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Sample records for pulmonary antioxidant defence

  1. Pulmonary antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, E.J.; Grose, E.C.; Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.

    1987-05-01

    One of the most vital of the cellular defenses against pollution is an antioxidant armanentarium which consists of oxidant scavenging molecules such as vitamin E, glutathione, vitamin C, and uric acid as well as a number of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, semidehydroascorbate reductase, catalase, GSH synthetase, GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, and GSH transferase) and appears to function in keeping oxidant forces under control. Pollutants can upset the oxidant/antioxidant balance of cells by inhibiting vital enzymes, by reacting with oxidant scavengers, or by forming free radical intermediates which initiate uncontrolled tissue reactions with molecular oxygen. The book chapter reviews possible interactions between pollutants and the oxidant/antioxidant balance.

  2. Host defence to pulmonary mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Christopher H; Warren, Peter W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms of host defense to pathogenic fungi. This will help physicians understand why some patients are predisposed to fungal infections and update basic scientists on how microbial immunology applies to fungal disease. DATA SOURCES: English articles from 1966 to present were identified from a MEDLINE search. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were identified by a MEDLINE search of ‘exp lung/’ or ‘exp lung diseases/’ and ‘exp fungi/’. The titles and abstracts were screened to identify articles that contained salient information pertaining to host defense of respiratory mycoses. DATA EXTRACTION: Information was summarized from the articles pertaining to host defense of pulmonary mycosis that had been identified by the MEDLINE search. DATA SYNTHESIS: Fungi represent a unique and highly diverse group of pathogenic organisms that have become an increasingly prevalent cause of life-threatening illness. A worldwide increase in persons with immunodeficiency has been a major contributing factor to the increase in fungal disease. As a result, clinicians are faced with an expanding array of fungal infections that pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The respiratory tract is the route of acquisition for many important fungal infections; thus, understanding the host defense in the lung is an essential component of understanding host defense to fungal disease. With this understanding, fungi may be divided on the basis of the predilection of certain mycosis for specific immune defects. CONCLUSIONS: By separating fungi based on the host immune defects that predispose to disease, in conjunction with traditional divisions based on the geographic distribution of fungi, clinicians are able to focus their diagnostic efforts and to identify fungal pathogens better. In addition, an understanding of the normal host defense mechanisms that serve to control fungal infections is essential to the development of novel antifungal

  3. Limiting immunopathology: Interaction between carotenoids and enzymatic antioxidant defences.

    PubMed

    Babin, A; Saciat, C; Teixeira, M; Troussard, J-P; Motreuil, S; Moreau, J; Moret, Y

    2015-04-01

    The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) during the inflammatory response generates damages to host tissues, referred to as immunopathology, and is an important factor in ecological immunology. The integrated antioxidant system, comprising endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase SOD, and catalase CAT) and dietary antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids), helps to cope with immune-mediated oxidative stress. Crustaceans store large amounts of dietary carotenoids for yet unclear reasons. While being immunostimulants and antioxidants, the interaction of these pigments with antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. Here, we tested the interaction between dietary supplementation with carotenoids and immune challenge on immune defences and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus pulex. Dietary supplementation increased the concentrations of circulating carotenoids and haemocytes in the haemolymph, while the immune response induced the consumption of circulating carotenoids and a drop of haemocyte density. Interestingly, supplemented gammarids exhibited down-regulated SOD activity but high CAT activity compared to control ones. Our study reveals specific interactions of dietary carotenoids with endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and further underlines the potential importance of carotenoids in the evolution of immunity and/or of antioxidant mechanisms in crustaceans.

  4. Responses of foliar antioxidative and photoprotective defence systems of trees to drought: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wujeska, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Current climate change predictions hint to more frequent extreme weather events, including extended droughts, making better understanding of the impacts of water stress on trees even more important. At the individual plant level, stomatal closure as a result of water deficit leads to reduced CO2 availability in the leaf, which can lead to photo-oxidative stress. Photorespiration and the Mehler reaction can maintain electron transport rates under low internal CO2, but result in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). If electron consumption is decreased, upstream photochemical processes can be affected and light energy is absorbed in excess of photochemical requirements. Trees evolved to cope with excess energy and elevated concentration of ROS by activating photoprotective and antioxidative defence systems. The meta-analysis we present here assessed responses of these defence systems reported in 50 studies. We found responses to vary depending on stress intensity, foliage type and habitat, and on whether experiments were done in the field or in controlled environments. In general, drought increased concentrations of antioxidants and photoprotective pigments. However, severe stress caused degradation of antioxidant concentrations and oxidation of antioxidant pools. Evergreen trees seemed to preferentially reinforce membrane-bound protection systems zeaxanthin and tocopherol, whereas deciduous species showed greater responses in water-soluble antioxidants ascorbic acid and glutathione. Trees and shrubs from arid versus humid habitats vary in their antioxidative and photoprotective defence responses. In field experiments, drought had greater effects on some defence compounds than under controlled conditions.

  5. Rapid evolution of antioxidant defence in a natural population of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Oexle, S; Jansen, M; Pauwels, K; Sommaruga, R; De Meester, L; Stoks, R

    2016-07-01

    Natural populations can cope with rapid changes in stressors by relying on sets of physiological defence mechanisms. Little is known onto what extent these physiological responses reflect plasticity and/or genetic adaptation, evolve in the same direction and result in an increased defence ability. Using resurrection ecology, we studied how a natural Daphnia magna population adjusted its antioxidant defence to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during a period with increasing incident UVR reaching the water surface. We demonstrate a rapid evolution of the induction patterns of key antioxidant enzymes under UVR exposure in the laboratory. Notably, evolutionary changes strongly differed among enzymes and mainly involved the evolution of UV-induced plasticity. Whereas D. magna evolved a strong plastic up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase under UVR, it evolved a lower plastic up-regulation of glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase and a plastic down-regulation of catalase. The differentially evolved antioxidant strategies were collectively equally effective in dealing with oxidative stress because they resulted in the same high levels of oxidative damage (to lipids, proteins and DNA) and lowered fitness (intrinsic growth rate) under UVR exposure. The lack of better protection against UVR may suggest that the UVR exposure did not increase between both periods. Predator-induced evolution to migrate to lower depths that occurred during the same period may have contributed to the evolved defence strategy. Our results highlight the need for a multiple trait approach when focusing on the evolution of defence mechanisms.

  6. Seasonal variations in the antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation of the digestive gland of mussels.

    PubMed

    Viarengo, A; Canesi, L; Pertica, M; Livingstone, D R

    1991-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in the level of antioxidant compounds (glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, carotenoids) and in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), GSH-peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) in the digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus sp.) were evaluated. The lipid peroxidation process was also measured by determining the tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). 2. The physiological fluctuations of the antioxidant defence systems were inversely related to the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in the tissue. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the changing metabolic status of the animals, itself dependent on such factors as gonad ripening and food availability. 3. In particular, the obtained data indicate that a reduction of the antioxidant defence systems, occurring during winter, could be directly responsible for an enhanced susceptibility of mussels tissues to oxidative stress, as indicated by the high MDA concentration observed in this period.

  7. Antioxidant defences in hydrated and desiccated states of the tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angela M; Negroni, Manuela; Altiero, Tiziana; Montorfano, Gigliola; Corsetto, Paola; Berselli, Patrizia; Berra, Bruno; Guidetti, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2010-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in all aerobic organisms, potentially leading to oxidative damage of all biological molecules. A number of defence mechanisms have developed to protect the organism from attack by ROS. Desiccation tolerance is correlated with an increase in the antioxidant potential in several organisms, but the regulation of the antioxidant defence system is complex and its role in desiccation-tolerant organisms is not yet firmly established. To determine if anhydrobiotic tardigrades have an antioxidant defence system, capable of counteracting ROS, we compared the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, the fatty acid composition and Heat shock protein expression in two physiological states (desiccated vs. hydrated) of the tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi. In hydrated tardigrades, superoxide dismutase and catalase show comparable activities, while in desiccated specimens the activity of superoxide dismutase increases. Both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione were induced by desiccation. The percentage of fatty acid composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances are higher in desiccated animals than in hydrated ones. Lastly, desiccated tardigrades did not differ significantly from the hydrated ones in the relative levels of Hsp70 and Hsp90. These results indicate that the possession of antioxidant metabolism could represent a crucial strategy to avoid damages during desiccation in anhydrobiotic tardigrades.

  8. Neuronal development is promoted by weakened intrinsic antioxidant defences due to epigenetic repression of Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Karen F.S.; Al-Mubarak, Bashayer; Martel, Marc-André; McKay, Sean; Wheelan, Nicola; Hasel, Philip; Márkus, Nóra M.; Baxter, Paul; Deighton, Ruth F.; Serio, Andrea; Bilican, Bilada; Chowdhry, Sudhir; Meakin, Paul J.; Ashford, Michael L.J.; Wyllie, David J.A.; Scannevin, Robert H.; Chandran, Siddharthan; Hayes, John D.; Hardingham, Giles E.

    2015-01-01

    Forebrain neurons have weak intrinsic antioxidant defences compared with astrocytes, but the molecular basis and purpose of this is poorly understood. We show that early in mouse cortical neuronal development in vitro and in vivo, expression of the master-regulator of antioxidant genes, transcription factor NF-E2-related-factor-2 (Nrf2), is repressed by epigenetic inactivation of its promoter. Consequently, in contrast to astrocytes or young neurons, maturing neurons possess negligible Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defences, and exhibit no transcriptional responses to Nrf2 activators, or to ablation of Nrf2's inhibitor Keap1. Neuronal Nrf2 inactivation seems to be required for proper development: in maturing neurons, ectopic Nrf2 expression inhibits neurite outgrowth and aborization, and electrophysiological maturation, including synaptogenesis. These defects arise because Nrf2 activity buffers neuronal redox status, inhibiting maturation processes dependent on redox-sensitive JNK and Wnt pathways. Thus, developmental epigenetic Nrf2 repression weakens neuronal antioxidant defences but is necessary to create an environment that supports neuronal development. PMID:25967870

  9. [Research of antioxidant defence system under alimentary induced oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Iu V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Vasil'ev, A V

    2004-01-01

    Alimentary induced oxidative stress and its corrections in children and adults with homocysteine metabolism disorder are urgent problems for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease prophylactics. For determination antioxidant status GSH-Px, SOD, GSH-reductase, catalase activities were detected. Effectiveness of Se-contained antioxidant complex "Selenec" was determined in experimental model with pubertal male Wistar rats. Including high value of methionine to semipurified diet with pyridoxine and folate deficiency induced oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation substances were increased in blood, liver, intestine mucous tunic, aortal endothelium and myocardium. GSH-Px, SOD, GSH-reductase, catalase activities decreased significant compared to control. "Selenec" supplementation caused a decrease of thiobarbituric-reactive substances level, increasing SOD and catalase activity and decreasing GSH-Px and GSH-reductase activity in blood, liver, intestine mucous tunic, aorta and myocardium.

  10. Nitric oxide, antioxidants and prooxidants in plant defence responses

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Felicitas; Durner, Jörg; Gaupels, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells the free radical nitric oxide (NO) interacts both with anti- as well as prooxidants. This review provides a short survey of the central roles of ascorbate and glutathione—the latter alone or in conjunction with S-nitrosoglutathione reductase—in controlling NO bioavailability. Other major topics include the regulation of antioxidant enzymes by NO and the interplay between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under stress conditions NO regulates antioxidant enzymes at the level of activity and gene expression, which can cause either enhancement or reduction of the cellular redox status. For instance chronic NO production during salt stress induced the antioxidant system thereby increasing salt tolerance in various plants. In contrast, rapid NO accumulation in response to strong stress stimuli was occasionally linked to inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a subsequent rise in hydrogen peroxide levels. Moreover, during incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae interactions ROS burst and cell death progression were shown to be terminated by S-nitrosylation-triggered inhibition of NADPH oxidases, further highlighting the multiple roles of NO during redox-signaling. In chemical reactions between NO and ROS reactive nitrogen species (RNS) arise with characteristics different from their precursors. Recently, peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide has attracted much attention. We will describe putative functions of this molecule and other NO derivatives in plant cells. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHb) were proposed to act in NO degradation. Additionally, like other oxidases nsHb is also capable of catalyzing protein nitration through a nitrite- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent process. The physiological significance of the described findings under abiotic and biotic stress conditions will be discussed with a special emphasis on pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:24198820

  11. Peroxiredoxins: hidden players in the antioxidant defence of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Spermatozoon is a cell with a precious message to deliver: the paternal DNA. Its motility machinery must be working perfectly and it should be able to acquire fertilizing ability in order to accomplish this mission. Infertility touches 1 in 6 couples worldwide and in half of the cases the causes can be traced to men. A variety of conditions such as infections of the male genital tract, varicocele, drugs, environmental factors, diseases, smoking, etc., are associated with male infertility and a common feature among them is the oxidative stress in semen that occurs when reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced at high levels and/or when the antioxidant systems are decreased in the seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. ROS-dependent damage targets proteins, lipids, and DNA, thus compromising sperm function and survival. Elevated ROS in spermatozoa are associated with DNA damage and decreased motility. Paradoxically, ROS, at very low levels, regulate sperm activation for fertilization. Therefore, the regulation of redox signaling in the male reproductive tract is essential for fertility. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) play a central role in redox signaling being both antioxidant enzymes and modulators of ROS action and are essential for pathological and physiological events. Recent studies from our lab emphasize the importance of PRDXs in the protection of spermatozoa as infertile men have significant low levels of PRDXs in semen and with little enzymatic activity available for ROS scavenging. The relationships between sperm DNA damage, motility and lipid peroxidation and high levels of thiol-oxidized PRDXs suggest the enhanced susceptibility of spermatozoa to oxidative stress and further support the importance of PRDXs in human sperm physiology. This review aims to characterize PRDXs, hidden players of the sperm antioxidant system and highlight the central role of PRDXs isoforms in the protection against oxidative stress to assure a proper function and DNA integrity of human

  12. α-Tocopherol prevents lymphoma by improving antioxidant defence system of mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Vinayak, Manjula

    2013-02-01

    Increased level of ROS causes oxidative stress and leads to various pathological conditions including cancer. Therefore antioxidants should contribute to cancer prevention by improving antioxidant defense system and thereby protecting the cell from oxidative damage. In the present study we have validated the hypothesis by evaluating the antioxidant action of α-tocopherol. The effect of α-tocopherol is analyzed on oxidative stress as well as its regulation on antioxidant defense system. Oxidative stress is measured in terms of reduced glutathione and protein carbonylation. To evaluate the role of α-tocopherol on antioxidant defense system, the activities and expressions of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase are analyzed by activity gel assay and by RT-PCR respectively. These enzyme activities and/or expressions are found to be improved by α-tocopherol in lymphoma bearing mice which brings down the oxidative stress as reflected by increased level of reduced glutathione as well as decreased protein carbonylation. The effect of α-tocopherol is further analyzed on general characteristics of lymphoma growth like body weight, longevity, accumulation of ascites fluid, angiogenesis in peritoneum, morphology of liver and abundance of lymphocytes. The antioxidant α-tocopherol is found to check lymphoma growth. The results suggest that α-tocopherol contributes to lymphoma prevention by improving antioxidant defence system of mice.

  13. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS.

  14. The blood antioxidant defence capacity during intermittent hypoxic training in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Poprzęcki, S; Zając, A; Karpiński, J; Wilk, R; Bril, G; Maszczyk, A; Toborek, M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the chronic effect of simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia on blood antioxidant defence capacity in swimmers. The study included 14 male and 14 female competitive swimmers performing part of land training under simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia (O2 = 15.5%) or in normoxia. Land interval training took place twice per week, with a total of 8 training units during the study, performed with individualized intensity. The activities of blood antioxidant enzymes did not change significantly during the first and last training unit in the hypoxic and normoxic group. However, when comparing individual variables a significant effect of exercise was observed on GPx an CAT activities, whereas training units significantly differentiated GPx and GR activities. The oxygen conditions and gender had a significant influence on CAT activity. The total antioxidant capacity was not significantly affected. Only in male swimmers from the hypoxic group did the training significantly increase resting levels of MDA. In conclusion, training in normobaric hypoxia was not an adequate stimulus for the excessive response of the antioxidant defence system, despite increased oxidative stress in these conditions. PMID:28090139

  15. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species.

    PubMed

    Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Paital, Biswaranjan; Dandapat, Jagneswar

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons.

  16. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species

    PubMed Central

    Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Paital, Biswaranjan; Dandapat, Jagneswar

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons. PMID:27127682

  17. Queuine promotes antioxidant defence system by activating cellular antioxidant enzyme activities in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula

    2008-04-01

    Constant generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism of an organism is generally balanced by similar rate of consumption by antioxidants. Imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defense results in increased level of ROS causing oxidative stress which leads to promotion of malignancy. Queuine is a hyper modified base analogue of guanine, found at first anti-codon position of Q- family of tRNAs. These tRNAs are completely modified with respect to queuosine in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNAs is close association with cell proliferation. Q-tRNA modification is essential for normal development, differentiation and cellular functions. Queuine is a nutrient factor to eukaryotes. It is found to promote cellular antioxidant defense system and inhibit tumorigenesis. The activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase are found to be low in Dalton's lymphoma ascites transplanted (DLAT) mouse liver compared to normal. However, exogenous administration of queuine to DLAT mouse improves the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that queuine promotes antioxidant defense system by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and in turn inhibits oxidative stress and tumorigenesis.

  18. The IL-17A/IL-17RA axis in pulmonary defence and immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Cigana, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17A/IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) axis is emerging as a key player in host defence. Several studies have demonstrated that IL-17A-mediated responses play a critical role in both acute and chronic inflammation induced by infectious agents, environmental stimuli and genetic diseases in the airways. In this regard, it is becoming evident that IL-17A/IL-17RA signalling may have a protective and beneficial impact on health, but that it can also result in detrimental outcomes. On one hand, the IL-17A/IL-17RA axis can contribute to the elimination of noxious stimuli and to the resolution of acute inflammatory processes; on the other hand, it can exacerbate immunopathological responses, contributing to the development and progression of chronic respiratory illnesses. In addition, cellular and molecular signatures underlying IL-17A/IL-17RA signalling have been increasingly identified, although further studies are needed to clarify such complex responses. Here, we discuss the latest discoveries on the role of the IL-17A/IL-17RA axis in driving host pulmonary defence and immunopathology.

  19. Interactive effects of early and later nutritional conditions on the adult antioxidant defence system in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Noguera, José C; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-07-01

    In vertebrates, antioxidant defences comprise a mixture of endogenously produced components and exogenously obtained antioxidants that are derived mostly from the diet. It has been suggested that early-life micronutritional conditions might influence the way in which the antioxidant defence system operates, which could enable individuals to adjust the activity of the endogenous and exogenous components in line with their expected intake of dietary antioxidants if the future environment resembles the past. We investigated this possibility by experimentally manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet during different periods of postnatal development in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds that had a low micronutrient diet during the growth phase initially had a lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC) than those reared under a high micronutrient diet, but then showed a compensatory response, so that by the end of the growth phase, the TAC of the two groups was the same. Interestingly, we found an interactive effect of micronutrient intake early and late in development: only those birds that continued with the same dietary treatment (low or high) throughout development showed a significant increase in their TAC during the period of sexual maturation. A similar effect was also found in the level of enzymatic antioxidant defences (glutathione peroxidase; GPx). No significant effects were found in the level of oxidative damage in lipids [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. These findings demonstrate the importance of early and late developmental conditions in shaping multiple aspects of the antioxidant system. Furthermore, they suggest that young birds may adjust their antioxidant defences to enable them to 'thrive' on diets rich or poor in micronutrients later in life.

  20. Antioxidant defences and oxidative damage in salt-treated olive plants under contrasting sunlight irradiance.

    PubMed

    Melgar, Juan Carlos; Guidi, Lucia; Remorini, Damiano; Agati, Giovanni; Degl'innocenti, Elena; Castelli, Silvana; Camilla Baratto, Maria; Faraloni, Cecilia; Tattini, Massimiliano

    2009-09-01

    The interactive effects of root-zone salinity and sunlight on leaf biochemistry, with special emphasis on antioxidant defences, were analysed in Olea europaea L. cv. Allora, during the summer period. Plants were grown outside under 15% (shade plants) or 100% sunlight (sun plants) and supplied with 0 or 125 mM NaCl. The following measurements were performed: (1) the contribution of ions and soluble carbohydrates to osmotic potentials; (2) the photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and the photosynthetic pigment concentration; (3) the concentration and the tissue-specific distribution of leaf flavonoids; (4) the activity of antioxidant enzymes; and (5) the leaf oxidative damage. The concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) were significantly greater in sun than in shade leaves, as also observed for the concentration of the 'antioxidant' sugar-alcohol mannitol. The de-epoxidation state of violaxanthin-cycle pigments increased in response to salinity stress in sun leaves. This finding agrees with a greater maximal PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) at midday, detected in salt-treated than in control plants, growing in full sunshine. By contrast, salt-treated plants in the shade suffered from midday depression in F(v)/F(m) to a greater degree than that observed in control plants. The high concentration of violaxanthin-cycle pigments in sun leaves suggests that zeaxanthin may protect the chloroplast from photo-oxidative damage, rather than dissipating excess excitation energy via non-photochemical quenching mechanisms. Dihydroxy B-ring-substituted flavonoid glycosides accumulate greatly in the mesophyll, not only in the epidermal cells, in response to high sunlight. The activity of antioxidant enzymes varied little because of sunlight irradiance, but declined sharply in response to high salinity in shade leaves. Interestingly, control and particularly salt-treated plants in the shade underwent greater oxidative damage than their sunny counterparts. These findings, which conform to

  1. Coordination between antioxidant defences might be partially modulated by magnesium status.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Bicho, Manuel; Santa-Clara, Helena; Laires, Maria José

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the redox balance in competitive adult swimmers against recreational practitioners, controlling for Mg intake. Fifteen, competitive swimmers and 16 recreational practitioners, all male and aged 18-25years, were recruited into the study. Oxidative and muscle damage markers, and antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated by photometry (except for thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), which was assessed by fluorimetry). Controlling for the level of exercise, inverse correlations were observed for uric acid and glutathione reductase (GR) or susceptibility of red blood cells to peroxidation (RBCPx); plasma adrenaline oxidase activity (AdOx) and carotenoids; TBARS and GR or Vit E; and direct correlations were observed between AdOx and creatine kinase (CK) or TBARS; CK and superoxide dismutase activity; GR and RBCPx. Controlling for Mg intake in addition to exercise level revealed new inverse correlations: between carotenoids and TBARS or lactate, and new direct correlations between lactate and AdOx or TBARS; cortisol and AdOx, CK, lactate dehydrogenase, or methemoglobin reductase. The associations between uric acid and RBCPx; AdOx and CK or TBARS; and GR and RBCPx lost their significance. All others remained significant. These outcomes suggest that the coordination between antioxidant defences may be partially modulated by Mg, which may be the result of its ability to stabilize cell membranes and oxidation targets, such as adrenaline.

  2. Perinatal hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing rat liver and heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Yan; Su, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defence status in perinatal hypothyroid rat liver and heart. We found that the proteincarbonyl content did not differ significantly between the three groups both in the pup liver and in the heart. The OH˙ level was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid heart but not in the liver compared with controls. A slight but not significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both perinatal hypothyroid liver and heart. A significantly increased activity of CAT was observed in the liver but not in the heart of hypothyroid pups. The GPx activity was considerably increased compared with controls in the perinatal hypothyroid heart and was unaltered in the liver of hypothyroid pups. We also found that vitamin E levels in the liver decreased significantly in hypothyroidism and were unaltered in the heart of perinatal hypothyroid rats. The GSH content was elevated significantly in both hypothyroid liver and heart. The total antioxidant capacity was higher in the liver of the hypothyroid group but not in the hypothyroid heart. Thyroxine replacement could not repair the above changes to normal. In conclusion, perinatal hypothyroidism modulates the oxidative stress status of the perinatal liver and heart.

  3. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae disrupts pulmonary immune defence via elastase release following pneumolysin-dependent neutrophil lysis

    PubMed Central

    Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Maekawa, Tomoki; Nagai, Kosuke; Takeda, Wataru; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Previous studies suggested that excessive activation of neutrophils results in the release of neutrophil elastase, which contributes to lung injury in severe pneumonia. Although both pneumococcal virulence factors and neutrophil elastase contribute to the development and progression of pneumonia, there are no studies analysing relationships between these factors. Here, we showed that pneumolysin, a pneumococcal pore-forming toxin, induced cell lysis in primary isolated human neutrophils, leading to the release of neutrophil elastase. Pneumolysin exerted minimal cytotoxicity against alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages, whereas neutrophil elastase induced detachment of alveolar epithelial cells and impaired phagocytic activity in macrophages. Additionally, activation of neutrophil elastase did not exert bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae in vitro. P2X7 receptor, which belongs to a family of purinergic receptors, was involved in pneumolysin-induced cell lysis. These findings suggested that infiltrated neutrophils are the primary target cells of pneumolysin, and that S. pneumoniae exploits neutrophil-elastase leakage to induce the disruption of pulmonary immune defences, thereby causing lung injury. PMID:27892542

  5. Comparison of enzymatic antioxidant defence systems in different metabolic types of yeasts.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Dafinka I; Petrova, Ventsislava Y; Kujumdzieva, Anna V

    2008-11-01

    The enzymatic defence system in the 2 yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Rhodotorula glutinis, differing in their mode of oxygen uptake and energy generation, was characterized and compared with the well-studied facultatively fermentative Crabtree-positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Twofold higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were detected in K. marxianus and R. glutinis when cells were cultured on glucose. Further increases of 10%-15% in SOD activity and 30%-50% in catalase were measured in all studied yeasts strains after transfer to media containing ethanol. An evaluation of the ratio of Cu/Zn SOD / Mn SOD was performed as a measure of the oxidative metabolism. A 20% decrease was observed when the respiratory source of energy was ethanol, with the lowest ratio being observed for the oxidative type of K. marxianus yeasts. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that all tested strains possess active Cu/Zn and Mn SODs. A reverse electrophoretic mobility pattern of K. marxianus and R. glutinis SOD enzymes was observed in comparison with the same couple in S. cerevisiae. The investigation of electrophoretic profile of catalase enzymes showed that alongside their different taxonomic status and fermentative capacity, all tested strains possess 2 separate catalases. The role of antioxidant enzymes in preventing oxidant-induced cytotoxicity (treatment with hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, and menadione) was shown.

  6. The Role of Mitochondria and Oxidative/Antioxidative Imbalance in Pathobiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sitarek, Przemysław; Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Piotrowski, Wojciech Jerzy; Górski, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common preventable and treatable disease, characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases. The major risk factor of COPD, which has been proven in many studies, is the exposure to cigarette smoke. However, it is 15–20% of all smokers who develop COPD. This is why we should recognize the pathobiology of COPD as involving a complex interaction between several factors, including genetic vulnerability. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is recognized as one of the significant factors in COPD pathogenesis. Numerous exogenous and endogenous sources of ROS are present in pathobiology of COPD. One of endogenous sources of ROS is mitochondria. Although leakage of electrons from electron transport chain and forming of ROS are the effect of physiological functioning of mitochondria, there are various intra- and extracellular factors which may increase this amount and significantly contribute to oxidative-antioxidative imbalance. With the coexistence with impaired antioxidant defence, all these issues lead to oxidative and carbonyl stress. Both of these states play a significant role in pathobiology of COPD and may account for development of major comorbidities of this disease. PMID:28105251

  7. Improved antioxidative defence protects insulin-producing cells against homocysteine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Siobhan M; Hahn, Claudine; Tyka, Karolina; Flatt, Peter R; McClenaghan, Neville H; Lenzen, Sigurd; Gurgul-Convey, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    Homocysteine (HC) is considered to play an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome complications. Insulin-producing cells are prone to HC toxicity and this has been linked to oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore it was the aim of this study to determine the nature of reactive oxygen species responsible for HC toxicity. Chronic exposure of RINm5F and INS1E insulin-producing cells to HC decreased cell viability and glucose-induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner and led to a significant induction of hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytosolic, but not the mitochondrial compartment of the cell. Cytosolic overexpression of catalase, a hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzyme, provided a significant protection against viability loss and hydrogen peroxide generation, while mitochondrial overexpression of catalase did not protect against HC toxicity. Overexpression of CuZnSOD, a cytosolic superoxide dismutating enzyme, also protected against HC toxicity. However, the best protection was achieved in the case of a combined overexpression of CuZnSOD and catalase. Incubation of cells in combination with alloxan resulted in a significant increase of HC toxicity and an increase of hydrogen peroxide generation. Overexpression of CuZnSOD or catalase protected against the toxicity of HC plus alloxan, with a superior protection achieved again by combined overexpression. The results indicate that HC induces oxidative stress in insulin-producing cells by stimulation of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytoplasm. The low antioxidative defence status makes the insulin-producing cells very vulnerable to HC toxicity.

  8. Grp94 acts as a mediator of curcumin-induced antioxidant defence in myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Paola; Scapin, Cristina; Vitadello, Maurizio; Florean, Cristina; Gorza, Luisa

    2010-04-01

    Curcumin is a non-toxic polyphenol with pleiotropic activities and limited bioavailability. We investigated whether a brief exposure to low doses of curcumin would induce in the myogenic C2C12 cell line an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and protect against oxidative stress. A 3-hr curcumin administration (5-10 microM) increased protein levels of the ER chaperone Grp94, without affecting those of Grp78, calreticulin and haeme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide 24 hrs after the curcumin treatment decreased caspase-12 activation, total protein oxidation and translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus, compared with untreated cells. Grp94 overexpression, achieved by means of either stable or transient trasfection, induced comparable cytoprotective effects to hydrogen peroxide. The delayed cytoprotection induced by curcumin acted through Grp94, because the curcumin-induced increase in Grp94 expression was hampered by either stable or transient transfection with antisense cDNA; in these latter cells, the extent of total protein oxidation, as well as the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus, and the percentage of apoptotic cells were comparable to those observed in both curcumin-untreated wild-type and empty vector transfected cells. Defining the mechanism(s) by which Grp94 exerts its antioxidant defence, the determination of cytosolic calcium levels in C2C12 cells by fura-2 showed a significantly reduced amount of releasable calcium from intracellular stores, both in conditions of Grp94 overexpression and after curcumin pre-treatment. Therefore, a brief exposure to curcumin induces a delayed cytoprotection against oxidative stress in myogenic cells by increasing Grp94 protein level, which acts as a regulator of calcium homeostasis.

  9. Ultrastructural characterization of the pulmonary cellular defences in the lung of a bird, the rock dove, Columba livia

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J. N.; Cowley, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Free (surface) avian respiratory macrophages (FARMs) were harvested by lavage of the lung/air-sac system of the rock dove, Columba livia. The presence of FARMs in the atria and infundibula was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The respiratory system has developed several cellular defence lines that include surface macrophages, epithelial, subepithelial and interstitial phagocytes, and pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Hence, C. livia appears to have a multiple pulmonary cellular protective armoury. Ultrastructurally, the FARMs and the PIMs were similar to the corresponding cells of mammals. The purported high susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases, a state that has largely been deduced from morbidities and mortalities of commercial birds, and which has chiefly been attributed to paucity of the FARMs, is not supported by the present observations.

  10. Nitric oxide-activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the abscisic acid-induced antioxidant defence in maize.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Lu, Rui; Liu, Huiying; Shi, Ben; Zhang, Jianhua; Tan, Mingpu; Zhang, Aying; Jiang, Mingyi

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) are all required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a strong candidate for the decoder of Ca2+ signals. However, whether CCaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defence is unknown. The results of the present study show that exogenous and endogenous ABA induced increases in the activity of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK in leaves of maize. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ZmCCaMK is located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. The transient expression of ZmCCaMK and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmCCaMK analysis in maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence. Moreover, treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the activation of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK. Pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor blocked the ABA-induced increases in the activity and the transcript level of ZmCCaMK. Conversely, RNAi silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts did not affect the ABA-induced NO production, which was further confirmed using a mutant of OsCCaMK, the homologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Moreover, H2O2 was also required for the ABA activation of ZmCCaMK, and pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the activity of ZmCCaMK. Taken together, the data clearly suggest that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, and H2O2-dependent NO production plays an important role in the ABA-induced activation of ZmCCaMK.

  11. Nitric oxide-activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the abscisic acid-induced antioxidant defence in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aying; Jiang, Mingyi

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) are all required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a strong candidate for the decoder of Ca2+ signals. However, whether CCaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defence is unknown. The results of the present study show that exogenous and endogenous ABA induced increases in the activity of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK in leaves of maize. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ZmCCaMK is located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. The transient expression of ZmCCaMK and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmCCaMK analysis in maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence. Moreover, treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the activation of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK. Pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor blocked the ABA-induced increases in the activity and the transcript level of ZmCCaMK. Conversely, RNAi silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts did not affect the ABA-induced NO production, which was further confirmed using a mutant of OsCCaMK, the homologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Moreover, H2O2 was also required for the ABA activation of ZmCCaMK, and pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the activity of ZmCCaMK. Taken together, the data clearly suggest that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, and H2O2-dependent NO production plays an important role in the ABA-induced activation of ZmCCaMK. PMID:22865912

  12. Sperm antioxidant defences decrease during epididymal transit from caput to cauda in parallel with increases in epididymal fluid in the goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Rana, Mashidur; Roy, Sudhir C; Divyashree, Bannur C

    2016-09-28

    The status of antioxidant defences of both spermatozoa and their associated fluids during epididymal transit from the caput to cauda have not been studied so far in any species. Herein we report for the first time that sperm antioxidant defences, namely Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and catalase activity, decrease significantly (P<0.05) from the caput to cauda during epididymal transit in parallel with increases in Cu,Zn-SOD, total SOD and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the luminal fluid of the respective segments. However, levels of GPX1 and GPX3 in epididymal fluid did not change significantly from the caput to cauda. Catalase was detected for the first time in goat spermatozoa. A significantly higher total antioxidant capacity of caudal fluid than of the caput suggests a requirement for a rich antioxidant environment for the storage of spermatozoa. The retention of cytoplasmic droplets in most of the caudal spermatozoa confirmed that these droplets do not contribute to the increased antioxidant defences of cauda epididymidal fluid. Thus, the antioxidant defences of the spermatozoa and their associated epididymal fluid are modulated from the caput to cauda in a region-specific manner. This may be one of the compensatory mechanisms of epididymal fluid to scavenge any excess reactive oxygen species produced in the microenvironment of spermatozoa.

  13. Antioxidant defence system during exponential and stationary growth phases of Phycomyces blakesleeanus: response to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Cristina; del Valle, Pilar; Rúa, Javier; García-Armesto, María Rosario; Gutiérrez-Larraínzar, Marta; Busto, Félix; de Arriaga, Dolores

    2013-04-01

    An analysis of the components of the antioxidant defence system in exponential and stationary growth phases of filamentous fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and the response to the oxidative stress hydrogen peroxide were performed. There is a strong positive correlation between mycelial antioxidant capacity and the contents of gallic acid, d-erythroascorbate (d-EAA) or d-erythroascorbate monoglucoside (d-EAAG). These secondary metabolites are specifically synthesized by this fungus and reach maximal values in the stationary growth phase, suggesting that they can play some role in the antioxidant defence system of this fungus. There is a differential expression of the two more notable antioxidant activities, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), depending of the growth stage of P. blakesleeanus, CAT being expressed in the exponential and SOD in the stationary phase. Phycomyces blakesleeanus showed a high resistance to the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 (50 and 200 mM) which was higher in exponential phase. This higher resistance can be explained by the presence of CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the probable contribution of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and high levels of reduced form of glutathione (GSH). The transition to stationary phase was accompanied with a higher physiological oxidative damage illustrated by the higher protein carbonylation. In this growth stage the resistance of the fungus to the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 could be explained by the presence of SOD, GPx, and the probable contribution of GST as well as of secondary metabolites, mainly d-EAA and d-EAAG. These results highlight a specific response to oxidative stress by H2O2 depending on the growth phase of P. blakesleeanus.

  14. Chronic exposure to 50Hz magnetic fields causes a significant weakening of antioxidant defence systems in aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Falone, Stefano; Mirabilio, Alessandro; Carbone, Maria Cristina; Zimmitti, Vincenzo; Di Loreto, Silvia; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Mancinelli, Rosa; Di Ilio, Carmine; Amicarelli, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    Several studies suggest that extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) may enhance the free radical endogenous production. It is also well known that one of the unavoidable consequences of ageing is an overall oxidative stress-based decline in several physiological functions and in the general resistance to stressors. On the basis of these assumptions, the aim of this study was to establish whether the ageing process can increase susceptibility towards widely present ELF-MF-mediated pro-oxidative challenges. To this end, female Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to a sinusoidal 50 Hz, 0.1 mT magnetic field for 10 days. Treatment-induced changes in the major antioxidant protection systems and in the neurotrophic support were investigated, as a function of the age of the subjects. All analyses were performed in brain cortices, due to the high susceptibility of neuronal cells to oxidative injury. Our results indicated that ELF-MF exposure significantly affects anti-oxidative capability, both in young and aged animals, although in opposite ways. Indeed, exposed young individuals enhanced their neurotrophic signalling and anti-oxidative enzymatic defence against a possible ELF-MF-mediated increase in oxygen radical species. In contrast, aged subjects were not capable of increasing their defences in response to ELF-MF treatment but, on the contrary, they underwent a significant decrease in the major antioxidant enzymatic activities. In conclusion, our data seem to suggest that the exposure to ELF-MFs may act as a risk factor for the occurrence of oxidative stress-based nervous system pathologies associated with ageing.

  15. Effect of temperature acclimation on the liver antioxidant defence system of the Antarctic nototheniids Notothenia coriiceps and Notothenia rossii.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cintia; Zaleski, Tania; Rodrigues, Edson; Carvalho, Cleoni Dos Santos; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Krebsbach, Priscila; Rios, Flávia Sant'Anna; Donatti, Lucélia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether endemic Antarctic nototheniid fish are able to adjust their liver antioxidant defence system in response to the temperature increase. The activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes as well as the content of non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl (PC) were measured in the liver of two Antarctic fish species, Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps after 1, 3 and 6days of exposure to temperatures of 0°C and 8°C. The GST activity showed a downregulation in N. rossii after 6days of exposure to the increased temperature. The activity profiles of GST and GR in N. rossii and of GPx in N. coriiceps also changed as a consequence of heating to 8°C. The GSH content increased by heating to 8°C after 3days in N. coriiceps and after 6days in N. rossii. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), a LPO marker, showed a negative modulation by the heating to 8°C in N. rossii after 3days of exposure to temperatures. Present results show that heating to 8°C influenced the levels and profiles of the antioxidant enzymes and defences over time in the nototheniid fish N. rossii and N. coriiceps.

  16. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  17. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence.

  18. Anti-carcinogenic action of curcumin by activation of antioxidant defence system and inhibition of NF-κB signalling in lymphoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Laxmidhar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) plays a significant role in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and malignancy. ROS (reactive oxygen species) are among the most important regulating factors of NF-κB. Intracellular ROS are mainly regulated by an endogenous antioxidant defence system. Any disruption of redox balance leads to oxidative stress, which causes a number of pathological conditions including inflammation and malignancy. Increased metabolic activity in cancerous cells leads to oxidative stress, which is further enhanced due to depletion of the endogenous antioxidant defence system. However, the activation and signalling of NF-κB are reported to be inhibited by overexpression and induced activity of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore the present study focuses on the correlation between the endogenous antioxidant defence system, ROS and NF-κB activation during lymphoma growth in mice. The study highlights the anti-carcinogenic role of curcumin by modulation of NF-κB activation and oxidative stress via the endogenous antioxidant defence system. Oxidative stress was monitored by lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and antioxidant enzyme activity. NF-κB-mediated signalling was tested by DNA-binding activity. The results reflect that intracellular production of H2O2 in oxidative tumour micro-environment regulates NF-κB activation. Curcumin inhibits oxidative state in the liver of lymphoma-bearing mice by enhancing the transcription and activities of antioxidant enzymes, which in turn modulate activation of NF-κB, leading to a decrease in lymphoma growth. Morphological changes as well as cell proliferation and cell survival assays confirmed reduced lymphoma growth. Thus curcumin contributes to cancer prevention by disrupting the vicious cycle of constant ROS production, responsible for a high oxidative micro-environment for tumour growth.

