2014-08-05

    The traditional structural view of allostery defines this key regulatory mechanism as the ability of one conformational event (allosteric site) to initiate another in a separate location (active site). In recent years computational simulations conducted to understand how this phenomenon occurs in nuclear receptors (NRs) has gained significant traction. These results have yield insights into allosteric changes and communication mechanisms that underpin ligand binding, coactivator binding site formation, post-translational modifications, and oncogenic mutations. Moreover, substantial efforts have been made in understanding the dynamic processes involved in ligand binding and coregulator recruitment to different NR conformations in order to predict cell/tissue-selective pharmacological outcomes of drugs. They also have improved the accuracy of in silico screening protocols so that nowadays they are becoming part of optimisation protocols for novel therapeutics. Here we summarise the important contributions that computational simulations have made towards understanding the structure/function relationships of NRs and how these can be exploited for rational drug design.

  19. Current insights into hormonal regulation of microspore embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Żur, Iwona; Dubas, Ewa; Krzewska, Monika; Janowiak, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth regulator (PGR) crosstalk and interaction with the plant’s genotype and environmental factors play a crucial role in microspore embryogenesis (ME), controlling microspore-derived embryo differentiation and development as well as haploid/doubled haploid plant regeneration. The complexity of the PGR network which could exist at the level of biosynthesis, distribution, gene expression or signaling pathways, renders the creation of an integrated model of ME-control crosstalk impossible at present. However, the analysis of the published data together with the results received recently with the use of modern analytical techniques brings new insights into hormonal regulation of this process. This review presents a short historical overview of the most important milestones in the recognition of hormonal requirements for effective ME in the most important crop plant species and complements it with new concepts that evolved over the last decade of ME studies. PMID:26113852

  20. Signal Transduction in Histidine Kinases: Insights from New Structures

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Manasi P.; Molnar, Kathleen S.; Goulian, Mark; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Histidine kinases (HKs) are major players in bacterial signaling. There has been an explosion of new HK crystal structures in the last five years. We globally analyze the structures of HKs to yield insights into the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted to and across protein structures in this family. We interpret known enzymological data in the context of new structural data to show how asymmetry across the dimer interface is a key feature of signal transduction in HKs, and discuss how different HK domains undergo asymmetric-to-symmetric transitions during signal transduction and catalysis. A thermodynamic framework for signaling that encompasses these various properties is presented and the consequences of weak thermodynamic coupling are discussed. The synthesis of observations from enzymology, structural biology, protein engineering and thermodynamics paves the way for a deeper molecular understanding of histidine kinase signal transduction. PMID:25982528

  1. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases as biomarkers of disease: updates and new insights.

    PubMed

    Galliera, Emanuela; Tacchini, Lorenza; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M

    2015-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role in remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are therefore of interest for new diagnostic tools for the clinical management of diseases involving ECM disruption. This setting ranges from the classical areas of MMP studies, such as vascular disease, cancer progression or bone disorders, to new emerging fields of application, such as neurodegenerative disease or sepsis. Increasing the knowledge about the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of diseases where a clear diagnostic panel is still lacking could provide new insight and improve the identification and the clinical treatment of these human diseases. This review focuses on the latest descriptions of the clinical use of MMP as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of different diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and metastasis, neurodegenerative disorders and sepsis.

  3. Fueling Immunity: Insights into Metabolism and Lymphocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Erika L.; Poffenberger, Maya C.; Chang, Chih-Hao; Jones, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes face major metabolic challenges upon activation. They must meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of increased cell proliferation and also adapt to changing environmental conditions, in which nutrients and oxygen may be limiting. An emerging theme in immunology is that metabolic reprogramming and lymphocyte activation are intricately linked. However, why T cells adopt specific metabolic programs and the impact that these programs have on T cell function and, ultimately, immunological outcome remain unclear. Research on tumor cell metabolism has provided valuable insight into metabolic pathways important for cell proliferation and the influence of metabolites themselves on signal transduction and epigenetic programming. In this Review, we highlight emerging concepts regarding metabolic reprogramming in proliferating cells and discuss their potential impact on T cell fate and function. PMID:24115444

  4. Insight into the interactions between nanoparticles and cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchao; Mao, Hongli; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2017-01-31

    Multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in biomedical applications because of their versatile properties. The properties of NPs should be well designed and controlled according to various applications because they may directly affect the functions and performances of NPs in biological systems. Cellular uptake is a prerequisite for the success of NP-based biomedical applications. However, the internalized NPs inside cells may have some adverse effects. Therefore, the interactions between NPs and cells should be thoroughly investigated and elucidated. This review summarizes the latest advances in NP-cell interactions. Especially the effects of NP properties including size, shape, shell structure, surface chemistry and protein corona formation on cellular uptake and cytotoxicity are highlighted in detail. Their effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and cellular mechanics are also discussed. These insights into NP-cell interactions should provide useful information for the preparation of highly functional NPs and their biomedical applications.

  5. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Monogenic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Rinki; Carroll, Richard W.; Krebs, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1) severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2) pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3) severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted. PMID:23766565

  6. Insights into particle cycling from thorium and particle data.

    PubMed

    Lam, Phoebe J; Marchal, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine particles are a main vector by which the biological carbon pump in the ocean transfers carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. Marine particles exist in a continuous spectrum of sizes, but they can be functionally grouped into a small, suspended class (which constitutes most of the total particle mass) and a large, sinking class (which contributes most of the particle flux). These two classes are connected by aggregation and disaggregation processes. The interplay of processes that create, aggregate, and destroy marine particles determines the strength and transfer efficiency of the biological pump. Measurements of radiocarbon, barium, and organic biomarkers on suspended and sinking particles have provided qualitative insights into particle dynamics, and measurements of thorium isotopes have provided quantitative estimates of rates. Here, we review what has been learned so far about particle dynamics in the ocean from chemical measurements on suspended and sinking particles. We then discuss future directions for this approach.

  7. Insights into MiRNA Regulation of the Human Glycome

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Brian T.; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Mahal, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is an intricate process requiring the coordinated action of multiple proteins, including glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, sugar nucleotide transporters and trafficking proteins. Work by several groups points to a role for microRNA (miRNA) in controlling the levels of specific glycosyltransferases involved in cancer, neural migration and osteoblast formation. Recent work in our laboratory suggests that miRNA are a principal regulator of the glycome, translating genomic information into the glycocode through tuning of enzyme levels. Herein we overlay predicted miRNA regulation of glycosylation related genes (glycogenes) onto maps of the common N-linked and O-linked glycan biosynthetic pathways to identify key regulatory nodes of the glycome. Our analysis provides insights into glycan regulation and suggests that at the regulatory level, glycogenes are non-redundant. PMID:24463102

  8. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together.

  9. 'Omics' of the mammalian gut--new insights into function.

    PubMed

    Lamendella, Regina; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-06-01

    To understand the role of gut microbes in host health, it is imperative to probe their genetic potential, expression, and ecological status. The current high-throughput sequencing revolution, in addition to advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, have recently enabled deep access to these complex environments, and are revealing important insights into the roles of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in host physiology and health. This review discusses examples of how the integration of cutting-edge 'meta-omics' technologies are providing new knowledge about the relationships between host health status in mammals and the microbes inhabiting the GI tract. In addition, we address some promises that these techniques hold for future therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  10. Video motion analysis with automated tracking: an insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab Usman, Bilal; Alam, Junaid; Sabieh Anwar, Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the use of elementary techniques in computer vision and motion photography for the analysis of well known experiments in interactive instructional physics laboratories. We describe a method for the automated tracking of the kinematics of physical objects which involves the subtraction of orthogonal colors in color space. The aim is to expose undergraduate students to image processing and its applications in video motion analysis. The straightforward technique is simple, results in computational speedup compared to an existing method, removes the need for a laborious repetitive and manual tagging of frames and is generally robust against color variations. Insight is also presented into the process of thresholding and selecting the correct region out of the several choice presented in the post-threshold frames. Finally, the approach is illustrated through a selection of well known mechanics experiments.

  11. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E.; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  12. Emerging structural insights into the function of ionotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Erkan; Regan, Michael C.; Furukawa, Hiro

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission crucial for brain development and function including learning and memory formation. Recently a wealth of structural studies on iGluRs, including AMPA receptors (AMPARs), kainate receptors, and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) became available.. These studies showed structures of non-NMDARs including AMPAR and kainate receptor in various functional states, thereby providing the first visual sense of how non-NMDAR iGluRs may function in the context of homotetramers. Furthermore, they provided the first view of heterotetrameric NMDAR ion channels, which illuminated the similarities with and differences from non-NMDARs, thus raising a mechanistic distinction between the two groups of iGluRs. Here we review mechanistic insights into iGluR functions gained through structural studies of multiple groups. PMID:25941168

  13. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  14. Correlations Between Awareness of Illness (Insight) and History of Addiction in Heroin-Addicted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Rovai, Luca; Rugani, Fabio; Pacini, Matteo; Lamanna, Francesco; Bacciardi, Silvia; Perugi, Giulio; Deltito, Joseph; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-01-01

    In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic, and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight). The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behavior. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic, and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period. PMID:22787450

  15. Neural pathway in the right hemisphere underlies verbal insight problem solving.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Zhou, Z; Xu, H; Fan, W; Han, L

    2014-01-03

    Verbal insight problem solving means to break mental sets, to select the novel semantic information and to form novel, task-related associations. Although previous studies have identified the brain regions associated with these key processes, the interaction among these regions during insight is still unclear. In the present study, we explored the functional connectivity between the key regions during solving Chinese 'chengyu' riddles by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that both insight and noninsight solutions activated the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, middle temporal gyri and hippocampi, and these regions constituted a frontal to temporal to hippocampal neural pathway. Compared with noninsight solution, insight solution had a stronger functional connectivity between the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere. Our study reveals the neural pathway of information processing during verbal insight problem solving, and supports the right-hemisphere advantage theory of insight.

  16. Human endotoxemia: a model for mechanistic insight and therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    The diversity of phenotypic manifestations, comorbidities, and therapeutic algorithms in patients with severe inflammation have confounded efforts to translate mechanistic insights from the bench top to the bedside. This dilemma has negatively impacted upon many therapeutic interventions that exhibited seemingly well-reasoned preclinical portfolios. Prudence urges the assessment of potent immunoregulatory therapies, wherever possible, in models that replicate the clinical phenotype absent overt manifestations of genetically or environmentally modified processes. The healthy human model of endotoxin administration (systemic or endobronchial) provides such an opportunity and has been used to great advantage for gaining insight into mechanisms of disease and for determination of therapeutic signal strength. When thoughtfully interpreted, the model may provide proof of principle as well as lessen the unpredictability of clinical responses. Although the broad characteristics of this model are well described in the literature, it is recognized that this model does not fully replicate the magnitude of initial inflammatory stress nor the latent spectrum of inflammation/sepsis-inducible organ system pathologies. Nevertheless, the similarities between the early, transient clinical phenotype, inducible physiochemical change, and biochemical pathway activation of this model to the early hyperdynamic phase of resuscitated injury and infection are striking. Rational testing of a therapeutic mechanism requires a quantifiable and reproducibly altered marker of the hypothetical mechanism. Given the modest nature of endotoxin induced insult, interventions that demonstrate target specific efficacy in conjunction with attenuated phenotype responses are more likely to exhibit efficacy within lower risk patient populations. By contrast, the model cannot predict clinical efficacy among higher risk patients nor in those who have endured extended periods of inflammatory stress.

  17. Food in an Evolutionary Context: Insights from Mother's Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Katie; German, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In the emergence of diverse animal life forms, food is the most insistent and pervasive of environmental pressures. As the life sciences begin to understand organisms in genomic detail, evolutionary perspectives provide compelling insights into the results of these dynamic interactions between food and consumer. Such an evolutionary perspective is particularly needed today in the face of unprecedented capabilities to alter the food supply. What should we change? Answering this question for food production, safety, and sustainability will require a much more detailed understanding of the complex interplay between humans and their food. Many organisms that we grow, produce, process, and consume as foods naturally evolved adaptations in part to avoid being eaten. Crop breeding and processing have been the tools to convert overtly toxic and anti-nutritious commodities into foods that are safe to eat. Now the challenge is to enhance the nutritional quality and thereby contribute to improving human health. We posit that the Rosetta stone of food and nourishment is mammalian lactation and “mother's milk.” The milk that a mammalian mother produces for her young is a complete and comprehensive diet. Moreover the capacity of the mammary gland as a remarkable bioreactor to synthesize milk, and the infant to utilize milk, reflects 200 million years of symbiotic co-evolution between producer and consumer. Here we present emerging trans-disciplinary research “decoding” mother's milk from humans and other mammals. We further discuss how insights from mother's milk have important implications for food science and human health. PMID:22729619

  18. New insight on petroleum system modeling of Ghadames basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Deepender; Dubey, Siddharth

    2015-12-01

    Underdown and Redfern (2008) performed a detailed petroleum system modeling of the Ghadames basin along an E-W section. However, hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation changes significantly across the basin due to complex geological history. Therefore, a single section can't be considered representative for the whole basin. This study aims at bridging this gap by performing petroleum system modeling along a N-S section and provides new insights on source rock maturation, generation and migration of the hydrocarbons using 2D basin modeling. This study in conjunction with earlier work provides a 3D context of petroleum system modeling in the Ghadames basin. Hydrocarbon generation from the lower Silurian Tanezzuft formation and the Upper Devonian Aouinet Ouenine started during the late Carboniferous. However, high subsidence rate during middle to late Cretaceous and elevated heat flow in Cenozoic had maximum impact on source rock transformation and hydrocarbon generation whereas large-scale uplift and erosion during Alpine orogeny has significant impact on migration and accumulation. Visible migration observed along faults, which reactivated during Austrian unconformity. Peak hydrocarbon expulsion reached during Oligocene for both the Tanezzuft and the Aouinet Ouenine source rocks. Based on modeling results, capillary entry pressure driven downward expulsion of hydrocarbons from the lower Silurian Tanezzuft formation to the underlying Bir Tlacsin formation observed during middle Cretaceous. Kinetic modeling has helped to model hydrocarbon composition and distribution of generated hydrocarbons from both the source rocks. Application of source to reservoir tracking technology suggest some accumulations at shallow stratigraphic level has received hydrocarbons from both the Tanezzuft and Aouinet Ouenine source rocks, implying charge mixing. Five petroleum systems identified based on source to reservoir correlation technology in Petromod*. This Study builds

  19. KEY ISSUES REVIEW: Insights from simulations of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Richard B.

    2007-03-01

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604)

  20. Structural Insights into the Mechanism of PEPCK Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holyoak,T.; Sullivan, S.; Nowak, T.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase catalyzes the reversible decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid with the concomitant transfer of the {gamma}-phosphate of GTP to form PEP and GDP as the first committed step of gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. The three structures of the mitochondrial isoform of PEPCK reported are complexed with Mn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}-PEP, or Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP and provide the first observations of the structure of the mitochondrial isoform and insight into the mechanism of catalysis mediated by this enzyme. The structures show the involvement of the hyper-reactive cysteine (C307) in the coordination of the active site Mn{sup 2+}. Upon formation of the PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-PEP or PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP complexes, C307 coordination is lost as the P-loop in which it resides adopts a different conformation. The structures suggest that stabilization of the cysteine-coordinated metal geometry holds the enzyme as a catalytically incompetent metal complex and may represent a previously unappreciated mechanism of regulation. A third conformation of the mobile P-loop in the PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP complex demonstrates the participation of a previously unrecognized, conserved serine residue (S305) in mediating phosphoryl transfer. The ordering of the mobile active site lid in the PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP complex yields the first observation of this structural feature and provides additional insight into the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer.

  1. Acyclovir-Polyethylene Glycol 6000 Binary Dispersions: Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Venkateskumar, Krishnamoorthy; Parasuraman, Subramani; Gunasunderi, Raju; Sureshkumar, Krishnan; Nayak, M Muralidhar; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Khoo, Khassen; Kai, Heng Wei

    2016-12-21

    The dissolution and subsequent oral bioavailability of acyclovir (ACY) is limited by its poor aqueous solubility. An attempt has been made in this work to provide mechanistic insights into the solubility enhancement and dissolution of ACY by using the water-soluble carrier polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000). Solid dispersions with varying ratios of the drug (ACY) and carrier (PEG6000) were prepared and evaluated by phase solubility, in vitro release studies, kinetic analysis, in situ perfusion, and in vitro permeation studies. Solid state characterization was done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and surface morphology was assessed by polarizing microscopic image analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the solubilization effect of the carrier. The aqueous solubility and dissolution of ACY was found to be higher in all samples. The findings of XRD, DSC, FTIR and NMR analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution, crystallinity reduction, and the absence of interaction between the drug and carrier. SEM and AFM analysis reports ratified the particle size reduction and change in the surface morphology in samples. The permeation coefficient and amount of ACY diffused were higher in samples in comparison to pure ACY. Stability was found to be higher in dispersions. The results suggest that the study findings provided clear mechanical insights into the solubility and dissolution enhancement of ACY in PEG6000, and such findings could lay the platform for resolving the poor aqueous solubility issues in formulation development.

  2. The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: insights to disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Douglas S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of studying the epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is twofold. First, it is important to understand clearly the natural history of the illness in order to assist patients in making decisions about their future with respect to issues such as family planning, the importance of securing lifelong healthcare, their ability to get and maintain employment, and making appropriate choices of therapy for their particular circumstances. This is not to suggest that, even with the best possible information, the ultimate prognosis for any individual can be predicted with absolute accuracy. It cannot. Nevertheless, accurate information can be very helpful both to reassure patients that many individuals with MS do remarkably well in the long term (perhaps, especially, with current and future therapies) and also to empower individuals with respect to their ability to make their own life choices. Second, and arguably the more important purpose for studying the epidemiology of MS, is to gain insights to the underlying causes of the disease. Indeed, if the principal mechanisms of disease pathogenesis were to be understood clearly, then it might be possible to entertain notions of either a cure for existing disease or the primary prevention of future disease. Much of our current understanding of disease pathogenesis, as discussed in other chapters of this volume, has been derived from basic science investigations of animal models of MS such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and these models have provided considerable insight both to the complexity of the mammalian immune system and to the mechanisms underlying its dysfunction in inflammatory autoimmune conditions. Nevertheless, MS is a disease of humans without any known, naturally occurring, counterpart in any nonhuman species. For this reason, the clues to disease pathogenesis provided by a study of basic epidemiologic facts regarding MS (and by a systematic consideration of their implications) are

  3. Inspiring your audience to action: insights from theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, W.; Hekkers, J.; Mott, B.

    2011-12-01

    Findings from market research sponsored by The Ocean Project, along with many other recent studies, have revealed two troubling facts: 1. Despite increased efforts to grow climate and ocean literacy among the general public, American adult's knowledge of climate and ocean health has remained stagnant in the past decade; and 2. Knowledge and level of concern about climate change show little correlation, i.e. the people who are most concerned about climate change are not the ones who know most about the science of climate change, and vice versa. If knowledge does not lead to action among the general public, what implications does this have for those of us working for conservation? How can we motivate people to act for conservation? The Ocean Project's large-scale survey of American attitudes and values vis-à-vis ocean, climate change, and related conservation issues provides answers to many such burning questions. Our research findings reveal critical insights about what, who, and how we can communicate for maximum efficacy. In particular, youth and minorities emerged as important constituencies: not only are they more environmentally aware and/or socially conscious, they are important influencers who demonstrate greater propensity to modify their behaviors and/or engage in conservation advocacy. Our presentation will discuss the implications of these findings for strategic communication for conservation action as well as present case studies from the Monterey Bay Aquarium that support these research findings and provide insights from evaluation of two significantly different interpretive approaches to communicate about climate change-a live animal exhibit and a video-based, live-narrated auditorium program.