  19. Antioxidant defences and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species in different human mitochondrial DNA-depleted cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vergani, Lodovica; Floreani, Maura; Russell, Aaron; Ceccon, Mara; Napoli, Eleonora; Cabrelle, Anna; Valente, Lucia; Bragantini, Federica; Leger, Bertrand; Dabbeni-Sala, Federica

    2004-09-01

    Three pairs of parental (rho+) and established mitochondrial DNA depleted (rho0) cells, derived from bone, lung and muscle were used to verify the influence of the nuclear background and the lack of efficient mitochondrial respiratory chain on antioxidant defences and homeostasis of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial DNA depletion significantly lowered glutathione reductase activity, glutathione (GSH) content, and consistently altered the GSH2 : oxidized glutathione ratio in all of the rho0 cell lines, albeit to differing extents, indicating the most oxidized redox state in bone rho0 cells. Activity, as well as gene expression and protein content, of superoxide dismutase showed a decrease in bone and muscle rho0 cell lines but not in lung rho0 cells. GSH peroxidase activity was four times higher in all three rho0 cell lines in comparison to the parental rho+, suggesting that this may be a necessary adaptation for survival without a functional respiratory chain. Taken together, these data suggest that the lack of respiratory chain prompts the cells to reduce their need for antioxidant defences in a tissue-specific manner, exposing them to a major risk of oxidative injury. In fact bone-derived rho0 cells displayed the highest steady-state level of intracellular ROS (measured directly by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin, or indirectly by aconitase activity) compared to all the other rho+ and rho0 cells, both in the presence or absence of glucose. Analysis of mitochondrial and cytosolic/iron regulatory protein-1 aconitase indicated that most ROS of bone rho0 cells originate from sources other than mitochondria.

  20. Cyclo(His-Pro) promotes cytoprotection by activating Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of antioxidant defence

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Alba; Conte, Carmela; Grottelli, Silvia; Bellezza, Maria; Cacciatore, Ivana; Bolaños, Juan P

    2009-01-01

    Hystidyl-proline [cyclo(His-Pro)] is an endogenous cyclic dipeptide produced by the cleavage of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Previous studies have shown that cyclo(His-Pro) protects against oxidative stress, although the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we addressed this issue and found that cyclo(His-Pro) triggered nuclear accumulation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that up-regulates antioxidant-/electrophile-responsive element (ARE-EpRE)-related genes, in PC12 cells. Cyclo(His-Pro) attenuated reactive oxygen species production, and prevented glutathione depletion caused by glutamate, rotenone, paraquat and β-amyloid treatment. Moreover, real-time PCR analyses revealed that cyclo(His-Pro) induced the expression of a number of ARE-related genes and protected cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptotic death. Furthermore, these effects were abolished by RNA interference-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of p-38 MAPK partially prevented both cyclo(His-Pro)-mediated Nrf2 activation and cellular protection. These results suggest that the signalling mechanism responsible for the cytoprotective actions of cyclo(His-Pro) would involve p-38 MAPK activation leading to Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of antioxidant cellular defence. PMID:18373731

  1. The anti-ageing hormone klotho induces Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defences in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Giuseppe; Psefteli, Paraskevi-Maria; Rizzo, Benedetta; Srivastava, Salil; Gnudi, Luigi; Mann, Giovanni E; Siow, Richard C M

    2017-03-01

    Vascular ageing in conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, is associated with the activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and diminished expression of antioxidant defences mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The anti-ageing hormone klotho promotes longevity and protects against cardiovascular and renal diseases. Klotho has been shown to activate Nrf2 and attenuate oxidative damage in neuronal cells, however, the mechanisms by which it protects against vascular smooth muscle cell VSMC dysfunction elicited by Angiotensin II (AngII) remain to be elucidated. AngII contributes to vascular ageing and atherogenesis by enhancing VSMC oxidative stress, senescence and apoptosis. This study demonstrates that soluble klotho (1 nM, 24 hrs) significantly induces expression of Nrf2 and the antioxidant enzymes haeme oxygenase (HO-1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1) and enhances glutathione levels in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Silencing of Nrf2 attenuated the induction of HO-1 and Prx-1 expression by soluble klotho. Furthermore, soluble klotho protected against AngII-mediated HASMC apoptosis and senescence via activation of Nrf2. Thus, our findings highlight a novel Nrf2-mediated mechanism underlying the protective actions of soluble klotho in HAMSC. Targeting klotho may thus represent a therapeutic strategy against VSMC dysfunction and cardiovascular ageing.

  2. Creatine-induced activation of antioxidative defence in myotube cultures revealed by explorative NMR-based metabonomics and proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Creatine is a key intermediate in energy metabolism and supplementation of creatine has been used for increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to trigger the skeletal muscle expression of insulin like growth factor I, to increase the fat-free mass and improve cognition in elderly, and more explorative approaches like transcriptomics has revealed additional information. The aim of the present study was to reveal additional insight into the biochemical effects of creatine supplementation at the protein and metabolite level by integrating the explorative techniques, proteomics and NMR metabonomics, in a systems biology approach. Methods Differentiated mouse myotube cultures (C2C12) were exposed to 5 mM creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 24 hours. For proteomics studies, lysed myotubes were analyzed in single 2-DGE gels where the first dimension of protein separation was pI 5-8 and second dimension was a 12.5% Criterion gel. Differentially expressed protein spots of significance were excised from the gel, desalted and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF MS. For NMR metabonomic studies, chloroform/methanol extractions of the myotubes were subjected to one-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy and the intracellular oxidative status of myotubes was assessed by intracellular DCFH2 oxidation after 24 h pre-incubation with CMH. Results The identified differentially expressed proteins included vimentin, malate dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin dependent peroxide reductase, and 75 kDa and 78 kDa glucose regulated protein precursors. After CMH exposure, up-regulated proteomic spots correlated positively with the NMR signals from creatine, while down-regulated proteomic spots were negatively correlated with these NMR signals. The identified differentially regulated proteins were related to energy metabolism, glucose regulated stress, cellular structure and the antioxidative defence system. The

  3. Enzymatic antioxidant defence mechanism in rat intestinal tissue is changed after ischemia–reperfusion. Effects of an allopurinol plus antioxidant combination

    PubMed Central

    Kaçmaz, Murat; Öztürk, H. Serdar; Karaayvaz, Muammer; Güven, Cengiz; Durak, Ílker

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To establish the antioxidant status of rat intestinal tissues after ischemia–reperfusion and to determine if pretreatment with an allopurinol and antioxidant vitamin combination gives any protection against mucosal injury. Experimental animals Twenty rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each. Methods Group 1 (control) rats were not subjected to ischemia–reperfusion and received no allopurinol plus vitamin combination; group 2 rats received vitamins C (200 mg/kg) and E (100 mg/kg) and allopurinol (50 mg/kg) combination daily for 3 days preoperatively; group 3 rats were subjected to ischemia–reperfusion only; and group 4 rats were subjected to ischemia–reperfusion and received the vitamin and allopurinol combination. Main outcome measures Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, the level of thiobarbituric acid-reagent substances (TBARS) and histologic grading of tissue samples. Results SOD and GSH-Px activities were decreased, but the CAT activity and TBARS level increased. Pretreatment of the rats with the allopurinol-vitamin C-vitamin E combination did not have any significant effect on the enzyme activities. However, it resulted in important reductions in the TBARS tissue levels. Histologic investigation revealed significant mucosal injury in group 3 rats compared with group 4 rats (mean [and standard deviation] for grading, 4.6 [0.5] versus 1.8 [0.4]). Conclusions The enzymatic antioxidant defence system was significantly changed after ischemia–reperfusion and intestinal tissue was exposed to increased oxidant stress, the results of which were peroxidation of some cellular structures and increased concentrations of oxidative products. Although antioxidant treatment did not drastically affect the enzyme activities or afford complete protection of cellular structures against deformation, it apparently could eliminate oxygen radicals and prevent peroxidative reactions. PMID

  4. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  5. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  6. MAP65-1a positively regulates H2O2 amplification and enhances brassinosteroid-induced antioxidant defence in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Zuo, Mingxing; Liang, Yali; Jiang, Mingyi; Zhang, Jianhua; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Tan, Mingpu; Zhang, Aying

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR)-induced antioxidant defence has been shown to enhance stress tolerance. In this study, the role of the maize 65 kDa microtubule-associated protein (MAP65), ZmMAP65-1a, in BR-induced antioxidant defence was investigated. Treatment with BR increased the expression of ZmMAP65-1a in maize (Zea mays) leaves and mesophyll protoplasts. Transient expression and RNA interference silencing of ZmMAP65-1a in mesophyll protoplasts further revealed that ZmMAP65-1a is required for the BR-induced increase in expression and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Both exogenous and BR-induced endogenous H2O2 increased the expression of ZmMAP65-1a. Conversely, transient expression of ZmMAP65-1a in maize mesophyll protoplasts enhanced BR-induced H2O2 accumulation, while transient silencing of ZmMAP65-1a blocked the BR-induced expression of NADPH oxidase genes and inhibited BR-induced H2O2 accumulation. Inhibiting the activity and gene expression of ZmMPK5 significantly prevented the BR-induced expression of ZmMAP65-1a. Likewise, transient expression of ZmMPK5 enhanced BR-induced activities of the antioxidant defence enzymes SOD and APX in a ZmMAP65- 1a-dependent manner. ZmMPK5 directly interacted with ZmMAP65-1a in vivo and phosphorylated ZmMAP65-1a in vitro. These results suggest that BR-induced antioxidant defence in maize operates through the interaction of ZmMPK5 with ZmMAP65-1a. Furthermore, ZmMAP65-1a functions in H2O2 self-propagation via regulation of the expression of NADPH oxidase genes in BR signalling.

  7. The response of L5178Y lymphoma sublines to oxidative stress: antioxidant defence, iron content and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Bouzyk, E; Gradzka, I; Iwaneńko, T; Kruszewski, M; Sochanowicz, B; Szumiel, I

    2000-01-01

    We examined the response to hydrogen peroxide of two L5178Y (LY) sublines which are inversely cross-sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and X-rays: LY-R cells are radio-resistant and hydrogen peroxide-sensitive, whereas LY-S cells are radiosensitive and hydrogen peroxide-resistant. Higher initial DNA breaks and higher iron content (potentially active in the Fenton reaction) were found in the hydrogen peroxide sensitive LY-R cells than in the hydrogen peroxide resistant LY-S cells, whereas the antioxidant defence of LY-R cells was weaker. In particular, catalase activity is twofold higher in LY-S than in LY-R cells. The content of monobromobimane-reactive thiols is 54% higher in LY-S than in LY-R cells. In contrast, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is about two times higher in LY-R than in LY-S cells; however, upon induction with selenium the activity increases 15.6-fold in LY-R cells and 50.3-fold in LY-S cells. Altogether, the sensitivity difference is related to the iron content, the amount of the initial DNA damage, as well as to the efficiency of the antioxidant defence system. Differential nuclear translocation of p65-NF-kappaB in LY sublines is due to the more efficient antioxidant defence in LY-S than in LY-R cells.

  8. Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Gungor; Kucuk, Mehmet; Erinc Sitar, Mustafa; Yasar, Ozgur; Aydin, Seval; Yanar, Karolin; Cakatay, Ufuk; Buyukpınarbasili, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet. Objectives The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Materials and Methods This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically. Results Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics. Conclusions Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to

  9. Antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences during estivation and arousal in the South American apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Tosi, Martín E Rinaldi; Abud, María A; Calderón, María L; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-02-15

    The invasive Pomacea canaliculata estivates during periods of drought and should cope with harmful effects of reoxygenation during arousal. We studied thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and reduced glutathione), and heat shock protein expression (Hsc70, Hsp70 and Hsp90) in (1) active control snails, (2) snails after 45 days of estivation, and (3) aroused snails 20 min and (4) 24 h after water exposure, in midgut gland, kidney and foot. Both kidney and foot (but not the midgut gland) showed a TBARS increase during estivation and a decrease after arousal. Tissue SOD and CAT did not change in any experimental groups. Uric acid increased during estivation in all tissues, and it decreased after arousal in the kidney. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid, remained constant in the midgut gland but it decreased in the kidney until 20 min after arousal; however, allantoin levels rose in both kidney and foot 24 h after arousal. Reduced glutathione decreased during estivation and arousal, in both midgut gland and kidney, and it remained constant in the foot. Hsc70 and Hsp70 kidney levels were stable during the activity-estivation cycle and Hsp90 expression decreases during estivation and recovers in the early arousal. In foot, the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was high during activity and estivation periods and disminished after arousal. Results indicate that a panoply of antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences may be involved during the activity-estivation cycle in this freshwater gastropod.

  10. Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant defences in swine follicular fluids.

    PubMed

    Basini, Giuseppina; Simona, Bussolati; Santini, Sujen Eleonora; Grasselli, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance inside the ovarian follicle plays an important role in folliculogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the redox status of follicular fluids collected from different-sized swine follicles. We quantified the most important reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxides (ROOH); in addition, we examined the activity of the detoxifying enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase and the total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric-reducing anti-oxidant power assay. Our data demonstrate that oxidative stress does not affect follicle growth because O(2)(-) levels do not change during follicle development, whereas concentrations of H2O2 and ROOH are reduced (P < 0.05). Surprisingly, all non-enzymatic and enzymatic scavengers examined in the present study, except for CAT, demonstrated reduced activity during follicle development (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that other factors could be involved in ROS detoxification during follicle development.

  11. Relationship between oxygen-induced alveolar macrophage injury and cell antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Aerts, C; Wallaert, B; Gosset, P; Voisin, C

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to hyperoxia causes alveolar macrophage (AM) injury. The present study investigates the roles of intracellular antioxidant enzymes and of glutathione in the protection of AMs against hyperoxia in a biphasic cell culture system in aerobiosis. The effect of normoxia or hyperoxia on the integrity of AMs was related to indices of cell injury (ATP cell content and lactate dehydrogenase release into culture medium) and cell mass (protein content of AMs). Antioxidant activities were measured in guinea-pig AMs exposed to 95% O2 or to normoxia (control cells) for 3 days. A 3-day AM culture in normoxia showed a significant decrease in protein and catalase, whereas ATP cell content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) (both Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities significantly increased. The content of reduced glutathione (GSH) did not change. Using the ATP content in AMs expressed as a cell injury index (CII), AM injury increased with increasing O2 exposure time (1 day: 13 +/- 4.4%; 2 days: 34 +/- 3.8%; 3 days: 40 +/- 4.1%; 4 days: 55 +/- 7.3%; 6 days: 87.5 +/- 5.4%). Exposure to 95% O2 for 3 days was associated with a significant decrease in ATP cell content, protein, catalase and GSH to the total glutathione ratio, whereas SOD, GSH and total glutathione did not change significantly. The GPx activities increased significantly. There was no significant correlation between the AM CII and SOD or GPx content. In contrast, a significant correlation was observed between hyperoxia-induced AM CII and catalase content (r = 0.71) and glutathione content (r = 0.71).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Temporal variation in the antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation in the gills and mantle of hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Company, Rui; Serafim, Angela; Cosson, Richard; Fiala-Médioni, Aline; Dixon, David; João Bebianno, Maria

    2006-07-01

    Hydrothermal vent mussels are exposed continually to toxic compounds, including high metal concentrations and other substances like dissolved sulphide, methane and natural radioactivity. Fluctuations in these parameters appear to be common because of the characteristic instability of the hydrothermal environment. Temporal variation in the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidases (Total GPx), selenium dependent glutathione peroxidases (Se-GPx)), metallothioneins and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the gills and mantle of the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from Menez-Gwen hydrothermal vent site was evaluated and related to the accumulated metal concentrations (Ag, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the tissues. Maximum antioxidant enzyme activities in the gills were detected in the beginning of summer, followed by a gradual decrease throughout the following months. One year after, the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities were similar to those reported one year before. LPO in this tissue exhibited a similar temporal variation trend. A different pattern of temporal variation in antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in the mantle, with a gradual increase from summer to the end of autumn (November). LPO in the mantle exhibited an almost reverse trend of temporal variation to that of antioxidant enzyme activities in this tissue. Antioxidant defences in the gills of B. azoricus were significantly enhanced with increasing concentrations of Ag, Cu and Mn, while negative relationships between antioxidant enzymes and Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations in the mantle were observed, suggesting different pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and that these tissues responded differently to the metal accumulation. However, temporal variation in biomarkers of defence and damage were in general similar to coastal bivalve species and can be associated with temporal variations of the physiological status due to reproduction

  13. Comparative study of the antioxidant defence systems in the erythrocytes of Australian marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Whittington, A T; Parkinson, A L; Spencer, P B; Grigg, G; Hinds, L; Gallagher, C H; Kuchel, P W; Agar, N S

    1995-03-01

    A comparison of the erythrocyte (RBC) antioxidant metabolites and enzymes in nine marsupial and two monotreme species was carried out. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations were comparable with those reported for other marsupial and eutherian species. An important finding was that the erythrocytes of the southern hairy nosed wombat regenerated GSH faster than the erythrocytes from its close relative, the common wombat. The activities of glutathione-S-transferase, NADH-methaemoglobin reductase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), showed similar levels and extents of variation as those observed in other marsupial and eutherian species. Catalase activities in the marsupials were lower than those measured in the two monotreme species and much lower than those reported in eutherian species. A negative correlation, significant at P < 0.05, was observed between GSH-Px and catalase activities in the RBC of the marsupials. Since both these enzymes "detoxify" H2O2, there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between the activities of these enzymes in marsupial RBC.

  14. A single blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) portion does not affect markers of antioxidant defence and oxidative stress in healthy volunteers following cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Campolo, Jonica; Parolini, Marina; Lanti, Claudia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported that a portion of blueberries reversed endothelial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking. Since smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction is associated with a condition of oxidative stress, we evaluated whether the observed effect was mediated by modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. Fourteen out of 16 male healthy smokers previously enrolled, participated in a three-armed randomized controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300g of blueberries) + smoking (one cigarette); control treatment (300ml of water with sugar) + smoking (one cigarette). The cigarette was smoked 100min after blueberry/control/water consumption. Each treatment was separated by 1 week of washout period. Plasma vitamin (C, B12 and folate) and aminothiol concentrations, endogenous [formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites] and oxidatively induced DNA damage (resistance to H2O2-induced DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured at baseline and 20, 60, 90, 120min and 24h after smoking. On the whole, analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of treatment on the modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence but revealed an effect of time for plasma concentrations of vitamin C (P = 0.003), B12 (P < 0.001), folate (P < 0.001), total cysteine (P = 0.007) and cysteine-glycine (P = 0.010) that increased following the three treatments after smoking. No significant effect of treatment was observed for the levels of FPG-sensitive sites (P > 0.05) and H2O2-induced DNA damage (P > 0.05) in PBMCs. In conclusion, the consumption of a single blueberry portion failed to modulate markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence investigated in our experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate this finding and help clarifying the mechanisms of protection of blueberries against

  15. Enhancement of antioxidant defense system by epigallocatechin-3-gallate during bleomycin induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Narayanan; Kalayarasan, Srinivasan; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2008-07-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical scavenging systems plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol and a major component of green tea, possess a potent antioxidant property. This study was designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of EGCG in the plasma and lungs during bleomycin induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Intratracheal administration of bleomycin (6.5 U/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significant reduction of body weight, enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin A). Elevations in lung W/D (wet weight/dry weight) ratio, hydroxyproline content was observed with a synchronized increase in lipid peroxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides). Intraperitoneal administration of EGCG at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight significantly improved the body weight, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants and considerably decreased the W/D ratio, hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation marker levels. Histological observations also correlated with the biochemical parameters. Thus, this study confirms the beneficial use of EGCG in alleviating the oxidative stress induced during pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Resveratrol alleviate hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant pathways in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dunquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Yi; Luo, Ying; Niu, Wen; Dong, Mingqing; Liu, Manling; Dong, Haiying; Zhao, Pengtao; Li, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound and a phytoestrogen, was shown to possess multiple protective effects including anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative stress. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease characterized by sustained vascular resistance and marked pulmonary vascular remodeling. The exact mechanisms of HPH are still unclear, but inflammatory response and oxidative stress was demonstrated to participate in the progression of HPH. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on HPH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged by hypoxia exposure for 28 days to mimic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension along with treating resveratrol (40 mg/kg/day). Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data were then obtained, and the anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol was determined by in vitro assays. The anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative effects of resveratrol were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The present study showed that resveratrol treatment alleviated right ventricular systolic pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by hypoxia. In vitro experiments showed that resveratrol notably inhibited proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in an ER-independent manner. Data showed that resveratrol administration inhibited HIF-1 α expression in vivo and in vitro, suppressed inflammatory cells infiltration around the pulmonary arteries, and decreased ROS production induced by hypoxia in PAMSCs. The inflammatory cytokines' mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1β were all suppressed by resveratrol treatment. The in vitro assays showed that resveratrol inhibited the expression of HIF-1 α via suppressing the MAPK/ERK1 and PI3K/AKT pathways. The antioxidant axis of Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ Thioredoxin 1 (Nrf-2/Trx-1) was up-regulated both in lung tissues and in cultured PASMCs. In general, the current study

  17. Resveratrol alleviate hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dunquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Yi; Luo, Ying; Niu, Wen; Dong, Mingqing; Liu, Manling; Dong, Haiying; Zhao, Pengtao; Li, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound and a phytoestrogen, was shown to possess multiple protective effects including anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative stress. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease characterized by sustained vascular resistance and marked pulmonary vascular remodeling. The exact mechanisms of HPH are still unclear, but inflammatory response and oxidative stress was demonstrated to participate in the progression of HPH. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on HPH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged by hypoxia exposure for 28 days to mimic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension along with treating resveratrol (40 mg/kg/day). Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data were then obtained, and the anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol was determined by in vitro assays. The anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative effects of resveratrol were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The present study showed that resveratrol treatment alleviated right ventricular systolic pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by hypoxia. In vitro experiments showed that resveratrol notably inhibited proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in an ER-independent manner. Data showed that resveratrol administration inhibited HIF-1 α expression in vivo and in vitro, suppressed inflammatory cells infiltration around the pulmonary arteries, and decreased ROS production induced by hypoxia in PAMSCs. The inflammatory cytokines' mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1β were all suppressed by resveratrol treatment. The in vitro assays showed that resveratrol inhibited the expression of HIF-1 α via suppressing the MAPK/ERK1 and PI3K/AKT pathways. The antioxidant axis of Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ Thioredoxin 1 (Nrf-2/Trx-1) was up-regulated both in lung tissues and in cultured PASMCs. In general, the current study

  18. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P < 0.05). In the hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  19. Defence strategies adopted by the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii against supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation: Augmentation of secondary metabolites and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2015-12-01

    Supplementary ultraviolet-B (ambient+3.6  kJ m(-2) day(-1)) induced changes on morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics (specifically the defence strategies: UV-B protective compounds and antioxidants) of Coleus forskohlii were investigated under field conditions at 30, 60, and 90 days after transplantation. Levels of secondary metabolites increased under s-UV-B stress; flavonoids and phenolics (primary UV-B screening agents) were recorded to be higher in leaves which are directly exposed to s-UV-B. This was also verified by enhanced activities of phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes: phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI), and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR). Antioxidants, both enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and superoxide dismutase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol) also increased in the treated organs of the test plant, higher contents being recorded in roots except for ascorbic acid. On the contrary, protein and chlorophyll content (directly implicated in regulating plant growth and development) declined under s-UV-B. These alterations in plant biochemistry led the plant to compromise on its photosynthate allocation towards growth and biomass production as evidenced by a reduction in its height and biomass. The study concludes that s-UV-B is a potent stimulating factor in increasing the concentrations of defense compounds and antioxidants in C. forskohlii to optimize its performance under stress.

  20. The histone methylase KMTox interacts with the redox-sensor peroxiredoxin-1 and targets genes involved in Toxoplasma gondii antioxidant defences.

    PubMed

    Sautel, Céline F; Ortet, Philippe; Saksouk, Nehmé; Kieffer, Sylvie; Garin, Jérôme; Bastien, Olivier; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2009-01-01

    The ability of living cells to alter their gene expression patterns in response to environmental changes is essential for viability. Oxidative stress represents a common threat for all aerobic life. In normally growing cells, in which hydrogen peroxide generation is transient or pulsed, the antioxidant systems efficiently control its concentration. Intracellular parasites must also protect themselves against the oxidative burst imposed by the host. In this work, we have investigated the role of KMTox, a new histone lysine methyltransferase, in the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. KMTox is a nuclear protein that holds a High Mobility Group domain, which is thought to recognize bent DNA. The enzyme methylates both histones H4 and H2A in vitro with a great preference for the substrate in reduced conditions. Importantly, KMTox interacts specifically with the typical 2-cys peroxiredoxin-1 and the binding is to some extent enhanced upon oxidation. It appears that the cellular functions that are primarily regulated by the KMTox are antioxidant defences and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. KMTox may regulate gene expression in T. gondii by providing the rapid re-arrangement of chromatin domains and by interacting with the redox-sensor TgPrx1 contribute to establish the antioxidant 'firewall' in T. gondii.

  1. Semecarpus anacardium nut extract promotes the antioxidant defence system and inhibits anaerobic metabolism during development of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nibha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidants are substances that fight against ROS (reactive oxygen species) and protect the cells from their damaging effects. Production of ROS during cellular metabolism is balanced by their removal by antioxidants. Any condition leading to increased levels of ROS results in oxidative stress, which promotes a large number of human diseases, including cancer. Therefore antioxidants may be regarded as potential anticarcinogens, as they may slow down or prevent development of cancer by reducing oxidative stress. Fruits and vegetables are rich source of antioxidants. Moreover, a number of phytochemicals present in medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant activity. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of nuts of the medicinal plant Semecarpus anacardium in AKR mouse liver during the development of lymphoma. Antioxidant action was monitored by the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase. The effect of S. anacardium was also studied by observing the activity of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), an enzyme of anaerobic metabolism. LDH activity serves as a tumour marker. The activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased gradually as lymphoma developed in mouse. However, LDH activity increased progressively. Administration of the aqueous extract of S. anacardium to lymphoma-transplanted mouse led to an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, whereas LDH activity decreased significantly, indicating a decrease in carcinogenesis. The aqueous extract was found to be more effective than doxorubicin, a classical anticarcinogenic drug, with respect to its action on antioxidant enzymes and LDH in the liver of mice with developing lymphomas.

  2. Hypobaric-hypoxia-induced pulmonary damage in rats ameliorated by antioxidant erdosteine.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ozge; Balbay, Oner; Comunoğlu, Nil Ustündağ; Yavuz, Ozlem; Nihat Annakkaya, Ali; Güler, Selver; Silan, Coşkun; Erbaş, Mete; Arbak, Peri

    2006-01-01

    Free radical-mediated injury to lung and pulmonary vasculature is an important mechanism in hypoxia-induced lung damage. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of erdosteine as an antioxidant agent on hypobaric hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Adult male rats were assigned randomly to three groups. The first group of rats was exposed to hypobaric-hypoxia and the second group was treated with erdosteine (20mg/kg, daily) for 2 weeks, during which time they were in a hypoxic chamber. These groups were compared with normoxic controls. All rats were sacrificed after 2 weeks. The hypoxia-induced increase in right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum weight ratio (from 0.20+/-0.01 to 0.26+/-0.01) was reduced significantly in the erdosteine-treated group (0.23+/-0.01). Malondialdehyde levels were elevated (from 0.33+/-0.11 to 0.59+/-0.02) and total antioxidant status was not changed significantly (from 1.77+/-0.42 to 2.61+/-0.23) by hypoxia. In contrast to the hypoxia-exposed group, malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the erdosteine-treated group (0.37+/-0.02). Total antioxidant status (4.03+/-0.22) was significantly higher in erdosteine-treated rats when compared to non-treated rats. Histopathological examination demonstrated that erdosteine prevented inflammation and protected lung parenchyma and pulmonary endothelium of hypoxia-exposed rats.

  3. Comparison of antioxidant defence parameters in colostrum and milk between Berrichon du Cher ewes and Uhrusk ewes.

    PubMed

    Lipko-Przybylska, Justyna; Albera, Edyta; Kankofer, Marta

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the profile of antioxidant parameters in ewes' colostrum and milk in relation to breed during 5 d post partum. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was analysed and the activity of the enzymic antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GSH-Tr), as well as the concentration of the non-enzymic antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin A and beta-carotene, were measured. Samples were collected from healthy animals belonging to two ewe breeds: Berrichon du Cher (n=15) and Uhrusk (n=15) kept in the Podlasie Province (Poland). Colostrum was sampled directly after parturition, as well as after 12, 24 and 48 h later and milk was sampled 5 d after parturition. Colostrum and milk for the evaluation of all parameters except for vitamin A and beta-carotene were centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for further analysis. Spectrophotometric methods were used for biochemical measurements. The results showed dynamic changes of antioxidative parameters within the time period examined. TAC values and GSH-Px activity increased significantly during the experiment. GSH-Tr activity showed a similar tendency in Uhrusk ewes but an opposite relationship in Berrichon du Cher. Concentrations of examined vitamins followed the increasing trends noticed in the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Moreover, differences between breeds in the evaluated parameters were detected; these differences were not unequivocal however. The results are also a source of not previously published physiological antioxidant profile in colostrum and milk of ewes over the post-partum period.

  4. Efficacy of antioxidant in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kandhare, Amit D.; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic oxido-inflammatory disorder of the lung. Oxidative stress is widely recognized as a central feature of IPF. Antioxidant therapy has been proposed as an effective treatment for IPF. An array of clinical trials describing the therapeutic impact of these drugs have been reporting albeit with conflicting evidence points. We performed a meta-analysis of trials in which efficacy of antioxidant therapy was compared with control in IPF. Systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CPCI-S (Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science), ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), and Google Scholar till June 2016 by two independent researchers. Various outcomes such as changes in pulmonary function tests (change in vital capacity [ΔVC], change in forced vital capacity [ΔFVC], change in percentage of predicted vital capacity [Δ%VC], and change in percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity [Δ%DLco]), changes in 6 minutes walking test distance (Δ6MWT), rates of adverse events, and rates of death, were included. All statistical analyses were performed using RevMan V.5.3. Twelve studies (n = 1062) were identified that used antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and lecithinized superoxide dismutase) as a treatment for IPF. Overall, there was no association of antioxidant therapy with ΔFVC (SMD = 0.27, 95% CI:-0.07 to 0.61; P = 0.12), ΔFVC (%) (SMD = -0.10, 95% CI:-0.56 to 0.36; P = 0.66) and 6MWT (SMD = -0.04, 95% CI:-0.11 to 0.20; P = 0.59) in IPF patients. However, combined antioxidant therapy was found to be associated with %VC (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.64; P = 0.008) and Δ%DLco (SMD = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.29; P = 0.05) in IPF patients. Strong evidence was obtained that the antioxidants increased adverse effects adverse events (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.75 to 3.24; P = 0.23) but it did not associate mortality (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.44 to 2.11; P = 0.92). The

  5. Efficacy of antioxidant in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kandhare, Amit D; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic oxido-inflammatory disorder of the lung. Oxidative stress is widely recognized as a central feature of IPF. Antioxidant therapy has been proposed as an effective treatment for IPF. An array of clinical trials describing the therapeutic impact of these drugs have been reporting albeit with conflicting evidence points. We performed a meta-analysis of trials in which efficacy of antioxidant therapy was compared with control in IPF. Systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CPCI-S (Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science), ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), and Google Scholar till June 2016 by two independent researchers. Various outcomes such as changes in pulmonary function tests (change in vital capacity [ΔVC], change in forced vital capacity [ΔFVC], change in percentage of predicted vital capacity [Δ%VC], and change in percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity [Δ%DLco]), changes in 6 minutes walking test distance (Δ6MWT), rates of adverse events, and rates of death, were included. All statistical analyses were performed using RevMan V.5.3. Twelve studies (n = 1062) were identified that used antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and lecithinized superoxide dismutase) as a treatment for IPF. Overall, there was no association of antioxidant therapy with ΔFVC (SMD = 0.27, 95% CI:-0.07 to 0.61; P = 0.12), ΔFVC (%) (SMD = -0.10, 95% CI:-0.56 to 0.36; P = 0.66) and 6MWT (SMD = -0.04, 95% CI:-0.11 to 0.20; P = 0.59) in IPF patients. However, combined antioxidant therapy was found to be associated with %VC (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.64; P = 0.008) and Δ%DLco (SMD = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.29; P = 0.05) in IPF patients. Strong evidence was obtained that the antioxidants increased adverse effects adverse events (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.75 to 3.24; P = 0.23) but it did not associate mortality (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.44 to 2.11; P = 0.92). The

  6. Influence of Zn-contaminated soils in the antioxidative defence system of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) at different exposure times: potential use as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Blázquez, Nieves; García-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, María Dolores

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant responses of wheat and maize growing in Zn-treated soils (200, 450 and 900 mg kg(-1)) at different exposure times (7, 14, 21 and 35 days). The Zn concentration in the plants increased with an increase in the Zn concentration in the soil, thereby causing an increase in the accumulation of Mg and Mn. The emergence of wheat and the growth of maize were inhibited by Zn. The chlorophyll levels increased in wheat, whereas the opposite effect was observed in maize. Regarding enzymatic activities, Zn only provoked pronounced increases in the ascorbate peroxidase activity in maize at the early exposure times and occasionally in the superoxide dismutase (14 days) and catalase (7 and 35 days) activities in wheat. The most notable effect of the exposure of plants to Zn was an inhibition of antioxidative activities after 35 days in both plant species. The reduced glutathione levels increased in wheat and maize after 35 days and the protein levels in wheat after 7 and 35 days. The only significant alteration of lipid peroxidation was a decrease in the malondialdehyde level in wheat after 35 days. Results of this work suggest that Zn may generate oxidative stress by interfering with the plant antioxidant defence system (peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutase) responsible for free radical detoxification. The enzymatic activities, particularly ascorbate peroxidase, and the content of reduced glutathione could be considered good biomarkers of serious stress by Zn in soils.

  7. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vodusek, Ana Lina; Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Patients and methods In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model. Results Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer. Conclusions We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and

  8. Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 participates in tobacco disease defence against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae by affecting vacuolar pH and priming the antioxidative system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianyang; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Guo, Jie; Jia, Weitao; Tai, Fang; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Lv, Sulian; Li, Yinxin

    2014-11-01

    Despite the importance of NHX1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1) in plant salt tolerance, little is known about its other functions. In this study, intriguingly, it was found that NHX1 participated in plant disease defence against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) in Nicotiana benthamiana. NbNHX1 was originally isolated from N. benthamiana, and characterized. The subcellular localization of NbNHX1 with its C-terminus fused with green fluorescent protein indicated that NbNHX1 localized primarily to the tonoplast. Tobacco rattle virus-induced NbNHX1 silencing led to reduced H(+) efflux from the vacuole to cytoplasts, and decreased Ppn resistance in N. benthamiana. After attack by Ppn, NbNHX1-silenced plants exhibited impaired ability to scavenge reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by the pathogen. Pea early browning virus-mediated ectopic expression of SeNHX1 (from Salicornia europaea) or AtNHX1 (from Arabidopsis thaliana) both conferred enhanced Ppn resistance to N. benthamiana, with a lower H2O2 concentration after Ppn inoculation. Further investigation of the role of NHX1 demonstrated that transient overexpression of NbNHX1 improved the vacuolar pH and cellular ROS level in N. benthamiana, which was coupled with an enlarged NAD(P) (H) pool and higher expression of ROS-responsive genes. In contrast, NbNHX1 silencing led to a lower pH in the vacuole and a lower cellular ROS level in N. benthamiana, which was coupled with a decreased NAD(P) (H) pool and decreased expression of ROS-responsive genes. These results suggest that NHX1 is involved in plant disease defence; and regulation of vacuolar pH by NHX1, affecting the cellular oxidation state, primes the antioxidative system which is associated with Ppn resistance in tobacco.

  9. Mucoactive and antioxidant medicines for COPD: consensus of a group of Chinese pulmonary physicians

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xixin; Song, Yuanlin; Shen, Ce; Xu, Wenbing; Chen, Liangan; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Huiguo; Huang, Mao; Lai, Guoxiang; Qian, Guishen; Wang, Jing; Ye, Xianwei; Zheng, Jinping; Bai, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a frequent symptom associated with acute and chronic airway disease. Inhibition of mucus production or promotion of mucolysis not only relieved symptoms but also improved disease outcomes. There are numerous available mucoactive medicines for prescription, and how to select them properly for different diseases is important for clinical practice. So far, there is no one consensus or guideline reported. A group of Chinese pulmonary physicians worked together to complete this consensus based on literature review, summarized mechanism and usage of each classical mucoactive medicine. In general, antioxidant mucoactive medicines play an important role in chronic airway disease, including but not limited to airway mucus clearance, reduced acute exacerbation and improved pulmonary function.

  10. Redispersible liposomal-N-acetylcysteine powder for pulmonary administration: development, in vitro characterization and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Chaves, Paula Dos Santos; Souto, Gabriele Dadalt; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2014-12-18

    Liposomal dry powders of N-acetylcysteine (SD-NAC-Lip) were developed for pulmonary administration. Liposomes were prepared by reverse phase evaporation and spray dried using lactose (10%, w/w) as drying adjuvant. The powders were characterized according to process yield, drug content, residual water content, particle size distribution, morphology and redispersion behavior. In vitro aerosol performance was evaluated using an eight-stage Andersen Cascade Impactor. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant activity was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) present in the lungs of healthy Wistar rats after induction of oxidation by iron/EDTA. The spray-drying process had a high yield (71%±2), drug content (mg/g) according to the expected value, moisture content below 9%, geometric mean diameter under 3μm with span value lower than 1. Spherical particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Liposomal dry-powders were able to recover the nanometric size of the original dispersion after their redispersion in aqueous medium, as shown by laser diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the powders presented aerodynamic diameter of about 7μm and respirable fraction above 30%, indicating suitable properties for pulmonary use. The encapsulation of N-acetylcysteine in liposomes was essential to maintain its in vitro antioxidant activity after the drying process. In addition, the powder containing the encapsulated drug had better in vitro antioxidant activity than the liquid and solid formulations containing the non-encapsulated drug, which makes it a good candidate for the treatment of pulmonary diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  11. Desiccation induced changes in osmolytes production and the antioxidative defence in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Tiwari, Anupam; Singh, Sureshwar Prasad; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cells of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, a low desiccation tolerant cyanobacterium, was subjected to prolonged desiccation and effect of loss of water was examined on production of osmolytes, and antioxidant response as well as on overall viability in terms of photosynthetic activity. During dehydration (22 h), the organism maintained about 98.5 % loss of cellular water, yet cells remained viable as about 30 % of photosynthetic O2-evolution activity resumed upon hydrating (1 h) such cells. In desiccated state, cyanobacterial cells accumulated osmolytes within 1 h though their contents decreased thereafter. The highest levels of trehalose (179 nmol mg(-1) protein), sucrose (805 nmol mg(-1) protein) and proline (23.2 nmol mg(-1) protein) were attained within 1 h. Chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents also increased within 1 h but phycocyanin level showed opposite trend. The oxygen-evolving activity declined in desiccated cyanobacterial biomass while rehydration led to instant recovery, indicating that cells protect the photosynthetic machinery against desiccation. Notwithstanding, activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) attained their peaks after 3 h of desiccation, though within 10 min of rehydration, their levels returned back close to basal activities of the cultured cells. We propose that onset of osmolyte production in conjunction with upshift of antioxidant enzymes apparently protects the cyanobacterial cells from desiccation stress.

  12. Comparative analyses of genotoxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidative defence system under exposure of methyl parathion and hexaconazole in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the comparative effects of methyl parathion and hexaconazole on genotoxicity, oxidative stress, antioxidative defence system and photosynthetic pigments in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety karan-16). The seeds were exposed with three different concentrations, i.e. 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 % for 6 h after three pre-soaking durations 7, 17 and 27 h which represents G1, S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, respectively. Ethyl methane sulphonate, a well-known mutagenic agent and double distilled water, was used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results indicate significant decrease in mitotic index with increasing concentrations of pesticides, and the extent was higher in methyl parathion. Chromosomal aberrations were found more frequent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Treatment with the pesticides induced oxidative stress which was evident with higher contents of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the increase was more prominent in methyl parathion. Contents of total phenolics were increased; however, soluble protein content showed a reverse trend. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were significantly up-regulated, and more increase was noticed in hexaconazole. Increments in total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were observed up to 0.1 % but decreased at higher concentration (0.5 %), and the reductions were more prominent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Methyl parathion treatment caused more damage in the plant cells of barley as compared to hexaconazole, which may be closely related to higher genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  13. Abscisic acid-regulated responses of aba2-1 under osmotic stress: the abscisic acid-inducible antioxidant defence system and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Ozfidan, C; Turkan, I; Sekmen, A H; Seckin, B

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the interaction among abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence system in the transduction of osmotic stress signalling using Arabidopsis thaliana WT (Columbia ecotype, WT) and an ABA-deficient mutant (aba2-1). For this, 50 μm ABA and osmotic stress, induced with 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG8000; -0.7 MPa), were applied to WT and aba2-1 for 6, 12 or 24 h. Time course analysis was undertaken for determination of total/isoenzyme activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC 1.6.3.1) activity; scavenging activity of the hydroxyl radical (OH˙), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ); endogenous ABA and malondialdehyde (MDA). The highest H(2) O(2) and MDA content was found in PEG-treated groups of both genotypes, but with more in aba2-1. ABA treatment under stress reduced the accumulation of H(2) O(2) and MDA, while it promoted activity of SOD, CAT and APX. APX activity was higher than CAT activity in ABA-treated WT and aba2-1, indicating a protective role of APX rather than CAT during osmotic stress-induced oxidative damage. Treatment with ABA also significantly induced increased NOX activity. Oxidative damage was lower in ABA-treated seedlings of both genotypes, which was associated with greater activity of SOD (Mn-SOD1 and 2 and Fe-SOD isoenzymes), CAT and APX in these seedlings after 24 h of stress. These results suggest that osmotic stress effects were overcome by ABA treatment because of increased SOD, CAT, APX and NOX.