  4. History and status of introduced mammals and impacts to breeding seabirds on the California channel and Northwestern Baja California Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, G.J.; Tershy, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    The California Channel Islands, U.S.A., and Northwestern Baja California Islands, Mexico, host important breeding populations of several seabird species, including the endemic Black-vented Shearwater (Puffinus opisthomelas) and Xantus' Murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus). Mammals introduced to nearly all of the islands beginning in the late 1800s to early 1900s include: cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis familiaris), Black Rats (Rattus rattus), rabbits and hares (Leporidae), goats (Capra hirca), sheep (Ovis ones), and other grazers. Cats, dogs and rats are seabird predators, grazers such as goats and sheep cause habitat degredation, and rabbits destroy habitat and compete with hole-nesting seabirds. Cats, which were introduced to at least 19 islands and currently occur on ten islands, have had the greatest impacts on seabirds, including the extinction of the endemic Guadalupe Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma macrodactyla). Cats are known to have eliminated or severely reduced colonies of Black-vented Shearwaters, Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and Xantus' Murrelets. Black Rats have occurred on a minimum of seven islands and have reduced numbers of small, hole-nesting alcids on at least one island. At many islands, defoliation and erosion caused by rabbits and large grazing mammals has been severe. Their effects on seabirds are not well documented but potentially are serious. Impacts from introduced mammals have been most severe on islands with no native mammalian predators. On the Northwestern Baja California Islands, temporary and permanent human settlements have led to a greater diversity and source of introductions. Programs to remove introduced mammals and to reduce the possibility of future introductions are needed to restore seabird populations and to preserve the biodiversity of the region. Surveys are needed particularly on the Northwestern Baja California Islands to update the status and distribution of seabirds and to further assess impacts from

  5. Isotopic characterization of flight feathers in two pelagic seabirds: Sampling strategies for ecological studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Anne E.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Stricker, Craig A.; James, Helen F.; Gandhi, Hasand

    2010-01-01

    We wish to use stable-isotope analysis of flight feathers to understand the feeding behavior of pelagic seabirds, such as the Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) and Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli). Analysis of remiges is particularly informative because the sequence and timing of remex molt are often known. The initial step, reported here, is to obtain accurate isotope values from whole remiges by means of a minimally invasive protocol appropriate for live birds or museum specimens. The high variability observed in D13C and D15N values within a feather precludes the use of a small section of vane. We found the average range within 42 Hawaiian Petrel remiges to be 1.3‰ for both D13C and D15N and that within 10 Newell’s Shearwater remiges to be 1.3‰ and 0.7‰ for D13C and D15N, respectively. The D13C of all 52 feathers increased from tip to base, and the majority of Hawaiian Petrel feathers showed an analogous trend in D15N. Although the average range of DD in 21 Hawaiian Petrel remiges was 11‰, we found no longitudinal trend. We discuss influences of trophic level, foraging location, metabolism, and pigmentation on isotope values and compare three methods of obtaining isotope averages of whole feathers. Our novel barb-sampling protocol requires only 1.0 mg of feather and minimal preparation time. Because it leaves the feather nearly intact, this protocol will likely facilitate obtaining isotope values from remiges of live birds and museum specimens. As a consequence, it will help expand the understanding of historical trends in foraging behavior

  6. Diets of short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; Baduini, Cheryl; Jahncke, Jaime

    2002-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the southeastern Bering Sea exhibited a number of anomalous conditions, including a major die-off of short-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus tenuirostris), a trans-equatorial migrant that constitutes a major portion of the marine bird biomass in the southeastern Bering Sea. As part of a larger study of the ecological role of the inner or structural front over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, in 1997-1999, we collected short-tailed shearwaters to determine diet composition. In spring 1997, we found that short-tailed shearwaters were consuming predominately the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii, a diet expected on the basis of past studies. However, in subsequent years, short-tailed shearwater diets in spring contained increasingly larger proportions of fish, in particular, sandlance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), as well as other species of euphausiids ( T. inermis in 1999). In summer and fall collections, short-tailed shearwater diets were more varied than in spring, and included both fish (age-0 gadids, 21-35% by weight) and a wider variety of euphausiid species (T. inermis and T. spinifera). In summer and fall, crab zoea (August 1998) and copepods (August 1999) were eaten by shearwaters collected while feeding within the inner front. Diets in 1997-1999 were broader than those found in previous studies of short-tailed shearwaters over the inner shelf and Bristol Bay, which had documented diets composed almost solely of T. raschii. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that euphausiids were less available to short-tailed shearwaters foraging over the middle and coastal domains of the southeastern Bering Sea in 1997-1999 than has previously been true. Our results are also consistent with hypothesis that the inner front can affect the availability of prey to shearwaters.

  7. Radar study of seabirds and bats on windward Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Cooper, B.A.; Day, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    Modified marine surveillance radar was used to study the presence/ absence, abundance, and flight activity of four nocturnal species: Hawaiian darkrumped petrel [Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis (Ridgeway)], Newell's shearwater [Puffinus auricularis newelli (Henshaw)], Band-rumped storm-petrel [Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt)], and Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus Sanborn & Crespo). Hawaiian seabirds were recorded flying to or from inland nesting colonies at seven sampling sites on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. In total, 527 radar "targets" identified as petrel or shearwater-type on the basis of speed, flight behavior, and radar signal strength were observed during eight nights of sampling. Mean movement rates (targets per minute) for seabird targets were 0.1, 0.1, 0.3, 3.8, 0.9, and 2.2 for surveys at Kahakai, Kapoho, Mauna Loa, Pali Uli, Pu'ulena Crater, and Waipi'o Valley, respectively. Two percent of the petrel and shearwater-type targets detected on radar were confirmed visually or aurally. Flight paths for seabird targets showed strong directionality at six sampling sites. Mean flight speed for seabird targets (n = 524) was 61 km/hr for all survey areas. Peak detection times for seabirds were from 0430 to 0530 hours for birds flying to sea and 2000 to 2150 hours for birds returning to colonies. Most inland, low-elevation sampling sites could not be surveyed reliably for seabirds during the evening activity periods because of radar interference from insects and rapidly flying bats. At those inland sites predawn sampling was the best time for using radar to detect Hawaiian seabirds moving seaward. Hawaiian hoary bats were recorded at eight sampling sites. Eighty-six to 89 radar targets that exhibited erratic flight behavior were identified as "batlike" targets; 17% of these batlike radar targets were confirmed visually. Band-rumped storm-petrels were not identified during our surveys.

  8. Foods, trophic relationships, and migration of Sooty and Short-tailed Shearwaters associated with squid and large-mesh driftnet fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, Patrick J.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Walker, William

    2000-01-01

    We salvaged dead birds from high seas driftnets in the Central North Pacific Ocean during a study of the impact of high seas driftnet fishing on marine ecosystems. Digestive tract contents and stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in breast muscles of these birds were analyzed to assess the effect of driftnets on the trophic relationships of marine birds. The diets of Sooty (Puffinus griseus) and Short-tailed (P. tenuirostris) Shearwaters associated with high seas driftnets in the transitional region of the North Pacific Ocean overlap broadly. The principal differences between them include 1) Sooties prey more heavily on immature stages of invertebrates, especially the barnacle Lepas fascicularis than do Short-tails, 2) Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) are the primary fish taken by Sooties while lanternfish (Myctophidae) are the primary fish taken by Short-tails, and 3) Sooties take a wider variety of prey than do Short-tails. During the last years of extensive high seas driftnet fishing (early 1990's), both shearwaters augmented their diets with about 15% offal and discards from fishing vessels. Values for stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in breast muscle tissues (δ15N and δ15C) indicate the extent and timing of movements of Sooty Shearwaters: including arrival of migrants from the south Pacific (April-May), east to west movement from the eastern Pacific (May-June), and west to east movement from Japan (August-September). Fall migrant Sooties were not detected. The only movements of Short-tails that we detected were a few south-bound migrants in September-November.

  9. Community structure across a large-scale ocean productivity gradient: Marine bird assemblages of the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.; Weimerskirch, Henri; Metzl, Nicolas; Hunt, George L., Jr.

    2007-07-01

    Our objective was to understand how marine birds respond to oceanographic variability across the Southern Indian Ocean using data collected during an 16-day cruise (4-21 January 2003). We quantified concurrent water mass distributions, ocean productivity patterns, and seabird distributions across a heterogeneous pelagic ecosystem from subtropical to sub-Antarctic waters. We surveyed 5155 km and sighted 15,606 birds from 51 species, and used these data to investigate how seabirds respond to spatial variability in the structure and productivity of the ocean. We addressed two spatial scales: the structure of seabird communities across macro-mega scale (1000 s km) biogeographic domains, and their coarse-scale (10 s km) aggregation at hydrographic and bathymetric gradients. Both seabird density and species composition changed with latitudinal and onshore-offshore gradients in depth, water temperature, and chlorophyll-a concentration. The average seabird density increased across the subtropical convergence (STC) from 2.4 birds km -2 in subtropical waters to 23.8 birds km -2 in sub-Antarctic waters. The composition of the avifauna also differed across biogeographic domains. Prions ( Pachyptila spp.) accounted for 57% of all sub-Antarctic birds, wedge-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus pacificus) accounted for 46% of all subtropical birds, and Indian Ocean yellow-nosed albatross ( Thallasarche carteri) accounted for 32% of all birds in the STC. While surface feeders were the most abundant foraging guild across the study area, divers were disproportionately more numerous in the sub-Antarctic domain, and plungers were disproportionately more abundant in subtropical waters. Seabird densities were also higher within shallow shelf-slope regions, especially in sub-Antarctic waters, where large numbers of breeding seabirds concentrated. However, we did not find elevated seabird densities along the STC, suggesting that this broad frontal region is not a site of enhanced aggregation.

  10. Protecting persistent dynamic oceanographic features: transboundary conservation efforts are needed for the critically endangered Balearic shearwater.

    PubMed

    Louzao, Maite; Delord, Karine; García, David; Boué, Amélie; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species.

  11. Mercury, selenium, cadmium and organochlorines in eggs of three Hawaiian seabird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Harrison, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Eggs of three representative species of seabirds (wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus; red-footed booby Sula sula; and sooty tern Sterna fuscata) were collected in 1980 to determined differences in heavy metal, Se, and organochlorine residues among species nesting in the Hawaiian Archipelago and among the four nesting sites sampled (Oahu, French Frigate Shoals, Laysan, and Midway). Hg and Se were present in all eggs analysed, but Cd was not detected. Hg was usually highest in booby eggs, and there was a southeast-to-northeast trend toward higher concetrations in this species; booby eggs from Midway contained the highest mean concentration of Hg (0?36 :g g-1, wet weight). Se consistently occurred at lowest concentrations in booby eggs. When Se and Hg concentrations were expressed as nanomoles per gram, Se constituted 94?96% of the combined total at each location for shearwater and tern eggs. In booby eggs, the proportion as Se declined significantly (' = 0?05) from Oahu (93?4%) westward to Midway (85?9%). Although DDT occurred in most of the shearwater eggs from each site, it was not found in booby or tern eggs. DDE occured in all eggs, but mean concentrations did not exceed 0?6 :g g-1. DDE concentrations were higher in eggs from the two south-eastern nesting sites and were consistently highest in shearwater eggs. PCBs were found in most of the shearwater and booby eggs, but were not detected in tern eggs. Other organochlorines usually occurred more frequently in eggs of shearwaters than in other species. The only exception were '-HCH and HCB, which occurred more frequently in booby eggs. Kepone, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane compounds, and toxaphene were not detected. Differences in residue concentrations seem to reflect differences in diets and seasonal movements of the birds, and perhaps other factors such as atmospheric and oceanic transport of chemicals and physiological differences among the species.

  12. Spatial variation in egg size of a top predator: Interplay of body size and environmental factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzao, Maite; Igual, José M.; Genovart, Meritxell; Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Oro, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    It is expected that nearby populations are constrained by the same ecological features shaping in turn similarity in their ecological traits. Here, we studied the spatio-temporal variability in egg size among local populations of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, a top marine predator endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Specifically we assessed whether this trait was influenced by maternal body size, as an indicator of a genetic component, and feeding ecology (through stable-carbon and nitrogen-isotope measurements), as an indicator of environmental factors. We found that egg size varied among local populations, an unexpected result at such a small spatial scale. Body size differences at the local population level only partially explained such differences. Blood isotope measurements also differed among local populations. Values of δ 15N suggested inter-population differences in trophic level, showing a similar general pattern with egg size, and suggesting a nutritional link between them whereby egg size was affected by differences in feeding resources and/or behaviour. Values of δ 13C suggested that local populations did not differ in foraging habits with respect to benthic- vs. pelagic-based food-webs. Egg size did not vary among years as did breeding performance, suggesting that a differential temporal window could affect both breeding parameters in relation to food availability. The absence of a relationship between breeding performance and egg size suggested that larger eggs might only confer an advantage during harsh conditions. Alternatively parental quality could greatly affect breeding performance. We showed that inter-population differences in egg size could be influenced by both body size and environmental factors.

  13. Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

    2010-12-01

    A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual δ15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual δ13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 δ13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather δ13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather δ13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

  14. Protecting Persistent Dynamic Oceanographic Features: Transboundary Conservation Efforts Are Needed for the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater

    PubMed Central

    Louzao, Maite; Delord, Karine; García, David; Boué, Amélie; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species. PMID:22590510

  15. Comparing Multiple Criteria for Species Identification in Two Recently Diverged Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Militão, Teresa; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; González-Solís, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Correct species identification is a crucial issue in systematics with key implications for prioritising conservation effort. However, it can be particularly challenging in recently diverged species due to their strong similarity and relatedness. In such cases, species identification requires multiple and integrative approaches. In this study we used multiple criteria, namely plumage colouration, biometric measurements, geometric morphometrics, stable isotopes analysis (SIA) and genetics (mtDNA), to identify the species of 107 bycatch birds from two closely related seabird species, the Balearic (Puffinus mauretanicus) and Yelkouan (P. yelkouan) shearwaters. Biometric measurements, stable isotopes and genetic data produced two stable clusters of bycatch birds matching the two study species, as indicated by reference birds of known origin. Geometric morphometrics was excluded as a species identification criterion since the two clusters were not stable. The combination of plumage colouration, linear biometrics, stable isotope and genetic criteria was crucial to infer the species of 103 of the bycatch specimens. In the present study, particularly SIA emerged as a powerful criterion for species identification, but temporal stability of the isotopic values is critical for this purpose. Indeed, we found some variability in stable isotope values over the years within each species, but species differences explained most of the variance in the isotopic data. Yet this result pinpoints the importance of examining sources of variability in the isotopic data in a case-by-case basis prior to the cross-application of the SIA approach to other species. Our findings illustrate how the integration of several methodological approaches can help to correctly identify individuals from recently diverged species, as each criterion measures different biological phenomena and species divergence is not expressed simultaneously in all biological traits. PMID:25541978

  16. Comparison of five modelling techniques to predict the spatial distribution and abundance of seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Gardner, Beth; Oppel, Steffen; Meirinho, Ana; Ramírez, Iván; Miller, Peter I.; Louzao, Maite

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the spatial distribution of seabirds at sea is important for conservation. During marine conservation planning, logistical constraints preclude seabird surveys covering the complete area of interest and spatial distribution of seabirds is frequently inferred from predictive statistical models. Increasingly complex models are available to relate the distribution and abundance of pelagic seabirds to environmental variables, but a comparison of their usefulness for delineating protected areas for seabirds is lacking. Here we compare the performance of five modelling techniques (generalised linear models, generalised additive models, Random Forest, boosted regression trees, and maximum entropy) to predict the distribution of Balearic Shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) along the coast of the western Iberian Peninsula. We used ship transect data from 2004 to 2009 and 13 environmental variables to predict occurrence and density, and evaluated predictive performance of all models using spatially segregated test data. Predicted distribution varied among the different models, although predictive performance varied little. An ensemble prediction that combined results from all five techniques was robust and confirmed the existence of marine important bird areas for Balearic Shearwaters in Portugal and Spain. Our predictions suggested additional areas that would be of high priority for conservation and could be proposed as protected areas. Abundance data were extremely difficult to predict, and none of five modelling techniques provided a reliable prediction of spatial patterns. We advocate the use of ensemble modelling that combines the output of several methods to predict the spatial distribution of seabirds, and use these predictions to target separate surveys assessing the abundance of seabirds in areas of regular use.

  17. Marine bird abundance around the Pribilof Islands: A multi-year comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahncke, Jaime; Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Decker, Mary Beth; Hunt, George L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We examined trends in the abundance and distribution of 12 species of marine birds around the Pribilof Islands, southeastern Bering Sea, over the period from 1977 to 2004. We contrasted patterns among piscivores and planktivores and related these to known and hypothesized changes in the abundance and distribution of prey in the vicinity of the islands. Planktivorous and piscivorous species of marine birds showed different patterns of abundance over time. Planktivorous seabirds that breed away from the Pribilof Islands (e.g., short-tailed shearwaters [ Puffinus tenuirostris], fork-tailed storm-petrels [ Oceanodroma furcata] and red phalaropes [ Phalaropus fulicarius]) were scarce in the 1970s, were abundant in the 1980s, and declined in abundance in the 1990s and from 1999 to 2004. Planktivorous alcids combined (parakeet [ Aethia psittacula], crested [ A. cristatella] and least [ A. pusilla]) that breed on the Pribilof Islands showed a similar remarkable four-fold increase from the 1970s to the 1980s, but then a small increase into the 1990s followed by a rapid decline in the 2000s to numbers similar to those present during the 1970s. The abundance of piscivores kittiwakes ( Rissa spp.) and murres ( Una spp.) was high in the 1970s and declined through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. In 1999 and 2004, the total number of all seabirds at sea around the Pribilof Islands was well below the numbers seen at any other survey period. We hypothesize that changes in the abundances and types of seabirds present through time reflect changes in the structure of the marine ecosystem of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. We suggest that changes in pathways of energy flow may be responsible for these shifts, though the possibility that there has been a reduction in productivity cannot be ruled out given the scarcity of available data.

  18. Seabird bycatch in Alaska demersal longline fishery trials: a demographic summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Hatch, Scott A.; Ramey, Andy M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial demographics are summarized for seabirds killed incidentally during gear modification trials for a demersal longline fishery in the Bering Sea. We examined 417 carcasses, including Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis (n = 205), Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens (n = 103), Short-tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris (n = 48), Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus (n = 23), Slaty-backed Gull Larus schistisagus (n = 4), Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (n = 1), Laysan Albatross Diomedea immutabilis (n = 1), and unidentified gull species Larus spp. (n = 32). There was a significant male bias in the sex ratio of fulmars but not of gulls or shearwaters. For the top three species killed, the age composition of resident species was dominated numerically by adults (Northern Fulmar—86%; Glaucous-winged Gull—63%), whereas migrant species were primarily immature birds (Short-tailed Shearwater—71%). The majority of migratory Short-tailed Shearwaters (88%) were caught in July and August, whereas 70% of resident fulmars and gulls were caught in October and November. Age-class frequencies did not differ by month of capture, indicating that adult mortality is substantial. Eighty percent of the fulmars caught during July and August were within 200 km of two colonies in the Bering Sea, whereas only 7% of fulmars were caught in the same area during September to November. This is one of the first demographic summaries of seabird bycatch in Alaska longline fisheries. Additional studies of the species, age and sex of seabirds subject to fisheries-related mortality will provide data necessary to evaluate population-level impacts.

  19. The Comparative Organismal Approach in Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Insights from Ascidians and Cavefish.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, William R

    2016-01-01

    Important contributions to evolutionary developmental biology have been made using the comparative organismal approach. As examples, I describe insights obtained from studies of Molgula ascidians and Astyanax cavefish.

  20. Is it me? Verbal self-monitoring neural network and clinical insight in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sapara, Adegboyega; ffytche, Dominic H.; Cooke, Michael A.; Williams, Steven C.R.; Kumari, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Self-monitoring, defined as the ability to distinguish between self-generated stimuli from other-generated ones, is known to be impaired in schizophrenia. This impairment has been theorised as the basis for many of the core psychotic symptoms, in particular, poor clinical insight. This study aimed to investigate verbal self-monitoring related neural substrates of preserved and poor clinical insight in schizophrenia. It involved 40 stable schizophrenia outpatients, 20 with preserved and 20 with poor insight, and 20 healthy participants. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with brain coverage covering key areas in the self-monitoring network during a verbal self-monitoring task. Healthy participants showed higher performance accuracy and greater thalamic activity than both preserved and poor insight patient groups. Preserved insight patients showed higher activity in the putamen extending into the caudate, insula and inferior frontal gyrus, compared to poor insight patients, and in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, compared to healthy participants. Poor insight patients did not show greater activity in any brain area compared to preserved insight patients or healthy participants. Future studies may pursue therapeutic avenues, such as meta-cognitive therapies to promote self-monitoring or targeted stimulation of relevant brain areas, as means of enhancing insight in schizophrenia. PMID:26549744

  1. Longitudinal trajectory of clinical insight and covariation with cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Buchy, Lisa; Makowski, Carolina; Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha; Lepage, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Among people with a first-episode of psychosis, those with poorer clinical insight show neuroanatomical abnormalities in frontal, temporal and parietal cortices compared to those with better clinical insight. Whether changes in clinical insight are associated with progressive structural brain changes is unknown. We aimed to evaluate 1) associations between clinical insight and cortical thickness at a baseline assessment, 2) covariation between clinical insight and cortical thickness across baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up assessments, and 3) the predictive value of clinical insight for cortical thickness at one-year and two-year follow-ups. Scale for the assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder ratings and magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired at baseline, one-year, and two-year follow-ups in 128, 74, and 44 individuals with a first-episode psychosis, respectively. Cortical thickness metrics were then computed at baseline, one-year and two-year follow-ups and analyzed with linear mixed models. At baseline, clinical insight was not significantly associated with cortical thickness in any region. Longitudinal mixed effects models showed that a worsening in clinical insight between the one-year and two-year assessments was significantly associated with cortical thinning in dorsal pre-central and post-central gyri. Cortical thinning in left fusiform gyrus at two-years was predicted by poorer clinical insight at baseline. Results suggest that poor clinical insight soon after the onset of a first-episode psychosis may lead to progressive cortical changes in temporal lobe, while changes in clinical insight during the second year covary with cortical thinning in circumscribed dorsal frontal and parietal cortices.

  2. Gaining Insight into Star Formation: Resolved Star Formation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebst, Kelley; Scowen, Paul A.