  14. Vampires, Pasteur and reactive oxygen species. Is the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism a preventive antioxidant defence in blood-feeding parasites?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro L; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2002-08-14

    Several species of parasites show a reduction of their respiratory activity along their developmental cycles after they start to feed on vertebrate blood, relying on anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates to achieve their energy requirements. Usually, these parasites choose not to breathe despite of living in an environment of high oxygen availability such as vertebrate blood. Absence of the 'Pasteur effect' in most of these parasites has been well documented. Interestingly, together with the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism in these parasites, there is clear evidence pointing to an increase in their antioxidant defences. As the respiratory chain in mitochondria is a major site of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we propose here that the arrest of respiration constitutes an adaptation to avoid the toxic effects of ROS. This situation would be especially critical for blood-feeding parasites because ROS produced in mitochondria would interact with pro-oxidant products of blood digestion, such as haem and/or iron, and increase the oxidative damage to the parasite's cells.

  15. Physiological adaptations to reproduction. I. Experimentally increasing litter size enhances aspects of antioxidant defence but does not cause oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Pichaud, Nicolas; King, Edith D Aloise; Brooks, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Life history theory suggests that investment in reproduction can trade off against growth, longevity and both reproduction and performance later in life. One possible reason for this trade-off is that reproduction directly causes somatic damage. Oxidative stress, an overproduction of reactive oxygen species in relation to cellular defences, can correlate with reproductive investment and has been implicated as a pathway leading to senescence. This has led to the suggestion that this aspect of physiology could be an important mechanism underlying the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan. We manipulated female reproductive investment to test whether oxidative stress increases with reproduction in mice. Each female's pups were cross-fostered to produce litters of either two or eight, representing low and high levels of reproductive investment for wild mice. No differences were observed between reproductive groups at peak lactation for several markers of oxidative stress in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle. Surprisingly, oxidative damage to proteins was lower in the livers of females with a litter size of eight than in females with two pups or non-reproductive control females. While protein oxidation decreased, activity levels of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase increased in the liver, suggesting this may be one pathway used to protect against oxidative stress. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting correlative relationships and suggest that oxidative stress does not increase with enhanced reproductive effort during lactation.

  16. Vitamins and respiratory disease: antioxidant micronutrients in pulmonary health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J

    2005-11-01

    The lungs are continually exposed to relatively-high O(2) tensions, and as such, in comparison with other organs, they represent a unique tissue for the damaging effects of oxidant attack. At particular times during a lifetime this every day challenge may increase exponentially. The first oxidative insult occurs at birth, when cells are exposed to a sudden 5-fold increase in O(2) concentration. Thereafter, the human lung, from infancy through to old age, can be subjected to deleterious oxidative events as a consequence of inhaling environmental pollutants or irritants, succumbing to several pulmonary diseases (including infant and adult respiratory distress syndromes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and cancer) and receiving treatment for these diseases. The present paper will review the concept that consumption of a healthy diet and the consequent ability to establish and then maintain adequate micronutrient antioxidant concentrations in the lung throughout life, and following various oxidative insults, could prevent or reduce the incidence of oxidant-mediated respiratory diseases. Furthermore, the rationale, practicalities and complexities of boosting the antioxidant pool of the respiratory-tract lining fluid in diseases in which oxidative stress is actively involved, by direct application to the lung v. dietary modification, in order to achieve a therapeutic effect will be discussed.

  17. Potential cytoprotection: antioxidant defence by caffeic acid phenethyl ester against free radical-induced damage of lipids, DNA, and proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Lixiang; Wu, Weimin; Long, Yuan; Wang, Rui

    2008-05-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be a major cause of cellular injuries in a variety of chronic health problems, such as carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative disorders. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from the propolis of honeybee hives, possesses a variety of biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anticancer activity. In the present study, we focused on the diverse antioxidative functionalities of CAPE and its related polyphenolic acid esters on cellular macromolecules in vitro. The effects on human erythrocyte membrane ghost lipid peroxidation, plasmid pBR322 DNA, and protein damage initiated by the water-soluble initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were monitored by formation of hydroperoxides and by DNA nicking assay, single-cell alkaline electrophoresis, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that CAPE and its related polyphenolic acid esters elicited remarkable inhibitory effects on erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, cellular DNA strand breakage, and protein fragmentation. The results suggest that CAPE is a potent exogenous cytoprotective and antigenotoxic agent against cell oxidative damage that could be used as a template for designing novel drugs to combat diseases induced by oxidative stress components, such as various types of cancer.

  18. Role of antioxidant enzymatic defences against oxidative stress H(2)O(2) and the acquisition of oxidative tolerance in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    González-Párraga, Pilar; Hernández, José A; Argüelles, Juan Carlos

    2003-10-30

    In Candida albicans, trehalose plays an essential role as a protector of cell integrity against oxidative challenge. A double homozygous mutant, tps1/tps1, deficient in trehalose synthesis, displayed severe cell mortality when exposed to high H(2)O(2) concentrations, compared with its congenic parental (CAI-4) strain (Alvarez-Peral et al., 2002). We have examined the putative role of a set of well-known antioxidant enzymes as components of the defence mechanism against oxidative challenges. When exposed to mild non-lethal oxidative treatment (0.5 mM H(2)O(2)), a significant induction of catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) was recorded in tps1/tps1 exponential cultures. However, in CAI-4 cells, subjected to the same conditions, there was only a clear activation of catalase, Mn-SOD and Cu,Zn-SOD activities. The degree of activation was always much more pronounced in the trehalose-deficient mutant than in its wild-type counterpart, except for Mn-SOD activity. After exposure to severe oxidative stress (50 mM H(2)O(2)) only GR and catalase activities increased in tps1/tps1 cultures, whereas in CAI-4 cells GR but not catalase was induced. In both cell strains, 50 mM H(2)O(2) caused inhibition of the Mn- and Cu,Zn-SOD isozymes, this inhibition being more pronounced in tps1/tps1 cells. C. albicans is able to acquire adaptive oxidative tolerance by pretreatment with a low non-stressing concentration of H(2)O(2) before exposure to a drastic oxidative challenge. When these antioxidant activities were measured during the adaptive response, a greater degree of enzymatic antioxidant induction was consistently observed in the tps1/tps1 mutant with respect to the CAI-4 strain. Together with a higher intrinsic sensitivity of tps1/tps1 cells, we suggest that this unexpected increase might be explained in terms of a compensatory mechanism to overcome the lack of endogenous trehalose upon drastic oxidative exposure, although this induction was

  19. Effect of long term bed rest in men on enzymatic antioxidative defence and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, W; Kedziora, J; Zolynski, K; Kedziora-Kornatowska, K; Blaszczyk, J; Witkowski, P; Zieleniewski, J

    1998-07-01

    Bed rest is an integral part of treatment of numerous diseases. Typical examples are bone fractures of lower extremities and pelvis. Temporary immobilization is necessary also, e.g., in heart diseases (stroke), backbone and imminent abortion. The sick organism spares energy during the bed rest wich is beneficial. However, bed rest results in many alterations which are disadavantageous. They concern the function of almost all organs and systems but affect most significantly the locomotor and ciruclatory systems. Bed rest brings also about changes in the composition of peripheral blood and functions of the morphotic elements of blood. Red blood cells are subjected to the action of large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). During oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin superoxide radical anion (O2-) is formed: HbFe2+ + O2 --> MetHbFe3+ + O2- (1) Ferrous and ferric ions present in the cytoplasm of red blood cells may be catalysts of the Fenton reaction leading to the production of the hydroxyl radical: O2- + Fe3+ --> O2- + Fe2+ (2) Fe2+ + H2O2 --> Fe3+ + OH + HO- (3) OH shows a tremendous reactivity. It may react with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. The process of lipid peroxidation is best understood. It concerns mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids present in cell membranes. Peroxidation of membrane lipids decreases membrane fluidity and impairs its barrier function. The lowered membrane fluidity compromises erythrocyte deormability which in turn disturbs oxygen delivery to the tissues. End productions of lipid peroxidation are low-molecular wieght compounds, among them carbohydrates (ethane and pentane) and aldehydes, e.g. malondialdehyde (MDA). MDA concentration is an acknowldeged marker of the intensity of lipid peroxidation. Erythrocytes contain a complex system of protection against the action of ROS. It includes various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanism. The most important antioxidative enzymes of the red blood cells are superoxide

  20. Pulmonary function response and effects of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms in healthy young adults exposed to low concentration ozone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rational: Ozone is known to induce a variety of pulmonary effects including decrement of spirometric lung function and inflammatory reaction, and antioxidant genes are known to play an important role in modulating the effects. It is unclear, however, if such effects may occur at...

  1. The transcriptional coregulator PGC-1β controls mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant defence in skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Gali Ramamoorthy, Thanuja; Laverny, Gilles; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Messaddeq, Nadia; Bornert, Jean-Marc; Panza, Salvatore; Ferry, Arnaud; Geny, Bernard; Metzger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional coregulators PGC-1α and PGC-1β modulate the expression of numerous partially overlapping genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and energetic metabolism. The physiological role of PGC-1β is poorly understood in skeletal muscle, a tissue of high mitochondrial content to produce ATP levels required for sustained contractions. Here we determine the physiological role of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle using mice, in which PGC-1β is selectively ablated in skeletal myofibres at adulthood (PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice). We show that myofibre myosin heavy chain composition and mitochondrial number, muscle strength and glucose homeostasis are unaffected in PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice. However, decreased expression of genes controlling mitochondrial protein import, translational machinery and energy metabolism in PGC-1β(i)skm−/− muscles leads to mitochondrial structural and functional abnormalities, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and reduced exercise performance. Moreover, enhanced free-radical leak and reduced expression of the mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme Sod2 increase muscle oxidative stress. PGC-1β is therefore instrumental for skeletal muscles to cope with high energetic demands. PMID:26674215

  2. Nest-dwelling ectoparasites reduce antioxidant defences in females and nestlings of a passerine: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    López-Arrabé, Jimena; Cantarero, Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Palma, Antonio; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; González-Braojos, Sonia; Moreno, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Ectoparasites may imply a cost in terms of oxidative stress provoked by inflammatory responses in hosts. Ectoparasites may also result in costs for nestlings and brooding females because of the direct loss of nutrients and reduced metabolic capacity resulting from parasite feeding activities. These responses may involve the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that may induce oxidative damage in host tissues. Our goal was to examine the effect of ectoparasites in terms of oxidative stress for nestlings and adult females in a population of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We manipulated the entire nest ectoparasite community by reducing ectoparasite loads in some nests through a heating treatment and compared them with a control group of nests with natural loads. A marker of total antioxidant capacity (TAS) in plasma and total levels of glutathione (tGSH) in red blood cells as well as a marker of oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde; MDA) were assessed simultaneously. Levels of tGSH were higher in heat-treated nests than in controls for both females and nestlings. Higher TAS values were observed in females from heat-treated nests. In nestlings there was a negative correlation between TAS and MDA. Our study supports the hypothesis that ectoparasites expose cavity-nesting birds to an oxidative challenge. This could be paid for in the long term, ultimately compromising individual fitness.

  3. The transcriptional coregulator PGC-1β controls mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant defence in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Gali Ramamoorthy, Thanuja; Laverny, Gilles; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Messaddeq, Nadia; Bornert, Jean-Marc; Panza, Salvatore; Ferry, Arnaud; Geny, Bernard; Metzger, Daniel

    2015-12-17

    The transcriptional coregulators PGC-1α and PGC-1β modulate the expression of numerous partially overlapping genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and energetic metabolism. The physiological role of PGC-1β is poorly understood in skeletal muscle, a tissue of high mitochondrial content to produce ATP levels required for sustained contractions. Here we determine the physiological role of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle using mice, in which PGC-1β is selectively ablated in skeletal myofibres at adulthood (PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) mice). We show that myofibre myosin heavy chain composition and mitochondrial number, muscle strength and glucose homeostasis are unaffected in PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) mice. However, decreased expression of genes controlling mitochondrial protein import, translational machinery and energy metabolism in PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) muscles leads to mitochondrial structural and functional abnormalities, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and reduced exercise performance. Moreover, enhanced free-radical leak and reduced expression of the mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme Sod2 increase muscle oxidative stress. PGC-1β is therefore instrumental for skeletal muscles to cope with high energetic demands.

  4. Antioxidant status in a group of institutionalised elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ortega, Rosa M; Andrés, Pedro; Aparicio, Aránzazu; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Navia, Beatriz; Perea, José M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Paula

    2016-05-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important and prevalent diseases suffered by the elderly. Evidence exists that its onset and severity might be conditioned by antioxidant status. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and COPD in institutionalised elderly people. In all, 183 elderly people aged >65 years (twenty-one had COPD and 160 healthy controls) were studied. The subjects' diets were investigated via the use of precise individual weighing for 7 d. Body weight, height, and biceps and triceps skinfold thickness were measured, and body fat (kg) and BMI (kg/m2) were calculated. Serum retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C levels were determined. Subjects with COPD ate less fruits than healthy controls (117 (sd 52) v. 192 (sd 161) g/d), their coverage of the recommended intake of vitamin C was smaller (150 (sd 45) v. 191 (sd 88) %; note that both exceeded 100 %) and their diets had a lower antioxidant capacity (6558 (sd 2381) v. 9328 (sd 5367) mmol trolox equivalent/d). Those with COPD had lower serum vitamin C and α-tocopherol concentrations than healthy controls (32·4 (sd 15·3) v. 41·5 (sd 14·8) µmol/l and 12·1 (sd 3·2) v. 13·9 (sd 2·8) µmol/l, respectively). In addition, subjects with α-tocopherol <14·1µmol/l (50th percentile) were at 6·43 times greater risk of having COPD than those subjects with ≥14·1µmol/l (OR 6·43; 95 % CI 1·17, 35·24; P<0·05), taking sex, age, use of tobacco, body fat and vitamin E intake as covariables. Subjects with COPD had diets of poorer antioxidant quality, especially with respect to vitamins C and E, compared with healthy controls.

  5. Photosynthesis, photochemistry and antioxidative defence in response to two drought severities and with re-watering in Allocasuarina luehmannii.

    PubMed

    Posch, S; Bennett, L T

    2009-11-01

    Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and water potentials, together with ascorbate and glutathione concentrations, were studied during moderate and severe drought stress and in response to re-watering in Allocasuarina luehmannii seedlings. Moderate drought stress (MS) decreased stomatal conductance (g(s)) and net CO(2) assimilation rates (A) to approximately 40% and approximately 60% of control values, respectively, and caused decreases in internal CO(2) concentration (C(i)) and maximum light use efficiency of light-acclimated photosystem II (PSII) centres (Fv'/Fm'). Severe drought stress (SS) decreased g(s) and A to approximately 5% and approximately 15% of the control values, respectively, and caused increases in C(i) and PSII excitation pressure (1 - qP), as well as decreases in water potentials, effective quantum yield of PSII (PhiPSII), maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and Fv'/Fm'. Ascorbate and glutathione concentrations remained unaffected by drought treatments, but ascorbate became more oxidised under severe stress. MS seedlings recovered within 1 day (C(i), Fv'/Fm') to 1 week (A, g(s)) of re-watering. In comparison, SS seedlings had longer-lasting after-stress effects, with recovery of many variables (g(s), water potentials, Fv/Fm, PhiPSII, Fv'/Fm') taking between 1 and 3 weeks from re-watering. We found no indication that interaction with antioxidants played a significant role in recovery. In conclusion, A. luehmannii seedlings appear to function normally under moderate drought, but do not seem to have particular metabolic tolerance mechanisms to endure severe drought, which may have implications for its persistence under climate change at the drier margins of its distribution.

  6. Isoliquiritigenin-induced effects on Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defence in the HL-60 cell monocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongmei; Zhang, Bo; Yuan, Xuan; Yao, Ying; Zhao, Hong; Sun, Xiling; Zheng, Quisheng

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the role of redox homeostasis in differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by isoliquiritigenin (ISL) through modulation of the nuclear erythroid-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway. Morphological changes, cell surface markers CD11b/CD14, and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-reducing ability were used to determine the differentiation of HL-60, and 2,7-dichlorofluorescein was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thiobarbituric acid test was utilised to determine the levels of malondialdehyde production in ISL-treated HL-60. The study determines and presents the redox state of the ratio of reduced/oxidised glutathione as a consequence of progression from differentiation in HL-60. Expression levels of the Nrf2/ARE downstream target genes were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) inhibitors, apocynin (APO), and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) were used for the preliminary study to determine the potential downstream targets regulated by NADPH oxidase in ISL-induced HL-60 differentiation. The data showed a strong dose-response relationship between ISL exposure and the characteristics of HL-60 differentiation, namely, morphology changes, NBT reductive activities, and expression levels of surface antigens CD11b/CD14. Intercellular redox homeostasis changes toward oxidation during drug exposure are necessary to support ISL-induced differentiation. The unique expression levels of the Nrf2/ARE downstream target genes in the differentiation of HL-60 recorded a statistically significant and dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05), which were suppressed by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, APO, and DPI. ISL as a differentiation-inducing agent with mechanisms involved in the Nrf2/ARE pathway to modulate intercellular redox homeostasis, and thus, facilitate differentiation.

  7. Salinity stress constrains photosynthesis in Fraxinus ornus more when growing in partial shading than in full sunlight: consequences for the antioxidant defence system

    PubMed Central

    Fini, Alessio; Guidi, Lucia; Giordano, Cristiana; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Ferrini, Francesco; Brunetti, Cecilia; Calamai, Luca; Tattini, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    plants growing under partial shading more severely than that of plants growing under full sun during summer. The results suggest co-ordination within the antioxidant defence network aimed at detoxifying salt-induced generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25006177

  8. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population.

  9. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Garten, Ryan S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Conklin, Jamie D.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Morgan, David E.; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R.; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. PMID:26188020

  10. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activities and mitochondrial fatty acids in pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Cawthon, D; Beers, K; Wideman, R F; Bottje, W G

    2002-02-01

    Major objectives of this study were to assess antioxidant protection and fatty acid profile in lung mitochondria and whole liver in broilers with pulmonary hypertension syndrome [(PHS; with and without high dietary vitamin E (VE)] (Experiment 1) and in broilers that did not develop PHS but were genetically selected (S) or not selected (NS) for resistance to PHS (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, lung mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was elevated in broilers with PHS compared to controls, broilers fed high VE, and broilers fed high VE with PHS (VE-PHS), but there were no differences in GSH reductase (GSH-Rd) among groups. In liver tissue, GSH-Px was also elevated by PHS but was lower in VE and VE-PHS groups than in controls. There were no differences in liver GSH-Rd, superoxide dismutase (SOD), or gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activities with the exception that gamma-GCS was higher in the VE-PHS group than in the other groups. In Experiment 2, S lung mitochondria exhibited lower GSH-Px and higher GSH-Rd compared to NS broilers. In the liver, there were no differences in GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, or gamma-GCS, but SOD was lower in S compared to the NS broilers. High VE increased the percentage of saturated fatty acids and decreased the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in lung mitochondria in Experiment 1; there were no differences in fatty acid content between S and NS mitochondria in Experiment 2. Thus, it appears that GSH recycling enzyme activities are affected by PHS and high VE presumably in response to differences in oxidative stress and that genetic resistance to PHS is associated with an inherently better capability to metabolize oxidants in lung mitochondria. The increase in saturation of lung mitochondrial fatty acids with high dietary VE would presumably make them more resistant to oxidative stress and, thus, reduce the level of PHS-induced oxidative stress.

  12. Dietary Curcumin Increases Antioxidant Defenses in Lung, Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis, and Improves Survival in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James C.; Kinniry, Paul A.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Serota, Matthew; Kanterakis, Stathis; Chatterjee, Shampa; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Javvadi, Prashanthi; Koumenis, Constantinos; Cengel, Keith A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of lung radiotherapy is limited by radiation tolerance of normal tissues and by the intrinsic radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. The chemopreventive agent curcumin has known antioxidant and tumor cell radiosensitizing properties. Its usefulness in preventing radiation-induced pneumonopathy has not been tested previously. We evaluated dietary curcumin in radiation-induced pneumonopathy and lung tumor regression in a murine model. Mice were given 1%or 5%(w/w) dietary curcumin or control diet prior to irradiation and for the duration of the experiment. Lungs were evaluated at 3 weeks after irradiation for acute lung injury and inflammation by evaluating bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid content for proteins, neutrophils and at 4 months for pulmonary fibrosis. In a separate series of experiments, an orthotopic model of lung cancer using intravenously injected Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was used to exclude possible tumor radioprotection by dietary curcumin. In vitro, curcumin boosted antioxidant defenses by increasing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels in primary lung endothelial and fibroblast cells and blocked radiation-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary curcumin significantly increased HO-1 in lungs as early as after 1 week of feeding, coinciding with a steady-state level of curcumin in plasma. Although both 1% and 5% w/w dietary curcumin exerted physiological changes in lung tissues by significantly decreasing LPS-induced TNF-α production in lungs, only 5%dietary curcumin significantly improved survival of mice after irradiation and decreased radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Importantly, dietary curcumin did not protect LLC pulmonary metastases from radiation killing. Thus dietary curcumin ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and increases mouse survival while not impairing tumor cell killing by radiation. PMID:20426658

  13. The effects of dietary flax oil and antioxidants on ascites and pulmonary hypertension in broilers using a low temperature model.

    PubMed

    Walton, J P; Julian, R J; Squires, E J

    2001-03-01

    1. Three experiments were conducted using a low temperature model to induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ascites in broiler chickens. Diets containing 25 g or 50 g flax oil/kg food and control diets with an equivalent amount of animal/vegetable (A/V) blend oil, with and without supplemental antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) were used. The amount of PH was assessed by the ratio of right ventricle weight to total ventricle weight (RV/TV ratio). Birds were considered to suffer from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) if the RV/TV ratio was greater than 0.299. 2. In experiment 1, the test diets contained 50 g oil/kg food and were given during the grower period only. Birds fed on the flax oil diet tended to have a lower incidence of PHS, ascites and lower RV/TV ratios than birds fed on the control diet. However, when the flax oil diet was supplemented with antioxidants, the incidence of ascites, PHS, haematocrit and whole blood and plasma viscosity increased compared with birds fed on the flax oil diet without antioxidants. These effects were not seen in experiment 2, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food (25 g flax oil plus 5 g A/V blend oil/kg food compared to 30 g A/V blend oil/kg food) were given during the grower period. However, in experiment 3, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food were given from day 1 to week 8, birds fed on the control diet supplemented with antioxidants had a higher incidence of PHS than those fed on the control diet alone. 3. In all 3 experiments, there was no significant effect of dietary fat source or supplemental antioxidants on total food intake or food conversion. 4. We conclude that diets containing 50 g flax oil/kg food tend to reduce the incidence of PHS and ascites in broilers using a low temperature model but the results were not statistically significant. In some cases, supplementing diets with a combination of vitamin E and vitamin C increased the incidence of ascites and PHS.

  14. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  15. [The changes of processes of free radical oxidation of lipids and proteins, antioxidant defence in rats with hypofunction of the thyroid gland in conditions of iodine and copper deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M; Huranych, T V

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid status, copper balance, correlation of processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL), proteins (POP), antioxidant defence (AOD) were examined in experiments on rats with hypofunction of thyroid gland under iodine monodeficit (HTGI) and combined iodine and copper deficit (HTGI+Cu). It was determined that a combined deficit of microelements is accompanied by a distribution of copper content between different tissues (increase in red blood cell mass and cerebrum, decrease in myocardium), essential changes of indexes of hypotalamo-hypophysis-thyroid axis, oxygen-dependent metabolism, antiradical defense, exacerbating the effects of negative influence of each of them on organism. It was established that HTGI+Cu causes a suppression of oxygen-dependent processes. In thyroid gland, it is shown a decrease of content of dyenic conjugates (DC) by 69,70% , of TBA-reacting products (TBA-RP) by 47,72% in diencephalon, the volume of modified proteins (VMP) - by 37,10-98,98% in the tissues of diencephalons. The results obtained let us to suggest a pivotal role ofmicroelement dysbalance and metabolic mechanisms in pathogenesis of cardiological pathology under thyroid dysfunction. The development of HTGI +Cu exhausts the resources of AOD: decreases the activity of catalase (on 47,05%), superoxide dismutase (on 33,13%), ceruloplasmine (on 33,93%) and saturation of transferrin with iron (on 56,76%) against the background of selective rise in the activity of glu-tationreductase (in 2,8 time) in comparison with the control data. The long-term disturbances ofantyoxidative defence can be the reason of manifestation of oxygendependent processes and the development of pathological changes in separate physiological systems of organism.

  16. [The values of the lipid peroxidation-antioxidative defense system as predictors of the poor course of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Novoselov, P N; Bolotov, A A

    2008-01-01

    The authors have studied whether an indirect clinical-and-laboratory assessment of the extent of a destructive process in the tuberculous infiltrates and that of concomitant pleural affection can be made from the values of the lipid peroxidation-antioxidative defense (PLO-AOD) system in the blood of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (IPT). Regression analysis has indicated that PLO-AOD values significantly reflect the extent of X-ray verified destructions in the tuberculous infiltrates, concomitant pleural involvements, the specific features of immunity of patients with IPT. The neural network technology used to analyze the baseline PLO-AOD values has been ascertained to permit a reliable prognosis of decay cavity closure 4 months after the initiation of medical treatment and of a need for surgical treatment for IPT.

  17. Cold-stress-induced modulation of antioxidant defence: role of stressed conditions in tissue injury followed by protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, E.; Gümüşlü, S.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cold stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and examine protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in various tissues (brain, liver, kidney, heart and stomach). Twenty male Wistar rats (3 months old) weighing 220 +/- 20 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into two groups of ten: the control group and the cold stress group. Cold stress was applied to the animals by maintaining them in a cold room (5 °C) for 15 min/day for 15 days. Blood samples were taken for measuring plasma corticosterone levels. Tissues were obtained from each rat for measuring the antioxidant enzyme activities, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Corticosterone levels were increased in the cold stress group. Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the brains, livers and kidneys, whereas they decreased in the hearts and stomachs of rats in the cold stress group. Catalase activities were increased in the brains, livers, kidneys and hearts, whereas they decreased in the stomachs of rats in the cold stress group. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the brain, liver, heart and stomach. Reduced glutathione levels were decreased, while levels of protein carbonyl, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased in all tissues of the cold stress group. These results lead us to conclude that cold stress can disrupt the balance in an oxidant/antioxidant system and cause oxidative damage to several tissues by altering the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation.

  18. Effects of energy restriction and fish oil supplementation on renal guanidino levels and antioxidant defences in aged lupus-prone B/W mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jung; Yokozawa, Takako; Chung, Hae Young

    2005-06-01

    Energy restriction (ER) and dietary fish oil (FO) are known to reduce the severity of glomerulonephritis and increase the lifespan of lupus-prone (NZB x NZW) F1 (B/W) mice. In the present study, mice were fed either ad libitum or energy-restricted (a 40 % lower energy intake than the diet ad libitum), semi-purified diets containing 5 % maize oil or 5 % fish oil supplementation. To estimate the renal damage associated with oxidative stress, the total amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cyclooxygenase-derived ROS and levels of guanidino compounds were measured. Additionally, we assessed the putative action of ER and FO on several key antioxidant enzymes measured in the kidney post-mitochondrial fraction. Results showed that the age-related increase in creatinine level was significantly reduced by ER and FO in old mice. In contrast, arginine and guanidino acetic acid levels showed a decrease with age but were increased by ER and FO. The GSH:GSSG ratio showed a significant decrease with age, whereas ER and FO feeding prevented the decrease. The age-related decrease in antioxidant scavenging superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were all reversed by ER and FO. The moderately decreased glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities with age were significantly increased by ER and FO. Furthermore, the increased total ROS and cyclooxygenase-derived ROS levels were effectively reduced by ER and FO. In conclusion, our data strongly indicate that ER and FO maintain antioxidant status and GSH:GSSG ratio, thereby protecting against renal deterioration from oxidative insults during ageing.

  19. Carbon monoxide enhances salt tolerance by nitric oxide-mediated maintenance of ion homeostasis and up-regulation of antioxidant defence in wheat seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Ling, Tengfang; Han, Yi; Liu, Kaili; Zheng, Qingsong; Huang, Liqin; Yuan, Xingxing; He, Ziyi; Hu, Bing; Fang, Lei; Shen, Zhenguo; Yang, Qing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2008-12-01

    Salt stress induced an increase in endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) production and the activity of the CO synthetic enzyme haem oxygenase (HO) in wheat seedling roots. In addition, a 50% CO aqueous solution, applied daily, not only resulted in the enhancement of CO release, but led to a significant reversal in dry weight (DW) and water loss caused by 150 mm NaCl treatment, which was mimicked by the application of two nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethylenetriamine NO adduct (DETA/NO). Further analyses showed that CO, as well as SNP, apparently up-regulated H(+)-pump and antioxidant enzyme activities or related transcripts, thus resulting in the increase of K/Na ratio and the alleviation of oxidative damage. Whereas, the CO/NO scavenger haemoglobin (Hb), NO scavenger or synthetic inhibitor methylene blue (MB) or N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) differentially blocked these effects. Furthermore, CO was able to mimic the effect of SNP by strongly increasing NO release in the root tips, whereas the CO-induced NO signal was quenched by the addition of l-NAME or cPTIO, the specific scavenger of NO. The results suggested that CO might confer an increased tolerance to salinity stress by maintaining ion homeostasis and enhancing antioxidant system parameters in wheat seedling roots, both of which were partially mediated by NO signal.

  20. Ameliorative effect of fisetin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats via modulation of NF-κB activation and antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kalvala, Anil Kumar; Koneru, Meghana; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Rachamalla, Shyam Sunder; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a dose-dependent side effect of cisplatin limiting its clinical usage in the field of cancer chemotherapy. Fisetin is a bioactive flavonoid with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanism of fisetin using rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The elevation in serum biomarkers of renal damage (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); degree of histopathological alterations and oxidative stress were significantly restored towards normal in fisetin treated, cisplatin challenged animals. Fisetin treatment also significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation and blocked the NF-κB (p65) nuclear translocation, with subsequent elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, protein expression of iNOS and myeloperoxidase activities. Furthermore, fisetin markedly attenuated the translocation of cytochrome c protein from the mitochondria to the cytosol; decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins including Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and p53; and prevented the decline of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. The cisplatin-induced mRNA expression of NOX2/gp91phox and NOX4/RENOX and the NADPH oxidase enzyme activity were also significantly lowered by fisetin treatment. Moreover, the evaluated mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and mitochondrial antioxidants were restored by fisetin treatment. Estimation of platinum concentration in kidney tissues revealed that fisetin treatment along with cisplatin did not alter the cisplatin uptake in kidney tissues. In conclusion, these findings suggest that fisetin may be used as a promising adjunct candidate for cisplatin use.

  1. Changes in the alternative electron sinks and antioxidant defence in chloroplasts of the extreme halophyte Eutrema parvulum (Thellungiella parvula) under salinity

    PubMed Central

    Uzilday, Baris; Ozgur, Rengin; Sekmen, A. Hediye; Yildiztugay, Evren; Turkan, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Eutrema parvulum (synonym, Thellungiella parvula) is an extreme halophyte that thrives in high salt concentrations (100–150 mm) and is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana. The main aim of this study was to determine how E. parvulum uses reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, antioxidant systems and redox regulation of the electron transport system in chloroplasts to tolerate salinity. Methods Plants of E. parvulum were grown for 30 d and then treated with either 50, 200 or 300 mm NaCl. Physiological parameters including growth and water relationships were measured. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined in whole leaves and chloroplasts. In addition, expressions of chloroplastic redox components such as ferrodoxin thioredoxin reductases (FTR), NADPH thioredoxin reductases (NTRC), thioredoxins (TRXs) and peroxiredoxins (PRXs), as well as genes encoding enzymes of the water–water cycle and proline biosynthesis were measured. Key Results Salt treatment affected water relationships negatively and the accumulation of proline was increased by salinity. E. parvulum was able to tolerate 300 mm NaCl over long periods, as evidenced by H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation. While Ca2+ and K+ concentrations were decreased by salinity, Na+ and Cl– concentrations increased. Efficient induction of activities and expressions of water–water cycle enzymes might prevent accumulation of excess ROS in chloroplasts and therefore protect the photosynthetic machinery in E. parvulum. The redox homeostasis in chloroplasts might be achieved by efficient induction of expressions of redox regulatory enzymes such as FTR, NTRC, TRXs and PRXs under salinity. Conclusions E. parvulum was able to adapt to osmotic stress by an efficient osmotic adjustment mechanism involving proline and was able to regulate its ion homeostasis. In addition, efficient induction of water–water cycle enzymes and other redox regulatory components such as TRXs and PRXs in

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of juglone on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis and its effect on hepatic antioxidant defence and the expression levels of α-SMA and collagen III.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De-Jiang; Mu, Dong; Jiang, Ming-De; Zheng, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Yong; He, Sheng; Weng, Min; Zeng, Wei-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of juglone on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)‑induced fibrosis in rats. Juglone, which is a quinone, significantly decreased DMN‑induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, decreased oxidative stress and reduced levels of α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and collagen (Col) III in the liver. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hyaluronic acid, laminin, type III precollagen and type IV collagen were significantly reduced by treatment with juglone. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague‑Dawley rats by subcutaneous injections of DMN solution and hepatic fibrosis was assessed using Massons trichome staining. The expression levels of α‑SMA and Col III were determined using immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of SOD and malondialdehyde in liver homogenates were also determined. The results suggested that juglone augmented the antioxidative capability of the liver, possibly by stimulating the activity of SOD, which promoted the inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and decreased the accumulation of extracellular matrix collagen in the liver, thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. Silymarin was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. It was hypothesized that juglone alleviates or mitigates oxidative stress‑mediated hepatic fibrosis by upregulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ and inhibiting the activation of HSC.

  3. Stress hardening under long-term cadmium treatment is correlated with the activation of antioxidative defence and iron acquisition of chloroplasts in Populus.

    PubMed

    Solti, Ádám; Sárvári, Éva; Szöllősi, Erzsébet; Tóth, Brigitta; Mészáros, Ilona; Fodor, Ferenc; Szigeti, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic heavy metal affects growth and metabolic pathways in plants, including photosynthesis. Though Cd is a transition metal with no redox capacity, it generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) indirectly and causes oxidative stress. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in long-term Cd tolerance of poplar, candidate for Cd phytoremediation, are not well known. Hydroponically cultured poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. 'Kopeczkii') plants were treated with 10 μM Cd for 4 weeks. Following a period of functional decline, the plants performed acclimation to the Cd induced oxidative stress as indicated by the decreased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the recovery of most photosynthetic parameters. The increased activity of peroxidases (PODs) could have a great impact on the elimination of hydrogen peroxide, and thus the recovery of photosynthesis, while the function of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms seemed to be less important. Re-distribution of the iron content of leaf mesophyll cells into the chloroplasts contributed to the biosynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus and some antioxidative enzymes. The delayed increase in photosynthetic activity in relation to the decline in the level of lipid peroxidation indicates that elimination of oxidative stress damage by acclimation mechanisms is required for the restoration of the photosynthetic apparatus during long-term Cd treatment.

  4. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Md.; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163). PMID:25685791

  5. Galangin, a dietary flavonol inhibits tumor initiation during experimental pulmonary tumorigenesis by modulating xenobiotic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Devadoss, Dinesh; Ramar, Manikandan; Chinnasamy, Arulvasu

    2014-02-05

    The aim of present study was to elucidate anti-initiating efficacy of galangin against benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced lung carcinogenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Therefore, the activities of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes such as phase I and II were examined in lung as well as liver tissues (to compare the effects between target and non-target organs). Besides, the activities/levels of tissue marker enzymes, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation (LPO), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expressions and histological observation of lungs were also analyzed. B(a)P (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered to male Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) to experimentally induce lung cancer. B(a)P-induced animals showed increased activity of phase I (Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome b5, NADPH Cytochrome P450 redcutase and NADH Cytochrome b5 reductase) drug metabolic enzymes, LPO levels, tissue marker enzymes and decreased activity of phase II metabolic enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase) as well as antioxidant levels. Histological examination of lungs revealed severe alveolar and bronchiolar damages in B(a)P-induced mice. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis of CYP1A1 increased significantly in lung tissues of B(a)P-induced animals. Treatment with galangin (20 mg/kg body weight) efficiently counteracted all the above anomalies and restored cellular homeostasis. Our results demonstrate that galangin can modify xenobiotic enzymes in murine model of pulmonary tumorigenesis.

  6. The Antioxidative Effect of Chamomile, Anthocyanoside and their Combination on Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Iraj; Emami, SeyedAlireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bleomycin is a small peptide with 1500Daltun of molecular weight which has two junction areas in two molecule’s opposite sides, one of them to relate to the DNA and the other to relate to the iron. Iron is a crucially important factor in free radical production and cytotoxic activity of bleomycin. Material and methods: The study attempts to study, and compare, the effect of using Chamomile, Anthocyanoside and their combination, as anti-inflammatory agent to ameliorates, to prevent or control the development of fibrosis due to Bleomycin (BLM). to prepare pulmonary fibrosis model, male Wistar rats weighting 180-220g were assigned to specific groups Rats of each group received intratracheally 1U/100 g of BLM. 20 rats were divided to five comparable groups, as(1) BLM group, (2) saline group, (3) Chamomile group, (4) Anthocyanoside group, (5) combination of Anthocyanoside and Chamomile group. Antioxidative combinations were given as pretreatment and treatment after the rats received Bleomycine. Results: After 3 week, Malondialdehyde (MDA)was measured for each rat’s lung. After three weeks, MDA was reduced, compared to BLM group, to 44.27%, 37.80% and 46.07% in Anthocyanoside, Chamomiland combination group, respectively. It was concluded from the present study that administration of combination of Chamomile and Anthocyanoside lead to a significant reduction in Bleomycin-induced MDA. Conclusion: The mechanism of the effect of these combinations is possibly the result of phenolic combinations as antioxidant and oxy free radical scavenger and inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. PMID:26543307

  7. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Antonio; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Di Segni, Chantal; Persano, Mariasara; Gadotti, Giovanni; Silvestrini, Andrea; Festa, Roberto; Tiano, Luca; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions. PMID:24351864

  8. Oxidant-antioxidant balance in the blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Alina; Górecki, Dariusz; Szpinda, Michał; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The effect of smoking cessation on the oxidative stress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was assessed. We recruited 73 smokers with COPD (study group), whose blood was analysed before smoking cessation, after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months of abstinence, 35 healthy nonsmokers (Control I), and 35 smokers with COPD (Control II). Blood was taken once in Control I and 4 times (every month) in Control II. In the study group conjugated dienes (CDs) level in plasma and erythrocytes before smoking cessation was 3 and 6.5 times higher than in Control I, respectively (P < 0.001), while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level was 89% (P < 0.001) and 51% higher (P < 0.01), respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 40% higher (P < 0.05) while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was 41% lower (P < 0.001) than in Control I. In Control II, the similar differences as compared to Control I were observed throughout the study. Smoking cessation resulted in decrease of CDs, TBARS, and SOD and GPx increase, with no changes in catalase and vitamins A and E. COPD is accompanied by oxidative stress. A three-month tobacco abstinence facilitated restoring the oxidant-antioxidant balance systemically, but it did not affect spirometric parameters.

  9. Diverse opportunities in defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Working at the UK's defence laboratory gives Gareth Brown the ability to apply his physics and mathematics knowledge to real-world applications - and not necessarily in the ways you might expect. This article is Crown copyright

  10. Defence Reporter. Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    of a series of services and products produced by ATHENA to keep readers up -to- date with the latest developments in key areas of defence science...the MOD’s ATHENA Collection. Defence Reporter is available by subscription. To sign up for this free service, please send an e-mail with your full...for the oral route. This study was set up lo enable some confirmation of published LD50 information of orally dosed ricin but also to enable some

  11. Proteomic expression profiling of Haemophilus influenzae grown in pooled human sputum from adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reveal antioxidant and stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae colonizes and infects the airways of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the fourth most common cause of death worldwide.Thus, H. influenzae, an exclusively human pathogen, has adapted to survive in the hostile environment of the human airways.To characterize proteins expressed by H. influenzae in the airways, a prototype strain was grown in pooled human sputum to simulate conditions in the human respiratory tract.The proteins from whole bacterial cell lysates were solubilized with a strong buffer and then quantitatively cleaned with an optimized precipitation/on-pellet enzymatic digestion procedure.Proteomic profiling was accomplished by Nano-flow liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy with low void volume and high separation efficiency with a shallow, long gradient. Results A total of 1402 proteins were identified with high confidence, including 170 proteins that were encoded by genes that are annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins.Thirty-one proteins were present in greater abundance in sputum-grown conditions at a ratio of > 1.5 compared to chemically defined media.These included 8 anti-oxidant and 5 stress-related proteins, suggesting that expression of antioxidant activity and stress responses is important for survival in the airways.Four proteins involved in uptake of divalent anions and 9 proteins that function in uptake of various molecules were present in greater abundance in sputum-grown conditions. Conclusions Proteomic expression profiling of H. influenzae grown in pooled human sputum revealed increased expression of antioxidant, stress-response proteins and cofactor and nutrient uptake systems compared to media grown cells.These observations suggest that H. influenzae adapts to the oxidative and nutritionally limited conditions of the airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by increasing expression of molecules necessary for survival in these conditions. PMID

  12. Alternative defence policy

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book considers key questions connected with the present crisis, questions such as Would conventional deterrence really be effective. Just what is the Labour Party's policy. How precisely might Britain be transformed into a non-aligned, non-military state. The future of British defence policy is an issue of major concern not just in Britain but throughout the world, especially in the United States where there are major anxieties in the Pentagon about what will happen if the Labour Party wins an election outright. British defence policy is currently in a state of crisis. The former position where a reasonably united establishment on one hand confronted nuclear disarmers on the other has been replaced by a position where a wide spectrum of different opinions is held not just by the peace movement and the opposition parties but by many people in the Conservative party and the military also.

  13. Defence Reporter. Winter 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Reporter is one part of a series of services and products produced by ATHENA to keep readers up -to- date with the latest developments in key areas...have been added to the MOD’s ATHENA Collection. Defence Reporter is available by subscription. To sign up for this free service, please send an e...study identified a number of critical REEs in addition to several non-REE materials. A ‘bottom- up ’ study assessed market data and information on

  14. Defence Reporter. Autumn 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Reporter is one part of a series of services and products produced by ATHENA to keep readers up -to- date with the latest developments in key areas...ATHENA Collection. Defence Reporter is available by subscription. To sign up for this free service, please send an e-mail with your full name and...here is that in a joined- up coalition environment our allies will not be able to discover UK data and if they do have it, they may not treat it

  15. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  16. Oxidative stress in severe pulmonary trauma in critical ill patients. Antioxidant therapy in patients with multiple trauma--a review.

    PubMed

    Bedreag, Ovidiu Horea; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Sarandan, Mirela; Cradigati, Alina Carmen; Papurica, Marius; Dumbuleu, Maria Corina; Chira, Alexandru Mihai; Rosu, Oana Maria; Sandesc, Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Multiple trauma patients require extremely good management and thus, the trauma team needs to be prepared and to be up to date with the new standards of intensive therapy. Oxidative stress and free radicals represent an extremely aggressive factor to cells, having a direct consequence upon the severity of lung inflammation. Pulmonary tissue is damaged by oxidative stress, leading to biosynthesis of mediators that exacerbate inflammation modulators. The subsequent inflammation spreads throughout the body, leading most of the time to multiple organ dysfunction and death. In this paper, we briefly present an update of biochemical effects of oxidative stress and free radical damage to the pulmonary tissue in patients in critical condition in the intensive care unit. Also, we would like to present a series of active substances that substantially reduce the aggressiveness of free radicals, increasing the chances of survival.

  17. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is necessary to protect fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells against hyperoxic injury: Mechanistic roles of antioxidant enzymes and RelB

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Chu, Chun; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy

    2015-07-15

    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protects adult and newborn mice against hyperoxic lung injury by mediating increases in the expression of phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A) and phase II (NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)) antioxidant enzymes (AOE). AhR positively regulates the expression of RelB, a component of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) protein that contributes to anti-inflammatory processes in adult animals. Whether AhR regulates the expression of AOE and RelB, and protects fetal primary human lung cells against hyperoxic injury is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that AhR-deficient fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) will have decreased RelB activation and AOE, which will in turn predispose them to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC upon exposure to hyperoxia. AhR-deficient HPMEC showed increased hyperoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC. Additionally, AhR-deficient cell culture supernatants displayed increased macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β, indicating a heightened inflammatory state. Interestingly, loss of AhR was associated with a significantly attenuated CYP1A1, NQO1, superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1), and nuclear RelB protein expression. These findings support the hypothesis that decreased RelB activation and AOE in AhR-deficient cells is associated with increased hyperoxic injury compared to AhR-sufficient cells. - Highlights: • AhR deficiency potentiates oxygen toxicity in human fetal lung cells. • Deficient AhR signaling increases hyperoxia-induced cell death. • AhR deficiency increases hyperoxia-induced ROS generation and inflammation. • Anti-oxidant enzyme levels are attenuated in AhR-deficient lung cells

  19. Molecular modifications by regulating cAMP signaling and oxidant-antioxidant defence mechanisms, produce antidepressant-like effect: A possible mechanism of etazolate aftermaths of impact accelerated traumatic brain injury in rat model.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Ankur; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Bhatt, Shvetank; Pandey, Dilip

    2016-12-14

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading cause of psychiatric conditions in patients, amongst which, depression and anxiety are more frequent. Despite the preclinical antidepressant-like effects, clinical development of Phospodiesterase-4 (PDE4) enzyme inhibitors has been hampered due to serious side effect profiles, such as nausea and vomiting. Etazolate (ETZ) is a new generation PDE4 inhibitor with encouraging safety and tolerance profiles. In our previous studies we have addressed that ETZ produces antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression, however, the underlying mechanism(s) following TBI have not been completely explored. Impact accelerated TBI by weight drop method causes depression-like behavioral deficits in modified open field exploration, hyper-emotionality and sucrose consumption paradigms. TBI not only causes immediate mechanical damage to the brain, but also induces biochemical changes that lead to delayed neural cell loss leading to a secondary injury. The present study examines the antidepressant effects of ETZ on the TBI-induced depression-like behavior deficits and attempts to explore the underlying mechanism. In order to understand the underlying pathology of TBI and mechanism(s) of ETZ in TBI molecular markers namely, brain cAMP, cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were estimated. Additionally, the level of oxidative (lipid peroxidation) & nitrosative (nitrite) stress markers, along with antioxidant enzymes markers, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Furthermore, the involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity in underlying mechanism was also investigated by measuring serum corticosterone (CORT) level. The results revealed that TBI significantly altered cAMP, pCREB and BDNF levels. Moreover, a significant increase in oxidative-nitrosative stress markers levels, while, significant

  20. Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor is Necessary to Protect Fetal Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Hyperoxic Injury: Mechanistic Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes and RelB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Chu, Chun; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protects adult and newborn mice against hyperoxic lung injury by mediating increases in the expression of phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A) and phase II (NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)) antioxidant enzymes (AOE). AhR positively regulates the expression of RelB, a component of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) protein that contributes to anti-inflammatory processes in adult animals. Whether AhR regulates the expression of AOE and RelB, and protects fetal primary human lung cells against hyperoxic injury is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that AhR-deficient fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) will have decreased RelB activation and AOE, which will in turn predispose them to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC upon exposure to hyperoxia. AhR-deficient HPMEC showed increased hyperoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC. Additionally, AhR-deficient cell culture supernatants displayed increased macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β, indicating a heightened inflammatory state. Interestingly, loss of AhR was associated with a significantly attenuated CYP1A1, NQO1, superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1), and nuclear RelB protein expression. These findings support the hypothesis that decreased RelB activation and AOE in AhR-deficient cells is associated with increased hyperoxic injury compared to AhR-sufficient cells. PMID:25831079

  1. In Defence of the Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In response to the lecture format coming under "attack" and being replaced by online materials and smaller tutorials, this paper attempts to offer not only a defence but also to assert that the potential value of the lecture is difficult to replicate through other learning formats. Some of the criticisms against lectures will be…

  2. Individual and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with special emphasis on ROS generation and activation of antioxidant defence system.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Rai, Richa; Agrawal, S B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and O3, singly and in combination were investigated on various physiological, biochemical and yield parameters of two locally grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (HUW-37 and K-9107) in open top chambers (OTCs). Elevated CO2 stimulated photosynthetic rate (Ps) and Fv/Fm ratio and reduced the stomatal conductance (gs). Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidative enzymes, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were higher, whereas Ps, gs, Fv/Fm, protein and photosynthetic pigments were reduced in elevated O3 exposure, as compared to their controls. Under elevated CO2 + O3, elevated levels of CO2 modified the plant performance against O3 in both the cultivars. Elevated CO2 caused significant increase in economic yield. Exposure to elevated O3 caused significant reduction in yield and the effect was cultivar-specific. The study concluded that elevated CO2 ameliorated the negative impact of elevated O3 and cultivar HUW-37 was more sensitive to elevated O3 than K-9107.

  3. [Carotenoids as natural antioxidants].

    PubMed

    Igielska-Kalwat, Joanna; Gościańska, Joanna; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-04-07

    Human organisms have many defence mechanisms able to neutralise the harmful effects of the reactive species of oxygen. Antioxidants play an important role in reducing the oxidative damage to the human organism. Carotenoids are among the strongest antioxidants. They have 11 coupled double bonds, so they can be classified as polyisoprenoids, show low polarity and can occur in acyclic, monocyclic or bicyclic forms. The carotenoids of the strongest antioxidant properties are lycopene, lutein, astaxanthin and β-carotene. Carotenoids with strong antioxidant properties have found wide application in medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. These compounds are highly active against both reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Comparing β-carotene, astaxanthin and lycopene with other antioxidants (e.g. vitamin C and E), it can be concluded that these compounds have higher antioxidant activity, e.g. against singlet oxygen. Astaxanthin is a stronger antioxidant compared to β-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C, respectively 54, 14 and 65 times. Carotenoids have a salutary effect on our body, making it more resistant and strong to fight chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning free radicals and their adverse effects on the human body and carotenoids, as strong, natural antioxidants.

  4. In vitro antioxidant and antigenotoxic potentials of myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside from Myrtus communis: modulation of expression of genes involved in cell defence system using cDNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Hayder, Nawel; Bouhlel, Ines; Skandrani, Ines; Kadri, Malika; Steiman, Régine; Guiraud, Pascale; Mariotte, Anne-Marie; Ghedira, Kamel; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2008-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside, isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis, was determined by the ability of each compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation and to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Antimutagenic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest and the Comet assay. The IC50 values of lipid peroxidation by myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside are respectively 160 microg/ml and 220 microg/ml. At a concentration of 100 microg/ml, the two compounds showed the most potent inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase activity by respectively, 57% and 59%. Myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside was a very potent radical scavenger with an IC50 value of 1.4 microg/ml. Moreover, these two compounds induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide, aflatoxine B1 and H2O2 induced mutagenicity. The protective effect exhibited by these molecules was also determined by analysis of gene expression as response to an oxidative stress using a cDNA micro-array. Myricetin-3-o-galactoside and myricetin-3-o-rhamnoside modulated the expression patterns of cellular genes involved in oxidative stress, respectively (GPX1, TXN, AOE372, SEPW1, SHC1) and (TXNRD1, TXN, SOD1 AOE372, SEPW1), in DNA damaging repair, respectively (XPC, LIG4, RPA3, PCNA, DDIT3, POLD1, XRCC5, MPG) and (TDG, PCNA, LIG4, XRCC5, DDIT3, MSH2, ERCC5, RPA3, POLD1), and in apoptosis (PARP).

  5. RNA silencing suppression by plant pathogens: defence, counter-defence and counter-counter-defence.

    PubMed

    Pumplin, Nathan; Voinnet, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    RNA silencing is a central regulator of gene expression in most eukaryotes and acts both at the transcriptional level through DNA methylation and at the post-transcriptional level through direct mRNA interference mediated by small RNAs. In plants and invertebrates, the same pathways also function directly in host defence against viruses by targeting viral RNA for degradation. Successful viruses have consequently evolved diverse mechanisms to avoid silencing, most notably through the expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing. RNA silencing suppressors have also been recently identified in plant pathogenic bacteria and oomycetes, suggesting that disruption of host silencing is a general virulence strategy across several kingdoms of plant pathogens. There is also increasing evidence that plants have evolved specific defences against RNA-silencing suppression by pathogens, providing yet another illustration of the never-ending molecular arms race between plant pathogens and their hosts.

  6. Defence Capability Plan 2006-2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-14

    Version Points of Contact Phase 8B Capability Staff: Defence Materiel Organisation: Squadron Leader Greg Trott Ms Katrina Burzynski (02) 6265...Capability Plan 2006 – 2016 Public Version 0 Points of Contact Phase 7 Capability Staff: Defence Materiel Organisation: Major Paul Randall Mr Ross...Staff: Defence Materiel Organisation: Major Paul Randall Lieutenant Colonel Duncan Roach (02) 6265 4441 (03) 9282 5380 LAND 58 Phase 3 Weapon

  7. Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results

  8. Defence Reporter. Summer/Autumn 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    defence science and technology literature. Defence Reporter is one part of a series of services and products produced by ATHENA to keep readers up ...To sign up for this free service, please send an e-mail with your full name and address details to: DefenceReporter@dstl.gov.uk. © Crown Copyright...methodological limitations. An alternative approach based on ‘bottom up ’ comparisons with existing platforms of similar capabilities is also described. In

  9. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  10. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... Main symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include chest pain that may be any of the following: Under the breastbone or on one side Sharp or stabbing ...

  11. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  12. Evolutionarily stable defence and signalling of that defence.

    PubMed

    Broom, M; Speed, M P; Ruxton, G D

    2006-09-07

    We examine the evolution and maintenance of defence and conspicuousness in prey species using a game theoretic model. In contrast to previous works, predators can raise as well as lower their attack probabilities as a consequence of encountering moderately defended prey. Our model predicts four distinct possibilities for evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) featuring maximum crypsis. Namely that such a solution can exist with (1) zero toxicity, (2) a non-zero but non-aversive level of toxicity, (3) a high, aversive level of toxicity or (4) that no such maximally cryptic solution exists. Maximally cryptic prey may still invest in toxins, because of the increased chance of surviving an attack (should they be discovered) that comes from having toxins. The toxin load of maximally cryptic prey may be sufficiently strong that the predators will find them aversive, and seek to avoid similar looking prey in future. However, this aversiveness does not always necessarily trigger aposematic signalling, and highly toxic prey can still be maximally cryptic, because the increased initial rate of attack from becoming more conspicuous is not necessarily always compensated for by increased avoidance of aversive prey by predators. In other circumstances, the optimal toxin load may be insufficient to generate aversion but still be non-zero (because it increases survival), and in yet other circumstances, it is optimal to make no investment in toxins at all. The model also predicts ESSs where the prey are highly defended and aversive and where this defence is advertised at a cost of increased conspicuousness to predators. In many circumstances there is an infinite array of these aposematic ESSs, where the precise appearance is unimportant as long as it is highly visible and shared by all members of the population. Yet another class of solutions is possible where there is strong between-individual variation in appearance between conspicuous, poorly defended prey.

  13. Transcriptional control of plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Buscaill, Pierre; Rivas, Susana

    2014-08-01

    Mounting of efficient plant defence responses depends on the ability to trigger a rapid defence reaction after recognition of the invading microbe. Activation of plant resistance is achieved by modulation of the activity of multiple transcriptional regulators, both DNA-binding transcription factors and their regulatory proteins, that are able to reprogram transcription in the plant cell towards the activation of defence signalling. Here we provide an overview of recent developments on the transcriptional control of plant defence responses and discuss defence-related hormone signalling, the role of WRKY transcription factors during the regulation of plant responses to pathogens, nuclear functions of plant immune receptor proteins, as well as varied ways by which microbial effectors subvert plant transcriptional reprogramming to promote disease.

  14. Free radicals and antioxidants: how to reestablish redox homeostasis in chronic diseases?

    PubMed

    Bocci, V; Valacchi, G

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the biological role of oxidants and antioxidants continuously produced by all living cells. Physiologically, human beings, who have inherited good genes, used to eat moderately a healthy diet and exercised daily, both systems are equally important and essential in maintaining a normal long life. However, the aging process slowly leads to a disequilibrium that is accentuated in pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular, degenerative, pulmonary, infective diseases, and cancer. All of these diseases shorten the life span in about 80% of individuals and represent a huge social-economic problem for health authorities. Several factors such as excessive feeding, smoking, alcoholism, and a poor life-style conjure up to their realization. Their progress, initially promoted by some pathogens and a wrong life-style, is deeply accentuated by an excessive and deranged production of deadly oxidants no longer tameable by an inhibited control of the antioxidant defences. Effective orthodox drugs are able to slow down these ailments but they impoverish the quality of life because they cannot reactivate the innate ability to restore the complexity of the antioxidant system. Several potential approaches to renew this system have been discussed and their possible roles to reactivate a valid protection in at least some of the outlined pathologies. It is hoped to evaluate this integrated medical approach because it represents a sheet anchor for many patients.

  15. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation.

  16. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  17. Calcium in plant defence-signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lecourieux, David; Ranjeva, Raoul; Pugin, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In plant cells, the calcium ion is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in numerous signalling pathways. Variations in the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) couple a large array of signals and responses. Here we concentrate on calcium signalling in plant defence responses, particularly on the generation of the calcium signal and downstream calcium-dependent events participating in the establishment of defence responses with special reference to calcium-binding proteins.

  18. The Harbour Defence IKC2 Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Choon Kiat, Tan Defence Science and Technolgy Agency 1 Depot Road #22-01 DefenceTechnology Tower A Singapore 109679 Phone : +65 63732338 Fax...Command Post (Desktop) Mobile Units (PDA) Radar 1 Web Service Radar 2 Web Service Radar 1 Tracks Msg Radar 2 Tracks Msg Web Service Abstraction...was found to be adequate for the mobile forces, providing a relatively constant throughput of 8 kbps throughout the base, though minor service

  19. Pulmonary angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pulmonary arteriography; Pulmonary angiogram; Angiogram of the lungs Images Pulmonary arteries References Jackson JE, Meaney JFM. Angiography. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  20. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  1. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite.

  2. Salidroside protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis: activation of Nrf2-antioxidant signaling, and inhibition of NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad-2/-3 pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiying; Gao, Lili; Mao, Jingwei; He, Huanyu; Liu, Jia; Cai, Xin; Lin, Hongli; Wu, Taihua

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can severely disrupt lung function, leading to fatal consequences. Salidroside is a principal active ingredient of Rhodiola rosea and has recently been reported to protect against lung injures. The present study was aimed at exploring its therapeutic effects on PF. Lung fibrotic injuries were induced in SD rats by a single intratracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg bleomycin (BLM). Then, these rats were administrated with 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg salidroside for 28 days. BLM-triggered structure distortion, collagen overproduction, excessive inflammatory infiltration, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and oxidative stress damages in lung tissues were attenuated by salidroside in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, salidroside was noted to inhibit IκBα phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 nuclear accumulation while activating Nrf2-antioxidant signaling in BLM-treated lungs. Downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) indicated an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like shift in BLM-treated lungs. These changes were suppressed by salidroside. The expression of TGF-β1 and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets, Smad-2/-3, were enhanced by BLM, but weakened by salidroside. Additionally, salidroside was capable of reversing the recombinant TGF-β1-induced EMT-like changes in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Our study reveals that salidroside's protective effects against fibrotic lung injuries are correlated to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antifibrotic properties.

  3. Do strigolactones contribute to plant defence?

    PubMed

    Torres-Vera, Rocío; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J; López-Ráez, Juan A

    2014-02-01

    Strigolactones are multifunctional molecules involved in several processes outside and within the plant. As signalling molecules in the rhizosphere, they favour the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but they also act as host detection cues for root parasitic plants. As phytohormones, they are involved in the regulation of plant architecture, adventitious rooting, secondary growth and reproductive development, and novel roles are emerging continuously. In the present study, the possible involvement of strigolactones in plant defence responses was investigated. For this purpose, the resistance/susceptibility of the strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant Slccd8 against the foliar fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata was assessed. Slccd8 was more susceptible to both pathogens, pointing to a new role for strigolactones in plant defence. A reduction in the content of the defence-related hormones jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and abscisic acid was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in the Slccd8 mutant, suggesting that hormone homeostasis is altered in the mutant. Moreover, the expression level of the jasmonate-dependent gene PinII, involved in the resistance of tomato to B. cinerea, was lower than in the corresponding wild-type. We propose here that strigolactones play a role in the regulation of plant defences through their interaction with other defence-related hormones, especially with the jasmonic acid signalling pathway.

  4. Cold defence responses: the role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Blagojevic, Dusko P; Grubor-Lajsic, Gordana N; Spasic, Mihajlo B

    2011-01-01

    Low temperatures provoke increased production of heat accompanied by increased respiration, oxygen consumption and the production of partially reduced oxygen species called ROS. ROS induce different forms of cellular oxidative damage, disturb the redox state and can change the activity of several metabolic enzymes. Organisms have developed a functionally connected set of anti-oxidant enzymes and low molecular mass compounds (together termed the ADS) that metabolise primary ROS. If ROS production within cells overwhelms the ADS, oxidative damage arises and oxidative stress can occur. Short-term cold exposure in endotherms leads to oxidative stress. As cold exposure persists organisms develop adaptive changes toward reducing ROS production and increasing the ADS. In contrast, heterotherms and ectotherms as a normal part of their over-wintering strategy slow down metabolism, oxygen consumption and subsequently cause ROS production. Increased baseline activity of key anti-oxidant enzymes as well as 'secondary' enzymatic defence and/or glutathione levels in preparation for a putative oxidative stressful situation arising from tissue re-oxygenation seems to be the preferred evolutionary adaptation of such animals exposed to low environmental temperatures.

  5. Thiol-redox antioxidants protect against lung vascular endothelial cytoskeletal alterations caused by pulmonary fibrosis inducer, bleomycin: comparison between classical thiol-protectant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and novel thiol antioxidant, N,N'-bis-2-mercaptoethyl isophthalamide.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rishi B; Kotha, Sainath R; Sauers, Lynn A; Malireddy, Smitha; Gurney, Travis O; Gupta, Niladri N; Elton, Terry S; Magalang, Ulysses J; Marsh, Clay B; Haley, Boyd E; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2012-06-01

    Lung vascular alterations and pulmonary hypertension associated with oxidative stress have been reported to be involved in idiopathic lung fibrosis (ILF). Therefore, here, we hypothesize that the widely used lung fibrosis inducer, bleomycin, would cause cytoskeletal rearrangement through thiol-redox alterations in the cultured lung vascular endothelial cell (EC) monolayers. We exposed the monolayers of primary bovine pulmonary artery ECs to bleomycin (10 µg) and studied the cytotoxicity, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and the macromolecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, 70,000 mol. wt.) paracellular transport in the absence and presence of two thiol-redox protectants, the classic water-soluble N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and the novel hydrophobic N,N'-bis-2-mercaptoethyl isophthalamide (NBMI). Our results revealed that bleomycin induced cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase leak), morphological alterations (rounding of cells and filipodia formation), and cytoskeletal rearrangement (actin stress fiber formation and alterations of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin) in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, our study demonstrated the formation of reactive oxygen species, loss of thiols (glutathione, GSH), EC barrier dysfunction (decrease of transendothelial electrical resistance), and enhanced paracellular transport (leak) of macromolecules. The observed bleomycin-induced EC alterations were attenuated by both NAC and NBMI, revealing that the novel hydrophobic thiol-protectant, NBMI, was more effective at µM concentrations as compared to the water-soluble NAC that was effective at mM concentrations in offering protection against the bleomycin-induced EC alterations. Overall, the results of the current study suggested the central role of thiol-redox in vascular EC dysfunction associated with ILF.

  6. Plant RNA silencing in viral defence.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio

    2011-01-01

    RNA silencing is described in plants and insects as a defence mechanism against foreign nucleic acids, such as invading viruses. The RNA silencing-based antiviral defence involves the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs and their association to effector proteins, which together drive the sequence specific inactivation of viruses. The entire process of antiviral defence 'borrows' several plant factors involved in other specialized RNA silencing endogenous pathways. Different viruses use variable strategies to infect different host plants, which render the antiviral RNA silencing a complex phenomenon far to be completely clarified. This chapter reports current advances in understanding the main steps of the plant's RNA-silencing response to viral invasion and discusses some of the key questions still to be answered.

  7. Prophage-mediated defence against viral attack and viral counter-defence.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, Rebekah M; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Bustamante, Carlos A Guerrero; Garlena, Rebecca A; Mavrich, Travis N; Pope, Welkin H; Reyes, Juan C Cervantes; Russell, Daniel A; Adair, Tamarah; Alvey, Richard; Bonilla, J Alfred; Bricker, Jerald S; Brown, Bryony R; Byrnes, Deanna; Cresawn, Steven G; Davis, William B; Dickson, Leon A; Edgington, Nicholas P; Findley, Ann M; Golebiewska, Urszula; Grose, Julianne H; Hayes, Cory F; Hughes, Lee E; Hutchison, Keith W; Isern, Sharon; Johnson, Allison A; Kenna, Margaret A; Klyczek, Karen K; Mageeney, Catherine M; Michael, Scott F; Molloy, Sally D; Montgomery, Matthew T; Neitzel, James; Page, Shallee T; Pizzorno, Marie C; Poxleitner, Marianne K; Rinehart, Claire A; Robinson, Courtney J; Rubin, Michael R; Teyim, Joseph N; Vazquez, Edwin; Ware, Vassie C; Washington, Jacqueline; Hatfull, Graham F

    2017-01-09

    Temperate phages are common, and prophages are abundant residents of sequenced bacterial genomes. Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, encompass substantial genetic diversity and are commonly temperate. Characterization of ten Cluster N temperate mycobacteriophages revealed at least five distinct prophage-expressed viral defence systems that interfere with the infection of lytic and temperate phages that are either closely related (homotypic defence) or unrelated (heterotypic defence) to the prophage. Target specificity is unpredictable, ranging from a single target phage to one-third of those tested. The defence systems include a single-subunit restriction system, a heterotypic exclusion system and a predicted (p)ppGpp synthetase, which blocks lytic phage growth, promotes bacterial survival and enables efficient lysogeny. The predicted (p)ppGpp synthetase coded by the Phrann prophage defends against phage Tweety infection, but Tweety codes for a tetrapeptide repeat protein, gp54, which acts as a highly effective counter-defence system. Prophage-mediated viral defence offers an efficient mechanism for bacterial success in host-virus dynamics, and counter-defence promotes phage co-evolution.

  8. Contamination assessment of a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal) using defence and damage biochemical indicators in gill of Liza aurata--an integrated biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Maria, V L; Ahmad, I; Serafim, A; Bebianno, M J; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2009-03-01

    Fish gill importance in toxicants uptake, bioconcentration and excretion allied to meagre knowledge on branchial damage/protection responses substantiate this study. Five critical sites in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were assessed in comparison with a reference site (Torreira), focusing on Liza aurata gill antioxidant defences versus damage (oxidative and genetic). Only in Barra fish displayed damage (lipid peroxidation) though no differences were found in antioxidants. In all other sites, except Rio, antioxidant alterations were found. Thus, fish from Gafanha, Laranjo and Vagos showed higher total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Higher glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activity was also found in the first and the last sites, respectively. In Laranjo, metallothionein levels were higher though lower in Gafanha and Vagos. In general, damage was not accompanied by defences weakening confirming that predicting damage based on antioxidants depletion is not straightforward. The integrated biomarker response index ranked sites as: Gafanha>Barra>Laranjo>Vagos>Rio>Torreira.

  9. Protection by N-acetylcysteine against pulmonary endothelial cell damage induced by oxidant injury.

    PubMed

    Sala, R; Moriggi, E; Corvasce, G; Morelli, D

    1993-03-01

    The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against oxidant lung injury was investigated in a model of acute immunological alveolitis in the rat. Intrapulmonary immune complex deposition into rat lungs, induced by intratracheal infusion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies and intravenous injection of the antigen, caused lung damage associated with a marked decrease in [14C]5-hydroxytryptamine ([14C]5HT) uptake capacity, taken as a biochemical marker of endothelial cell function. The oral administration of a single dose of NAC (2 mmol.kg-1) 60 min before antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) treatment was effective in preventing pulmonary endothelial cell [14C]5HT uptake loss induced by immune complex deposition. The mechanisms involved in this lung protective action of NAC were investigated by studying the antioxidant activity of NAC on hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase-induced lung damage in vitro, and the effectiveness of the drug as lung glutathione (reduced form) (GSH) precursor in diethylmaleate-depleted rats. The results obtained provide further evidence on the ability of NAC to reduce the susceptibility of lung tissue to free radical-induced damage, by potentiating the antioxidant defence systems.

  10. COPD: balancing oxidants and antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Bernard M; Voynow, Judith A; Ghio, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in the world. The disease encompasses emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and small airway obstruction and can be caused by environmental exposures, primarily cigarette smoking. Since only a small subset of smokers develop COPD, it is believed that host factors interact with the environment to increase the propensity to develop disease. The major pathogenic factors causing disease include infection and inflammation, protease and antiprotease imbalance, and oxidative stress overwhelming antioxidant defenses. In this review, we will discuss the major environmental and host sources for oxidative stress; discuss how oxidative stress regulates chronic bronchitis; review the latest information on genetic predisposition to COPD, specifically focusing on oxidant/antioxidant imbalance; and review future antioxidant therapeutic options for COPD. The complexity of COPD will necessitate a multi-target therapeutic approach. It is likely that antioxidant supplementation and dietary antioxidants will have a place in these future combination therapies. PMID:25673984

  11. Towards an internet civil defence against bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E; Sauer, F; Dearwater, S; Sekikawa, A; Sa, E R; Aaron, D; Shubnikov, E

    2001-09-01

    Approaches towards the public-health prevention of bioterrorism are too little, and too late. New information-based approaches could yield better homeland protection. An internet civil defence is presented where millions of eyes could help to identify suspected cases of bioterrorism, with the internet used to report, confirm, and prevent outbreaks.

  12. In Defence of the Classroom Science Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Science demonstrations are often criticised for their passive nature, their gratuitous exploitation and their limited ability to develop scientific knowledge and understanding. This article is intended to present a robust defence of the use of demonstrations in the classroom by identifying some of their unique and powerful benefits--practical,…

  13. Malaysian Defence and E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhary, Jowati binti

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of the changing security scenario in the Asian region, with special focus on Malaysian defence strategies and foreign policies. Beginning in the mid 1990s, the Malaysian government shifted its attention away from the counter insurgency strategies of the early decades of independence to focus on wider questions of…

  14. Superconductivity: Recent Developments and Defence Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-11

    particular interest to the defence community include: batteries , bearings, electromagnetic guns and launchers, energy storage, free electron lasers...has looked at muon spin rotation measurements of the penetration depth of magnetic fields into the superconductors. Basic research is under way at Chalk...and batteries (3) High density magnetic field transducers (4) Magnetic levitation (5) Magnetic, frictionless be arings (6) Magnetic separation (7

  15. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation: A Research Agenda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    presentation • A small country perspective • The swinging pendulum : “From preparedness to deployment to preparedness?” – or “from national defence to PSOs to...history of war The swinging (political) pendulum • A. 200 years of peace – Standing in preparedness • B. Post Cold War – Deployed on PSOs • C

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    PubMed

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities.

  17. Pulmonary Edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... suddenly or develop over time. Sudden (acute) pulmonary edema symptoms Extreme shortness of breath or difficulty breathing ( ... fatal if not treated. Long-term (chronic) pulmonary edema symptoms Having more shortness of breath than normal ...

  18. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  19. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  20. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  1. Testing the optimal defence hypothesis for two indirect defences: extrafloral nectar and volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Bartram, Stefan; Heil, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many plants respond to herbivory with an increased production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) and/or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to attract predatory arthropods as an indirect defensive strategy. In this study, we tested whether these two indirect defences fit the optimal defence hypothesis (ODH), which predicts the within-plant allocation of anti-herbivore defences according to trade-offs between growth and defence. Using jasmonic acid-induced plants of Phaseolus lunatus and Ricinus communis, we tested whether the within-plant distribution pattern of these two indirect defences reflects the fitness value of the respective plant parts. Furthermore, we quantified photosynthetic rates and followed the within-plant transport of assimilates with 13C labelling experiments. EFN secretion and VOC emission were highest in younger leaves. Moreover, the photosynthetic rate increased with leaf age, and pulse-labelling experiments suggested transport of carbon to younger leaves. Our results demonstrate that the ODH can explain the within-plant allocation pattern of both indirect defences studied. PMID:18493790

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or PH, is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. These arteries carry blood from your heart to your lungs to pick up oxygen. PH causes symptoms such as shortness of ...

  3. Protective effect of Launaea procumbens (L.) on lungs against CCl4-induced pulmonary damages in rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Launaea procumbens (L.) is traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including pulmonary damages. The present study was arranged to evaluate the role of Launaea procumbens methanol extract (LME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative pulmonary damages in rat. Methods 36 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170-180 g) were randomly divided into 06 groups. After a week of acclamization, group I was remained untreated while group II was given olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) orally, groups III, IV, V and VI were administered CCl4, 3 ml/kg body weight (30% in olive oil i.p.). Groups IV, V were treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg of LME whereas group VI was administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of rutin (RT) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment for four weeks. Antioxidant profile in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), quinone reductase (QR) and reduced glutathione (GSH). CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with conjugation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology. Results Administration of CCl4 for 6 weeks significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration while increased TBARS contents and DNA damages in lung samples. Co-treatment of LME and rutin restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH contents. Changes in TBARS concentration and DNA fragmentation were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased with the treatment of LME and rutin in lung. Changes induced with CCl4 in histopathology of lungs were significantly reduced with co-treatment of LME and rutin. Conclusion Results of present study

  4. Rusi/Brassey's defence yearbook 1987 97th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This annual review of defence and strategic affairs provides an up-to-date survey of international strategic affairs, contemporary weapons and developments and future trends. For all those involved in defence studies, university and public libraries and the general public. Contents: The Year Ahead; The Middle East; NATO; The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe; UK defence policy; The Issues: What is SDI.; Will SDI help. A military view; SDI-the industrial implications; Conventional defence, a military view; An alternative view; European armaments cooperation; Terrorism; Sri Lanka: the Tamils; Israel 1986; The Iran/Iraq war; Arab view; South Africa; Chronology of conflict; Defence literature; Arms control; Nuclear weapons; Characteristics.

  5. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them

    PubMed Central

    Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after ‘antioxidant forced-feeding’, and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across the oviposition period. When given the choice between food resources with and without antioxidants, reproducing butterflies did not target antioxidants when they could have benefited the most from them. Moreover, they did not consume more antioxidants than non-reproducing butterflies. These results emphasize that, despite potential positive effects of dietary antioxidants, the ability of animals to exploit them is likely to restrict their ecological significance. PMID:26911341

  6. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after 'antioxidant forced-feeding', and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across the oviposition period. When given the choice between food resources with and without antioxidants, reproducing butterflies did not target antioxidants when they could have benefited the most from them. Moreover, they did not consume more antioxidants than non-reproducing butterflies. These results emphasize that, despite potential positive effects of dietary antioxidants, the ability of animals to exploit them is likely to restrict their ecological significance.

  7. Trade-offs between constitutive and induced defences drive geographical and climatic clines in pine chemical defences.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Mooney, Kailen A; Rasmann, Sergio; Petry, William K; Carrillo-Gavilán, Amparo; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that geographic and climatic clines drive the patterns of plant defence allocation and defensive strategies. We quantified early growth rate and both constitutive and inducible chemical defences of 18 Pinaceae species in a common greenhouse environment and assessed their defensive allocation with respect to each species' range across climatic gradients spanning 31° latitude and 2300 m elevation. Constitutive defences traded-off with induced defences, and these defensive strategies were associated with growth rate such that slow-growing species invested more in constitutive defence, whereas fast-growing species invested more in inducible defence. The position of each pine species along this trade-off axis was in turn associated with geography; moving poleward and to higher elevations, growth rate and inducible defences decreased, while constitutive defence increased. These geographic patterns in plant defence were most strongly associated with variation in temperature. Climatic and geographical clines thus act as drivers of defence profiles by mediating the constraints imposed by trade-offs, and this dynamic underlays global patterns of defence allocation.

  8. Peptides as triggers of plant defence.

    PubMed

    Albert, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Plants are confronted with several biotic stresses such as microbial pathogens and other herbivores. To defend against such attackers, plants possess an array of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense the danger and consequently initiate a defence programme that prevents further damage and spreading of the pest. Characteristic pathogenic structures, so-called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), serve as signals that allow the plant to sense invaders. Additionally, pathogens wound or damage the plant and the resulting release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) serves as a warning signal. This review focuses on peptides that serve as triggers or amplifiers of plant defence and thus follow the definition of a MAMP or a DAMP.

  9. Are natural antibodies involved in tumour defence?

    PubMed

    Bohn, J

    1999-09-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are found in the serum of healthy individuals. These antibodies are produced without any apparent specific antigenic stimulation. They are one part of the circulating immunoglobulins and are found in virtually all vertebrate species. NAb react to various self- and non-self antigens. A protective function in different infection models could be demonstrated. Several groups have reported the ability of NAb to bind to tumour cells. Their possible role in tumour defence is documented in mice. The present status of attempts to characterise the role of NAb in tumour defence is discussed, particularly as regards the human immune system. This paper focuses on antibody cell interactions and discusses the genetic background of the Nab-producing B-cells.

  10. Doubts about a classic defence of abortion.

    PubMed

    Difford, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Professor Judith Jarvis Thomson's seminal paper "A defence of abortion" published in 1971 has formed part of higher education syllabi for decades. In the paper Thomson criticizes one of the fundamental arguments against abortion, that is, the right of the foetus to life by denying that the foetus is a person. This article argues that her thought experiments do not compare to the reality of abortion and focuses on the influence of the paper on arguments concerning personhood.

  11. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike

    Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.

  12. In vivo genotoxicity and stress defences in three flatfish species exposed to CuSO4.

    PubMed

    Chairi, H; Fernández-Diaz, C; Navas, J I; Manchado, M; Rebordinos, L; Blasco, J

    2010-09-01

    We have used the comet assay to analyse, after 3h, 24h and 6 days, the genotoxic effect in vivo of applying a single intraperitoneal injection of CuSO4, at a concentration of 2mg/kg, to adult specimens of Solea senegalensis, Dicologlossa cuneata and Scophthalmus rhombus. Metals content (Cu, Zn and Cd) in liver was also measured. The activity of key stress defences was evaluated by analysing antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione peroxidase (t-GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH)), metallothionein (MT) and heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP60). The results show that CuSO4 intake generates high and cumulative levels of genotoxicity throughout the 6 days in all 3 species. After 6 days, metals content detected in specimens showed significant differences from controls. Inter-species differences were detected in enzyme activity (P<0.05). A clear response to CuSO4 was detected only in S. rhombus, with an increase of MT and a decrease of HSPs. Variations in antioxidant defence levels and their comparative responses to the stress-inducing agent are discussed.

  13. Jasmonate in plant defence: sentinel or double agent?

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun; Xie, Daoxin

    2015-12-01

    Plants and their biotic enemies, such as microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects, are engaged in a desperate battle which would determine their survival-death fate. Plants have evolved efficient and sophisticated systems to defend against such attackers. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards a comprehensive understanding of inducible defence system mediated by jasmonate (JA), a vital plant hormone essential for plant defence responses and developmental processes. This review presents an overview of JA action in plant defences and discusses how microbial pathogens evade plant defence system through hijacking the JA pathway.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with the progression and exacerbation of COPD and therefore targeting oxidative stress with antioxidants or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants is likely to have beneficial outcome in the treatment of COPD. Among the various antioxidants tried so far, thiol antioxidants and mucolytic agents, such as glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, N-acystelyn, erdosteine, fudosteine, and carbocysteine; Nrf2 activators, and dietary polyphenols (curcumin, resveratrol, green tea, and catechins/quercetin) have been reported to increase intracellular thiol status alongwith induction of GSH biosynthesis. Such an elevation in the thiol status in turn leads to detoxification of free radicals and oxidants as well as inhibition of ongoing inflammatory responses. In addition, specific spin traps, such as a-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a SOD mimetic M40419 have also been reported to inhibit cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses in vivo in the lung. Since a variety of oxidants, free radicals and aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD; it is possible that therapeutic administration of multiple antioxidants and mucolytics will be effective in management of COPD. However, a successful outcome will critically depend upon the choice of antioxidant therapy for a particular clinical phenotype of COPD, whose pathophysiology should be first properly understood. This article will review the various approaches adopted to enhance lung antioxidant levels, antioxidant therapeutic advances and recent past clinical trials of antioxidant compounds in COPD. PMID:19124382

  15. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public » Health Topics » Pulmonary Embolism Explore Pulmonary Embolism What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia Deep Vein Thrombosis Lung VQ Scan Overweight and Obesity Send a ...

  16. Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.

    2002-04-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

  17. Iron homeostasis in host defence and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace element for multicellular organisms and nearly all microorganisms. Although iron is abundant in the environment, common forms of iron are minimally soluble and therefore poorly accessible to biological organisms. Microorganisms entering a mammalian host face multiple mechanisms that further restrict their ability to obtain iron and thereby limit their pathogenicity. Iron levels also modulate host defence, as iron content in macrophages regulates their cytokine production. Here, we review recent advances that highlight the role of systemic and cellular iron-regulating mechanisms in protecting hosts from infection, emphasizing aspects that are applicable to human health and disease. PMID:26160612

  18. Clostridium difficile colitis: pathogenesis and host defence.

    PubMed

    Abt, Michael C; McKenney, Peter T; Pamer, Eric G

    2016-10-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major cause of intestinal infection and diarrhoea in individuals following antibiotic treatment. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that induce spore formation and germination and have determined the roles of C. difficile toxins in disease pathogenesis. Exciting progress has also been made in defining the role of the microbiome, specific commensal bacterial species and host immunity in defence against infection with C. difficile. This Review will summarize the recent discoveries and developments in our understanding of C. difficile infection and pathogenesis.