    2014-06-01

    Until recently astronomers have used star formation laws to measure the star formation rate and star formation efficiency of galaxies only on global scales because of the poor resolution of available data. What I am now capable of producing is a spatially resolved star formation law that can provide direct insight into the physical processes that govern star formation and assess the short-term nature of bursts of star formation and the longer-term nature of larger-scale events that can dictate the global distribution of stars and the ultimate fate of a galaxy as a whole. I am using exquisite narrowband optical data from a variety of sources, including the Hubble Space Telescope, and Kitt Peak National Observatory, etc., in conjunction with infrared data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey and the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey, neutral gas data from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, and molecular gas data from the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association Survey of Nearby Galaxies, to provide star formation rates and star formation efficiencies on previously inaccessible small spatial scales across a suite of galaxies that represent a range of star formation environments and scales. My sample includes 18 spiral galaxies ranging from 2.1 to 15.1 Mpc in distance and offers a large range of morphological types (i.e. a large range of star formation environments). I am using these data to test different models of star formation modes under a variety of physical conditions and relate the variations I observe to the known local physical conditions and the associated star formation histories for each locale within each galaxy.This is the heart of the matter - that the nature and evolution of the local physical environment intimately influences how stars can form, how quickly and how massive those stars are allowed to form, and as a result how they shape the local conditions for subsequent star formation. It is this tracking of the stellar ecology that is vital for

  3. The Alveolate Perkinsus marinus: Biological Insights from EST Gene Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, has devastated natural and farmed oyster populations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. It is classified as a member of the Perkinsozoa, a recently established phylum considered close to the ancestor of ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans, and a key taxon for understanding unique adaptations (e.g. parasitism) within the Alveolata. Despite intense parasite pressure, no disease-resistant oysters have been identified and no effective therapies have been developed to date. Results To gain insight into the biological basis of the parasite's virulence and pathogenesis mechanisms, and to identify genes encoding potential targets for intervention, we generated >31,000 5' expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from four trophozoite libraries generated from two P. marinus strains. Trimming and clustering of the sequence tags yielded 7,863 unique sequences, some of which carry a spliced leader. Similarity searches revealed that 55% of these had hits in protein sequence databases, of which 1,729 had their best hit with proteins from the chromalveolates (E-value ≤ 1e-5). Some sequences are similar to those proven to be targets for effective intervention in other protozoan parasites, and include not only proteases, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock proteins, but also those associated with relict plastids, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and methyl erythrithol phosphate pathway components, and those involved in glycan assembly, protein folding/secretion, and parasite-host interactions. Conclusions Our transcriptome analysis of P. marinus, the first for any member of the Perkinsozoa, contributes new insight into its biology and taxonomic position. It provides a very informative, albeit preliminary, glimpse into the expression of genes encoding functionally relevant proteins as potential targets for chemotherapy, and evidence for the presence of a relict

  4. The SGI/Cray T3E: Experiences and Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Lisa Hamet

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the fifth most powerful supercomputer in the world, a 1024 processor SGI/Cray T3E-600. The original 512 processor system was placed at Goddard in March, 1997 as part of a cooperative agreement between the High Performance Computing and Communications Program's Earth and Space Sciences Project (ESS) and SGI/Cray Research. The goal of this system is to facilitate achievement of the Project milestones of 10, 50 and 100 GFLOPS sustained performance on selected Earth and space science application codes. The additional 512 processors were purchased in March, 1998 by the NASA Earth Science Enterprise for the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP). These two "halves" still operate as a single system, and must satisfy the unique requirements of both aforementioned groups, as well as guest researchers from the Earth, space, microgravity, manned space flight and aeronautics communities. Few large scalable parallel systems are configured for capability computing, so models are hard to find. This unique environment has created a challenging system administration task, and has yielded some insights into the supercomputing needs of the various NASA Enterprises, as well as insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the T3E architecture and software. The T3E is a distributed memory system in which the processing elements (PE's) are connected by a low latency, high bandwidth bidirectional 3-D torus. Due to the focus on high speed communication between PE's, the T3E requires PE's to be allocated contiguously per job. Further, jobs will only execute on the user specified number of PE's and PE timesharing is possible but impractical. With a highly varied job mix in both size and runtime of jobs, the resulting scenario is PE fragmentation and an inability to achieve near 100% utilization. SGI/Cray has provided several scheduling and configuration tools to minimize the impact of fragmentation. These tools include PSche

  5. Evolutionary origins of the estrogen signaling system: insights from amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Callard, G V; Tarrant, A M; Novillo, A; Yacci, P; Ciaccia, L; Vajda, S; Chuang, G-Y; Kozakov, D; Greytak, S R; Sawyer, S; Hoover, C; Cotter, K A

    2011-11-01

    Classically, the estrogen signaling system has two core components: cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme complex that catalyzes the rate limiting step in estrogen biosynthesis; and estrogen receptors (ERs), ligand activated transcription factors that interact with the regulatory region of target genes to mediate the biological effects of estrogen. While the importance of estrogens for regulation of reproduction, development and physiology has been well-documented in gnathostome vertebrates, the evolutionary origins of estrogen as a hormone are still unclear. As invertebrates within the phylum Chordata, cephalochordates (e.g., the amphioxus of the genus Branchiostoma) are among the closest invertebrate relatives of the vertebrates and can provide critical insight into the evolution of vertebrate-specific molecules and pathways. To address this question, this paper briefly reviews relevant earlier studies that help to illuminate the history of the aromatase and ER genes, with a particular emphasis on insights from amphioxus and other invertebrates. We then present new analyses of amphioxus aromatase and ER sequence and function, including an in silico model of the amphioxus aromatase protein, and CYP19 gene analysis. CYP19 shares a conserved gene structure with vertebrates (9 coding exons) and moderate sequence conservation (40% amino acid identity with human CYP19). Modeling of the amphioxus aromatase substrate binding site and simulated docking of androstenedione in comparison to the human aromatase shows that the substrate binding site is conserved and predicts that androstenedione could be a substrate for amphioxus CYP19. The amphioxus ER is structurally similar to vertebrate ERs, but differs in sequence and key residues of the ligand binding domain. Consistent with results from other laboratories, amphioxus ER did not bind radiolabeled estradiol, nor did it modulate gene expression on an estrogen-responsive element (ERE) in the presence of estradiol, 4

  6. Evolutionary origins of the estrogen signaling system: insights from amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, AM; Novillo, A; Yacci, P; Ciaccia, L; Vajda, S; Chuang, G-Y; Kozakov, D; Greytak, SR; Sawyer, S; Hoover, C; Cotter, K

    2011-01-01

    Classically, the estrogen signaling system has two core components: cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme complex that catalyzes the rate limiting step in estrogen biosynthesis; and estrogen receptors (ERs), ligand activated transcription factors that interact with the regulatory region of target genes to mediate the biological effects of estrogen. While the importance of estrogens for regulation of reproduction, development and physiology has been well-documented in gnathostome vertebrates, the evolutionary origins of estrogen as a hormone are still unclear. As invertebrates within the phylum Chordata, cephalochordates (e.g. the amphioxus of the genus Branchiostoma) are among the closest invertebrate relatives of the vertebrates and can provide critical insight into the evolution of vertebrate-specific molecules and pathways. To address this question, this paper briefly reviews relevant earlier studies that help to illuminate the history of the aromatase and ER genes, with a particular emphasis on insights from amphioxus and other invertebrates. We then present new analyses of amphioxus aromatase and ER sequence and function, including an in silico model of the amphioxus aromatase protein, and CYP19 gene analysis. CYP19 shares a conserved gene structure with vertebrates (9 coding exons) and moderate sequence conservation (40% amino acid identity with human CYP19). Modeling of the amphioxus aromatase substrate binding site and simulated docking of androstenedione in comparison to the human aromatase shows that the substrate binding site is conserved and predicts that androstenedione could be a substrate for amphioxus CYP19. The amphioxus ER is structurally similar to vertebrate ERs, but differs in sequence and key residues of the ligand binding domain. Consistent with results from other laboratories, amphioxus ER did not bind radiolabeled estradiol, nor did it modulate gene expression on anestrogen-responsive element (ERE) in the presence of estradiol, 4

  7. Strategic Planning for the Air Force. Leveraging Business Planning Insights to Create Future Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Strategic Planning for the Air Force Leveraging Business Planning Insights to Create Future Value DEBORAH L. WESTPHAL, RICHARD SZAFRANSKI...SUBTITLE Strategic Planning for the Air Force. Leveraging Business Planning Insights to Create Future Value 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Gender Power in Elite Schools: Methodological Insights from Researcher Reflexive Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Weiner, Gaby

    2014-01-01

    The main task of this paper is to understand the methodological insights from researchers' reflexive accounts about the production of gender in the specific practices of three Scottish elite schools. Accordingly, the paper poses three questions: How is gender re/constructed through the specific practices of these elite schools? What insights into…

  9. Working in Dyads and Alone: Examining Process Variables in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidikis, Viktoria; Ash, Ivan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of working in dyads and their associated gender composition on performance (solution rate and time) and process variables (number of impasses, number of passed solutions, and number of problem solving suggestions and interactions) in a set of classic insight problem solving tasks. Two types of insight problems…

  10. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale – Self-report & clinician-rated versions

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D.; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. PMID:25246410

  11. Focus on Profession: Teaching Insights Using a Technology in a SLA Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabayeva, Kamilya

    2015-01-01

    Modern higher education requires the problem of development of professional value insights of a teacher of a new formation to be solved. One of the vital tasks of the national education is development of axiological resources of a teacher's individuality and his value system and insights. It should be noted that teaching means of development of a…

  12. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an “aha” moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving. PMID:26528222

  13. Insight Problem Solving: A Critical Examination of the Possibility of Formal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, William H.; Alexander, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of the current state and future possibility of formal cognitive theory for insight problem solving and its associated "aha!" experience. Insight problems are contrasted with move problems, which have been formally defined and studied extensively by cognitive psychologists since the pioneering…

  14. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  15. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  16. Toward a model of cognitive insight in first-episode psychosis: verbal memory and hippocampal structure.

    PubMed

    Buchy, L; Czechowska, Y; Chochol, C; Malla, A; Joober, R; Pruessner, J; Lepage, M

    2010-09-01

    Our previous work has linked verbal learning and memory with cognitive insight, but not clinical insight, in individuals with a first-episode psychosis (FEP). The current study reassessed the neurocognitive basis of cognitive and clinical insight and explored their neural basis in 61 FEP patients. Cognitive insight was measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and clinical insight with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Global measures for 7 domains of cognition were examined. Hippocampi were manually segmented in to 3 parts: the body, head, and tail. Verbal learning and memory significantly correlated with the BCIS composite index. Composite index scores were significantly associated with total left hippocampal (HC) volume; partial correlations, however, revealed that this relationship was attributable largely to verbal memory performance. The BCIS self-certainty subscale significantly and inversely correlated with bilateral HC volumes, and these associations were independent of verbal learning and memory performance. The BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale significantly correlated with verbal learning and memory but not with HC volume. No significant correlations emerged between the SUMD and verbal memory or HC volume. These results strengthen our previous assertion that in individuals with an FEP cognitive insight may rely on memory whereby current experiences are appraised based on previous ones. The HC may be a viable location among others for the brain system that underlies aspects of cognitive insight in individuals with an FEP.