  19. In Defence of Multimodal Re-Signification: A Response to Havard Skaar's "In Defence of Writing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Responding to "In defence of writing" by Havard Skaar, published in issue 43.1 of this journal (April 2009), the present article argues that (1) compared with text production "from scratch," producing texts through copy-and-paste requires a different type of--rather than less--semiotic work, and that (2) digitally produced writing may involve the…

  20. Pulmonary blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bariola, J Ryan; Vyas, Keyur S

    2011-12-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is acquired in almost all cases via inhalation, and pulmonary disease is the most frequent clinical manifestation of blastomycosis. Pulmonary disease can range from asymptomatic infection to rapidly severe and fatal disease. Most cases will present as pneumonia, either acute or chronic, or as a lung mass. In rare cases pulmonary blastomycosis is associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Blastomycosis can present as isolated pulmonary disease or along with coexisting extrapulmonary disease that usually will involve the skin, bony structures, genitourinary tract, or central nervous system. Diagnosis is largely based on isolation of the organism via culture or visualization of the organism in clinical specimens. Detection of urinary Blastomyces antigen is a recent addition to diagnostic options. Itraconazole is the drug of choice for most forms of the disease; amphotericin B is reserved for the more severe forms. Newer azoles such as voriconazole and posaconazole have a limited role in the treatment of pulmonary blastomycosis.

  1. Some Methods for Scenario Analysis in Defence Strategic Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Scenarios are an important tool in the strategic planning process, and are increasingly used in both the Defence and business world. This paper...illustrated with small examples. We also demonstrate a single, flexible approach to combining these methods using a typical Defence strategic planning problem

  2. Resolving defence mechanisms: A perspective based on dissipative structure theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Ben-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Theories and classifications of defence mechanisms are not unified. This study addresses the psychological system as a dissipative structure which exchanges information with the external and internal world. When using defence mechanisms, the cognitive-affective schema of an individual could remain stable and ordered by excluding psychological entropy, obtaining psychological negentropy or by dissipating the energy of self-presentation. From this perspective, defences can be classified into three basic types: isolation, compensation and self-dissipation. However, not every kind of defence mechanisms can actually help the individual. Non-adaptive defences are just functioning as an effective strategy in the short run but can be a harmful approach in the long run, while adaptive defences could instead help the individual as a long-term mechanism. Thus, we would like to suggest that it is more useful for the individual to use more adaptive defence mechanisms and seek out social or interpersonal support when undergoing psychic difficulties. As this model of defences is theoretical at present, we therefore aim to support and enrich this viewpoint with empirical evidence.

  3. Comparative analysis of passive defences in spiders (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Pekár, Stano

    2014-07-01

    Being frequent prey of many predators, including especially wasps and birds, spiders have evolved a variety of defence mechanisms. Here I studied patterns of passive defences, namely anachoresis, crypsis, masquerade, aposematism and Batesian mimicry, in spiders. Using published information pertaining more than 1000 spider species, the phylogenetic pattern of different passive defences (i.e. defences that decrease the risk of an encounter with the predator) was investigated. Furthermore, I studied the effect of foraging guild, geographical distribution and diel activity on the frequency of defences as these determine the predators diversity, presence and perception. I found that crypsis (background matching) combined with anachoresis (hiding) was the most frequent defence confined mainly to families/genera at the base of the tree. Aposematism (warning coloration) and Batesian mimicry (imitation of noxious/dangerous model) were found in taxa that branched later in the tree, and masquerade (imitation of inedible objects) was confined to families at intermediate positions of the tree. Aposematism and Batesian mimicry were restricted to a few lineages. Masquerade was used particularly by web-building species with nocturnal activity. Aposematism was rare but mainly used by web-building diurnal species. Batesian mimicry was frequently observed in cursorial species with diurnal activity. Cryptic species were more common in temperate zones, whereas aposematic and mimetic species were more common in the tropics. Here I show that the evolution of passive defences in spiders was influenced by the ecology of species. Then, I discuss the evolutionary significance of the particularly defences.

  4. Costs of Inducible Defence along a Resource Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Nilsson, P. Anders; Ahlgren, Johan; Lennartsdotter, Charlotte; Hollander, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In addition to having constitutive defence traits, many organisms also respond to predation by phenotypic plasticity. In order for plasticity to be adaptive, induced defences should incur a benefit to the organism in, for example, decreased risk of predation. However, the production of defence traits may include costs in fitness components such as growth, time to reproduction, or fecundity. To test the hypothesis that the expression of phenotypic plasticity incurs costs, we performed a common garden experiment with a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, a species known to change morphology in the presence of molluscivorous fish. We measured a number of predator-induced morphological and behavioural defence traits in snails that we reared in the presence or absence of chemical cues from fish. Further, we quantified the costs of plasticity in fitness characters related to fecundity and growth. Since plastic responses may be inhibited under limited resource conditions, we reared snails in different densities and thereby levels of competition. Snails exposed to predator cues grew rounder and thicker shells, traits confirmed to be adaptive in environments with fish. Defence traits were consistently expressed independent of density, suggesting strong selection from predatory molluscivorous fish. However, the expression of defence traits resulted in reduced growth rate and fecundity, particularly with limited resources. Our results suggest full defence in predator related traits regardless of resource availability, and costs of defence consequently paid in traits related to fitness. PMID:22291961

  5. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    SciTech Connect

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-26

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  6. Costs of inducible defence along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Nilsson, P Anders; Ahlgren, Johan; Lennartsdotter, Charlotte; Hollander, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In addition to having constitutive defence traits, many organisms also respond to predation by phenotypic plasticity. In order for plasticity to be adaptive, induced defences should incur a benefit to the organism in, for example, decreased risk of predation. However, the production of defence traits may include costs in fitness components such as growth, time to reproduction, or fecundity. To test the hypothesis that the expression of phenotypic plasticity incurs costs, we performed a common garden experiment with a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, a species known to change morphology in the presence of molluscivorous fish. We measured a number of predator-induced morphological and behavioural defence traits in snails that we reared in the presence or absence of chemical cues from fish. Further, we quantified the costs of plasticity in fitness characters related to fecundity and growth. Since plastic responses may be inhibited under limited resource conditions, we reared snails in different densities and thereby levels of competition. Snails exposed to predator cues grew rounder and thicker shells, traits confirmed to be adaptive in environments with fish. Defence traits were consistently expressed independent of density, suggesting strong selection from predatory molluscivorous fish. However, the expression of defence traits resulted in reduced growth rate and fecundity, particularly with limited resources. Our results suggest full defence in predator related traits regardless of resource availability, and costs of defence consequently paid in traits related to fitness.

  7. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  8. Pakistan’s Economic and Security Dilemma: Expanded Defence Expenditures and the Relative Governance Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    higher governance countries, defence expenditures can have a positive impact on economic growth (Table 7). Table 6. Anticipated defence spending in high...predicted expenditures , conditional on governance structures. Low defence spending countries can obtain positive benefits from defence by cutting back...that obtains no positive benefit from their low level of defence. On the other hand, if low defence spending countries can cut back their expenditures

  9. Antioxidants and the Integrity of Ocular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Marcela P.; Chihuailaf, Ricardo H.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals are normally generated in many pathways. These radicals can interact with various cellular components and induce cell injury. When free radicals exceed the antioxidant capacity, cell injury causes diverse pathologic changes in the organs. The imbalance between the generation of free radicals and antioxidant defence is known as oxidative stress. The eye can suffer the effect of oxidative damage due to the etiopathogenesis of some pathological changes related to oxidative stress. This paper reviews the role of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of damage in different eye structures, the involvement of the antioxidant network in protecting and maintaining the homeostasis of this organ, and the potential assessment methodologies used in research and in some cases in clinical practice. PMID:21789267

  10. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of flowering plants is evident in two seemingly unrelated aspects of life history: sexual reproduction, exemplified by the stunning variation in flower form and function, and defence, often in the form of an impressive arsenal of secondary chemistry. Researchers are beginning to appreciate that plant defence and reproduction do not evolve independently, but, instead, may have reciprocal and interactive (coevolutionary) effects on each other. Understanding the mechanisms for mating-defence interactions promises to broaden our understanding of how ecological processes can generate these two rich sources of angiosperm diversity. Here, I review current research on the role of herbivory as a driver of mating system evolution, and the role of mating systems in the evolution of defence strategies. I outline different ecological mechanisms and processes that could generate these coevolutionary patterns, and summarize theoretical and empirical support for each. I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields.

  11. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  12. Asymmetric selection and the evolution of extraordinary defences.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C; Bürger, Reinhard; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists typically predict future evolutionary responses to natural selection by analysing evolution on an adaptive landscape. Much theory assumes symmetric fitness surfaces even though many stabilizing selection gradients deviate from symmetry. Here we revisit Lande's adaptive landscape and introduce novel analytical theory that includes asymmetric selection. Asymmetric selection and the resulting skewed trait distributions bias equilibrium mean phenotypes away from fitness peaks, usually toward the flatter shoulder of the individual fitness surface. We apply this theory to explain a longstanding paradox in biology and medicine: the evolution of excessive defences against enemies. These so-called extraordinary defences can evolve in response to asymmetrical selection when marginal risks of insufficient defence exceed marginal costs of excessive defence. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between population abundances and asymmetric selection further exaggerate these defences. Recognizing the effect of asymmetrical selection on evolutionary trajectories will improve the accuracy of predictions and suggest novel explanations for apparent sub-optimality.

  13. Decreased structural defence of an invasive thistle under warming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Leshak, A; Shea, K

    2012-01-01

    Plant structural defences play a key role in preventing fitness loss due to herbivory. However, how structural defences are affected by potential climate change is rarely examined. We examined how leaf morphological traits that relate to the structural defence of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans, change in a warmer climate. We manipulated warming using open-top chambers (OTCs) and examined the morphology of leaves at three different positions (the 5th, 10th and 15th leaves, counted from the top of the plant) in two destructive summer censuses. We found that structural defence traits were different under ambient versus warmed conditions. Prickle densities (both the number of prickles per leaf area and the number of prickles per leaf mass) were significantly lower in plants grown in a warmer climate. Our results suggest that plant structural defences may be reduced under warming, and therefore should be considered when examining species' responses to climate change.

  14. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis The most common species of fungus that causes ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Review Date 7/31/2016 Updated by: Jatin ...

  15. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the lungs. In pulmonary atresia, a ... Reconstructing the heart as a single ventricle (1 pumping chamber instead of 2) Heart transplant Outlook (Prognosis) ...

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  17. Pulmonary Agenesis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rakesh K; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Aditya; Arora, Harsh Nandini; Chawla, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral opaque lung with ipsilateral mediastinal shift is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in newborn which can be found on simple radiograph of the chest. Pulmonary agenesis is a rare cause of unilateral opaque lung in the newborn. Nearly 50% cases of pulmonary agenesis are associated with other congenital defects including cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems. We report an infant with agenesis of the right lung associated with other congenital anomalies.

  18. Effect of thioridazine on antioxidant status of HEMn-DP melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    Thioridazine as an antipsychotic agent was extensively used to treat various psychotic disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. However, the therapy with this drug can induce serious side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms or ocular and skin disorders, which mechanisms are still not fully established. To gain inside the molecular mechanisms underlying thioridazine toxicity, we examined the effect of this drug on cell viability, antioxidant defence system as well as melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes. It was demonstrated that thioridazine induces concentration-dependent loss in cell viability. The value of EC50 was calculated to be 2.24 μM. To study the effect of thioridazine on antioxidant defence system in melanocytes, the level of hydrogen peroxide and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were determined. The drug in concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 1.0 and 2.5 μM caused changes in cellular antioxidant defence system indicating the induction of oxidative stress. It was also shown that the analysed neuroleptic in concentrations of 1.0 and 2.5 μM significantly inhibited melanogenesis. The observed changes in cell viability, antioxidant defence system and melanization in normal human melanocytes after thioridazine treatment may explain an important role of reactive oxygen species as well as melanin in mechanisms involved in this drug side effects directed on pigmented tissues.

  19. The Transformation from Defence Procurement to Defence Acquisition - Opportunities for New Forms of Analytical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    to the Nordic Battle Group, NBG. Also, the defence industry in Sweden was domestic during the Cold War Era. With the current globalisation and...voyage to the AOR, or, more specifically, to the Reception Staging and Onwards Movement (RSOM) area. A tactical transport will then transport units...Rules Of Engagement RSOM: Reception Staging and Onwards Movement SAC: Strategic Airlift Capability SALIS: Strategic Airlift Interim Solution SCC

  20. Defence against oxidative stress in two species of land snails (Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa) subjected to estivation.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Anna; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2011-12-01

    During summer, land snails are exposed to estivation/arousal cycles that imposes oxidative stress, but they exhibit different patterns of antioxidant defence. To test the ability of two related species, Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa, to modulate their antioxidant defence mechanism during estivation/arousal cycles, we examined activities of catalase and glutathione-related enzymes and concentrations of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; as products of lipid peroxidation). In both species, estivation evoked changes in activity of total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but did not affect activity of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase, and had no effect on concentration of glutathione. Activity of catalase in estivating snails, instead of the expected increase, showed a tendency to diminish. Extremely low activities of catalase in the foot were usually associated with extremely high activities of both forms of GPx. In conclusion, maintenance of relatively high activities of the antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of glutathione, resulting in a low and stable concentration of TBARS, plays an important role in scavenging oxygen free radicals from the organism of both species.

  1. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Arteaga, Pedro; Ueber, Alexandra; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Santos, Rui; Molis, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory

  2. The Defence Medical Library Service and military medicine.

    PubMed

    Walker, S B

    2005-01-01

    The Defence Medical Library Service (DMLS) supports the clinical practice and career development of military health professionals across the world. Clinical governance and the need for medical knowledge to be evidence-based means the DMLS has a central role to play in support of defence medicine. The DMLS is important for enabling health professionals to make sense of the evidence-based pyramid and the hierarchy of medical knowledge. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine (RCDM) in Birmingham is recognised as an international centre of excellence. The information, knowledge and research requirements of the RCDM will provide opportunities for the DMLS to support and engage with the academic community.

  3. Pulmonary Vascular Impedance in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION , *PULMONARY BLOOD CIRCULATION, BLOOD CIRCULATION, LUNG, PATHOLOGY, VASCULAR DISEASES, ARTERIES, OBSTRUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY...EMBOLISM, HISTOLOGY, DOGS, LABORATORY ANIMALS, BLOOD PRESSURE , EXPERIMENTAL DATA, PHYSIOLOGY.

  4. Antioxidant response of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica when epiphytized by the invasive macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Box, Antonio; Terrados, Jorge; Deudero, Salud; Pons, Antoni

    2008-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the antioxidant defences and the occurrence of oxidative damage in Posidonia oceanica under a stress situation due to the epiphytism of the invasive macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii. P. oceanica leaves were collected in the absence (control station) and in the presence of the epiphytic algae L. lallemandii and the antioxidant enzyme activities, markers of oxidative damage, and hydrogen peroxide production were determined. Antioxidant enzyme--catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase--activities were significantly higher in Posidonia epiphytized by L. lallemandii. Malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl derivates, and glutathione levels were also higher in L. lallemandii epiphytized P. oceanica leaves compared to control samples. The production of hydrogen peroxide was also significantly increased when Posidonia was epiphytized by L. lallemandii. The invasion of P. oceanica meadows by L. lallemandii appeared to induce oxidative stress in the seagrass as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defences.

  5. Polyphenol Stilbenes: Molecular Mechanisms of Defence against Oxidative Stress and Aging-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Reinisalo, Mika; Kårlund, Anna; Koskela, Ali; Kaarniranta, Kai; Karjalainen, Reijo O.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted the key roles of oxidative stress and inflammation in aging-related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In aging cells, the natural antioxidant capacity decreases and the overall efficiency of reparative systems against cell damage becomes impaired. There is convincing data that stilbene compounds, a diverse group of natural defence phenolics, abundant in grapes, berries, and conifer bark waste, may confer a protective effect against aging-related diseases. This review highlights recent data helping to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in the stilbene-mediated protection against oxidative stress. The impact of stilbenes on the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) mediated cellular defence against oxidative stress as well as the potential roles of SQSTM1/p62 protein in Nrf2/Keap1 signaling and autophagy will be summarized. The therapeutic potential of stilbene compounds against the most common aging-related diseases is discussed. PMID:26180583

  6. Carvedilol inhibits proliferation of cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fujio, Hideki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Matsubara, Hiromi; Kusano, Kengo Fukushima; Miyaji, Katsumasa; Nagase, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Aiko; Ohta-Ogo, Keiko; Miura, Daiji; Miura, Aya; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Date, Hiroshi; Ohe, Tohru

    2006-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is associated with proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in small pulmonary arteries. Inhibition of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) may be an effective treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Recent studies have shown that carvedilol, an alpha- and beta-blocker with antioxidant and calcium channel blocking properties, inhibits the proliferation of cultured normal human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that carvedilol has antiproliferative effects on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from six idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients who had undergone lung transplantation were cultured. To determine cell proliferation, H-thymidine incorporation was measured. Platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation of IPAH-PASMCs was significantly greater than that of normal control pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Carvedilol (0.1 microM to 10 microM) inhibited the proliferation of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension-pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Prazosin (an alpha-blocker) and N-acetyl L cysteine (an antioxidant agent) (0.1 microM to 10 microM) did not inhibit their proliferation, but the high concentration of propranolol (a beta-blocker) and nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker) (10 microM) inhibited the proliferation. The combination of propranolol and nifedipine inhibited the proliferation but only at a high concentration (10 microM) combination. Cell cycle analysis revealed that carvedilol (10 microM) significantly decreased the number of cells in S and G2/M phases. These results indicate that carvedilol inhibits the exaggerated proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

  7. Grazing-activated chemical defence in a unicellular marine alga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Steinke, Michael; Kirst, Gunter O.

    1997-06-01

    Marine plankton use a variety of defences against predators, some of which affect trophic structure and biogeochemistry. We have previously shown that, during grazing by the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina on the alga Emiliania huxleyi, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) from the prey is converted to dimethyl sulphide (DMS) when lysis of ingested prey cells initiates mixing of algal DMSP and the enzyme DMSP lyase. Such a mechanism is similar to macrophyte defence reactions,. Here we show that this reaction deters protozoan herbivores, presumably through the production of highly concentrated acrylate, which has antimicrobial activity. Protozoan predators differ in their ability to ingest and survive on prey with high-activity DMSP lyase, but all grazers preferentially select strains with low enzyme activity when offered prey mixtures. This defence system involves investment in a chemical precursor, DMSP, which is not self-toxic and has other useful metabolic functions. We believe this is the first report of grazing-activated chemical defence in unicellular microorganisms.

  8. The role of thionins in rice defence against root pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongli; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ullah, Chhana; Verbeek, Ruben; Shang, Chenjing; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica; Kyndt, Tina

    2015-10-01

    Thionins are antimicrobial peptides that are involved in plant defence. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the role of rice thionin genes in defence responses against two root pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola and the oomycete Pythium graminicola. The expression of rice thionin genes was observed to be differentially regulated by defence-related hormones, whereas all analysed genes were consistently down-regulated in M. graminicola-induced galls, at least until 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Transgenic lines of Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare overproducing OsTHI7 revealed decreased susceptibility to M. graminicola infection and P. graminicola colonization. Taken together, these results demonstrate the role of rice thionin genes in defence against two of the most damaging root pathogens attacking rice.

  9. Development of a Defence Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Database Demonstrator,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the development of a Defence Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) database demonstrator program. The Demonstrator program...showcases the interoperability, portability, survivability and security features of Open Software Foundation’s Distributed Computing Environment.

  10. Damaged-self recognition in plant herbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Heil, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Feeding by herbivores induces plant defences, but we still do not know all the signals that mediate this response. Here, I argue that a general principle in this mediation is 'damaged-self recognition', that is, the perception of motifs by the plant that indicate disintegrated plant cells. Most defence-inducing molecules are (or contain) plant-derived motifs or disintegrate plant cells and thereby release defence elicitors. By perceiving the 'damaged self', plants can retain evolutionary control over their interactions with herbivores rather than allowing herbivores to dominate the interaction. The concept of 'damaged-self recognition' provides a paradigm for plant responses to herbivory and helps the search for the currently unknown elicitors of those defence responses, which have so far only been described at the phenotypic level.

  11. Chemical antipredator defence is linked to higher extinction risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many attributes of species may be linked to contemporary extinction risk, though some such traits remain untested despite suggestions that they may be important. Here, I test whether a trait associated with higher background extinction rates, chemical antipredator defence, is also associated with current extinction risk, using amphibians as a model system—a group facing global population declines. I find that chemically defended species are approximately 60% more likely to be threatened than species without chemical defence, although the severity of the contemporary extinction risk may not relate to chemical defence. The results confirm that background and contemporary extinction rates can be predicted from the same traits, at least in certain cases. This suggests that associations between extinction risk and phenotypic traits can be temporally stable over long periods. The results also provide novel insights into the relevance of antipredator defences for species subject to conservation concerns. PMID:28018657

  12. Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, Conrad C; Tremblay, Susan L; Bartowski, Kenneth E; VanAller Hernick, Linda

    2014-04-01

    To test the extent of herbivory in early terrestrial ecosystems, we examined compression-impression specimens of the late Middle Devonian liverwort Metzgeriothallus sharonae, from the Catskill Delta deposit of eastern New York state. Shale fragments of field-collected specimens were processed by applying liquid nitrocellulose on exposed surfaces. After drying, the film coatings were lifted off and mounted on microscope slides for photography. Unprocessed fragments were photographed under cedarwood oil for enhanced contrast. An extensive repertoire of arthropodan-mediated herbivory was documented, representing three functional feeding groups and nine subordinate plant-arthropod damage types (DTs). The herbivory is the earliest occurrence of external foliage-feeding and galling in the terrestrial fossil record. Our evidence indicates that thallus oil body cells, similar to the terpenoid-containing oil bodies of modern liverworts, were probably involved in the chemical defence of M. sharonae against arthropod herbivores. Based on damage patterns of terrestrial plants and an accompanying but sparse body-fossil record, Devonian arthropodan herbivores were significantly smaller compared to those of the later Palaeozoic. These data collectively suggest that a broad spectrum herbivory may have had a more important role in early terrestrial ecosystems than previously thought.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines

  14. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  15. The origins of marine bioluminescence: turning oxygen defence mechanisms into deep-sea communication tools.

    PubMed

    Rees, J F; de Wergifosse, B; Noiset, O; Dubuisson, M; Janssens, B; Thompson, E M

    1998-04-01

    Bioluminescence, the emission of ecologically functional light by living organisms, emerged independently on several occasions, yet the evolutionary origins of most bioluminescent systems remain obscure. We propose that the luminescent substrates of the luminous reactions (luciferins) are the evolutionary core of most systems, while luciferases, the enzymes catalysing the photogenic oxidation of the luciferin, serve to optimise the expression of the endogenous chemiluminescent properties of the luciferin. Coelenterazine, a luciferin occurring in many marine bioluminescent groups, has strong antioxidative properties as it is highly reactive with reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide anion or peroxides. We suggest that the primary function of coelenterazine was originally the detoxification of the deleterious oxygen derivatives. The functional shift from its antioxidative to its light-emitting function might have occurred when the strength of selection for antioxidative defence mechanisms decreased. This might have been made possible when marine organisms began colonising deeper layers of the oceans, where exposure to oxidative stress is considerably reduced because of reduced light irradiance and lower oxygen levels. A reduction in metabolic activity with increasing depth would also have decreased the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, in these organisms, mechanisms for harnessing the chemiluminescence of coelenterazine in specialised organs could have developed, while the beneficial antioxidative properties were maintained in other tissues. The full range of graded irradiance in the mesopelagic zone, where the majority of organisms are bioluminescent, would have provided a continuum for the selection and improvement of proto-bioluminescence. Although the requirement for oxygen or reactive oxygen species observed in bioluminescent systems reflects the high energy required to produce visible light, it may suggest that oxygen

  16. Antioxidants accelerate lung cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Volkan I; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Larsson, Erik; Nilsson, Jonas A; Lindahl, Per; Bergo, Martin O

    2014-01-29

    Antioxidants are widely used to protect cells from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The concept that antioxidants can help fight cancer is deeply rooted in the general population, promoted by the food supplement industry, and supported by some scientific studies. However, clinical trials have reported inconsistent results. We show that supplementing the diet with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E markedly increases tumor progression and reduces survival in mouse models of B-RAF- and K-RAS-induced lung cancer. RNA sequencing revealed that NAC and vitamin E, which are structurally unrelated, produce highly coordinated changes in tumor transcriptome profiles, dominated by reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant genes. NAC and vitamin E increase tumor cell proliferation by reducing ROS, DNA damage, and p53 expression in mouse and human lung tumor cells. Inactivation of p53 increases tumor growth to a similar degree as antioxidants and abolishes the antioxidant effect. Thus, antioxidants accelerate tumor growth by disrupting the ROS-p53 axis. Because somatic mutations in p53 occur late in tumor progression, antioxidants may accelerate the growth of early tumors or precancerous lesions in high-risk populations such as smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who receive NAC to relieve mucus production.

  17. Dietary intake of natural antioxidants: vitamins and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Landete, J M

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition in which oxidant metabolites exert their toxic effect because of an increased production or an altered cellular mechanism of protection; oxidative stress is rapidly gaining recognition as a key phenomenon in chronic diseases. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. Endogenous defence mechanisms are inadequate for the complete prevention of oxidative damage, and different sources of dietary antioxidants may be especially important. This article calls attention to the dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols. Compelling evidence has led to the conclusion that diet is a key environmental factor and a potential tool for the control of chronic diseases. More specifically, fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert a protective effect. The high content of minerals and natural antioxidant as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols in fruits and vegetables may be a main factor responsible for these effects.

  18. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments.

  19. Defence and Security Research Coexistence, Coherence, and Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breant, Christian; Karock, Ulrich

    Defence and security research have coexisted at the European Union level since the inception of the European Defence Agency (EDA). The agency was established under a Joint Action of the Council of Ministers on 12 July 2004, "to support the Member States and the Council in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the European Security and Defence Policy as it stands now and develops in the future".1 The political decision to create the EDA was taken at the Thessaloniki European Council on 19 and 20 June 2003. Heads of State or Government tasked the Council bodies to undertake the requisite actions, in the course of 2004, to create an intergovernmental agency in the field of defence capabilities development, research, acquisition and armaments. The EDA has been located in Brussels right from the start. It is an intergovernmental EU agency under the Council's authority within the single institutional framework of the Union. It performs its mission in close cooperation with its participating Member States (pMS) and the European institutional actors.

  20. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  1. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... members within the same family have Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or any other form of Idiopathic Interstitial ...

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels ... with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from several mechanisms. Frequently patients with scleroderma have ...

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with CVD susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic CVD will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...

  5. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN PULMONARY VASCULAR REMODELING

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Gross, Christine M.; Sharma, Shruti; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is a complex multifactorial process that involves the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. This remodeling process encompasses concentric medial thickening of small arterioles, neomuscularization of previously nonmuscular capillary-like vessels, and structural wall changes in larger pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary arterial muscularization is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In addition, in uncontrolled pulmonary hypertension, the clonal expansion of apoptosis-resistant endothelial cells leads to the formation of plexiform lesions. Based upon a large number of studies in animal models, the three major stimuli that drive the vascular remodeling process are inflammation, shear stress and hypoxia. Although, the precise mechanisms by which these stimuli impair pulmonary vascular function and structure are unknown, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage appears to play an important role. ROS are highly reactive due to their unpaired valence shell electron. Oxidative damage occurs when the production of ROS exceeds the quenching capacity of the anti-oxidant mechanisms of the cell. ROS can be produced from complexes in the cell membrane (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase), cellular organelles (peroxisomes and mitochondria), and in the cytoplasm (xanthine oxidase). Furthermore, low levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and L-arginine the rate limiting co-factor and substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), can cause the uncoupling of eNOS, resulting in decreased NO production and increased ROS production. This review will focus on the ROS generation systems, scavenger antioxidants, and oxidative stress associated alterations in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23897679

  6. Possibility of determination of the level of antioxidants in human body using spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, E.; Gorbunova, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the processes of antioxidant defence against aggressive free radicals in human body were investigated theoretically; and the existing methods of diagnosis of oxidative stress and disturbance of antioxidant activity were reviewed. Also, the kinetics of free radical reactions in the oxidation of luminol and interaction antioxidants (such as chlorophyll in the multicomponent system of plant's leaves and ubiquinone) with the UV radiation were investigated experimentally by spectroscopic method. The results showed that this method is effective for recording the luminescence of antioxidants, free radicals, chemiluminescent reactions and fluorescence. In addition these results reveal new opportunities for the study of the antioxidant activity and antioxidant balance in a multicomponent system by allocating features of the individual components in spectral composition. A creation of quality control method for drugs, that are required for oxidative stress diagnosis, is a promising direction in the development of given work.

  7. Oxidative Stress and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Kamp, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated as an important molecular mechanism underlying fibrosis in a variety of organs, including the lungs. However, the causal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from environmental exposures and inflammatory / interstitial cells in mediating fibrosis as well as how best to target an imbalance in ROS production in patients with fibrosis are not firmly established. We focus on the role of ROS in pulmonary fibrosis and, where possible, highlight overlapping molecular pathways in other organs. The key origins of oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis (e.g. environmental toxins, mitochondria / NADPH oxidase of inflammatory and lung target cells, and depletion of antioxidant defenses) are reviewed. The role of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways are examined. We emphasize an emerging role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pulmonary fibrosis. After briefly summarizing how ROS trigger a DNA damage response, we concentrate on recent studies implicating a role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and repair mechanisms focusing on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) as well as crosstalk between ROS production, mtDNA damage, p53, Ogg1, and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2). Finally, the association between ROS and TGF-β1-induced fibrosis is discussed. Novel insights into the molecular basis of ROS-induced pulmonary diseases and, in particular, lung epithelial cell death may promote the development of unique therapeutic targets for managing pulmonary fibrosis as well as fibrosis in other organs and tumors, and in aging; diseases for which effective management is lacking. PMID:23219955

  8. Plant defence as a complex and changing phenotype throughout ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-López, Sofía; Villamil, Nora; Zedillo-Avelleyra, Paulina; Boege, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Ontogenetic changes in anti-herbivore defences are common and result from variation in resource availability and herbivore damage throughout plant development. However, little is known about the simultaneous changes of multiple defences across the entire development of plants, and how such changes affect plant damage in the field. The aim of this study was to assess if changes in the major types of plant resistance and tolerance can explain natural herbivore damage throughout plant ontogeny. Methods An assessment was made of how six defensive traits, including physical, chemical and biotic resistance, simultaneously change across the major transitions of plant development, from seedlings to reproductive stages of Turnera velutina growing in the greenhouse. In addition, an experiment was performed to assess how plant tolerance to artificial damage to leaves changed throughout ontogeny. Finally, leaf damage by herbivores was evaluated in a natural population. Key Results The observed ontogenetic trajectories of all defences were significantly different, sometimes showing opposite directions of change. Whereas trichome density, leaf toughness, extrafloral nectary abundance and nectar production increased, hydrogen cyanide and compensatory responses decreased throughout plant development, from seedlings to reproductive plants. Only water content was higher at the intermediate juvenile ontogenetic stages. Surveys in a natural population over 3 years showed that herbivores consumed more tissue from juvenile plants than from younger seedlings or older reproductive plants. This is consistent with the fact that juvenile plants were the least defended stage. Conclusions The results suggest that defensive trajectories are a mixed result of predictions by the Optimal Defence Theory and the Growth–Differentiation Balance Hypothesis. The study emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple defences and plant ontogeny into further studies for a more

  9. [The antioxidant effects of emoxipin in patients with iron-deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Shved, M I; Palamar, T O

    1995-01-01

    A total of 78 female patients of child-bearing age with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) of varying genesis and degree of severity were examined for effectiveness of a synthetic antioxidant emoxypine in a combined treatment of IDA. IDA was found to be associated with activation of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO) and decrement in antioxidant defence of the body. Conventional antianemic therapy does not lead to normalization of parameters characterizing LPO. Incorporation into a complex therapy of a synthetic antioxidant emoxypine reduces activity of free-radical oxidation of lipids, which fact prevents the pathological process from progressing and leads to more rapid and lasting clinical remission.

  10. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gökhan; Ciledağ, Aydin; Yüksel, Cabir; Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Kutlay, Hakan; Yazicıoğlu, Levent; Perçinel, Sibel; Kaya, Akin

    2011-01-01

    A 30 years old male patient was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism due to thorax-computerized tomography (CT) angiography, revealing a thrombus totally occluding left main pulmonary artery. The lesion was evaluated as tumoural mass. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed pathologic uptake at pulmonary artery mass. Due to localization of tumour, left pneumonectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis revealed to be pulmonary artery sarcoma. The patient was presented because pulmonary artery sarcomas are very rare tumors and can mimick pulmonary thromboembolism. The true prevalence is underestimated as many pulmonary artery sarcomas are misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. PET-CT may help to make a differential diagnosis.

  11. [Pulmonary strongyloidiasis].

    PubMed

    Lozada, Heiler; Daza, Jorge E

    2016-10-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can be asymptomatic and means a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, severe malnutrition and coinfection with HTLV-1 virus. The parasite has the potential to produce and multiply internal autoinfection in humans, thus an hyperinfection can be developed. A case of pulmonary infection by this parasite is presented in this study, infection which advanced into a respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic support in an intensive care unit. The standard treatment combined with ivermectin and albendazole was provided, achieving an appropriate response.

  12. [Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis with dendriform pulmonary ossification].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ana Madeleine; Vargas, Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary ossification is a rare and usually asymptomatic finding reported as incidental in lung biopsies. Similarly, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates. We report the case of a 64-year old man with chronic respiratory symptoms in whom these two histopathological findings converged.

  13. Comparative genomics tools applied to bioterrorism defence.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Tom; Kuczmarski, Tom; Ott, Linda; Torres, Clinton; Medeiros, Dan; Smith, Jason; Truitt, Brian; Mulakken, Nisha; Lam, Marisa; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Zemla, Adam; Zhou, Carol Ecale; Gardner, Shea

    2003-06-01

    Rapid advances in the genomic sequencing of bacteria and viruses over the past few years have made it possible to consider sequencing the genomes of all pathogens that affect humans and the crops and livestock upon which our lives depend. Recent events make it imperative that full genome sequencing be accomplished as soon as possible for pathogens that could be used as weapons of mass destruction or disruption. This sequence information must be exploited to provide rapid and accurate diagnostics to identify pathogens and distinguish them from harmless near-neighbours and hoaxes. The Chem-Bio Non-Proliferation (CBNP) programme of the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a large-scale effort of pathogen detection in early 2000 when it was announced that the DOE would be providing bio-security at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. Our team at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) was given the task of developing reliable and validated assays for a number of the most likely bioterrorist agents. The short timeline led us to devise a novel system that utilised whole-genome comparison methods to rapidly focus on parts of the pathogen genomes that had a high probability of being unique. Assays developed with this approach have been validated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). They were used at the 2002 Winter Olympics, have entered the public health system, and have been in continual use for non-publicised aspects of homeland defence since autumn 2001. Assays have been developed for all major threat list agents for which adequate genomic sequence is available, as well as for other pathogens requested by various government agencies. Collaborations with comparative genomics algorithm developers have enabled our LLNL team to make major advances in pathogen detection, since many of the existing tools simply did not scale well enough to be of practical use for this application. It is hoped that a discussion of a real-life practical application of

  14. Sense Making in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) Intelligence Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Sense Making in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) Intelligence Community Mark Burnett, Pete Wooding * and Paul Prekop...3 And it is possible to inter-relate all three models – see Rousseau and Breton 2005. DSTO-GD...worthy of more detailed consideration. DSTO-GD-0440 22 References Breton , R. and Rousseau, R. (2005), "The C-OODA: A Cognitive Version

  15. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Erik P.; Arseneau, T. Jean. M.; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost–benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. PMID:26503678

  16. A Review of Enterprise Architecture Use in Defence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    functions in Defence. The concept of CIS support to operations recognises the intrinsic relationship between information in its broadest sense and...guidance was provided on the conduct of the ARM, including considerations such as information to be provided, reviewer requirements, attendance quorum

  17. The Case to Widen Defence Acquisition Research Paradigms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    can be conducted Key issues associated with changes in acquisition practices Acquisition will become increasingly dependent on social science...military have been outsourced to the privately owned defence industrial base (DIB). This change has seen a movement away from procurement to... changes raises the question: Are the traditional research methodologies previously employed to examine procurement phenomena adequate for modern

  18. Evolution of hosts paying manifold costs of defence.

    PubMed

    Cressler, Clayton E; Graham, Andrea L; Day, Troy

    2015-04-07

    Hosts are expected to incur several physiological costs in defending against parasites. These include constitutive energetic (or other resource) costs of a defence system, facultative resource costs of deploying defences when parasites strike, and immunopathological costs of collateral damage. Here, we investigate the evolution of host recovery rates, varying the source and magnitude of immune costs. In line with previous work, we find that hosts paying facultative resource costs evolve faster recovery rates than hosts paying constitutive costs. However, recovery rate is more sensitive to changes in facultative costs, potentially explaining why constitutive costs are hard to detect empirically. Moreover, we find that immunopathology costs which increase with recovery rate can erode the benefits of defence, promoting chronicity of infection. Immunopathology can also lead to hosts evolving low recovery rate in response to virulent parasites. Furthermore, when immunopathology reduces fecundity as recovery rate increases (e.g. as for T-cell responses to urogenital chlamydiosis), then recovery and reproductive rates do not covary as predicted in eco-immunology. These results suggest that immunopathological and resource costs have qualitatively different effects on host evolution and that embracing the complexity of immune costs may be essential for explaining variability in immune defence in nature.

  19. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    PubMed

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species.

  20. Australia’s National Security: A Defence Update 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Australia’s response to the Bali bombing 13 Bastille Middle East Forward deployment of personnel in support of UN efforts to disarm Iraq Operation Operation... Bastille Operation Operation Citadel report.p65 21/2/03, 8:5427 DEFENCE UPDATE 200328 D PS N O V 01 0/ 02 report.p65 21/2/03, 8:5428

  1. The Strategic Development of the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    and ecommerce . In combination, these driving forces of change led to an explosion in world trade, an exponential increase in business ...and Tobago Defence Force‘s approach to organization strategy. In defining this term, the author slightly amends Thompson and Strickland‘s business ...extreme competition and intense rivalry especially between American and Japanese businesses . 15 After many decades of domination, American businesses

  2. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  3. Pulmonary Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis describes a number of distinct disorders that are pathologically characterized by the destruction of blood vessels. The clinical manifestations of each disorder are defined by the size, type, and location of the affected vasculature. The clinical approach to these disorders rests upon an astute clinician considering the diagnosis and identifying the specific patterns of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and pathologic abnormalities. Lung involvement is most commonly seen with the primary, idiopathic, small-vessel, or antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitides; Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. However, primary, idiopathic medium and large-vessel vasculitis, primary immune complex–mediated vasculitis, and secondary vasculitis are all capable of presenting with lung involvement. In this article, we focus on the more common, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated disorder, vasculitides. PMID:16493151

  4. Host-defence-related proteins in cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T T; Smolenski, G A; Harris, D P; Gupta, S K; Haigh, B J; Broadhurst, M K; Molenaar, A J; Stelwagen, K

    2012-03-01

    Milk is a source of bioactive molecules with wide-ranging functions. Among these, the immune properties have been the best characterised. In recent years, it has become apparent that besides the immunoglobulins, milk also contains a range of minor immune-related proteins that collectively form a significant first line of defence against pathogens, acting both within the mammary gland itself as well as in the digestive tract of the suckling neonate. We have used proteomics technologies to characterise the repertoire of host-defence-related milk proteins in detail, revealing more than 100 distinct gene products in milk, of which at least 15 are known host-defence-related proteins. Those having intrinsic antimicrobial activity likely function as effector proteins of the local mucosal immune defence (e.g. defensins, cathelicidins and the calgranulins). Here, we focus on the activities and biological roles of the cathelicidins and mammary serum amyloid A. The function of the immune-related milk proteins that do not have intrinsic antimicrobial activity is also discussed, notably lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, RNase4, RNase5/angiogenin and cartilage-glycoprotein 39 kDa. Evidence is shown that at least some of these facilitate recognition of microbes, resulting in the activation of innate immune signalling pathways in cells associated with the mammary and/or gut mucosal surface. Finally, the contribution of the bacteria in milk to its functionality is discussed. These investigations are elucidating how an effective first line of defence is achieved in the bovine mammary gland and how milk contributes to optimal digestive function in the suckling calf. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the health benefits of milk, as well as to the development of high-value ingredients from milk.