  17. The Mediating Role of Insight for Long-Term Improvements in Psychodynamic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Paul; Hoglend, Per; Ulberg, Randi; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Sorbye, Oystein; Sjaastad, Mary Cosgrove; Heyerdahl, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: According to psychoanalytic theory, interpretation of transference leads to increased insight that again leads to improved interpersonal functioning over time. In this study, we performed a full mediational analysis to test whether insight gained during treatment mediates the long-term effects of transference interpretation in dynamic…

  18. Classwide Efficacy of INSIGHTS: Observed Teacher Practices and Student Behaviors in Kindergarten and First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Collins, Ashleigh J.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the classwide efficacy of INSIGHTS, a universal social-emotional learning intervention for early elementary grades, on observed teacher practices and student behaviors. Twenty-two elementary schools (87% free/reduced lunch) were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS or an attention-control condition. Kindergarten and first-grade classrooms…

  19. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  20. Differential Modulation of Performance in Insight and Divergent Thinking Tasks with tDCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Vinod; Eimontaite, Iveta; Goel, Amit; Schindler, Igor

    2015-01-01

    While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. To explore this hypothesis, we administered a verbal insight task (riddles) and a divergent thinking task (verbal fluency) to 16 native English speakers and 16 non-native English speakers…

  1. The Self-Organization of Insight: Entropy and Power Laws in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Explaining emergent structure remains a challenge for all areas of cognitive science, and problem solving is no exception. The modern study of insight has drawn attention to the issue of emergent cognitive structure in problem solving research. We propose that the explanation of insight is beyond the scope of conventional approaches to cognitive…

  2. Brief Report: Insight into Illness and Social Attributional Style in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Shad, Mujeeb U.; Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    A number of psychiatric illnesses have been recognized to have some level of insight deficits, including developmental disorders, such as Asperger's Syndrome (ASP). However insight into illness has not been empirically investigated in ASP and little research has examined how individuals with ASP view their deficits. This is the first study to…

  3. A Developmental Approach to Educating Young Children. Classroom Insights from Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Denise H.; Clarkson, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The early school years provide critical opportunities for children to develop foundational skills and positive attitudes toward learning. This book, the first in the "Classroom Insights from Educational Psychology" series, gives current and prospective PreK-3 teachers valuable insight into how young children feel, think, and learn. Denise H.…

  4. Tracking Online Data with YouTube's Insight Tracking Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    YouTube users have access to the powerful data collection tool, Insight. Insight allows YouTube content producers to collect data about the number of online views, geographic location of viewers by country, the demographics of the viewers, how a video was discovered, and the attention span of the viewer while watching the video. This article…

  5. Predictors of subjective well-being in patients with paranoid symptoms: is insight necessarily advantageous?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carmen; Provencio, María; Espinosa, Regina; Chaves, Covadonga; Fuentenebro, Filiberto

    2011-09-30

    In schizophrenia, poor insight has been associated with negative outcome. In fact, some studies have found insight to be associated with greater treatment adherence and lower levels of symptomatology, as well as better psychosocial functioning. However, others have found that insight into illness is associated with an increase in depression, low self-esteem, and possibly higher risk of suicide. We investigated the relationship between insight and well-being in a sample of 40 people presenting paranoid symptoms and diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that compared to a paranoid group with high insight, paranoid participants with low insight had more self-acceptance, higher sense of autonomy and personal growth, and greater orientation towards gratification. Moderation analyses showed that when experiential avoidance was high, insight into paranoia had a detrimental effect on self-acceptance. Overall, our results support the need to explore which psychological variables moderate insight in patients with persecutory beliefs. We discuss the implications of these results for the research of paranoia.

  6. Making Sustainable Energy Choices: Insights on the Energy/Water/Land Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    This periodic publication summarizes insights from the body of NREL analysis work. In this issue of Analysis Insights, we examine the implications of our energy choices on water, land use, climate, developmental goals, and other factors. Collectively, NREL's work helps policymakers and investors understand and evaluate energy choices within the complex web of connections, or nexus, between energy, water, and land.

  7. Structure Prediction: New Insights into Decrypting Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Arfat, Yasir; Li, Dijie; Zhao, Fan; Chen, Zhihao; Yin, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Yang, Tuanmin; Qian, Airong

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which form a diverse class of RNAs, remain the least understood type of noncoding RNAs in terms of their nature and identification. Emerging evidence has revealed that a small number of newly discovered lncRNAs perform important and complex biological functions such as dosage compensation, chromatin regulation, genomic imprinting, and nuclear organization. However, understanding the wide range of functions of lncRNAs related to various processes of cellular networks remains a great experimental challenge. Structural versatility is critical for RNAs to perform various functions and provides new insights into probing the functions of lncRNAs. In recent years, the computational method of RNA structure prediction has been developed to analyze the structure of lncRNAs. This novel methodology has provided basic but indispensable information for the rapid, large-scale and in-depth research of lncRNAs. This review focuses on mainstream RNA structure prediction methods at the secondary and tertiary levels to offer an additional approach to investigating the functions of lncRNAs. PMID:26805815

  8. Circadian rhythms and addiction: Mechanistic insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; Williams, Wilbur P.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes, may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction, and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction. PMID:24731209

  9. A Representation for Gaining Insight into Clinical Decision Models

    PubMed Central

    Jimison, Holly B.

    1988-01-01

    For many medical domains uncertainty and patient preferences are important components of decision making. Decision theory is useful as a representation for such medical models in computer decision aids, but the methodology has typically had poor performance in the areas of explanation and user interface. The additional representation of probabilities and utilities as random variables serves to provide a framework for graphical and text insight into complicated decision models. The approach allows for efficient customization of a generic model that describes the general patient population of interest to a patient- specific model. Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the expected value of information and sensitivity for each model variable, thus providing a metric for deciding what to emphasize in the graphics and text summary. The computer-generated explanation includes variables that are sensitive with respect to the decision or that deviate significantly from what is typically observed. These techniques serve to keep the assessment and explanation of the patient's decision model concise, allowing the user to focus on the most important aspects for that patient.

  10. Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Ma, Xue-Wen; Fu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Zan; Tian, Li-Xun; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-01-30

    Speciation can fundamentally affect on the stability and toxicity of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. This research investigated the speciation of heavy metals in sludge from both municipal and industrial sources, and metal speciation change as a result of drying process to reduce sludge volume. The changes in sludge properties including sludge moisture content, temperature, density, and electrical conductivity were also monitored to provide insights into the mechanisms causing the change in heavy metal speciation. The results show that the drying process generally stabilized the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in sludge by transforming acid-soluble, reducible and oxidizable species into structurally stable forms. Such transformation and stabilization occurred regardless of the sludge source and type, and were primarily caused by the changes in sludge properties associated with decomposition of organic matter and sulfide. The results enhanced our understanding of the geochemical behavior of heavy metals in municipal sludge, and are useful for designing a treatment system for environment-friendly disposal of sludge.

  11. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  12. Small teleost fish provide new insights into human skeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Witten, P E; Harris, M P; Huysseune, A; Winkler, C

    2017-01-01

    Small teleost fish such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly studied as models for human skeletal diseases. Efficient new genome editing tools combined with advances in the analysis of skeletal phenotypes provide new insights into fundamental processes of skeletal development. The skeleton among vertebrates is a highly conserved organ system, but teleost fish and mammals have evolved unique traits or have lost particular skeletal elements in each lineage. Several unique features of the skeleton relate to the extremely small size of early fish embryos and the small size of adult fish used as models. A detailed analysis of the plethora of interesting skeletal phenotypes in zebrafish and medaka pushes available skeletal imaging techniques to their respective limits and promotes the development of new imaging techniques. Impressive numbers of zebrafish and medaka mutants with interesting skeletal phenotypes have been characterized, complemented by transgenic zebrafish and medaka lines. The advent of efficient genome editing tools, such as TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, allows to introduce targeted deficiencies in genes of model teleosts to generate skeletal phenotypes that resemble human skeletal diseases. This review will also discuss other attractive aspects of the teleost skeleton. This includes the capacity for lifelong tooth replacement and for the regeneration of dermal skeletal elements, such as scales and fin rays, which further increases the value of zebrafish and medaka models for skeletal research.

  13. Insights Gained From 4 Years of EOSDIS User Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Boquist, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. A critical underpinning for management of EOSDIS is developing a thorough knowledge of the EOSDIS user community and how they use the EOSDIS products in their research. It is important to know whether the system is meeting the users' needs and expectations. Thus, in 2004 NASA commissioned a comprehensive survey to determine user satisfaction using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) approach. NASA has continued to survey users yearly since. Users continue to rate EOSDIS systems and services highly as the EOSDIS ACSI score has outperformed both the averages for U.S. companies and for Federal Agencies. In addition, users' comments have provided valuable insight into the effect of data center processes on users' experiences. Although their satisfaction has remained high, their preferences have changed with the rapid advances in web-based services. We now have four years of data on user satisfaction from these surveys. The results of each survey highlight areas that, if improved, could lead to increased user satisfaction, including overall product quality, product documentation, and product selection and ordering processes. This paper will present the survey results and how they compare from year to year.

  14. Obesity and cancer: mechanistic insights from transdisciplinary studies

    PubMed Central

    Allott, Emma H.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie restriction studies in mouse models which support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link. PMID:26373570

  15. Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Rashmi H; Patravale, Vandana B; Joshi, Medha D

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer–lipid hybrid systems, and polymer–drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology. PMID:25678788

  16. Obesity and cancer: mechanistic insights from transdisciplinary studies.

    PubMed

    Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie-restriction studies in mouse models that support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link.

  17. Vestibular stimulation improves insight into illness in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gerretsen, Philip; Pothier, David D; Falls, Carolyn; Armstrong, Maxine; Balakumar, Thushanthi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mamo, David C; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-02-13

    Impaired insight into illness (IMP-INS) is common among individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), contributing to medication nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes. Caloric vestibular simulation (CVS) is typically used to assess peripheral vestibular system function. Left cold CVS is also a transiently effective treatment for IMP-INS and hemineglect secondary to right brain hemisphere stroke, and possibly for IMP-INS and mood stabilization in patients with SSD. Participants with SSD and moderate-to-severe IMP-INS participated in an exploratory double blind, crossover, randomized controlled study of the effects of CVS on IMP-INS. Participants sequentially received all experimental conditions-left cold (4°C), right cold, and body temperature/sham CVS-in a random order. Repeated measures ANOVA were performed to compare changes in IMP-INS, mood and positive symptom severity pre and 30min post CVS. A significant interaction was found between CVS condition, time, and body temperature nystagmus peak slow phase velocity (PSPV) for IMP-INS, indicating that single session left cold CVS transiently improved IMP-INS while right cold CVS may have worsened IMP-INS, particularly in participants with greater vestibular reactivity (i.e. higher PSPV) to body temperature CVS. The procedure's effectiveness is attributed to stimulation of underactive right hemisphere circuits via vestibular nuclei projections to the contralateral hemisphere.