  5. Oxidative stress and Down syndrome. Do antioxidants play a role in therapy?

    PubMed

    Muchová, J; Žitňanová, I; Ďuračková, Z

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a phenomenon associated with imbalance between production of free radicals and reactive metabolites (e.g. superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) and the antioxidant defences. Oxidative stress in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) has been associated with trisomy of the 21st chromosome resulting in DS phenotype as well as with various morphological abnormalities, immune disorders, intellectual disability, premature aging and other biochemical abnormalities. Trisomy 21 in patients with DS results in increased activity of an important antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) which gene is located on the 21st chromosome along with other proteins such as transcription factor Ets-2, stress inducing factors (DSCR1) and precursor of beta-amyloid protein responsible for the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease. Mentioned proteins are involved in the management of mitochondrial function, thereby promoting mitochondrial theory of aging also in people with DS. In defence against toxic effects of free radicals and their metabolites organism has built antioxidant defence systems. Their lack and reduced function increases oxidative stress resulting in disruption of the structure of important biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This leads to their dysfunctions affecting pathophysiology of organs and the whole organism. This paper examines the impact of antioxidant interventions as well as positive effect of physical exercise on cognitive and learning disabilities of individuals with DS. Potential therapeutic targets on the molecular level (oxidative stress markers, gene for DYRK1A, neutrophic factor BDNF) after intervention of natural polyphenols are also discussed.

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Robert P; Engel, Peter J; Nathan, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complication of sarcoidosis leading to dyspnea and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) can be due to several factors, including vascular involvement by the granulomatous inflammation, compression of the pulmonary arteries by adenopathy, fibrotic changes within the lung, and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Several case series have suggested that some patients with SAPH benefit from specific therapy for pulmonary hypertension. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial found 16 weeks' bosentan therapy to be associated with significant improvement in pulmonary artery pressure. Future studies may better define who would respond to treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  7. [Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Study of pulmonary circulation].

    PubMed

    Orea Tejeda, A; Atencio, C; Sandoval, J; Lupi Herrera, E

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown etiology which consists of alveolar deposit of calcium microspheres. We report the procedures for the diagnosis of this disease, as well as the hemodynamic features of the pulmonary circulation. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and cor pulmonale were documented. The active and passive factors involved in PAH are analyzed. We conclude that alveolar hypoxia and estructural vascular changes play a major role in the genesis of PAH.

  8. Pulmonary function in advanced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, C M; Glanville, A R; Morris, A J; Rubin, D; Harvey, J A; Theodore, J; Robin, E D

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary mechanical function and gas exchange were studied in 33 patients with advanced pulmonary vascular disease, resulting from primary pulmonary hypertension in 18 cases and from Eisenmenger physiology in 15 cases. Evidence of airway obstruction was found in most patients. In addition, mean total lung capacity (TLC) was only 81.5% of predicted and 27% of our subjects had values of TLC less than one standard deviation below the mean predicted value. The mean value for transfer factor (TLCO) was 71.8% of predicted and appreciable arterial hypoxaemia was present, which was disproportionate to the mild derangements in pulmonary mechanics. Patients with Eisenmenger physiology had significantly lower values of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) (p less than 0.05) and of maximum mid expiratory flow (p less than 0.05) and significantly higher pulmonary arterial pressure (p less than 0.05) than those with primary pulmonary hypertension, but no other variables were significantly different between the two subpopulations. It is concluded that advanced pulmonary vascular disease in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger physiology is associated not only with severe hypoxaemia but also with altered pulmonary mechanical function. PMID:3433237

  9. Antioxidants and oxidative stress in Helix pomatia snails during estivation.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Anna; Swiderska-Kołacz, Grazyna; Rogalska, Justyna; Caputa, Michał

    2009-11-01

    Estivation enables land snails to survive a prolonged dryness but the return to active state imposes conditions of oxidative stress on internal organs due to a transient large increase in oxygen consumption, which augments mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, activities of antioxidant enzymes, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and TBARS as an index of lipid peroxidation, were evaluated in Helix pomatia snails (i) during summer activity, (ii) during estivation, which was induced experimentally, (iii) at the start of arousal from estivation, and (iv) being aroused for 24 h. Estivation induced significant decreases in activity of catalase in the kidney and hepatopancreas and glutathione peroxidase in the kidney. Activity of glutathione reductase was unaffected by estivation/arousal cycle. Summer-active and estivating snails maintained high activity of glutathione transferase. Concentration of GSH was organ-dependent and was positively affected by estivation. Lack of increase in TBARS concentration during estivation/arousal cycle suggests that antioxidant defence system of H. pomatia snails is highly efficacious. In conclusion, permanent maintenance of relatively high activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the high concentration of GSH in H. pomatia snails indicate that they have well-developed strategy of defence against oxidative injury.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Sonic Defences in Bombycoidea Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    Bura, Veronica L.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators. PMID:27510510

  11. Flow cytometry as a tool to quantify oyster defence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goedken, Michael; De Guise, Sylvain

    2004-04-01

    The fast growing oyster aquaculture industry is greatly hindered by Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni which can kill up to 80% of the production. The relationship between parasites and oyster defence mechanisms is unclear. Two defence mechanisms of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) were quantified at the single cell level utilising flow cytometry. Phagocytosis was measured using fluorescent beads. Respiratory burst activity was quantified as the H2O2-specific increase in dichlorofluorescein-associated fluorescence upon stimulation. These two assays distinguished three populations of haemocytes (granulocytes, hyalinocytes and intermediate cells) with unique functional characteristics. Granulocytes were most active at phagocytosis and H2O2 production while hyalinocytes were relatively inactive. The intermediate cells had moderate phagocytic and respiratory burst activity. Flow cytometry can rapidly, accurately and directly quantify the morphology and function of a large number of individual cells, and will lead to a better understanding of the bivalve immune system.

  12. Upstream and downstream signals of nitric oxide in pathogen defence.

    PubMed

    Gaupels, Frank; Kuruthukulangarakoola, Gitto Thomas; Durner, Jörg

    2011-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognised as a crucial player in plant defence against pathogens. Considerable progress has been made in defining upstream and downstream signals of NO. Recently, MAP kinases, cyclic nucleotide phosphates, calcium and phosphatidic acid were demonstrated to be involved in pathogen-induced NO-production. However, the search for inducers of NO synthesis is difficult because of the still ambiguous enzymatic source of NO. Accumulation of NO triggers signal transduction by other second messengers. Here we depict NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as central redox switches translating NO redox signalling into cellular responses. Although the exact position of NO in defence signal networks is unresolved at last some NO-related signal cascades are emerging.

  13. Military social work in the South African National Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Kruger, A; Van Breda, A D

    2001-11-01

    The transformation of the South African National Defence Force has prompted a critical reassessment of the Directorate of Social Work. As a result, the directorate realized the need for a formal business plan to align the profession strategically with the core business of the military system. After completion of the business plan, the need for a unique military social work practice model was identified. Such a model should present social workers with a strategy for the achievement of the goals and objectives of the business plan. The practice model rests on two key concepts: binocular vision and practice positions. Since the onset of the transformation process in the South African National Defence Force, these two documents have reflected the changing milieu within which social work is practiced. The main concepts of these documents are presented.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Sonic Defences in Bombycoidea Caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Bura, Veronica L; Kawahara, Akito Y; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-08-11

    Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators.

  15. Phloroglucinol: antioxidant properties and effects on cellular oxidative markers in human HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Quéguineur, Benoît; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Martín, Maria Angeles; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Phloroglucinol is an ubiquitous secondary metabolite encountered in a free state or polymerised as phlorotannins in brown macroalgae, and present in higher plants. FRAP and TEAC assays measured the antioxidant properties of phloroglucinol in non-biological conditions. Additionally, the biological effects of phloroglucinol (4-400 μM) were scrutinised using cellular oxidative stress markers, such as the generation of ROS, antioxidant defences (concentration of GSH and activities of GPx, GR and GST), and levels of MDA as a marker for lipid peroxidation. The direct effect was assessed immediately after an incubation period, whereas for the protective effect, the incubation period was followed by 3-h treatment with the pro-oxidant t-BOOH. The results indicated that despite having a higher radical scavenging capacity than Trolox after 30 min, phloroglucinol was not a suitable antioxidant standard for phlorotannins. Regarding the biological effects, phloroglucinol had no impact on cell viability, reduced levels of ROS and increased antioxidant defences in the direct treatment for most concentrations. The results of the protective effect were mitigated as phloroglucinol failed to protect from ROS generation but evoked a significant recovery of the stress-altered cellular antioxidant defences to restful conditions. Additionally, MDA levels were greatly reduced, preventing a radical chain oxidation.

  16. Australian Defence Risk Management Framework: A Comparative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    contemplated well ahead of the traditional corporate and business - planning processes. There is also an upside to using risk management, i.e. improving...place to properly manage these risks; • To ensure that risk management is integrated into Defence�s business planning processes; and • To establish...and based on AS/NZS 4360:1999 and the Defence Risk Management Policy. It prescribes risk management to be integrated into the business planning process

  17. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 13, Number 4, Summer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    fuselage and cockpit, mid and aft fuselage, empennage , wing , wing and fuselage intersection, and finally engine nacelles. A photographic survey of...own rivet lines as a guide. Areas of high curvature in three dimensions, like the engine nacelles, empennage - fuselage intersection and wing -fuselage...tony.cox@dsto.defence.gov.au Design and illustration: Rebekah Meere Phone: 61 3 9626 7141 Fax: 61 3 9626 7133 e-mail: rebekah.meere

  18. Debugging and Logging Services for Defence Service Oriented Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Debugging and Logging Services for Defence Service Oriented Architectures Michael Pilling Command, Control, Communications and...paralled de- bugging , SOAs introduce the complexity of significant parts of one’s programs being provided by others. This paper examines the features of...timestamps will allow programmers fixing bugs to avoid many spurious symptoms and get a clearer picture of the problem at hand. • Logging of

  19. Ministry of Defence Main Estimates 2009-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-02

    10 military equipment for use in the operational environment (e.g. further adaptations to Tornado aircraft and Lynx and Merlin helicopters). UORs...Defence Main Estimates 2009–10 13 21. A Departmental Minute laid before the House on the same day that we received the Government response to our...modifications to military equipment for use in the operational environment (eg further adaptations to Tornado aircraft and Lynx and Merlin helicopters). UORs by

  20. A Framework for the Automation of Air Defence Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    and Integration. [les Avancees en concepts systemes pour vehicules et en integration] To order the complete compilation report, use: ADA381871 The...are also inherent attack a target. to an autonomous architecture. The main difference The major advantages of distributing data to all between our...available for a single air defence task. [6] Krogmann, U., Towards Autonomous Systems, in AGAR.D Lecture Series 210, Advances in Soft- 5 Conclusions

  1. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Dragana; Stare, Tjaša; Mozetič, Igor; Podpečan, Vid; Petek, Marko; Witek, Kamil; Dermastia, Marina; Lavrač, Nada; Gruden, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2) triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be utilised for

  2. Transcript analysis of stress defence genes in a white poplar clone inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and grown on a polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Pallara, G; Todeschini, V; Lingua, G; Camussi, A; Racchi, M L

    2013-02-01

    In this study we investigated if the symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae, which contributes to alleviate heavy metal stress in plants, may affect the transcription of genes involved in the stress defence in the white poplar clone 'AL35' grown on a multimetal (Cu and Zn) contaminated soil. The results obtained showed that the symbiosis with G. mosseae reduced transcript abundance of genes involved in antioxidant defence in leaves and roots of 'AL35' plants grown on the heavy metal-polluted soil. Moreover, the interaction between this poplar clone and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus induced the gene coding for phytochelatin synthase in leaves, whereas the expression of genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis did not change in roots. The present results suggest that, in presence of high levels of heavy metals, inoculation with G. mosseae may confer to 'AL35' a more efficient control of the oxidant level. Moreover, in mycorrhizal plants heavy metal chelation pathways appear involved in the defence strategies in leaves, whereas in roots they do not seem to contribute to increase the plant tolerance of heavy metals.

  3. Parallel evolution of passive and active defence in land snails

    PubMed Central

    Morii, Yuta; Prozorova, Larisa; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions are major processes promoting phenotypic evolution. However, it remains unclear how predation causes morphological and behavioural diversity in prey species and how it might lead to speciation. Here, we show that substantial divergence in the phenotypic traits of prey species has occurred among closely related land snails as a result of adaptation to predator attacks. This caused the divergence of defensive strategies into two alternatives: passive defence and active defence. Phenotypic traits of the subarctic Karaftohelix land snail have undergone radiation in northeast Asia, and distinctive morphotypes generally coexist in the same regions. In these land snails, we documented two alternative defence behaviours against predation by malacophagous beetles. Furthermore, the behaviours are potentially associated with differences in shell morphology. In addition, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that these alternative strategies against predation arose independently on the islands and on the continent suggesting that anti-predator adaptation is a major cause of phenotypic diversity in these snails. Finally, we suggest the potential speciation of Karaftohelix snails as a result of the divergence of defensive strategies into passive and active behaviours and the possibility of species radiation due to anti-predatory adaptations. PMID:27833102

  4. The circadian clock and defence signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayank; Bhatt, Deepesh

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock is the internal time-keeping machinery in higher organisms. Cross-talk between the circadian clock and a diverse range of physiological processes in plants, including stress acclimatization, hormone signalling, photomorphogenesis and defence signalling, is currently being explored. Recent studies on circadian clock genes and genes involved in defence signalling have indicated a possible reciprocal interaction between the two. It has been proposed that the circadian clock shapes the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. In this review, we highlight the studies carried out so far on two model plant pathogens, namely Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the involvement of the circadian clock in gating effector-triggered immunity and pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. We focus on how the circadian clock gates the expression of various stress-related transcripts in a prolific manner to enhance plant fitness. An understanding of this dynamic relationship between clock and stress will open up new avenues in the understanding of endogenous mechanisms of defence signalling in plants.

  5. Sensory neuron regulation of gastrointestinal inflammation and bacterial host defence.

    PubMed

    Lai, N Y; Mills, K; Chiu, I M

    2017-02-02

    Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage. Emerging evidence shows that sensory neurons participate in host-microbe interactions. Sensory neurons are able to detect pathogenic and commensal bacteria through specific metabolites, cell-wall components, and toxins. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms of bacterial detection by distinct subtypes of gut-innervating sensory neurons. Upon activation, sensory neurons communicate to the immune system to modulate tissue inflammation through antidromic signalling and efferent neural circuits. We discuss how this neuro-immune regulation is orchestrated through transient receptor potential ion channels and sensory neuropeptides including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Recent studies also highlight a role for sensory neurons in regulating host defence against enteric bacterial pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Understanding how sensory neurons respond to gastrointestinal flora and communicate with immune cells to regulate host defence enhances our knowledge of host physiology and may form the basis for new approaches to treat gastrointestinal diseases.

  6. Anosognosia as motivated unawareness: the 'defence' hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Solms, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia has seen a century of almost continuous research, yet a definitive understanding of its mechanism remains elusive. Essentially, anosognosic patients hold quasi-delusional beliefs about their paralysed limbs, in spite of all the contrary evidence, repeated questioning, and logical argument. We review a range of findings suggesting that emotion and motivation play an important role in anosognosia. We conclude that anosognosia involves (amongst other things) a process of psychological defence. This conclusion stems from a wide variety of clinical and experimental investigations, including data on implicit awareness of deficit, fluctuations in awareness over time, and dramatic effects upon awareness of psychological interventions such as psychotherapy, reframing of the emotional consequences of the paralysis, and first versus third person perspectival manipulations. In addition, we review and refute the (eight) arguments historically raised against the 'defence' hypothesis, including the claim that a defence-based account cannot explain the lateralised nature of the disorder. We argue that damage to a well-established right-lateralised emotion regulation system, with links to psychological processes that appear to underpin allocentric spatial cognition, plays a key role in anosognosia (at least in some patients). We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice.

  7. Insects had it first: surfactants as a defence against predators

    PubMed Central

    Rostás, Michael; Blassmann, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Insects have evolved an astonishing array of defences to ward off enemies. Well known and widespread is the regurgitation of oral secretion (OS), fluid that repels attacking predators. In herbivores, the effectiveness of OS has been ascribed so far to the presence of deterrent secondary metabolites sequestered from the host plant. This notion implies, however, that generalists experience less protection on plants with low amounts of secondary metabolites or with compounds ineffective against potential enemies. Resolving the dilemma, we describe a novel defence mechanism that is independent of deterrents as it relies on the intrinsic detergent properties of the OS. The OS of Spodoptera exigua (and other species) was found to be highly amphiphilic and well capable of wetting the hydrophobic cuticle of predatory ants. As a result, affected ants stopped attacking and engaged in extensive cleansing. The presence of surfactants was sufficient to explain the defensive character of herbivore OS. We hypothesize that detergency is a common but unrecognized mode of defence, which provides a base level of protection that may or may not be further enhanced by plant-derived deterrents. Our study also proves that insects ‘invented’ the use of defensive surfactants long before modern agriculture had started applying them as insecticides. PMID:18986976

  8. Effect of hypoxia and hypercapina on the airways defence reflexes.

    PubMed

    Tatár, M; Tarkanov, I A; Korpás, J; Kulik, A M

    1987-01-01

    In experiments on 10 adult anaesthetized cats (pentobarbital 30 mg.kg-1 i.p.) the effect of stimultaneous hypoxia and hypercapnia was studied on the defence respiratory reflexes of the airways. Expiratory reflex and cough were elicited by mechanical stimulation of the airways mucosa, and the obtained values were evaluated on basis of the intrapleural pressure. Inhalation of the hypoxic-hypercapnic gas mixture (11% + 7% CO2 in N2) for 15 minutes led to a significant decrease of respiratory frequency, tidal volume and PaCO2, while pHa and PaCO2 also decreased significantly together with the intensity of the expiratory reflex and that of cough. Recent studies, showed that in the course of the effect of hypoxia (11% O2) and of hypercapnia (5% CO2), cough intensity decreased, but the change was not significant. The decrease of the intensity of respiratory defence reflexes under hypoxic-hypercapnic conditions might have been due to the changes of centrally controlling structures, or to the effector part of the reflex arc, resulting from fatigue of the respiratory muscles. The possible effect of anaesthesia exerting a significant influence on the intensity and character of airways defence reflexes could not be excluded.

  9. Defence and security applications of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) have seen tremendous recent application in the realm of Defence and Security. And, in many instances replacing traditional solid state lasers as the source of choice for Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, In-situ Sensing, Through-Barrier Sensing, and many others. Following their development and demonstration in the early 1990's, QCL's reached some maturity and specific defence and security application prior to 2005; with much initial development fostered by DARPA initiatives in the US, dstl, MoD, and EOARD funding initiatives in the UK, and University level R&D such as those by Prof Manijeh Razeghi at Northwestern University [1], and Prof Ted Masselink at Humboldt University [2]. As QCL's provide direct mid-IR laser output for electrical input, they demonstrate high quantum efficiency compared with diode pumped solid state lasers with optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) to generate mid-Infrared output. One particular advantage of QCL's is their very broad operational bandwidth, extending from the terahertz to the near-infrared spectral regions. Defence and Security areas benefiting from QCL's include: Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, Through-the-Wall Sensing, and Explosive Detection. All information used to construct this paper obtained from open sources.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension - at home

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. With PAH, the right side ... Chin K, Channick RN. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Broaddus VC, Mason ... Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a friend. Ways to Give Announcements CHICAGO BEAR JORDAN HOWARD BRINGS HIS FIGHT TO PULMONARY FIBROSIS ... 22-year-old lead rusher for the Chicago Bears, will announce his commitment to fight pulmonary fibrosis ( ...

  12. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  13. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  14. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  15. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) into five groups. These groups are organized based ... lungs. Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension Group 2 includes PH with left heart disease. Conditions that affect the ...

  16. Protective roles of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhui; Shi, Yingying; He, Lian; Hao, Hairong; Wang, Baolan; Zheng, Yulong; Hu, Chengping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the protective effects of polysaccharides from (PGL) Ganoderma lucidum on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Our study demonstrated that treatment with PGL of 100-300mg/kg for 28 days led to significant reduction in the pulmonary index, inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which was associated with increased levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase and decreased contents of malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline in the lung. These results indicated that PGL played a positive protective role in the pulmonary fibrosis and its possible mechanism was to improve lung antioxidant ability.

  17. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 represses priming of plant defence response genes.

    PubMed

    Mozgová, Iva; Wildhaber, Thomas; Liu, Qinsong; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; L'Haridon, Floriane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hofius, Daniel; Hennig, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved efficient defence systems against pathogens that often rely on specific transcriptional responses. Priming is part of the defence syndrome, by establishing a hypersensitive state of defence genes such as after a first encounter with a pathogen. Because activation of defence responses has a fitness cost, priming must be tightly controlled to prevent spurious activation of defence. However, mechanisms that repress defence gene priming are poorly understood. Here, we show that the histone chaperone CAF-1 is required to establish a repressed chromatin state at defence genes. Absence of CAF-1 results in spurious activation of a salicylic acid-dependent pathogen defence response in plants grown under non-sterile conditions. Chromatin at defence response genes in CAF-1 mutants under non-inductive (sterile) conditions is marked by low nucleosome occupancy and high H3K4me3 at transcription start sites, resembling chromatin in primed wild-type plants. We conclude that CAF-1-mediated chromatin assembly prevents the establishment of a primed state that may under standard non-sterile growth conditions result in spurious activation of SA-dependent defence responses and consequential reduction of plant vigour.

  18. Cyanogenesis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is an efficient direct defence in nature.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2009-01-01

    In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing 'multiple defence syndromes' rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences.

  19. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  20. [Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Bourry, N; Chabrot, P; Jeannin, G; Filaire, M; Charpy, C; Bay, J O; Kemeny, J L; Caillaud, D; Escande, G; Boyer, L

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor. We present a case of intimal sarcoma arising from right pulmonary artery and left lower pulmonary vein observed in a 44-year-old man with a non-productive cough. Computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging showing filling defect enhancement contributed early, suggesting the diagnosis of primary vascular tumor, hypothesis confirmed by pathologist findings.

  1. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation. PMID:26425600

  2. Hijacking common mycorrhizal networks for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer between tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Ye, Mao; Li, Chuanyou; He, Xinhua; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Wang, Rui Long; Su, Yi Juan; Luo, Shi Ming; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2014-01-28

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) link multiple plants together. We hypothesized that CMNs can serve as an underground conduit for transferring herbivore-induced defence signals. We established CMN between two tomato plants in pots with mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae, challenged a 'donor' plant with caterpillar Spodoptera litura, and investigated defence responses and insect resistance in neighbouring CMN-connected 'receiver' plants. After CMN establishment caterpillar infestation on 'donor' plant led to increased insect resistance and activities of putative defensive enzymes, induction of defence-related genes and activation of jasmonate (JA) pathway in the 'receiver' plant. However, use of a JA biosynthesis defective mutant spr2 as 'donor' plants resulted in no induction of defence responses and no change in insect resistance in 'receiver' plants, suggesting that JA signalling is required for CMN-mediated interplant communication. These results indicate that plants are able to hijack CMNs for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer and interplant defence communication.

  3. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Zhang, Chong; Feng, Zhiying; Ni, Yiming

    2008-08-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a two-week history of palpitations and shortness of breath, aggravated for two days and was believed to be pulmonary hypertension. Emergency heart ultrasound after admission presented a massive pulmonary embolism in the pulmonary artery. The patient's condition was successfully managed with urgent pulmonary artery embolectomy. The patient demonstrated improvement in hemodynamics after the operation. Histologic and immunohistochemical assays were performed and a diagnosis was made as primary pulmonary artery sarcoma arising from the left pulmonary artery. Resection of the tumor is recommended for the treatment of this rare malignant tumor. The corresponding chemotherapy, follow-up and prognosis are described as well in this case report.

  4. Immune and antioxidizing response in cancer patients to photodynamic therapy with photohem and photosens as photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Nemtzova, H. R.; Oganezov, Victor K.; Scherbitskaya, I. Y.; Filonenko, H. V.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Chissov, Valery I.

    1996-01-01

    Free radicals are the main basis of anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT). At the same time, they cause different complications. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in homeostasis of cancer patients under the influence of PDT. It was shown, as a result of study of antioxidizing and immune status of these patients, that there are significant deviations in their indices even before PDT. The treatment leads to further development of disbalance in these systems which demands correction. Several remedies have been offered for correction therapy. The application of these remedies causes the reduction of overstrain in antioxidizing defence and leads to decrease in cases of complications.

  5. Implementing Capability Based Planning within the Public Safety and Security Sector: Lessons from the Defence Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Hales D Hales Consulting Dr. Paul Chouinard DRDC Centre for Security Science Defence R& D Canada – Centre for Security Science...Lessons from the Defence Experience Doug Hales D Hales Consulting Dr. Paul Chouinard DRDC Centre for Security Science Defence R& D Canada...CSS Technical Memorandum DRDC CSS TM 2011-26 December 2011 Principal Author Original signed by Doug Hales Doug Hales D

  6. Project Scheduling Tool for Maintaining Capability Interdependencies and Defence Program Investment: A User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Project Scheduling Tool for Maintaining Capability Interdependencies and Defence Program Investment: A User’s Guide M.-T. Nguyen Joint...product, the Project Scheduling Tool (version 1.4). The tool implements various mathematical Integer Linear Programming models, as well as an approach that...Scheduling Tool for Maintaining Capability Interdependencies and Defence Program Investment: A User’s Guide Executive Summary Defence decision-makers are faced

  7. Skin Photoaging and the Role of Antioxidants in Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pandel, Ruža; Poljšak, Borut

    2013-01-01

    Photoaging of the skin depends primarily on the degree of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and on an amount of melanin in the skin (skin phototype). In addition to direct or indirect DNA damage, UVR activates cell surface receptors of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin, which leads to a breakdown of collagen in the extracellular matrix and a shutdown of new collagen synthesis. It is hypothesized that dermal collagen breakdown is followed by imperfect repair that yields a deficit in the structural integrity of the skin, formation of a solar scar, and ultimately clinically visible skin atrophy and wrinkles. Many studies confirmed that acute exposure of human skin to UVR leads to oxidation of cellular biomolecules that could be prevented by prior antioxidant treatment and to depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Skin has a network of all major endogenous enzymatic and nonenzymatic protective antioxidants, but their role in protecting cells against oxidative damage generated by UV radiation has not been elucidated. It seems that skin's antioxidative defence is also influenced by vitamins and nutritive factors and that combination of different antioxidants simultaneously provides synergistic effect. PMID:24159392

  8. Self-reported defence mechanisms as an outcome measure in psychotherapy: a study on the German version of the Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ 40.

    PubMed

    Schauenburg, Henning; Willenborg, Verena; Sammet, Isa; Ehrenthal, Johannes C

    2007-09-01

    The psychoanalytically informed construct of 'defence mechanisms' is of central importance for the understanding of the dynamics of inner conflicts and the onset of neurotic symptoms. Objective and valid assessment of 'defence' is difficult. There are a number of observer rating instruments but only few self-report questionnaires. The German version of the 'Defence Style Questionnaire - DSQ 40' (Andrews, Singh, & Bond, 1993) was examined with regard to its factorial and content validity, and its sensitivity to change during inpatient psychotherapy. One hundred and fifty-five patients with mixed diagnoses were administered the DSQ 40 and the SCL-90-R before and after 3 months of inpatient psychotherapy. Diagnoses were mostly affective and anxiety disorders as well as eating disorders, and there was a high comorbidity of personality disorders. After deletion of some items due to insufficient pairwise item-intercorrelation or false classification to a defence mechanism by experienced clinicians, we found three stable factors of defence (maladaptive, intermediate-neurotic and adaptive) consistent with the previous research. After 3 months of therapy, a decrease in maladaptive mechanisms and an increase in adaptive patterns were found, while neurotic mechanisms did not change on average. Our shortened version of the DSQ 40 was shown to be a valid instrument for the assessment of defence mechanisms and change in these mechanisms after psychotherapy. Our design did not permit an assessment of whether or not the change in defence mechanisms was due to the therapeutic treatment.

  9. Introducing 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare' university module for DMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris; Blake, L

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 10 years the UK Defence Medical Services has deployed healthcare personnel to a variety of operational areas in support of UK Operations. The unique nature of every operational deployment, in conjunction with the wide variety of roles which healthcare staff undertake, necessitates bespoke educational preparation of the military healthcare force. This paper explores the creation and development of one of the four modules which comprise the BSc (Hons) in Defence Health Care studies, entitled 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare'. It demonstrates the unique contribution that the Defence School of Healthcare Education makes towards Generation and Preparation of the Force for deployment.

  10. Anti-predator defence and the complexity-stability relationship of food webs.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Michio

    2007-07-07

    The mechanism for maintaining complex food webs has been a central issue in ecology because theory often predicts that complexity (higher the species richness, more the interactions) destabilizes food webs. Although it has been proposed that prey anti-predator defence may affect the stability of prey-predator dynamics, such studies assumed a limited and relatively simpler variation in the food-web structure. Here, using mathematical models, I report that food-web flexibility arising from prey anti-predator defence enhances community-level stability (community persistence and robustness) in more complex systems and even changes the complexity-stability relationship. The model analysis shows that adaptive predator-specific defence enhances community-level stability under a wide range of food-web complexity levels and topologies, while generalized defence does not. Furthermore, while increasing food-web complexity has minor or negative effects on community-level stability in the absence of defence adaptation, or in the presence of generalized defence, in the presence of predator-specific defence, the connectance-stability relationship may become unimodal. Increasing species richness, in contrast, always lowers community-level stability. The emergence of a positive connectance-stability relationship however necessitates food-web compartmentalization, high defence efficiency and low defence cost, suggesting that it only occurs under a restricted condition.

  11. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Swain, Swadhin; Singh, Nidhi; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2015-03-01

    A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1 (cdd1) is an exception. The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene expression profile between cdd1 and wild-type plants as obtained by microarray hybridization. Expression of several defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA insertion mutant lines of selected genes, for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant defence against bacterial pathogens.

  12. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    PubMed

    Nylund, Göran M; Enge, Swantje; Pavia, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  13. Obesity and oxidative stress: potential roles of melatonin as antioxidant and metabolic regulator.

    PubMed

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an oxidative stress status, defined as an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to the level of antioxidants acting in the natural defence systems. Several sources of ROS can be identified in obesity (e.g., mitochondrial respiratory chain, or NADPH oxidase) and could contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Indeed, these conditions favour the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome through deregulation of adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, so that it could be of interest to associate antioxidant therapeutic strategies with strategies of weight loss. Among antioxidants, melatonin holds a special place, on the one hand for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and on the other hand for its role as a metabolic regulator. As melatonin modulates several processes involved in obesity and its related metabolic alterations, it could have a therapeutic interest in the treatment of obesity.

  14. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  15. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  16. Programmed cell death as a defence against infection.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Ine; Rayamajhi, Manira; Miao, Edward A

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells can die from physical trauma, which results in necrosis. Alternatively, they can die through programmed cell death upon the stimulation of specific signalling pathways. In this Review, we discuss the role of different cell death pathways in innate immune defence against bacterial and viral infection: apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and NETosis. We describe the interactions that interweave different programmed cell death pathways, which create complex signalling networks that cross-guard each other in the evolutionary 'arms race' with pathogens. Finally, we describe how the resulting cell corpses - apoptotic bodies, pore-induced intracellular traps (PITs) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) - promote the clearance of infection.

  17. Neutrophils: Between Host Defence, Immune Modulation, and Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Philipp; Saffarzadeh, Mona; Weber, Alexander N. R.; Rieber, Nikolaus; Radsak, Markus; von Bernuth, Horst; Benarafa, Charaf; Roos, Dirk; Skokowa, Julia; Hartl, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils, the most abundant human immune cells, are rapidly recruited to sites of infection, where they fulfill their life-saving antimicrobial functions. While traditionally regarded as short-lived phagocytes, recent findings on long-term survival, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, heterogeneity and plasticity, suppressive functions, and tissue injury have expanded our understanding of their diverse role in infection and inflammation. This review summarises our current understanding of neutrophils in host-pathogen interactions and disease involvement, illustrating the versatility and plasticity of the neutrophil, moving between host defence, immune modulation, and tissue damage. PMID:25764063

  18. Bacterial self-defence: how Escherichia coli evades serum killing.

    PubMed

    Miajlovic, Helen; Smith, Stephen G

    2014-05-01

    The ability to survive the bactericidal action of serum is advantageous to extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli that gain access to the bloodstream. Evasion of the innate defences present in serum, including complement and antimicrobial peptides, involves multiple factors. Serum resistance mechanisms utilized by E. coli include the production of protective extracellular polysaccharide capsules and expression of factors that inhibit or interfere with the complement cascade. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of structural integrity of the cell envelope in serum survival. These survival strategies are outlined in this review with particular attention to novel findings and recent insights into well-established resistance mechanisms.

  19. Interspecific assistance: fiddler crabs help heterospecific neighbours in territory defence.

    PubMed

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2010-12-23

    Theory predicts that territory owners will help established neighbours to repel intruders, when doing so is less costly than renegotiating boundaries with successful usurpers of neighbouring territories. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, cooperative territory defence between heterospecific male neighbours in the fiddler crabs Uca elegans and Uca mjoebergi. We show experimentally that resident U. elegans were equally likely to help a smaller U. mjoebergi or U. elegans neighbour during simulated intrusions by intermediate sized U. elegans males (50% of cases for both). Helping was, however, significantly less likely to occur when the intruder was a U. mjoebergi male (only 15% of cases).

  20. Doctors' attitudes on civil defence and nuclear weapon issues.

    PubMed

    Hunter-Brown, I H

    1989-01-01

    97 out of 219 doctors responded to a questionnaire on medical aspects of nuclear weapons. A majority of the respondents considered that the then-current civil defence planning was not a valuable use of National Health Service resources, and that an attack with nuclear weapons would cause a degree of suffering beyond the profession's capacity to treat; thought doctors should have a special voice on nuclear issues; and believed Britain should not be increasing its nuclear weapons, and that if expenditure on them were reduced, the savings should go on health. The high support for organizations like MAPW was gratifying.

  1. Analysis of direct punch velocity in professional defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapkova, Dora; Adamek, Milan

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on analysis of a direct punch. Nowadays, professional defence is basic part of effective protection of people and property. There are many striking techniques and the goal of this research was to analyze the direct punch. The analysis is aimed to measure the velocity with help of high speed camera Olympus i-Speed 2 and then find the dependences of this velocity on input parameters. For data analysis two pieces of software were used - i-Speed Control Software and MINITAB. 111 participants took part in this experiment. The results are presented in this paper - especially dependence of mean velocity on time and difference in velocity between genders.

  2. Decreased Neprilysin and Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Marilee J.; Buesing, Erica J.; Wehling, Carol A.; Loomis, Zoe L.; Cool, Carlyne D.; Zamora, Martin R.; Miller, York E.; Colgan, Sean P.; Hersh, Louis B.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Dempsey, Edward C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Studies with genetically engineered mice showed that decreased expression of the transmembrane peptidase neprilysin (NEP) increases susceptibility to hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypertension; in hypoxic wild-type mice, expression is decreased early in distal pulmonary arteries, where prominent vascular remodeling occurs. Therefore, in humans with smoke- and hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling, as in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary activity/expression of NEP may likewise be decreased. Objectives: To test whether NEP activity and expression are reduced in COPD lungs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) exposed to cigarette smoke extract or hypoxia and begin to investigate mechanisms involved. Methods: Control and advanced COPD lung lysates (n = 13–14) were analyzed for NEP activity and protein and mRNA expression. As a control, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity was analyzed. Lung sections were assessed for vascular remodeling and oxidant damage. Human pulmonary arterial SMCs were exposed to cigarette smoke extract, hypoxia, or H2O2, and incubated with antioxidants or lysosomal/proteasomal inhibitors. Measurements and Main Results: COPD lungs demonstrated areas of vascular rarification, distal muscularization, and variable intimal and prominent medial/adventitial thickening. NEP activity was reduced by 76%; NEP protein expression was decreased in alveolar walls and distal vessels; mRNA expression was also decreased. In SMCs exposed to cigarette smoke extract, hypoxia, and H2O2, NEP activity and expression were also reduced. Reactive oxygen species inactivated NEP activity; NEP protein degradation appeared to be substantially induced. Conclusions: Mechanisms responsible for reduced NEP activity and protein expression include oxidative reactions and protein degradation. Maintaining or increasing lung NEP may protect against pulmonary vascular remodeling in response to chronic smoke and hypoxia. PMID:20813891

  3. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking a pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, A; Yates, T J; Kuriakose, P

    2008-01-01

    Sarcomas involving the lung are a rare occurrence, often a result of metastatic disease from primary malignancies involving the skin, liver, breast or heart. Primary pulmonary artery sarcomas are rarer still, with limited cases reported world-wide and consequently data regarding treatment modalities are sparse and largely experimental. These tumors are often mistaken for a pulmonary embolism and seemingly supported by radiological findings. Patients will often present without symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. The following case illustrates how a soft tissue sarcoma of the pulmonary artery can mimic a pulmonary embolism, thus, resulting in both a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. A positron emission tomography scan was an invaluable tool in this case, showing increased radiotracer uptake and placing neoplasm at the top of the differential diagnosis. This ultimately led to a biopsy that was vimentin positive, cytokeratin negative and CD117 negative, thus consistent with soft tissue sarcoma.

  4. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M; de la Cruz, Kim I; Benjamin, Robert S; Hallman, Charles H

    2014-10-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival.

  5. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Mimicking Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M.; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Hallman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival. PMID:25425986

  6. The cuticle: Not only a barrier for plant defence: A novel defence syndrome in plants with cuticular defects.

    PubMed

    Chassot, Céline; Nawrath, Christiane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2008-02-01

    The cuticle is a physical barrier that prevents water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics and pathogens. This classic textbook statement has recently been revisited and several observations were made showing that this dogma falls short of being universally true. Both transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing cell wall-targeted fungal cutinase (so-called CUTE plants) or lipase as well as several A. thaliana mutants with altered cuticular structure remained free of symptoms after an inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. The alterations in cuticular structure lead to the release of fungitoxic substances and changes in gene expression that form a multifactorial defence response. Several models to explain this syndrome are discussed.

  7. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking massive pulmonary embolus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alsoufi, Bahaaldin; Slater, Matthew; Smith, Pamela P; Karamlou, Tara; Mansoor, Atiya; Ravichandran, Pasala

    2006-08-01

    Intimal sarcomas of the pulmonary artery are rare tumors that are often difficult to distinguish from pulmonary thromboembolic disease, complicating accurate diagnosis and timely therapy. We report the case of a gentleman with a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma who presented with a massive pulmonary embolism and complete right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The patient's condition was successfully managed with urgent pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy, pulmonary valve replacement, and tricuspid valve annuloplasty.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity as a Marker for Assessing the In Vitro Performance of the Endangered Cistus heterophyllus

    PubMed Central

    López-Orenes, Antonio; Ros-Marín, Antonio F.; Ferrer, María A.; Calderón, Antonio A.

    2013-01-01

    Cistus heterophyllus subsp. carthaginensis is an endemic and endangered species from the SE Mediterranean coastal region of Spain. Within the framework of the efforts aiming to species conservation, in vitro culture techniques could be of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of C. heterophyllus shoot cultures as a possible marker of in vitro performance. The effects of five different basal salt formulations and cytokinin levels on in vitro performance and antioxidant capacity were examined. K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios initially present in culture media greatly affected the antioxidant capacity (the lower the ratios the higher the antioxidant capacity). Increasing concentrations of BA resulted in higher antioxidant capacity. The results obtained point to antioxidant capacity as being a marker of incidence of stress conditions in in vitro cultured C. heterophyllus. A good correlation was found between antioxidant capacity and total soluble phenolics present in Cistus extracts. Catechin was identified in all the extracts and its levels were found to change parallel to the antioxidant capacity, pointing to a prominent role played by this flavonoid in C. heterophyllus defence against oxidative stress, which in turn affects the in vitro performance of this species. PMID:24453805

  9. Manic Defences in Contemporary Society. The Psychocultural Approach.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Dusko; Jakovljevic, Miro; Marcinko, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the impact of contemporary culture on the individual's personality. We used the "psychocultural" approach whose key feature is the amalgamation of theories and methods belonging to psychodynamic and psychosocial studies, as well as those used in the field of media and cultural studies. The idea of a potentially therapeutic effect of culture (therapy culture) can already been seen in Freud's and Lacan's texts, and it is often used in critical analyses of contemporary corporate culture, which is more or less developed in some parts of the world. In their criticisms, many contemporary authors emphasize that modern societies have a tendency towards the weakening of basic commitment, or lack thereof, to a social equivalent of Winnicott's concept of environmental provisions as an inalienable democratic right essential for human emotional and mental progress or emotional well-being. The article describes frequent resorting to the so-called manic defences that defensively distort, deny and obscure the awareness that a human being is not the omnipotent source of life, but instead depends on other human beings, and often tries to compensate for loss through various activities. The article describes excessive shopping as an activity that often serves as an attempt to find what was lost, i.e. to fill an emotional void. This solution (resorting to manic defences) is encouraged by contemporary culture, especially through promotional material (e.g. advertising). The main theses of this article are supported by quotations and data from world literature.