  18. Directions and needs in asbestos research: new insights: conference summary.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Jean C; Pershouse, Mark; Putnam, Elizabeth A

    2008-04-01

    The Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) Conference, entitled "Directions and Needs in Asbestos Research: New Insights," was held at the University of Montana in Missoula. Researchers, physicians, health care workers, and federal agency representatives from around the country met for a cross-disciplinary exploration of many issues related to asbestos research. Topics included community and psychosocial issues in biomedical research, asbestos exposure assessment, assessment and mechanisms of asbestos related diseases, and new research directions. This meeting report is a summary of the conference presentations, and of the topics identified for future research directions. This conference was a follow-up to one hosted by the CEHS in June 2002, and continued to take advantage of opportunities to work with a unique population in Libby MT, where significant asbestos exposures have occurred due to the mining of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. The goals of this conference were to bring together experts from diverse fields to identify progress made since the last conference and to develop new research avenues that would allow us to address the research needs in emerging asbestos-exposed populations. Participants indicated that these objectives were met, and expressed enthusiasm for follow-up conferences to maintain the dialog that has been established regarding directions and needs in asbestos research. Selected papers from the conference are presented here.

  19. Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Barbara E

    2010-06-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how various nutrients are digested and how the breakdown products traverse the cells lining the small intestine to reach the blood stream and to be used by the other cells of the body. There have been several recent discoveries of new transporters that likely contribute to the absorption of oligopeptides and fatty acids. In addition, details are being clarified about how transporters work and in what forms nutrients can be absorbed. The enzymes that digest basic carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have been identified in various segments of the GI tract, and details are becoming clearer about what types of bonds they hydrolyze. Usually, detailed information about the digestion of basic nutrients is presented and learned in biochemistry courses and detailed information about absorption via transepithelial transport of the breakdown products of digestion is studied in physiology courses. The goal of this Staying Current article is to combine the details of the biochemistry of digestion with the updated information about the physiology of nutrient absorption into one source for teachers of physiology. Insights are included about some of the diseases and conditions that can bring about malabsorption of food in the GI tract and their consequences.

  20. Molecular Insights into the Biosynthesis of the F420 Coenzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Abashidze, M.; Xu, H.; Grochowski, L.; Seetharaman, J.; Hussain, M.; Kuzin, A.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, W.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Coenzyme F420, a hydride carrier, is found in Archaea and some bacteria and has crucial roles in methanogenesis, antibiotic biosynthesis, DNA repair, and activation of antitubercular compounds. CofD, 2-phospho-l-lactate transferase, catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of F420-0 (F420 without polyglutamate), by transferring the lactyl phosphate moiety of lactyl(2)diphospho-(5')guanosine to 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin ribitol (Fo). CofD is highly conserved among F420-producing organisms, and weak sequence homologs are also found in non-F420-producing organisms. This superfamily does not share any recognizable sequence conservation with other proteins. Here we report the first crystal structures of CofD, the free enzyme and two ternary complexes, with Fo and Pi or with Fo and GDP, from Methanosarcina mazei. The active site is located at the C-terminal end of a Rossmann fold core, and three large insertions make significant contributions to the active site and dimer formation. The observed binding modes of Fo and GDP can explain known biochemical properties of CofD and are also supported by our binding assays. The structures provide significant molecular insights into the biosynthesis of the F420 coenzyme. Large structural differences in the active site region of the non-F420-producing CofD homologs suggest that they catalyze a different biochemical reaction.

  1. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): Molecular insights lead to targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Connie G.; Steagall, Wendy K.; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Cai, Xiong; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Moses, Marsha; Darling, Thomas; Moss, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Summary LAM is a rare lung disease, found primarily in women of childbearing age, characterized by cystic lung destruction and abdominal tumors (e.g., renal angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyoma). The disease results from proliferation of a neoplastic cell, termed the LAM cell, which has mutations in either of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 or TSC2 genes. Molecular phenotyping of LAM patients resulted in the identification of therapeutic targets for drug trials. Loss of TSC gene function leads to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and thereby, effects on cell size and number. The involvement of mTOR in LAM pathogenesis is the basis for initiation of therapeutic trials of mTOR inhibitors (e.g., sirolimus). Occurrence of LAM essentially entirely in women is consistent with the hypothesis that anti-estrogen agents might prevent disease progression (e.g., gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues). Levels of urinary matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were elevated in LAM patients, and MMPs were found in LAM lung nodules. In part because of these observations, effects of doxycycline, an anti-MMP, and anti-angiogenic agent, are under investigation. The metastatic properties of LAM cells offer additional potential for targets. Thus, insights into the molecular and biological properties of LAM cells and molecular phenotyping of patients with LAM have led to clinical trials of targeted therapies. Funded by the Intramural Research Program, NIH/NHLBI PMID:20630348

  2. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Ehren L.; Gupta, Kishan; Climer, Jason R.; Monaghan, Caitlin K.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory, and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory, and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm plays a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers. PMID:22707936

  3. Structural Insights on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasomal ATPase Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H; Lin, G; Tang, C; Li, D; Nathan, C; Heran Darwin, K

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical investigation of Mpa, the presumptive Mtb proteasomal ATPase. We demonstrate that Mpa binds to the Mtb proteasome in the presence of ATPS, providing the physical evidence that Mpa is the proteasomal ATPase. X-ray crystallographic determination of the conserved interdomain showed a five stranded double {beta} barrel structure containing a Greek key motif. Structure and mutational analysis indicate a major role of the interdomain for Mpa hexamerization. Our mutational and functional studies further suggest that the central channel in the Mpa hexamer is involved in protein substrate translocation and degradation. These studies provide insights into how a bacterial proteasomal ATPase interacts with and facilitates protein degradation by the proteasome.

  4. Cognitive Architecture with Evolutionary Dynamics Solves Insight Problem

    PubMed Central

    Fedor, Anna; Zachar, István; Szilágyi, András; Öllinger, Michael; de Vladar, Harold P.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a neurally implemented a cognitive architecture with evolutionary dynamics can solve the four-tree problem. Our model, called Darwinian Neurodynamics, assumes that the unconscious mechanism of problem solving during insight tasks is a Darwinian process. It is based on the evolution of patterns that represent candidate solutions to a problem, and are stored and reproduced by a population of attractor networks. In our first experiment, we used human data as a benchmark and showed that the model behaves comparably to humans: it shows an improvement in performance if it is pretrained and primed appropriately, just like human participants in Kershaw et al. (2013)'s experiment. In the second experiment, we further investigated the effects of pretraining and priming in a two-by-two design and found a beginner's luck type of effect: solution rate was highest in the condition that was primed, but not pretrained with patterns relevant for the task. In the third experiment, we showed that deficits in computational capacity and learning abilities decreased the performance of the model, as expected. We conclude that Darwinian Neurodynamics is a promising model of human problem solving that deserves further investigation.

  5. Cognitive Architecture with Evolutionary Dynamics Solves Insight Problem.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Zachar, István; Szilágyi, András; Öllinger, Michael; de Vladar, Harold P; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a neurally implemented a cognitive architecture with evolutionary dynamics can solve the four-tree problem. Our model, called Darwinian Neurodynamics, assumes that the unconscious mechanism of problem solving during insight tasks is a Darwinian process. It is based on the evolution of patterns that represent candidate solutions to a problem, and are stored and reproduced by a population of attractor networks. In our first experiment, we used human data as a benchmark and showed that the model behaves comparably to humans: it shows an improvement in performance if it is pretrained and primed appropriately, just like human participants in Kershaw et al. (2013)'s experiment. In the second experiment, we further investigated the effects of pretraining and priming in a two-by-two design and found a beginner's luck type of effect: solution rate was highest in the condition that was primed, but not pretrained with patterns relevant for the task. In the third experiment, we showed that deficits in computational capacity and learning abilities decreased the performance of the model, as expected. We conclude that Darwinian Neurodynamics is a promising model of human problem solving that deserves further investigation.

  6. The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Jun; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Qing-Le; Liu, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Rui; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ping; Dai, Li; Yan, Guijun; Wang, Wen-Jiang; Li, Xian-Song; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yu-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Lin, Min-Juan; Xiao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Ying; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Bin; Ma, Yong; Jian, Jian-Bo; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Zan; Sun, Xue-Chao; Wei, Yan-Li; Yu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chi; Liao, Sheng-Guang; He, Rong-Jun; Guang, Xuan-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue-Yang; Luo, Long-Hai

    2014-01-01

    The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65 Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45 Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees. PMID:25350882

  7. Extracellular potassium homeostasis: insights from hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Kuo, Elizabeth; Huang, Chou-Long

    2013-05-01

    Extracellular potassium makes up only about 2% of the total body's potassium store. The majority of the body potassium is distributed in the intracellular space, of which about 80% is in skeletal muscle. Movement of potassium in and out of skeletal muscle thus plays a pivotal role in extracellular potassium homeostasis. The exchange of potassium between the extracellular space and skeletal muscle is mediated by specific membrane transporters. These include potassium uptake by Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase and release by inward-rectifier K(+) channels. These processes are regulated by circulating hormones, peptides, ions, and by physical activity of muscle as well as dietary potassium intake. Pharmaceutical agents, poisons, and disease conditions also affect the exchange and alter extracellular potassium concentration. Here, we review extracellular potassium homeostasis, focusing on factors and conditions that influence the balance of potassium movement in skeletal muscle. Recent findings that mutations of a skeletal muscle-specific inward-rectifier K(+) channel cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis provide interesting insights into the role of skeletal muscle in extracellular potassium homeostasis. These recent findings are reviewed.

  8. Hydropower licensing and climate change: Insights from cooperative game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2011-02-01

    Cooperative game theory solutions can provide useful insights into how parties may use water and environmental resources and share any benefits of cooperation. Here, a method based on Nash and Nash-Harsanyi bargaining solutions is developed to explore the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process, in which owners of non-federal hydropower projects in the United States have to negotiate their allowable operations, with other interest groups (mainly environmental). Linkage of games to expand the feasible solution range and the "strategic loss" concept are discussed and a FERC relicensing bargaining model is developed for studying the bargaining stage (third stage) of the relicensing process. Based on the suggested solution method, how the lack of incentive for cooperation results in long delay in FERC relicensing in practice is explained. Further, potential effects of climate change on the FERC relicensing are presented and how climate change may provide an incentive for cooperation among the parties to hasten the relicensing is discussed. An "adaptive FERC license" framework is proposed, based on cooperative game theory, to improve the performance and adaptability of the system to future changes with no cost to the FERC, in face of uncertainty about future hydrological and ecological conditions.

  9. DNA-doxorubicin interaction: New insights and peculiarities.

    PubMed

    Silva, E F; Bazoni, R F; Ramos, E B; Rocha, M S

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the interaction of the DNA molecule with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (doxo) by using three different experimental techniques: single molecule stretching, single molecule imaging, and dynamic light scattering. Such techniques allowed us to get new insights on the mechanical behavior of the DNA-doxo complexes as well as on the physical chemistry of the interaction. First, the contour length data obtained from single molecule stretching were used to extract the physicochemical parameters of the DNA-doxo interaction under different buffer conditions. This analysis has proven that the physical chemistry of such interaction can be modulated by changing the ionic strength of the surrounding buffer. In particular we have found that at low ionc strengths doxo interacts with DNA by simple intercalation (no aggregation) and/or by forming bound dimers. For high ionic strengths, otherwise, doxo-doxo self-association is enhanced, giving rise to the formation of bound doxo aggregates composed by 3 to 4 molecules along the double-helix. On the other hand, the results obtained for the persistence length of the DNA-doxo complexes is strongly force-dependent, presenting different behaviors when measured with stretching or non-stretching techniques.

  10. Insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Teresa C F; Charneau, Sébastien; Santiago, Paula B M; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Meng, Zhaojing; Araújo, Carla N; Pham, Van M; Queiroz, Rayner M L; de Castro, Cleudson Nery; Ricart, Carlos André; Santana, Jaime M; Ribeiro, José M C

    2011-02-04

    Dipetalogaster maxima is a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Salivary proteins were also submitted to one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 2728 cDNA sequences, 1375 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. The saliva 2DE proteome displayed approximately 150 spots. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly lipocalins, pallidipins, antigen 5-like proteins, and apyrases. The redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggests that proteins are present in multiple isoforms or derive from gene duplications.

  11. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories.

  12. New insights about host response to smallpox using microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Gustavo H; Simoes, Ana CQ; Souza, Estevao; Dias, Rodrigo A; Ospina, Raydonal; Venancio, Thiago M

    2007-01-01

    Background Smallpox is a lethal disease that was endemic in many parts of the world until eradicated by massive immunization. Due to its lethality, there are serious concerns about its use as a bioweapon. Here we analyze publicly available microarray data to further understand survival of smallpox infected macaques, using systems biology approaches. Our goal is to improve the knowledge about the progression of this disease. Results We used KEGG pathways annotations to define groups of genes (or modules), and subsequently compared them to macaque survival times. This technique provided additional insights about the host response to this disease, such as increased expression of the cytokines and ECM receptors in the individuals with higher survival times. These results could indicate that these gene groups could influence an effective response from the host to smallpox. Conclusion Macaques with higher survival times clearly express some specific pathways previously unidentified using regular gene-by-gene approaches. Our work also shows how third party analysis of public datasets can be important to support new hypotheses to relevant biological problems. PMID:17718913

  13. Imaging in sepsis-associated encephalopathy--insights and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Daniel J; Yamamoto, Adam K; Menon, David K

    2013-10-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) refers to a clinical spectrum of acute neurological dysfunction that arises in the context of sepsis. Although the pathophysiology of SAE is incompletely understood, it is thought to involve endothelial activation, blood-brain barrier leakage, inflammatory cell migration, and neuronal loss with neurotransmitter imbalance. SAE is associated with a high risk of mortality. Imaging studies using MRI and CT have demonstrated changes in the brains of patients with SAE that are also seen in disorders such as stroke. Next-generation imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and PET, as well as experimental imaging modalities, provide options for early identification of patients with SAE, and could aid in identification of pathophysiological processes that represent possible therapeutic targets. In this Review, we explore the recent literature on imaging in SAE, relating the findings of these studies to pathological data and experimental studies to obtain insights into the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated neurological dysfunction. Furthermore, we suggest how novel imaging technologies can be used for early-stage proof-of-concept and proof-of-mechanism translational studies, which may help to improve diagnosis in SAE.

  14. Simulating ground water-lake interactions: approaches and insights.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J; Haitjema, Henk M; Krohelski, James T; Feinstein, Daniel T

    2003-01-01

    Approaches for modeling lake-ground water interactions have evolved significantly from early simulations that used fixed lake stages specified as constant head to sophisticated LAK packages for MODFLOW. Although model input can be complex, the LAK package capabilities and output are superior to methods that rely on a fixed lake stage and compare well to other simple methods where lake stage can be calculated. Regardless of the approach, guidelines presented here for model grid size, location of three-dimensional flow, and extent of vertical capture can facilitate the construction of appropriately detailed models that simulate important lake-ground water interactions without adding unnecessary complexity. In addition to MODFLOW approaches, lake simulation has been formulated in terms of analytic elements. The analytic element lake package had acceptable agreement with a published LAKI problem, even though there were differences in the total lake conductance and number of layers used in the two models. The grid size used in the original LAKI problem, however, violated a grid size guideline presented in this paper. Grid sensitivity analyses demonstrated that an appreciable discrepancy in the distribution of stream and lake flux was related to the large grid size used in the original LAKI problem. This artifact is expected regardless of MODFLOW LAK package used. When the grid size was reduced, a finite-difference formulation approached the analytic element results. These insights and guidelines can help ensure that the proper lake simulation tool is being selected and applied.

  15. Simulating ground water-lake interactions: Approaches and insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Haitjema, H.M.; Krohelski, J.T.; Feinstein, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Approaches for modeling lake-ground water interactions have evolved significantly from early simulations that used fixed lake stages specified as constant head to sophisticated LAK packages for MODFLOW. Although model input can be complex, the LAK package capabilities and output are superior to methods that rely on a fixed lake stage and compare well to other simple methods where lake stage can be calculated. Regardless of the approach, guidelines presented here for model grid size, location of three-dimensional flow, and extent of vertical capture can facilitate the construction of appropriately detailed models that simulate important lake-ground water interactions without adding unnecessary complexity. In addition to MODFLOW approaches, lake simulation has been formulated in terms of analytic elements. The analytic element lake package had acceptable agreement with a published LAK1 problem, even though there were differences in the total lake conductance and number of layers used in the two models. The grid size used in the original LAK1 problem, however, violated a grid size guideline presented in this paper. Grid sensitivity analyses demonstrated that an appreciable discrepancy in the distribution of stream and lake flux was related to the large grid size used in the original LAK1 problem. This artifact is expected regardless of MODFLOW LAK package used. When the grid size was reduced, a finite-difference formulation approached the analytic element results. These insights and guidelines can help ensure that the proper lake simulation tool is being selected and applied.

  16. Computational insight into the chemical space of plant growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Bushkov, Nikolay A; Veselov, Mark S; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Marusich, Elena I; Majouga, Alexander G; Volynchuk, Polina B; Shumilina, Daria V; Leonov, Sergey V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2016-02-01

    An enormous technological progress has resulted in an explosive growth in the amount of biological and chemical data that is typically multivariate and tangled in structure. Therefore, several computational approaches have mainly focused on dimensionality reduction and convenient representation of high-dimensional datasets to elucidate the relationships between the observed activity (or effect) and calculated parameters commonly expressed in terms of molecular descriptors. We have collected the experimental data available in patent and scientific publications as well as specific databases for various agrochemicals. The resulting dataset was then thoroughly analyzed using Kohonen-based self-organizing technique. The overall aim of the presented study is to investigate whether the developed in silico model can be applied to predict the agrochemical activity of small molecule compounds and, at the same time, to offer further insights into the distinctive features of different agrochemical categories. The preliminary external validation with several plant growth regulators demonstrated a relatively high prediction power (67%) of the constructed model. This study is, actually, the first example of a large-scale modeling in the field of agrochemistry.

  17. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores

    PubMed Central

    Dabe, Emily C.; Sanford, Rachel S.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. PMID:26173712

  18. Molecular and isotopic insights into methane oxidation in Lake Kivu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigah, P. K.; Wehrli, B.; Schubert, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Kivu is a meromictic lake in the East African Rift Valley, located between the Republic of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The hypolimnion is permanently stratified and contain an unusually high amount of dissolved methane (CH4; ~ 60 km3) and carbon dioxide (CO2; ~300 km3) at standard temperature and pressure. While microbial-mediated methane oxidation is an important sink of methane in the lake, little is known about the distribution of microbes involved in the methane oxidation. To provide insights into methanotrophy in the lake, we analyzed depth profile of CH4, δ13C-CH4 and δ13C-DIC, δ13C-POC and the biomarkers of methanotrophic archaea and bacteria and their stable carbon isotopic composition from suspended particulate matter isolated from the lake water column. Our preliminary data show enhanced methane oxidation in oxic-anoxic transition zone in the water column. Depth distribution of diagnostic methanotrophic archaeal biomarkers such as archaeol and hydroxyarchaeol suggest archaea might be involved in anaerobic methane oxidation. Phospholipid fatty acids and diplopterol distribution and carbon isotopic signatures indicate bacteria-mediated anaerobic (and aerobic) methane oxidation in the lake.

  19. Insights from the structural analysis of protein heterodimer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, Gopichandran; Anita, Sathyanarayanan; Kangueane, Pandjassarame

    2011-05-07

    Protein heterodimer complexes are often involved in catalysis, regulation, assembly, immunity and inhibition. This involves the formation of stable interfaces between the interacting partners. Hence, it is of interest to describe heterodimer interfaces using known structural complexes. We use a non-redundant dataset of 192 heterodimer complex structures from the protein databank (PDB) to identify interface residues and describe their interfaces using amino-acids residue property preference. Analysis of the dataset shows that the heterodimer interfaces are often abundant in polar residues. The analysis also shows the presence of two classes of interfaces in heterodimer complexes. The first class of interfaces (class A) with more polar residues than core but less than surface is known. These interfaces are more hydrophobic than surfaces, where protein-protein binding is largely hydrophobic. The second class of interfaces (class B) with more polar residues than core and surface is shown. These interfaces are more polar than surfaces, where binding is mainly polar. Thus, these findings provide insights to the understanding of protein-protein interactions.

  20. Insights into Population Health Management Through Disease Diagnoses Networks

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Keith; Stiglic, Gregor; Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Kricheff, Mark; Obradovic, Zoran; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies approached the issue from the top down, focusing on the prevalence of specific diseases within a population. Through our work we demonstrate the power of addressing this issue bottom-up by identifying specifically which diseases are higher-risk for a specific population. In this work we demonstrate that network-based analysis can present a foundation to identify pairs of diagnoses that differentiate across population segments. We provide a case study highlighting differences between high and low income individuals in the United States. This work is particularly valuable when addressing population health management within resource-constrained environments such as community health programs where it can be used to provide insight and resource planning into targeted care for the population served. PMID:27461860