  10. Microstructured fibres: a positive impact on defence technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, E. J.; Watson, M. A.; Delmonte, T.; Petrovich, M. N.; Feng, X.; Flanagan, J. C.; Hayes, J. R.; Richardson, D. J.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we seek to assess the potential impact of microstructured fibres for security and defence applications. Recent literature has presented results on using microstructured fibre for delivery of high power, high quality radiation and also on the use of microstructured fibre for broadband source generation. Whilst these two applications may appear contradictory to one another the inherent design flexibility of microstructured fibres allows fibres to be fabricated for the specific application requirements, either minimising (for delivery) or maximising (for broadband source generation) the nonlinear effects. In platform based laser applications such as infrared counter measures, remote sensing and laser directed-energy weapons, a suitable delivery fibre providing high power, high quality light delivery would allow a laser to be sited remotely from the sensor/device head. This opens up the possibility of several sensor/device types sharing the same multi-functional laser, thus reducing the complexity and hence the cost of such systems. For applications requiring broadband source characteristics, microstructured fibres can also offer advantages over conventional sources. By exploiting the nonlinear effects it is possible to realise a multifunctional source for applications such as active hyperspectral imaging, countermeasures, and biochemical sensing. These recent results suggest enormous potential for these novel fibre types to influence the next generation of photonic systems for security and defence applications. However, it is important to establish where the fibres can offer the greatest advantages and what research still needs to be done to drive the technology towards real platform solutions.

  11. Photosynthesis, photorespiration, and light signalling in defence responses.

    PubMed

    Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Neukermans, Jenny; Li, Shengchun; Aro, Eva-Mari; Noctor, Graham

    2012-02-01

    Visible light is the basic energetic driver of plant biomass production through photosynthesis. The constantly fluctuating availability of light and other environmental factors means that the photosynthetic apparatus must be able to operate in a dynamic fashion appropriate to the prevailing conditions. Dynamic regulation is achieved through an array of homeostatic control mechanisms that both respond to and influence cellular energy and reductant status. In addition, light availability and quality are continuously monitored by plants through photoreceptors. Outside the laboratory growth room, it is within the context of complex changes in energy and signalling status that plants must regulate pathways to deal with biotic challenges, and this can be influenced by changes in the highly energetic photosynthetic pathways and in the turnover of the photosynthetic machinery. Because of this, defence responses are neither simple nor easily predictable, but rather conditioned by the nutritional and signalling status of the plant cell. This review discusses recent data and emerging concepts of how recognized defence pathways interact with and are influenced by light-dependent processes. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential roles of the chloroplast, photorespiration, and photoreceptor-associated pathways in regulating the outcome of interactions between plants and pathogenic organisms.

  12. Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

    2000-03-22

    We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times.

  13. Mutualistic ants as an indirect defence against leaf pathogens.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens.

  14. Handbook of pulmonary emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

  15. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  16. Pulmonary artery sarcoma masquerading as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ugur; Sinan, Umit Yasar; Calpar, Ilknur; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yanartas, Mehmet; Filinte, Deniz; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with pulmonary artery sarcoma, a very rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Her tumor was initially misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, and she underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is crucial. That alternative should always be considered before settling on a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Suspicion should be aroused by the failure of anticoagulant treatment to alleviate pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and systemic symptoms. Surgical resection of the tumor-preferably by pulmonary endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction as needed-is currently the most promising treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma.

  17. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Masquerading as Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ugur; Calpar, Ilknur; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yanartas, Mehmet; Filinte, Deniz; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with pulmonary artery sarcoma, a very rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Her tumor was initially misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, and she underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is crucial. That alternative should always be considered before settling on a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Suspicion should be aroused by the failure of anticoagulant treatment to alleviate pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and systemic symptoms. Surgical resection of the tumor—preferably by pulmonary endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction as needed—is currently the most promising treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma. PMID:25425987

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Tomasz; Szumarska, Joanna; Staniszewska-Marszalek, Edyta; Mazurek, Walentyna; Kosmala, Wojciech

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon lesion, which may be associated with different etiologies including congenital cardiovascular diseases, systemic vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, infections, and trauma. Idiopathic PAA is sporadically diagnosed by exclusion of concomitant major pathology. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with an idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation identified fortuitously by echocardiography and confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Neither significant pulmonary valve dysfunction nor pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac abnormalities which might contribute to the PAA development were found. Here, we describe echocardiographic and computed tomography findings and review the literature on PAA management.

  19. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation.

  20. Effects of light on direct and indirect defences against herbivores of young plants of Mallotus japonicus demonstrate a trade-off between two indirect defence traits

    PubMed Central

    Yamawo, Akira; Hada, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Although most studies on plant defence strategies have focused on a particular defence trait, some plant species develop multiple defence traits. To clarify the effects of light on the development of multiple defence traits, the production of direct and indirect defence traits of young plants of Mallotus japonicus were examined experimentally under different light conditions. Methods The young plants were cultivated under three light conditions in the experimental field for 3 months from May to July. Numbers of ants and pearl bodies on leaves in July were examined. After cultivation, the plants were collected and the developments of trichomes and pellucid dots, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) on the leaves were examined. On plants without nectar-collecting insects, the size of EFNs and the volume of extrafloral nectar secreted from the EFNs were examined. Key results Densities of trichomes and pellucid dots did not differ significantly among the plants under the different light conditions, suggesting that the chemical and physical defences function under both high and low light availability. The number of EFNs on the leaves did not differ significantly among the plants under the different light conditions, but there appeared to be a trade-off between the size of EFNs and the number of pearl bodies; the largest EFNs and the smallest number of pearl bodies were found under high light availability. EFN size was significantly correlated with the volume of extrafloral nectar secreted for 24 h. The number of ants on the plants was smaller under low light availability than under high and moderate light availability. Conclusions These results suggest that direct defence traits function regardless of light conditions, but light conditions affected the development of indirect defence traits. PMID:20472698

  1. Estimating the ROI for Recruitment Marketing and Advertising Expenditure for the Australian Defence Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    OF RECRUITMENT MARKETING AND ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE FOR THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE by Christopher D. Kitchin March 2012 Thesis...ROI for Recruitment Marketing and Advertising Expenditure for the Australian Defence Force 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher D. Kitchin... advertising expenditure was found to have no effect on enlistments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Marketing and Advertising Expenditure, Recruitment 15

  2. UK Defence Acquisition Process for NEC: Transaction Governance within an Integrated Project Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    Government of Margaret Thatcher . Of the five largest defence companies in 1979, four were state owned: British Aerospace, British Shipbuilders, Royal...NEC demands a more collaborative, through- life approach to defence acquisition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...Innovative Systems Engineering), exploring organisational aspects of Through Life Systems Management. Maytorena became a lecturer in Construction Project

  3. To Gain the Academic Capital: The Conflict and Solution in the Dissertation Proposal Defence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ningning, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Doctor candidates get the academic identity and academic capital in his field by the thesis writing. The dissertation proposal defence hold on the public field promotes the state of academic and legalizes the discipline of the academic community. During the dissertation proposal defence, doctor candidates may face three conflicts. The first is…

  4. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence.

    PubMed

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-11-22

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease.

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Defence Mechanisms Used in Psychotherapy by Adults Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, D. W.; Beail, N.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: A significant concept in psychodynamic theory and practice is that of defence mechanisms. The identifications of defences is a key task of the therapist and these are then used in the formulation and form part of the therapist's interventions. Case studies of psychotherapy with adults who have intellectual disabilities (IDs) suggest that…

  6. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-01-01

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease. PMID:17848371

  7. Negative regulation of defence and stress genes by EAR-motif-containing repressors.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Kemal

    2006-03-01

    Although positive control or activation mechanism(s) involved in plant defence- and stress-related gene expression is relatively well studied, little is known about what keeps defensive armoury under control when not needed. Recent reports suggest that transcriptional repression of gene expression by EAR-motif-containing repressor proteins plays a key role in modulating plant defence and stress responses.

  8. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  9. Pulmonary hypertension management in neonates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Kartikey A; Puligandla, Pramod S

    2015-02-01

    The management of pulmonary hypertension is multi-faceted, with therapies directed at supporting cardiovascular and pulmonary function, treating the underlying cause (if feasible), and preventing irreversible remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Recently, manipulation of signaling pathways and mediators contained within the pulmonary vascular endothelial cell has become a new target. This article will review the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension and the broad principles involved in its management, with specific emphasis on pharmacological therapies directed at the pulmonary vascular endothelium.

  10. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-01-30

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity.

  11. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Sometimes doctors can find out what is causing pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring). For example, exposure to environmental pollutants ...

  12. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  13. Pulmonary circulation at exercise.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert; Chesler, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg/min/L in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg/min/L over four to six decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20 to 25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40 to 50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.

  14. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nicholas A; Svensson, Carl Johan; de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells). To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  15. Differential phenotypic and genetic expression of defence compounds in a plant-herbivore interaction along elevation.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Ana L; Suchan, Tomasz; Pellissier, Loïc; Rasmann, Sergio; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Alvarez, Nadir

    2016-09-01

    Elevation gradients impose large differences in abiotic and biotic conditions over short distances, in turn, likely driving differences in gene expression more than would genetic variation per se, as natural selection and drift are less likely to fix alleles at such a narrow spatial scale. As elevation increases, the pressure exerted on plants by herbivores and on arthropod herbivores by predators decreases, and organisms spanning the elevation gradient are thus expected to show lower levels of defence at high elevation. The alternative hypothesis, based on the optimal defence theory, is that defence allocation should be higher in low-resource habitats such as those at high elevation, due to higher costs associated with tissue replacement. In this study, we analyse variation with elevation in (i) defence compound content in the plant Lotus corniculatus and (ii) gene expression associated with defence against predators in the specific phytophagous moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Both species produce cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) such as lotaustralin and linamarin as defence mechanisms, with the moth, in addition, being able to sequester CNglcs from its host plant. Specifically, we tested the assumption that the defence-associated phenotype in plants and the gene expression in the insect herbivore should covary between low- and high-elevation environments. We found that L. corniculatus accumulated more CNglcs at high elevation, a result in agreement with the optimal defence theory. By contrast, we found that the levels of expression in the defence genes of Z. filipendulae larvae were not related to the CNglc content of their host plant. Overall, expression levels were not correlated with elevation either, with the exception of the UGT33A1 gene, which showed a marginally significant trend towards higher expression at high elevation when using a simple statistical framework. These results suggest that the defence phenotype of plants against herbivores, and subsequent

  16. Differential phenotypic and genetic expression of defence compounds in a plant–herbivore interaction along elevation

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Ana L.; Suchan, Tomasz; Pellissier, Loïc; Rasmann, Sergio; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

    2016-01-01

    Elevation gradients impose large differences in abiotic and biotic conditions over short distances, in turn, likely driving differences in gene expression more than would genetic variation per se, as natural selection and drift are less likely to fix alleles at such a narrow spatial scale. As elevation increases, the pressure exerted on plants by herbivores and on arthropod herbivores by predators decreases, and organisms spanning the elevation gradient are thus expected to show lower levels of defence at high elevation. The alternative hypothesis, based on the optimal defence theory, is that defence allocation should be higher in low-resource habitats such as those at high elevation, due to higher costs associated with tissue replacement. In this study, we analyse variation with elevation in (i) defence compound content in the plant Lotus corniculatus and (ii) gene expression associated with defence against predators in the specific phytophagous moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Both species produce cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) such as lotaustralin and linamarin as defence mechanisms, with the moth, in addition, being able to sequester CNglcs from its host plant. Specifically, we tested the assumption that the defence-associated phenotype in plants and the gene expression in the insect herbivore should covary between low- and high-elevation environments. We found that L. corniculatus accumulated more CNglcs at high elevation, a result in agreement with the optimal defence theory. By contrast, we found that the levels of expression in the defence genes of Z. filipendulae larvae were not related to the CNglc content of their host plant. Overall, expression levels were not correlated with elevation either, with the exception of the UGT33A1 gene, which showed a marginally significant trend towards higher expression at high elevation when using a simple statistical framework. These results suggest that the defence phenotype of plants against herbivores, and subsequent

  17. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation.

  18. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  19. Redox Control of Multidrug Resistance and Its Possible Modulation by Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Tomris; Saso, Luciano; De Luca, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical efficacy of anticancer chemotherapies is dramatically hampered by multidrug resistance (MDR) dependent on inherited traits, acquired defence against toxins, and adaptive mechanisms mounting in tumours. There is overwhelming evidence that molecular events leading to MDR are regulated by redox mechanisms. For example, chemotherapeutics which overrun the first obstacle of redox-regulated cellular uptake channels (MDR1, MDR2, and MDR3) induce a concerted action of phase I/II metabolic enzymes with a temporal redox-regulated axis. This results in rapid metabolic transformation and elimination of a toxin. This metabolic axis is tightly interconnected with the inducible Nrf2-linked pathway, a key switch-on mechanism for upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and detoxifying systems. As a result, chemotherapeutics and cytotoxic by-products of their metabolism (ROS, hydroperoxides, and aldehydes) are inactivated and MDR occurs. On the other hand, tumour cells are capable of mounting an adaptive antioxidant response against ROS produced by chemotherapeutics and host immune cells. The multiple redox-dependent mechanisms involved in MDR prompted suggesting redox-active drugs (antioxidants and prooxidants) or inhibitors of inducible antioxidant defence as a novel approach to diminish MDR. Pitfalls and progress in this direction are discussed. PMID:26881027

  20. Modelling an infrared Man Portable Air Defence System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenall, Richard P.; Richardson, Mark A.; Brian, Butters; Roy, Walmsley

    2010-09-01

    The global proliferation of shoulder launched IR Man Portable Air Defence Systems (ManPADS) has resulted in the existence of a serious threat to both civilian and military aircraft from terrorist attack. Some of the older generations of ManPADS can be defeated with modern countermeasures but even the most sophisticated protection still has vulnerabilities to the latest family of ManPADS. This paper describes the work undertaken by the authors to model a second generation ManPAD, based on the Russian SA-14, and assess the vulnerabilities of aircraft both with and without flare countermeasures from these systems. The conclusions are the results of over 11,000 simulated firings against targets of varying aspects, velocities and altitudes.

  1. Potato skin proteome is enriched with plant defence components

    PubMed Central

    Barel, Gilli; Ginzberg, Idit

    2008-01-01

    Periderm is a tissue of secondary origin that replaces damaged epidermis. It can be found in underground plant organs, as an above-ground tissue of woody species (cork), and as a wound-healing tissue. Its outer layers are composed of phellem cells with suberized walls that constitute a protective barrier, preventing pathogen invasion and fluid loss. In potato, a model for periderm studies, periderm tissue replaces the epidermis early in tuber development and the suberized phellems constitute the tuber's skin. To identify factors involved in phellem/skin development and that play a role in its defensive characteristics, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare the skin and parenchymatic flesh proteomes of young developing tubers. Proteins exhibiting differentially high signal intensity in the skin were sorted by functional categories. As expected, the differential skin proteome was enriched in proteins whose activity is characteristic of actively dividing tissues such as cell proliferation, C1 metabolism, and the oxidative respiratory chain. Interestingly, the major functional category consisted of proteins (63%) involved in plant defence responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This group included three isozymes of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and five isozymes of peroxidase that may play a role in suberization processes. The differential expression of these proteins in the skin was further verified by RT-PCR of their corresponding transcripts in skin and tuber flesh samples. The results presented here shed light on the early events in skin development and further expand the concept of the periderm as a protective tissue containing an array of plant defence components. PMID:18653692

  2. Silicon-based plant defences, tooth wear and voles.

    PubMed

    Calandra, Ivan; Zub, Karol; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Zalewski, Andrzej; Merceron, Gildas

    2016-02-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are hypothesized to drive vole population cycles through the grazing-induced production of phytoliths in leaves. Phytoliths act as mechanical defences because they deter herbivory and lower growth rates in mammals. However, how phytoliths impair herbivore performance is still unknown. Here, we tested whether the amount of phytoliths changes tooth wear patterns. If confirmed, abrasion from phytoliths could play a role in population crashes. We applied dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) to laboratory and wild voles. Lab voles were fed two pelleted diets with differing amounts of silicon, which produced similar dental textures. This was most probably due to the loss of food mechanical properties through pelletization and/or the small difference in silicon concentration between diets. Wild voles were trapped in Poland during spring and summer, and every year across a population cycle. In spring, voles feed on silica-rich monocotyledons, while in the summer they also include silica-depleted dicotyledons. This was reflected in the results; the amount of silica therefore leaves a traceable record in the dental microwear texture of voles. Furthermore, voles from different phases of population cycles have different microwear textures. We tentatively propose that these differences result from grazing-induced phytolith concentrations. We hypothesize that the high amount of phytoliths in response to intense grazing in peak years may result in malocclusion and other dental abnormalities, which would explain how these silicon-based plant defences help provoke population crashes. DMTA could then be used to reconstruct vole population dynamics using teeth from pellets or palaeontological material.

  3. HYPXIM: an innovative hyperspectral satellite for science, security and defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre-Fonollosa, Marie-José; Fratter, Isabelle; Mandea, Mioara

    2013-04-01

    We provide a broad overview of hyperspectral applications and data requirements gathered by an ad-hoc group of some twenty French scientists and defence users. This group known by as GSH (Groupe de Synthèse sur l'Hyperspectral) has addressed clear and detailed technical requirements for a high spatial resolution hyperspectral mission on the following themes: study of vegetation, coastal and inland water ecosystems, urban environment, atmospheric studies, and more widely, geosciences and security -defence matters. The synthesis of these requirements helped substantially to set up consolidated space-based system requirements (i.e. mission requirements) in terms of spectral domain, spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, swath and revisiting period, which revealed the main key drivers for the design of a very innovative hyperspectral space system. During the phase 0, CNES with the support of industry (Astrium et Thales Alenia Space) has compared two different scenario. The first one, named HYPXIM-C (HYPXIM-Challenging), aimed to finding out the highest possible resolution level (15m) achievable using a microsatellite platform, whereas the second scenario, called HYPXIM-P (HYPXIM-Performance), aimed to reach a higher spatial resolution (8m) and to provide a TIR hyperspectral capability. Recently, the HYPXIM phase A has been decided and it focuses on the most performing concept, however without TIR capabilities. The challenge for the selected HYPXIM mission is to design a high resolution spectroimager on an agile mini-satellite, at a reasonable cost. We will present the wide field HYPXIM core mission performance objectives, as well as the orbital parameters and mission scenarios.

  4. Brood parasitism selects for no defence in a cuckoo host.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver

    2011-09-22

    In coevolutionary arms races, like between cuckoos and their hosts, it is easy to understand why the host is under selection favouring anti-parasitism behaviour, such as egg rejection, which can lead to parasites evolving remarkable adaptations to 'trick' their host, such as mimetic eggs. But what about cases where the cuckoo egg is not mimetic and where the host does not act against it? Classically, such apparently non-adaptive behaviour is put down to evolutionary lag: given enough time, egg mimicry and parasite avoidance strategies will evolve. An alternative is that absence of egg mimicry and of anti-parasite behaviour is stable. Such stability is at first sight highly paradoxical. I show, using both field and experimental data to parametrize a simulation model, that the absence of defence behaviour by Cape bulbuls (Pycnonotus capensis) against parasitic eggs of the Jacobin cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) is optimal behaviour. The cuckoo has evolved massive eggs (double the size of bulbul eggs) with thick shells, making it very hard or impossible for the host to eject the cuckoo egg. The host could still avoid brood parasitism by nest desertion. However, higher predation and parasitism risks later in the season makes desertion more costly than accepting the cuckoo egg, a strategy aided by the fact that many cuckoo eggs are incorrectly timed, so do not hatch in time and hence do not reduce host fitness to zero. Selection will therefore prevent the continuation of any coevolutionary arms race. Non-mimetic eggs and absence of defence strategies against cuckoo eggs will be the stable, if at first sight paradoxical, result.

  5. Potato skin proteome is enriched with plant defence components.

    PubMed

    Barel, Gilli; Ginzberg, Idit

    2008-01-01

    Periderm is a tissue of secondary origin that replaces damaged epidermis. It can be found in underground plant organs, as an above-ground tissue of woody species (cork), and as a wound-healing tissue. Its outer layers are composed of phellem cells with suberized walls that constitute a protective barrier, preventing pathogen invasion and fluid loss. In potato, a model for periderm studies, periderm tissue replaces the epidermis early in tuber development and the suberized phellems constitute the tuber's skin. To identify factors involved in phellem/skin development and that play a role in its defensive characteristics, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare the skin and parenchymatic flesh proteomes of young developing tubers. Proteins exhibiting differentially high signal intensity in the skin were sorted by functional categories. As expected, the differential skin proteome was enriched in proteins whose activity is characteristic of actively dividing tissues such as cell proliferation, C(1) metabolism, and the oxidative respiratory chain. Interestingly, the major functional category consisted of proteins (63%) involved in plant defence responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This group included three isozymes of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and five isozymes of peroxidase that may play a role in suberization processes. The differential expression of these proteins in the skin was further verified by RT-PCR of their corresponding transcripts in skin and tuber flesh samples. The results presented here shed light on the early events in skin development and further expand the concept of the periderm as a protective tissue containing an array of plant defence components.

  6. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    PubMed Central

    Kant, M. R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B. C. J.; Villarroel, C. A.; Ataide, L. M. S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J. J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R. C.; Sabelis, M. W.; Alba, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. Scope The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can

  7. Independent Effects of a Herbivore's Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences.

    PubMed

    Staudacher, Heike; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Lamers, Mart M; Wybouw, Nicky; Groot, Astrid T; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-01-18

    It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant's response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant's defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly.

  8. Genetic dissection of basal defence responsiveness in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shakoor; Van Hulten, Marieke; Martin, Janet; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Ton, Jurriaan

    2011-07-01

    Basal resistance involves a multitude of pathogen- and herbivore-inducible defence mechanisms, ranging from localized callose deposition to systemic defence gene induction by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). In this study, we have explored and dissected genetic variation in the responsiveness of basal defence mechanisms within a selection of Arabidopsis accessions. Responsiveness of JA-induced PDF1.2 gene expression was associated with enhanced basal resistance against the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina and the herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Conversely, accessions showing augmented PR-1 induction upon SA treatment were more resistant to the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, and constitutively expressed defence-related transcription factor (TF) genes. Unexpectedly, accessions with primed responsiveness to SA deposited comparatively little callose after treatment with microbe-associated molecular patterns. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified two loci regulating flagellin-induced callose and one locus regulating SA-induced PR-1 expression. The latter QTL was found to contribute to basal resistance against P. syringae. None of the defence regulatory QTLs influenced plant growth, suggesting that the constitutive defence priming conferred by these loci is not associated with major costs on plant growth. Our study demonstrates that natural variation in basal resistance can be exploited to identify genetic loci that prime the plant's basal defence arsenal.

  9. Involvement of phospholipases C and D in the defence responses of riboflavin-treated tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianlian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Liu, Jinwei; Chu, Xiaojing; Jiao, Jiao; Liang, Yuancun

    2013-04-01

    Riboflavin is an activator of defence responses in plants that increases resistance against diseases caused by fungal, oomycete, bacterial and viral pathogens. However, the mechanisms driving defence activation by riboflavin are poorly understood. We investigated the signal transduction pathways of phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells using a pharmacological approach to confirm whether riboflavin-mediated activation of the defence response is dependent on both PLC and PLD. The expression patterns analysed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the tobacco PLC and PLD gene families were differentially expressed in riboflavin-treated tobacco cells. PLC and PLD expression accompanied defence responses including the expression of defence response genes (PAL, PR-1a and PR-1b), the production of hydrogen peroxide and the accumulation of the phytoalexin scopoletin in tobacco cells treated with riboflavin. These defence responses were significantly inhibited in the presence of the PLC inhibitor U73122 and the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol; however, inhibitor analogues had no effect. Moreover, treating tobacco cells with phosphatidic acid, a signalling molecule produced by phospholipase catalysis, induced the accumulation of the phytoalexin scopoletin and compensated for the suppressive effects of U73122 and 1-butanol on riboflavin-induced accumulation of the phytoalexin. These results offer pharmacological evidence that PLC and PLD play a role in riboflavin-induced defences of tobacco.

  10. Independent Effects of a Herbivore’s Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Heike; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Lamers, Mart M.; Wybouw, Nicky; Groot, Astrid T.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant’s response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant’s defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly. PMID:28106771

  11. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    PubMed

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Sarcoma of the pulmonary trunk and the main pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Huwer, Hanno; Ozbek, Cem; Waldmann, Rita; Winning, Johannes; Isringhaus, Helmut; Kalweit, Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    We report on a sarcoma of the central pulmonary arteries. Surgical therapy consisted in replacing both main pulmonary arteries and the pulmonary trunk including the pulmonary valve. Six months later a left-sided pneumonectomy had to be performed due to an intravascular tumor. Fifteen months after first resection treatment, recurrent tumors of the right pulmonary artery and the right ventricle were resected. Two years after the first operation the patient has no detectable tumor.

  14. Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Nylund, Göran M.; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  15. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Nylund, Göran M; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  16. Induction of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana after Uranium Exposure at pH 7.5

    PubMed Central

    Saenen, Eline; Horemans, Nele; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Biermans, Geert; Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental impact of uranium (U) contamination, it is important to investigate the effects of U at ecologically relevant conditions. Since U speciation, and hence its toxicity, strongly depends on environmental pH, the present study aimed to investigate dose-dependent effects of U at pH 7.5. Arabidopsis thaliana plants (Mouse-ear Cress) were exposed for three days to different U concentrations at pH 7.5. In the roots, the increased capacities of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase indicate an important role for the ascorbate-glutathione cycle during U-induced stress. However, a significant decrease in the ascorbate redox state was observed after exposure to 75 and 100 µM U, indicating that those roots are severely stressed. In accordance with the roots, the ascorbate-glutathione cycle plays an important role in the antioxidative defence systems in A. thaliana leaves exposed to U at pH 7.5 as the ascorbate and glutathione biosynthesis were upregulated. In addition, small inductions of enzymes of the antioxidative defence system were observed at lower U concentrations to counteract the U-induced stress. However, at higher U concentrations it seems that the antioxidative defence system of the leaves collapses as reductions in enzyme activities and gene expression levels were observed. PMID:26042463

  17. Carbon monoxide-bound hemoglobin-vesicles for the treatment of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Saori; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Sakai, Hiromi; Tanaka, Ryota; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2014-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. We report herein on the preparation of a nanotechnology-based CO donor, CO-bound hemoglobin-vesicles (CO-HbV). We hypothesized that CO-HbV could have a therapeutic effect on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), an incurable lung fibrosis, that is thought to involve inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pulmonary fibril formation and respiratory function were quantitatively evaluated by measuring hydroxyproline levels and forced vital capacity, respectively, using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice model. CO-HbV suppressed the progression of pulmonary fibril formation and improved respiratory function compared to saline and HbV. The suppressive effect of CO-HbV on pulmonary fibrosis can be attributed to a decrease in ROS generation by inflammatory cells, NADPH oxidase 4 and the production of inflammatory cells, cytokines and transforming growth factor-β in the lung. This is the first demonstration of the inhibitory effect of CO-HbV on the progression of pulmonary fibrosis via the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of CO in the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice model. CO-HbV has the potential for use in the treatment of, not only IPF, but also a variety of other ROS and inflammation-related disorders.

  18. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    PubMed Central

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  19. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence.

    PubMed

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R

    2015-09-15

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton--actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement--have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence.

  20. PHARMACOLOGICAL ANTIOXIDANT STRATEGIES AS THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS FOR COPD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette/tobacco smoke/biomass fuel-induced oxidative and aldehyde/carbonyl stress are intimately associated with the progression and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, targeting systemic and local oxidative stress with antioxidants/redox modulating agents, or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants are likely to have beneficial effects in the treatment/management of COPD. Various antioxidant agents, such as thiol molecules (glutathione and mucolytic drugs, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acystelyn, erdosteine, fudosteine, ergothioneine, and carbocysteine), all have been reported to modulate various cellular and biochemical aspects of COPD. These antioxidants have been found to scavenge and detoxify free radicals and oxidants, regulate of glutathione biosynthesis, control nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and hence inhibiting inflammatory gene expression. Synthetic molecules, such as specific spin traps like α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a superoxide dismutase mimetic M40419, iNOS inhibitors, lipid peroxidation inhibitors/blockers edaravone, and lazaroids/tirilazad have also been shown to have beneficial effects by inhibiting the cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses and other carbonyl/oxidative stress-induced cellular alterations. A variety of oxidants, free radicals, and carbonyls/aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, it is therefore, possible that therapeutic administration or supplementation of multiple antioxidants and/or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants will be beneficial in the treatment of COPD. This review discusses various novel pharmacological approaches adopted to enhance lung antioxidant levels, and various emerging beneficial and/or prophylactic effects of antioxidant therapeutics in halting or intervening the progression of COPD. PMID:22101076

  1. Anesthesia and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, Dana; Ivascu, Natalia; Heerdt, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Anesthesia and surgery are associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension due mainly to right ventricular failure, arrhythmias, postoperative hypoxemia, and myocardial ischemia. Preoperative risk assessment and successful management of patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing cardiac surgery involve an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, screening of patients at-risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension, analysis of preoperative and operative risk factors, thorough multidisciplinary planning, careful intraoperative management, and early recognition and treatment of postoperative complications. This article will cover each of these aspects with particular focus on the anesthetic approach for non-cardiothoracic surgeries.

  2. Acute pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jessica; Graham, David; O'Reilly, Sarah; Punton, Gillian

    2016-02-03

    Acute pulmonary oedema is a distressing and life-threatening illness that is associated with a sudden onset of symptoms. For the best possible patient outcomes, it is essential that nurses in all clinical areas are equipped to accurately recognise, assess and manage patients with acute pulmonary oedema. This article outlines the pathophysiology of acute cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and suggests a systematic approach to the recognition and management of its most serious manifestations. Long-term care and symptom recognition are discussed and suggestions for ongoing patient self-management are provided.

  3. Cyclodextrins and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Pilar; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of the functional foods industry has increased research into new compounds with high added value for use in the fortification of traditional products. One of the most promising functional food groups is those enriched in antioxidant compounds of a lipophilic nature. In spite of the numerous advantages reported for such antioxidant molecules, they may also have disadvantages that impede their use in functional foods, although these problems may well avoided by the use of encapsulant agents such as cyclodextrins. This explains the recent increase in the number of research papers dealing with the complexation of different guest molecules possesing important antioxidant properties using natural and modified cyclodextrins. This paper presents a review of the most recent studies on the complexes formed between several important types of antioxidant compounds and cyclodextrins, focusing on the contradictory data reported in the literature concerning to the antioxidant activity of the host/guest molecule complexes, the different complexation constants reported for identical complexes, the bioavailability of the antioxidant compound in the presence of cyclodextrins and recommendation concerning the use of natural or modified cyclodextrins. Moreover, the use of cyclodextrins as antibrowning agents to prevent enzymatic browning in different foods is revised. Finally, we look at studies which suggest that cyclodextrins act as ''secondary antioxidants," enhancing the ability of traditional antioxidants to prevent enzymatic browning.

  4. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Hernández-González, Ignacio; Escribano-Subías, Pilar

    2017-03-22

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension which is part, together with pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis, of the special designation (subgroup 1') within pulmonary hypertension group 1 in the latest classification of the pulmonary hypertension World Symposium. Recent discovery that gene mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) are responsible for inherited forms of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease has changed the role of genetic testing, acquiring relevant importance in the diagnosis of these patients. Despite the advances in genetic, cellular and molecular basis knowledge in the last decade, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease remains as a rare aetiology of pulmonary hypertension without any effective medical treatment approved and poor outcomes. This document aims to review the advances occurred in the understanding of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in the last years.

  5. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... valvuloplasty - pulmonary Images Heart valves References Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 69. Otto CM, Bownow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ...

  6. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, J.M.; Paterson, I.S.; Mannick, J.A.; Valeri, C.R.; Shepro, D.; Hechtman, H.B. )

    1989-02-17

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B{sub 4} and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability.

  7. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibrosis (scarring or thickening of the lung tissue) Sarcoidosis and scleroderma Muscular weakness can also cause abnormal ... Emphysema Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease.

  9. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Reesink, H.J.; Kloek, J.J.; Bresser, P.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rapidly progressive and deadly disease, resulting from incomplete resolution of acute pulmonary embolism. Historically, the incidence of CTEPH was significantly underestimated but it may be as high as 3.8% following acute pulmonary embolism. Although the medical management of CTEPH may be supportive, the only curative treatment is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). However, a careful screening programme is mandatory to select CTEPH patients who are likely to benefit from PEA. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic pitfalls, surgical treatment, outcome after surgery, and the potential benefit of medical treatment in inoperable CTEPH patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696637

  10. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling may help in some cases. Alternative Names Arteriovenous malformation - pulmonary References Marelli AJ. Congenital heart disease in ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Arteriovenous Malformations Fistulas Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  11. Formation of Defence Primary Healthcare: a new way of delivering firm base primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Burgess, John E; Gall, M; Orr, S; Kilbey, S

    2016-06-09

    Following the Strategic Defence and Security Review of 2010, the UK Surgeon General was directed to merge the delivery of primary healthcare from the three single Service organisations to a unified Defence Primary Healthcare. Although front line clinical staff were to be preserved, considerable savings were to be made in headquarters staff. This was one of the largest UK military medicine changes in delivery for a generation. The changes were completed on time with the transfer of UK and overseas general practice, specialist community services and dentistry, with a later requirement to add healthcare for the Reserves. The first years of this initiative have been remarkably successful, and Defence Primary Healthcare (DPHC) has progressively increased performance in all the QOF criteria measured by Defence Statistics.

  12. Probiotics to enhance anti-infective defences in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harsharnjit S

    2003-10-01

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic and/or prophylactic efficacy of specific probiotics against acute viral gastroenteritis and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (including Clostridium difficile infection). Emerging evidence also suggests beneficial effects against Helicobacter pylori infection. The evidence of efficacy against traveller's diarrhoea remains, however, inconclusive. The precise mechanisms by which probiotics potentiate host gastrointestinal defences and mediate protection are not fully known. There is evidence to suggest, however, that probiotics might contribute to host defence by reinforcing non-immunological defences and stimulating both specific and non-specific host immune responses. Little is known about the relative importance of the probiotic-stimulated mechanisms in host protection. This review summarises the evidence for the anti-infective effects of probiotics and discusses the effect of orally delivered probiotics on non-immunological and immunological defence mechanisms in the host, especially in the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. House finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) balance investment in behavioural and immunological defences against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Klasing, Kirk C; Hahn, Thomas P

    2013-02-23

    Infection with parasites and pathogens is costly for hosts, causing loss of nutritional resources, reproductive potential, tissue integrity and even life. In response, animals have evolved behavioural and immunological strategies to avoid infection by pathogens and infestation by parasites. Scientists generally study these strategies in isolation from each other; however, since these defences entail costs, host individuals should benefit from balancing investment in these strategies, and understanding of infectious disease dynamics would benefit from studying the relationship between them. Here, we show that Carpodacus mexicanus (house finches) avoid sick individuals. Moreover, we show that individuals investing less in behavioural defences invest more in immune defences. Such variation has important implications for the dynamics of pathogen spread through populations, and ultimately the course of epidemics. A deeper understanding of individual- and population-level disease defence strategies will improve our ability to understand, model and predict the outcomes of pathogen spread in wildlife.

  14. Pulmonary rehabilitation in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ries, Andrew L; Make, Barry J; Reilly, John J

    2008-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an established treatment for patients with chronic lung disease. Benefits include improvement in exercise tolerance, symptoms, and quality of life, with a reduction in the use of health care resources. As an adjunct to surgical programs, such as lung volume reduction surgery, pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important role not just in preparing patients for surgery and facilitating recovery but also in selecting patients and ensuring informed choices about treatment options after optimal medical care. In the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), subjects completed 6-10 weeks of comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation before randomization and continued rehabilitation throughout the trial, both at home and with intermittent supervision at either an NETT center or an NETT-certified satellite center. Sessions included a combination of upper and lower extremity exercise, education, and psychosocial support. Before randomization, pulmonary rehabilitation resulted in highly significant changes in exercise capacity, dyspnea, and quality of life. As expected, improvements were significantly greater in those without prior rehabilitation experience. Results for patients completing rehabilitation at satellites were similar to those at NETT centers. Prerandomization pulmonary rehabilitation had a significant effect on outcome after lung volume reduction surgery. NETT identified subgroups with differential outcome by treatment (surgical vs. nonsurgical), defined in part by postrehabilitation maximum exercise capacity. Overall, NETT demonstrated the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in improving function, symptoms, and health status in a large cohort of patients with advanced emphysema treated in a cross-section of programs in the United States.

  15. Reexpansion pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Tarver, R D; Broderick, L S; Conces, D J

    1996-01-01

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a rare complication attending the rapid reexpansion of a chronically collapsed lung, such as occurs after evacuation of a large amount of air or fluid from the pleural space. The condition usually appears unexpectedly and dramatically-immediately or within 1 h in 64% of patients and within 24 h in the remainder. The clinical manifestations are varied; they range from roentgenographic findings alone in asymptomatic patients to severe cardiorespiratory insufficiency. The radiographic evidence of reexpansion pulmonary edema is a unilateral alveolar filling pattern, seen within a few hours of reexpansion of the lung. The edema may progress for 24-48 h and persist for 4-5 days. Human data on the pathophysiology of reexpansion pulmonary edema derive from small series of patients, case reports, and reviews of the literature. On the other hand, a larger body of data exists on experimental reexpansion pulmonary edema in cats, monkeys, rabbits, sheep, and goats. This review examines the clinical and experimental evidence for reexpansion pulmonary edema. In addition, we detail the historical background, clinical setting, treatment, and outcome of reexpansion pulmonary edema.

  16. Thromboembolism in pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Mohsen; Pernter, Patrizia; Triani, Antonio; Osele, Luzian; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma, although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. Clinically and radiologically, it may imitate pulmonary embolism, making diagnosis difficult and delaying treatment. Patients often have no symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. Visualization of filling defects within a pulmonary artery on contrast-enhanced CT cannot reliably differentiate between pulmonary thromboembolism and malignant lesions like leiomyosarcoma. FDG PET-CT offers the potential for identification of malignant lesions. The authors report a case with pulmonary artery thromboembolism due to thrombi formed on a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Integrated FDG PET-CT showed no FDG-uptake along the major part of the filling defect within the right main pulmonary artery suggesting blood clot and increased uptake along the posterior wall of the right main pulmonary artery and the left lower lobar artery suggesting malignancy.

  17. Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Dostálek, Tomáš; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pavela, Roman; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The type and intensity of plant–herbivore interactions are likely to be altered under climate change as a consequence of differential dispersal rates of plants and their herbivores. Here, we studied variation in herbivore damage on Salvia nubicola in the field and compared its growth and defence strategies against herbivores in controlled conditions using seeds from populations along a broad altitudinal gradient. Our work is one of the first studies to simultaneously measure complex intraspecific variation in plant growth, direct and indirect defences as well as plant tolerance (ability to regrow) as a consequence of herbivore attack simulated by clipping. In the field, we found that plants experienced higher herbivore pressure in lower altitudes. In the greenhouse, plants grown from seeds collected in lower-altitude populations grew better and produced a higher content of phenolic compounds (direct defence) and volatile organic compounds (indirect defence) in response to simulated herbivory. However, there were no differences in tolerance and effect of S. nubicola extracts on the model generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis (direct defence) along the altitudinal gradient. Although we found that S. nubicola developed a range of defence strategies, the strategies do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with altitudinal gradient. Our finding is in agreement with the current knowledge that co-expression of multiple defences might be costly for a plant, since investment in defensive traits is assumed to reduce the resource availability for growth and reproduction. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding these trade-offs could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with future climate change. PMID:27169609

  18. Conformal Load-Bearing Antenna Structure for Australian Defence Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    while the F/A-18 has over 70. Large antenna structures , such as reflecting dishes or planar arrays, are usually housed in fairings or radomes ...manufacturing issues related to incorporating antenna into glass fibre/ ceramic structural armour [24]. A.2.4 USAF The goals of USAF CLAS programs have been...Conformal Load-Bearing Antenna Structure for Australian Defence Force Aircraft Paul J. Callus Air Vehicles Division Defence Science and

  19. Contrasting ontogenetic trajectories for phenolic and terpenoid defences in Eucalyptus froggattii

    PubMed Central

    Goodger, Jason Q. D.; Heskes, Allison M.; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant defence metabolites are considered costly due to diversion of energy and nutrients away from growth. These costs combined with changes in resource availability and herbivory throughout plant ontogeny are likely to promote changes in defence metabolites. A comprehensive understanding of plant defence strategy requires measurement of lifetime ontogenetic trajectories – a dynamic component largely overlooked in plant defence theories. This study aimed to compare ontogenetic trajectories of foliar phenolics and terpenoids. Phenolics are predicted to be inexpensive to biosynthesize, whereas expensive terpenoids also require specialized, non-photosynthetic secretory structures to avoid autotoxicity. Based on these predicted costs, it is hypothesized that phenolics would be maximally deployed early in ontogeny, whereas terpenoids would be maximally deployed later, once the costs of biosynthesis and foregone photosynthesis could be overcome by enhanced resource acquisition. Methods Leaves were harvested from a family of glasshouse-grown Eucalyptus froggattii seedlings, field-grown saplings and the maternal parent tree, and analysed for total terpenoids and phenolics. Key Results Foliar phenolics were highest in young seedlings and lowest in the adult tree. Indeed the ratio of total phenolics to total terpenoids decreased in a significantly exponential manner with plant ontogeny. Most individual terpene constituents increased with plant ontogeny, but some mono- and sesquiterpenes remained relatively constant or even decreased in concentration as plants aged. Conclusions Plant ontogeny can influence different foliar defence metabolites in directionally opposite ways, and the contrasting trajectories support our hypothesis that phenolics would be maximally deployed earlier than terpenoids. The results highlight the importance of examining ontogenetic trajectories of defence traits when developing and testing theories of plant defence, and

  20. Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Dostálek, Tomáš; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pavela, Roman; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The type and intensity of plant-herbivore interactions are likely to be altered under climate change as a consequence of differential dispersal rates of plants and their herbivores. Here, we studied variation in herbivore damage on Salvia nubicola in the field and compared its growth and defence strategies against herbivores in controlled conditions using seeds from populations along a broad altitudinal gradient. Our work is one of the first studies to simultaneously measure complex intraspecific variation in plant growth, direct and indirect defences as well as plant tolerance (ability to regrow) as a consequence of herbivore attack simulated by clipping. In the field, we found that plants experienced higher herbivore pressure in lower altitudes. In the greenhouse, plants grown from seeds collected in lower-altitude populations grew better and produced a higher content of phenolic compounds (direct defence) and volatile organic compounds (indirect defence) in response to simulated herbivory. However, there were no differences in tolerance and effect of S. nubicola extracts on the model generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis (direct defence) along the altitudinal gradient. Although we found that S. nubicola developed a range of defence strategies, the strategies do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with altitudinal gradient. Our finding is in agreement with the current knowledge that co-expression of multiple defences might be costly for a plant, since investment in defensive traits is assumed to reduce the resource availability for growth and reproduction. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding these trade-offs could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with future climate change.

  1. Littoral Infrared Ship Self Defence Technology Studies (Autodefense cotiere infrarouge des navires etudes technologiques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Modeling Radiometry Ship signature control Surveillance 14. Abstract Task Group Number 51 (RTG-51/SET-088), titled “Littoral Infrared Ship...Centre Renaissancelaan 30, 1000 Bruxelles Armaments Department ITALIE 9-11, Drumul Taberei Street CANADA Centro Gestione Conoscenza Sector 6...Distribučné a Defence R&D Canada informačné stredisko STO Department of National Defence ITALY Demänová 393 305 Rideau Street, 9th Floor Centro Gestione

  2. An overview of the Defence Research Agency photovoltaic programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodbody, C.; Davies, M. A. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Research Agency (DRA) has been active in the photovoltaic field since the early 1960's, then as the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE). The early work was aimed at developing silicon cells, solar panels, and light-weight flexible arrays in support of the 'UK' and 'X' series of British scientific and technology satellites, for which the RAE was either the design authority or technical advisor. The X3 satellite - Prospero, launched in 1971 test flew 50 micron wrap-round silicon cells. The X4 satellite - Miranda, launched in 1974 test flew a deployable flexible silicon array which was developed at the DRA. During this period an extensive range of test equipment was developed which was maintained, modernized, and extended to date. Following a period of reduced activity in the late 1970's and early 1980's the current program evolved. The programs that have been undertaken since 1983 are briefly summarized. These range from various cell developments, new types of coverglasses, flight experiments, radiation testing, primary cell calibration, and environmental testing. The current photovoltaic program is mainly funded by the UK Ministry of Defence and by the Department of Trade and Industry through the British National Space Center (BNSC). The program is aimed at research and development, both internally and with industry, to meet the customer's technical objectives and requirements and to provide them with technical advice. The facilities are also being used on contract work for various national and international organizations.

  3. Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

    2011-10-01

    Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

  4. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    PubMed

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap.

  5. Adrenomedullin and mucosal defence: interaction between host and microorganism.

    PubMed

    Allaker, Robert P; Kapas, Supriya

    2003-04-15

    Many surface epithelial cells express adrenomedullin (AM) and it is postulated that it may have an important protective role. This peptide has many properties in common with other cationic antimicrobial peptides including the human beta-defensins. Antimicrobial activity against members of the human skin, oral, respiratory tract and gastric microflora has been demonstrated. Both pathogenic and commensal strains of bacteria are sensitive; Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria being equally susceptible. No activity against the yeast Candida albicans was observed. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bacteriocidal concentrations range from 7.75 x 10(-4) to 12.5 and 0.003 to >25.0 microg ml(-1), respectively. On exposure of oral, skin and gastric epithelial cells to whole cells and culture supernatants from bacteria isolated from these sites an increase in AM peptide and gene expression has been observed. No upregulation was detected with C. albicans. In cultured cells and an animal infection model increased AM peptide and gene expression has been demonstrated using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. These collective findings suggest that AM represents a new category of antimicrobial peptide, which contributes to the mucosal host defence system.

  6. Microglial self-defence mediated through GLT-1 and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Persson, Mikael; Rönnbäck, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is stored in synaptic vesicles in presynaptic neurons. It is released into the synaptic cleft to provide signalling to postsynaptic neurons. Normally, the astroglial glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST take up glutamate to mediate a high signal-to-noise ratio in the synaptic signalling, and also to prevent excitotoxic effects by glutamate. In astrocytes, glutamate is transformed into glutamine, which is safely transported back to neurons. However, in pathological conditions, such as an ischemia or virus infection, astroglial transporters are down-regulated which could lead to excitotoxicity. Lately, it was shown that even microglia can express glutamate transporters during pathological events. Microglia have two systems for glutamate transport: GLT-1 for transport into the cells and the x (c) (-) system for transport out of the cells. We here review results from our work and others, which demonstrate that microglia in culture express GLT-1, but not GLAST, and transport glutamate from the extracellular space. We also show that TNF-α can induce increased microglial GLT-1 expression, possibly associating the expression with inflammatory systems. Furthermore, glutamate taken up through GLT-1 may be used for direct incorporation into glutathione and to fuel the intracellular glutamate pool to allow cystine uptake through the x (c) (-) system. This can lead to a defence against oxidative stress and have an antiviral function.

  7. Trained immunity: A smart way to enhance innate immune defence.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-11-01

    The innate arm of the immune system is generally viewed as primitive and non-specific and - in contrast to the adaptive immune arm - not to possess memory. However in plants and invertebrate animals that lack adaptive immunity, innate immunity will exhibit a prolonged enhanced functional state after adequate priming. A similar enhancement of function of the innate immunity has occasionally been described in vertebrates, including humans. Over the past few years we have studied this phenomenon in greater detail and we have coined the term 'Trained (innate) immunity' (TI). TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, of which we have studied BCG and β-glucan in greater detail. The non-specific protective effects of BCG that have been observed in vaccination studies in the literature are probably due to TI. Monocytes and macrophages are among the main cells of the innate immune arm that can be trained. We have discovered that both BCG (via NOD2 signalling) and β-glucan (via dectin-1) induce epigenetic reprogramming, in particular stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. These epigenetic changes lead to cellular activation, enhanced cytokine production and a change in the metabolic state of the cell with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. TI is not only important for host defence and vaccine responses, but most probably also for diseases like atherosclerosis. Modulation of TI is a promising area for new treatments.

  8. Functional small airways defence in symptomless cigarette smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Pavia, D; Clarke, S W

    1986-01-01

    Smoking induced changes in the secretory cells of bronchiolar epithelium by facilitating secretion of cross linked glycoprotein mucus may influence the efficiency of mucus-cilia coupling. The functional impact on mucociliary transport in small (peripheral) airways has been studied by comparing data on aerosol deposition and clearance from symptomless cigarette smokers (30 tests, 18 subjects) with data from age matched non-smokers (30 tests, 19 subjects). Gamma camera images, assessed in terms of a penetration index comparing peripheral with inner zone deposition, indicated closely similar initial deposition in the two groups. Alveolar deposition, however, assessed in terms of particle retention at 24 hours, was significantly (p less than 0.01) less in the smokers. Given the similarity of initial deposition, this implies that an increased proportion of small conducting airways are protected by mucociliary defence in the smokers' lungs. Clearance from conducting airways of the peripheral zone in tests with relatively high peripheral deposition (14 tests on smokers, and 12 on non-smokers) nevertheless proceeded at the same rate in smokers as in non-smokers. PMID:3787532

  9. An overview of the Defence Research Agency photovoltaic programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbody, C.; Davies, M. A. H.

    1993-05-01

    The Defense Research Agency (DRA) has been active in the photovoltaic field since the early 1960's, then as the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE). The early work was aimed at developing silicon cells, solar panels, and light-weight flexible arrays in support of the 'UK' and 'X' series of British scientific and technology satellites, for which the RAE was either the design authority or technical advisor. The X3 satellite - Prospero, launched in 1971 test flew 50 micron wrap-round silicon cells. The X4 satellite - Miranda, launched in 1974 test flew a deployable flexible silicon array which was developed at the DRA. During this period an extensive range of test equipment was developed which was maintained, modernized, and extended to date. Following a period of reduced activity in the late 1970's and early 1980's the current program evolved. The programs that have been undertaken since 1983 are briefly summarized. These range from various cell developments, new types of coverglasses, flight experiments, radiation testing, primary cell calibration, and environmental testing. The current photovoltaic program is mainly funded by the UK Ministry of Defence and by the Department of Trade and Industry through the British National Space Center (BNSC). The program is aimed at research and development, both internally and with industry, to meet the customer's technical objectives and requirements and to provide them with technical advice. The facilities are also being used on contract work for various national and international organizations.

  10. Caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Azusa; Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae. We placed a smooth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillar or a hairy Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) caterpillar in front of parasitoid females. We observed that 100 % and 84 % of the parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into the smooth larvae of S. litura and first instars of the hairy caterpillar L. dispar japonica, respectively. However, only 24 % of parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into second-instar L. dispar japonica. A higher rate of successful stabs (94 %) by parasitoids was obtained by cutting the hairs of second instar L. dispar japonica much shorter than the parasitoid ovipositor. The results demonstrate that the long, thick hairs of second and later instars of L. dispar japonica function as a physical barrier against parasitoid oviposition.

  11. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737

  12. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals.

    PubMed

    Stankowich, Theodore; Romero, Ashly N

    2017-01-11

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization. The only exceptions were those that live in trees-a complex three-dimensional world probably requiring greater cognitive abilities. At the proximate level, because brain tissue is extremely energetically expensive to build, mammals may be trading off spending more on elaborate defences and saving by building less powerful brains. At the ultimate level, having greater defences may also reduce the need for advanced cognitive abilities for constant assessment of environmental predation risk, especially in simple open environments.

  13. Competition induces allelopathy but suppresses growth and anti-herbivore defence in a chemically rich seaweed.

    PubMed

    Rasher, Douglas B; Hay, Mark E

    2014-02-22

    Many seaweeds and terrestrial plants induce chemical defences in response to herbivory, but whether they induce chemical defences against competitors (allelopathy) remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether two tropical seaweeds induce allelopathy in response to competition with a reef-building coral. We also assessed the effects of competition on seaweed growth and seaweed chemical defence against herbivores. Following 8 days of competition with the coral Porites cylindrica, the chemically rich seaweed Galaxaura filamentosa induced increased allelochemicals and became nearly twice as damaging to the coral. However, it also experienced significantly reduced growth and increased palatability to herbivores (because of reduced chemical defences). Under the same conditions, the seaweed Sargassum polycystum did not induce allelopathy and did not experience a change in growth or palatability. This is the first demonstration of induced allelopathy in a seaweed, or of competitors reducing seaweed chemical defences against herbivores. Our results suggest that the chemical ecology of coral-seaweed-herbivore interactions can be complex and nuanced, highlighting the need to incorporate greater ecological complexity into the study of chemical defence.

  14. Defence strategies against a parasitoid wasp in Drosophila: fight or flight?

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Thierry; de Roode, Jacobus C; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-04-23

    Hosts may defend themselves against parasitism through a wide variety of defence mechanisms, but due to finite resources, investment in one defence mechanism may trade-off with investment in another mechanism. We studied resistance strategies against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in two Drosophila species. We found that D. melanogaster had significantly lower physiological resistance against L. boulardi than D. simulans, and hypothesized that D. melanogaster might instead invest more heavily in other forms of defence, such as behavioural defence. We found that when given a choice between clean oviposition sites and sites infested with wasps, both D. melanogaster and D. simulans detected and avoided infested sites, which presumably limits later exposure of their offspring to infection. Unlike D. simulans, however, D. melanogaster laid significantly fewer eggs than controls in the forced presence of wasps. Our findings suggest that D. melanogaster relies more heavily on behavioural avoidance as defence against wasp parasitism than D. simulans, and that this may compensate for a lack of physiological defence.

  15. Parental risk management in relation to offspring defence: bad news for kids

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Katharina; Riegler, Georg; Hoi, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Do parents defend their offspring whenever necessary, and do self-sacrificing parents really exist? Studies recognized that parent defence is dynamic, mainly depending on the threat predators pose. In this context, parental risk management should consider the threat to themselves and to their offspring. Consequently, the observed defence should be a composite of both risk components. Surprisingly, no study so far has determined the influence of these two threat components on parental decision rules. In a field experiment, we investigated parental risk taking in relation to the threat posed to themselves and their offspring. To disentangle the two threat components, we examined defence behaviours of parent blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus towards three different predators and during different nestling developmental stages. Nest defence strategies in terms of alarm call intensity and nearest predator approach differed between the three predators. Defence intensity was only partly explained by threat level. Most importantly, parental risk management varied in relation to their own, but not offspring risk. Parent defence investment was independent of nestling risk when parents followed a high-risk strategy. However, parents considered nestling as well as parental risk when following a low-risk strategy. Our findings could have general implications for the economy of risk management and decision-making strategies in living beings, including humans. PMID:25392467

  16. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens.

  17. Parental risk management in relation to offspring defence: bad news for kids.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Katharina; Riegler, Georg; Hoi, Herbert

    2015-01-07

    Do parents defend their offspring whenever necessary, and do self-sacrificing parents really exist? Studies recognized that parent defence is dynamic, mainly depending on the threat predators pose. In this context, parental risk management should consider the threat to themselves and to their offspring. Consequently, the observed defence should be a composite of both risk components. Surprisingly, no study so far has determined the influence of these two threat components on parental decision rules. In a field experiment, we investigated parental risk taking in relation to the threat posed to themselves and their offspring. To disentangle the two threat components, we examined defence behaviours of parent blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus towards three different predators and during different nestling developmental stages. Nest defence strategies in terms of alarm call intensity and nearest predator approach differed between the three predators. Defence intensity was only partly explained by threat level. Most importantly, parental risk management varied in relation to their own, but not offspring risk. Parent defence investment was independent of nestling risk when parents followed a high-risk strategy. However, parents considered nestling as well as parental risk when following a low-risk strategy. Our findings could have general implications for the economy of risk management and decision-making strategies in living beings, including humans.

  18. RNA silencing is required for Arabidopsis defence against Verticillium wilt disease

    PubMed Central

    Ellendorff, Ursula; Fradin, Emilie F.; de Jonge, Ronnie; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in eukaryotes that plays an important role in various biological processes including regulation of gene expression. RNA silencing also plays a role in genome stability and protects plants against invading nucleic acids such as transgenes and viruses. Recently, RNA silencing has been found to play a role in defence against bacterial plant pathogens in Arabidopsis through modulating host defence responses. In this study, it is shown that gene silencing plays a role in plant defence against multicellular microbial pathogens; vascular fungi belonging to the Verticillium genus. Several components of RNA silencing pathways were tested, of which many were found to affect Verticillium defence. Remarkably, no altered defence towards other fungal pathogens that include Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, but also the vascular pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was recorded. Since the observed differences in Verticillium susceptibility cannot be explained by notable differences in root architecture, it is speculated that the gene silencing mechanisms affect regulation of Verticillium-specific defence responses. PMID:19098131

  19. RNA silencing is required for Arabidopsis defence against Verticillium wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Ellendorff, Ursula; Fradin, Emilie F; de Jonge, Ronnie; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2009-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in eukaryotes that plays an important role in various biological processes including regulation of gene expression. RNA silencing also plays a role in genome stability and protects plants against invading nucleic acids such as transgenes and viruses. Recently, RNA silencing has been found to play a role in defence against bacterial plant pathogens in Arabidopsis through modulating host defence responses. In this study, it is shown that gene silencing plays a role in plant defence against multicellular microbial pathogens; vascular fungi belonging to the Verticillium genus. Several components of RNA silencing pathways were tested, of which many were found to affect Verticillium defence. Remarkably, no altered defence towards other fungal pathogens that include Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, but also the vascular pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was recorded. Since the observed differences in Verticillium susceptibility cannot be explained by notable differences in root architecture, it is speculated that the gene silencing mechanisms affect regulation of Verticillium-specific defence responses.

  20. Comparing systemic defence-related gene expression changes upon migratory and sedentary nematode attack in rice.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, T; Nahar, K; Haegeman, A; De Vleesschauwer, D; Höfte, M; Gheysen, G

    2012-03-01

    Complex defence signalling pathways, controlled by different hormones, are known to be involved in the reaction of plants to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stress factors. Here, we studied the differential expression of genes involved in stress and defence responses in systemic tissue of rice infected with the root knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne graminicola and the migratory root rot nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae, two agronomically important rice pathogens with very different lifestyles. qRT-PCR revealed that all investigated systemic tissues had significantly lower expression of isochorismate synthase, a key enzyme for salicylic acid production involved in basal defence and systemic acquired resistance. The systemic defence response upon migratory nematode infection was remarkably similar to fungal rice blast infection. Almost all investigated defence-related genes were up-regulated in rice shoots 3 days after root rot nematode attack, including the phenylpropanoid pathway, ethylene pathway and PR genes, but many of which were suppressed at 7 dpi. Systemic shoot tissue of RKN-infected plants showed similar attenuation of expression of almost all studied genes already at 3 dpi, with clear attenuation of the ethylene pathway and methyl jasmonate biosynthesis. These results provide an interesting starting point for further studies to elucidate how nematodes are able to suppress systemic plant defence mechanisms and the effect in multitrophic interactions.

  1. Hijacking common mycorrhizal networks for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer between tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Ye, Mao; Li, Chuanyou; He, Xinhua; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Wang, Rui Long; Su, Yi Juan; Luo, Shi Ming; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2014-01-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) link multiple plants together. We hypothesized that CMNs can serve as an underground conduit for transferring herbivore-induced defence signals. We established CMN between two tomato plants in pots with mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae, challenged a ‘donor' plant with caterpillar Spodoptera litura, and investigated defence responses and insect resistance in neighbouring CMN-connected ‘receiver' plants. After CMN establishment caterpillar infestation on ‘donor' plant led to increased insect resistance and activities of putative defensive enzymes, induction of defence-related genes and activation of jasmonate (JA) pathway in the ‘receiver' plant. However, use of a JA biosynthesis defective mutant spr2 as ‘donor' plants resulted in no induction of defence responses and no change in insect resistance in ‘receiver' plants, suggesting that JA signalling is required for CMN-mediated interplant communication. These results indicate that plants are able to hijack CMNs for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer and interplant defence communication. PMID:24468912

  2. Pulmonary Thromboembolectomy for Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Inho; Cho, Kyu Seok; Kim, Bum Shik; Kim, Soo-Cheol; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Jung-Heon; Youn, Hyo Chul

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary thromboembolism is fatal because of abruptly occurring hypoxemia and right ventricular failure. There are several treatment modalities, including anticoagulation, thrombolytics, ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenator), and thromboembolectomy, for managing acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Materials and Methods Medical records from January 1999 to December 2004 at our institution were retrospectively reviewed for pulmonary thromboembolectomy. There were 7 patients (4 men and 3 women), who underwent a total of 8 operations because one patient had post-operative recurrent emboli and underwent reoperation. Surgery was indicatedfor mild hypoxemia and performed with CPB (cardiopulmonary bypass) in a beating heart state. Results The patients had several symptoms, such as dyspnea, chest discomfort, and palpitation. Four patients had deep vein thromboembolisms and 3 had psychotic problems, specifically schizophrenia. Post-operative complications included hemothorax, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. There were two hospital deaths, one each by brain death and right heart failure. Conclusion Emergency operation should be performed when medical treatments are no longer effective. PMID:22263185

  3. Pulmonary toxicity in mice following exposure to cerium chloride.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Yu, Xiaohong; Pan, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Sang, Xuezi; Lin, Anan; Zhang, Chi; Zhao, Yue; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2014-06-01

    The widespread application of lanthanoids (Lns) in manufacturing industries has raised occupational and environmental health concerns about the possible increased health risks to humans exposed to Lns in their working and living environments. Numerous studies have shown that exposures to Ln cause pulmonary injury in animals, but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the pulmonary inflammation caused by cerium chloride (CeCl3) exposure. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative stress and molecular mechanism underlying with the pulmonary inflammation associated with chronic lung toxicity in mice treated with nasally instilled CeCl3 for 90 consecutive days. Our findings suggest that significant cerium accumulated in the lung, leading the obvious increase of the lung indices, significant increases in inflammatory cells and levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphate, and total protein, overproduction of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of lipids, reduced antioxidant capacity, and pulmonary inflammation. CeCl3 exposure also activated nuclear factor κB, increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor α, cyclooxygenase-2, heme oxygenase 1, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 18, interleukin 1β, and CYP1A1. However, CeCl3 reduced the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-inhibiting factor and heat shock protein 70. These findings suggest that the pulmonary inflammation caused by CeCl3 in mice is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine expression.

  4. Antioxidants in Translational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.; Stocker, Roland; Vollbracht, Claudia; Paulsen, Gøran; Riley, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecules or antioxidants exert health-promoting effects and thus their consumption as food additives and nutraceuticals has been greatly encouraged. Antioxidants may be beneficial in situations of subclinical deficiency and increased demand or acutely upon high-dose infusion. However, to date, there is little clinical evidence for the long-term benefit of most antioxidants. Alarmingly, recent evidence points even to health risks, in particular for supplements of lipophilic antioxidants. Recent Advances: The biological impact of ROS depends not only on their quantities but also on their chemical nature, (sub)cellular and tissue location, and the rates of their formation and degradation. Moreover, ROS serve important physiological functions; thus, inappropriate removal of ROS may cause paradoxical reductive stress and thereby induce or promote disease. Critical Issues: Any recommendation on antioxidants must be based on solid clinical evidence and patient-relevant outcomes rather than surrogate parameters. Future Directions: Such evidence-based use may include site-directed application, time-limited high dosing, (functional) pharmacological repair of oxidized biomolecules, and triggers of endogenous antioxidant response systems. Ideally, these approaches need guidance by patient stratification through predictive biomarkers and possibly imaging modalities. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1130–1143. PMID:26154592

  5. Antioxidant therapies in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Irfan

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important feature in the pathogenesis of COPD. Targeting oxidative stress with antioxidants or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial in the treatment of COPD. Antioxidant agents such as thiol molecules (glutathione and mucolytic drugs, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acystelyn), dietary polyphenols (curcumin, resveratrol, green tea, catechins/quercetin), erdosteine, and carbocysteine lysine salt, all have been reported to control nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κ B) activation, regulation of glutathione biosynthesis genes, chromatin remodeling, and hence inflammatory gene expression. Specific spin traps such as α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a superoxide dismutase mimetic M40419 have also been reported to inhibit cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses in vivo. Since a variety of oxidants, free radicals, and aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, it is possible that therapeutic administration of multiple antioxidants will be effective in the treatment of COPD. Various approaches to enhance lung antioxidant capacity and clinical trials of antioxidant compounds in COPD are discussed. PMID:18046899

  6. Pulmonary hypertension imitating HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension in a woman with mixed connective tissue disease presenting with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes imitating severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is described. Connective tissue disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Maternal mortality rates with pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy are extremely high. All women with connective tissue disorders should have pulmonary hypertension excluded by echocardiography before attempting conception. End-stage pulmonary hypertension may be associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia and thus may imitate severe preeclampsia in pregnant women. There may be a role for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the peripartum management of women with severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27656251

  7. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  8. Antioxidant enzyme activities in maize plants colonized with Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2009-03-01

    The bioprotection performance of Piriformospora indica against the root parasite Fusarium verticillioides was studied. We found that maize plants first grown with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica showed improvements in biomass, and root length and number as compared with plants grown with F. verticillioides alone. To validate our finding that inoculation with P. indica suppresses colonization by F. verticillioides, we performed PCR analyses using P. indica- and F. verticillioides-specific primers. Our results showed that inoculation with P. indica suppresses further colonization by F. verticillioides. We hypothesized that as the colonization by P. indica increases, the presence of/colonization by F. verticillioides decreases. In roots, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found to be higher in F. verticillioides-colonized plants than in non-colonized plants. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes minimizes the chances of oxidative burst (excessive production of reactive oxygen species), and therefore F. verticillioides might be protected from the oxidative defence system during colonization. We also observed decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants first inoculated with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica as compared with plants inoculated with F. verticillioides alone. These decreased antioxidant enzyme activities due to the presence of P. indica help the plant to overcome the disease load of F. verticillioides. We propose that P. indica can be used as a bioprotection agent against the root parasite F. verticillioides.

  9. Pulmonary artery sarcoma masquerading as saddle pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kanjanauthai, Somsupha; Kanluen, Tony; Ray, Cynthia

    2008-10-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a highly malignant tumour. Therefore, making the diagnosis is very important. We describe a case which presented with dyspnea on exertion and was initially diagnosed as saddle pulmonary embolism per CT thorax with contrast. Despite adequate anticoagulation, symptoms still progressed. Follow-up CT thorax showed an extension of the presumed filling defect or clots into the left main pulmonary artery with new lung nodules. This prompted suspicion that this may not be a pulmonary embolism. Biopsy of the lung nodule revealed high grade soft tissue sarcoma with primary source from the pulmonary artery. Our case highlights that pulmonary artery sarcoma should always be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism especially, if symptoms still progress while on adequate anticoagulation, or any pulmonary nodules develop on follow-up exam.

  10. Infantile pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a lethal form of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Eiméar; McNally, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maureen; Phelan, Ethna; Sumner, Kelli; Best, D Hunter; McMahon, Colin J

    2016-04-01

    We describe the cases of two children who both presented in infancy with recurrent severe pulmonary hypertensive crises. Exhaustive clinical work-up failed to identify an underlying aetiology. The patients had no clinical response to steroids, immunoglobulins, or pulmonary vasodilators. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive invasive pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis. There was no evidence of pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Given the lethal nature of this condition, early consideration of referral to a lung transplant centre should be considered in selected patients.

  11. Carvacrol induces the apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianlong; Fan, Kai; Wang, Peng; Yu, Juan; Liu, Ruxia; Qi, Hanping; Sun, Hongli; Cao, Yonggang

    2016-01-05

    The abnormal apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is an important pathophysiological process in pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Carvacrol, an essential oil compound from oregano and thyme, has displayed antimicrobial, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. Although carvacrol has pro-apoptosis properties in tumor cells, the underlying mechanisms of carvacrol in PASMC apoptosis remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we aim to investigate the role of carvacrol in pulmonary vascular remodeling and PASMC apoptosis in hypoxia. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Measurements and pulmonary pathomorphology data show that the ratio of the heart weight/tibia length (HW/TL), the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) and the medial width of the pulmonary artery increased in chronic hypoxia and were reversed by carvacrol treatment under hypoxia. Additionally, carvacrol inhibited PASMC viability, attenuated oxidative stress, induced mitochondria membrane depolarization, increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, suppressed Bcl-2 expression, decreased procaspase-3 expression, promoted caspase-3 activation, and inhibited the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that carvacrol attenuates the pulmonary vascular remodeling and promotes PASMC apoptosis by acting on, at least in part, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This process might provide us new insight into the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Antioxidant content of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based foods, especially fruits, vegetables, and nuts, contain bioactive components which have various biological functions, including free radical scavenging and metal chelating (antioxidant), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory properties, etc. Oxidative stress may contribute...

  13. Update in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mejía Chew, C R; Alcolea Batres, S; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and progressive disease that mainly affects the pulmonary arterioles (precapillary), regardless of the triggering aetiology. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension in Spain is estimated at 19.2 and 16 cases per million inhabitants, respectively. The diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on haemodynamic criteria (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance >3 Wood units) and therefore requires the implementation of right cardiac catheterisation. Sequential therapy with a single drug has been used in clinical practice. However, recent European guidelines recommend combined initial therapy in some situations. This review conducts a critical update of our knowledge of this disease according to the latest guidelines and recommendations.

  14. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... mediastinitis ) Abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs ( pulmonary edema ) Buildup of fluid between the layers of tissue ... reactions Cardiovascular Chemotherapy Interstitial lung disease Pleural effusion Pulmonary edema Respiratory Systemic lupus erythematosus Patient Instructions Interstitial lung ...

  15. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Treated? Pulmonary embolism (PE) is treated with medicines, procedures, and other therapies. The main goals of treating PE are to stop the blood clot from getting ...

  16. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors can use computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) scans, or CT scans, to look for blood ... Pulmonary Angiography Pulmonary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is another test used to diagnose PE. This ...

  17. Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Methamphetamine Use Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have used methamphetamines you are at risk for Pulmonary Hypertension? www. ... are made every year. PH in Association with Methamphetamine Use My doctor recently told me that I ...

  18. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Liver Disease Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary hypertension? ... tissue diseases (scleroderma and lupus for example), chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, or HIV infec- tion. ...

  19. Fiber Bragg Grating Temperature Sensor for Defence and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebru, Haftay Abadi; Padhy, B. B.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the design and development of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor suitable for naval applications like temperature monitoring of onboard ships. The Bragg gratings used here have a reflection Bragg wavelength of 1550 nm and are inscribed by phase mask technique using ultraviolet (UV) laser beam at 255.3 nm. The high-resolution temperature sensor has been designed and developed based on the principle of converting the strain to temperature. This is achieved by using bimetallic configuration. Here lead and tungsten metals are used. The expansion of lead is concentrated on the Bragg grating, thus imparting strain on it. The wavelength shift with change of temperature is recorded with optical spectrum analyzer. The minimum temperature that could be measured accurately by the sensor with repeatability is of the order of 10-2. We have achieved thermal sensitivity of 46 pm/°C and 72 pm/°C for sensor lengths (length of the metallic strips) of 60 mm and 100 mm respectively. The thermal sensitivity achieved is approximately 3.5 times and 5.5 times that of bare FBG with thermal sensitivity of 13 pm/°C for the respective sensor lengths. This type of sensor can play vital role in defence and industrial applications like monitoring fresh water/lubricating oil temperatures of machinery in onboard ships, temperature monitoring of airframe of the aircraft, aircraft engine control system sensors, temperature measurement of hot gases from propellant combustion to protect the rocket motor casing, monitoring and control of temperature of copper bars of the power generators etc.

  20. Sugar signalling and antioxidant network connections in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Bolouri-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Le Roy, Katrien; Xiang, Li; Rolland, Filip; Van den Ende, Wim

    2010-05-01

    Sugars play important roles as both nutrients and regulatory molecules throughout plant life. Sugar metabolism and signalling function in an intricate network with numerous hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, signalling and scavenging systems. Although hexokinase is well known to fulfil a crucial role in glucose sensing processes, a scenario is emerging in which the catalytic activity of mitochondria-associated hexokinase regulates glucose-6-phosphate and ROS levels, stimulating antioxidant defence mechanisms and the synthesis of phenolic compounds. As a new concept, it can be hypothesized that the synergistic interaction of sugars (or sugar-like compounds) and phenolic compounds forms part of an integrated redox system, quenching ROS and contributing to stress tolerance, especially in tissues or organelles with high soluble sugar concentrations.

  1. Reducing AsA leads to leaf lesion and defence response in knock-down of the AsA biosynthetic enzyme GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene in tomato plant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Ouyang, Bo; Yang, Changxian; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Junhong; Li, Hanxia; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-01-01

    As a vital antioxidant, L-ascorbic acid (AsA) affects diverse biological processes in higher plants. Lack of AsA in cell impairs plant development. In the present study, we manipulated a gene of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase which catalyzes the conversion of D-mannose-1-P to GDP-D-mannose in AsA biosynthetic pathway and found out the phenotype alteration of tomato. In the tomato genome, there are four members of GMP gene family and they constitutively expressed in various tissues in distinct expression patterns. As expected, over-expression of SlGMP3 increased total AsA contents and enhanced the tolerance to oxidative stress in tomato. On the contrary, knock-down of SlGMP3 significantly decreased AsA contents below the threshold level and altered the phenotype of tomato plants with lesions and further senescence. Further analysis indicated the causes for this symptom could result from failing to instantly deplete the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as decline of free radical scavenging activity. More ROS accumulated in the leaves and then triggered expressions of defence-related genes and mimic symptom occurred on the leaves similar to hypersensitive responses against pathogens. Consequently, the photosynthesis of leaves was dramatically fallen. These results suggested the vital roles of AsA as an antioxidant in leaf function and defence response of tomato.

  2. Pulmonary manifestations of heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Calvert, C A; Rawlings, C A

    1985-09-01

    The clinical signs associated with heartworm disease are the result of changes in the pulmonary arterial system. These clinical signs are the result of either pulmonary hypertension or lung parenchymal disease associated with vascular changes. An increase in pulmonary arterial pressure produces an increase in right ventricular afterload, which may lead to exercise intolerance, syncope, and right-sided congestive heart failure. Coughing, dyspnea, and hemoptysis are the results of pulmonary parenchymal disease.

  3. Constitutive immune defences correlate with life-history variables in tropical birds.

    PubMed

    Lee, K A; Wikelski, M; Robinson, W D; Robinson, T R; Klasing, K C

    2008-03-01

    1. It has been suggested that immune defences are shaped by life history and ecology, but few general patterns have been described across species. We hypothesized that 'fast' life-history traits (e.g. short development times, large clutch sizes) would be associated with developmentally inexpensive immune defences, minimizing the resource demands of young animals' immune systems during periods of rapid growth. Conversely, 'slow' life histories should be associated with well developed antibody-mediated defences, which are developmentally costly. 2. We therefore predicted that 'fast-living' species would exhibit higher levels of complement proteins, a component of non-specific innate defence, but lower levels of constitutive ('natural') antibodies. Additionally, we predicted that constitutive immune defences in general would be higher in species with ecological characteristics that might increase exposure to pathogens, such as open nests, omnivorous diets, gregariousness, and closed forested habitat. 3. Across 70 Neotropical bird species, we found a strongly positive relationship between incubation period and natural antibody levels in adult birds, suggesting that longer developmental times might allow the production of a more diverse and/or more reactive adaptive immune system. Complement activity was positively, although weakly, correlated with clutch size, providing some support for the hypothesis that faster-living species rely more on innate defences, such as complement. Unexpectedly, solitary species had higher natural antibody titres than species that frequently join flocks. 4. Our results suggest that, despite probably widespread differences in the intensity and diversity of pathogen exposure, species-level variation in constitutive immune defences is understandable within the context of life-history theory.

  4. Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes induced plant defence against larval herbivory.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Plants exhibit multifarious defence traits against herbivory that are constitutively expressed or induced upon attack. Insect egg deposition often precedes impending larval attack, and several plants can increase their resistance against larvae after experiencing the oviposition by an herbivore. The nature of such oviposition-mediated resistance remains unknown, and here we aim to determine plant traits that explain it. We test whether oviposition on a host plant can induce plant defence responses or enhance (prime) the induction of defence traits in response to larval herbivory. We exposed Nicotiana attenuata plants to oviposition by moths of a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua. Its larvae suffered higher mortality, retarded development and inflicted less feeding damage on oviposition-experienced than on oviposition-unexperienced plants. While oviposition alone did not induce any of the examined defence traits, oviposited plants exhibited a stronger inducibility of known defence traits, i.e. caffeoylputrescine (CP) and trypsin protease inhibitors (TPIs). We found no effects of oviposition on phytohormone levels, but on the feeding-inducible accumulation of the transcription factor NaMyb8 that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates, including CP. Comparison of larval performance on wild-type plants, CP-deficient plants (silenced NaMyb8 gene), and TPI-deficient plants (silenced NaPI gene) revealed that priming of plant resistance to larvae by prior oviposition required NaMyb8-mediated defence traits. Our results show that plants can use insect egg deposition as a warning signal to prime their feeding-induced defence.

  5. Antioxidant therapeutics for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ravinder; Reddy, Rajiv

    2011-10-01

    Pharmaceutical treatment for millions worldwide who have schizophrenia is limited to a handful of antipsychotics. Despite the proven efficacy of these drugs, the overall outcome for schizophrenia remains suboptimal. Thus, alternative treatment options are urgently needed. One possible approach may be antioxidant therapy. The extant evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia offers a hypothesis-derived therapeutic approach in the form of antioxidants. Vitamins C and E, for example, are suitable for human clinical trials because they are readily available, inexpensive, and relatively safe. Research into the therapeutic use of antioxidants in schizophrenia can be grouped into two main clusters: for psychopathology and for side effects. Of these studies, some have been carefully conducted, but majority are open label. Use of antioxidants for treatment-related side effects has been more extensively investigated. The totality of the evidence to date suggests that specific antioxidants, such as N-acetyl cysteine, may offer tangible benefits for the clinical syndrome of schizophrenia, and vitamin E may offer salutary effects on glycemic effects of antipsychotics. However, a great deal of fundamental clinical research remains to be done before antioxidants can be routinely used therapeutically for schizophrenia and treatment-related complications.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension in women

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Meredith E; Hemnes, Anna R

    2011-01-01

    Female predominance in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been known for several decades and recent interest in the effects of sex hormones on the development of disease has substantially increased our understanding of this epidemiologic observation. Basic science data suggest a beneficial effect of estrogens in the pulmonary vasculature both acutely and chronically, which seems to contradict the known predilection in women. Recent human and rodent data have suggested that altered levels of estrogen, differential signaling and altered metabolism of estrogens in PAH may underlie the gender difference in this disease. Studies of the effects of sex hormones on the right ventricle in animal and human disease will further aid in understanding gender differences in PAH. This article focuses on the effects of sex hormones on the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle on both a basic science and translational level. PMID:21090930

  7. Postobstructive pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Udeshi, Ashish; Cantie, Shawn Michael; Pierre, Edgar

    2010-09-01

    Postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE; also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema) is a potentially life-threatening complication in which pulmonary edema occurs shortly after the relief of an upper airway obstruction. The incidence of POPE has been reported to be as high as 1 in 1000 general anesthetic cases and commonly presents as acute respiratory distress that requires immediate intervention. This review examines the 2 subclasses of POPE and describes the etiologic factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies associated with each. The aim of this review was to equip clinicians with the knowledge base necessary to identify patients at increased risk for POPE and to expeditiously diagnose and treat this potentially catastrophic complication.

  8. [Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].

    PubMed

    Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles.

  9. Modelling pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Tawhai, Merryn H; Burrowes, Kelly S

    2008-11-30

    Computational model analysis has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity.

  10. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis.

  11. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma - Multimodality Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Nari; Seol, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Il Hwan; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare and fatal disease. PAS can often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. Moreover, the correct diagnosis is frequently delayed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms. The prognosis of patients with PAS is poor. We report a case of a woman with a primary PAS who was initially diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism.

  12. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma - Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Nari; Seol, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Il Hwan; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare and fatal disease. PAS can often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. Moreover, the correct diagnosis is frequently delayed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms. The prognosis of patients with PAS is poor. We report a case of a woman with a primary PAS who was initially diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism. PMID:27833785

  13. Predator-induced defences in Daphnia longicephala: location of kairomone receptors and timeline of sensitive phases to trait formation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Linda C; Leimann, Julian; Tollrian, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia adapts to changing predation risks by forming inducible defences. These are only formed when they are advantageous, saving associated costs when the defence is superfluous. However, in order to be effective, the time lag between the onset of predation and the defence formation has to be short. Daphnia longicephala develop huge protective crests upon exposure to chemical cues (kairomones) from its predator the heteropteran backswimmer Notonecta glauca. To analyse time lags, we determined kairomone-sensitive stages and the developmental time frames of inducible defences. Moreover, we looked at additive effects that could result from the summation of prolonged kairomone exposure. Kairomones are perceived by chemoreceptors and integrated by the nervous system, which alters the developmental program leading to defence formation. The underlying neuronal and developmental pathways are not thoroughly described and surprisingly, the location of the kairomone receptors is undetermined. We show that D. longicephala start to sense predator cues at the onset of the second juvenile instar, defences develop with a time lag of one instar and prolonged kairomone exposure does not impact the magnitude of the defence. By establishing a method to reversibly impair chemosensors, we show the first antennae as the location of kairomone-detecting chemoreceptors. This study provides fundamental information on kairomone perception, kairomone-sensitive stages, developmental time frames and lag times of inducible defences in D. longicephala that will greatly contribute to the further understanding of the neuronal and developmental mechanisms of predator-induced defences in Daphnia.

  14. Nanocarriers for vascular delivery of antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Elizabeth; Simone, Eric; Wattamwar, Paritosh; Dziubla, Thomas; Muzykantov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) detoxify harmful reactive oxygen species, but the therapeutic utility of AOEs is hindered by inadequate delivery. AOE modification by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and encapsulation in PEG-coated liposomes increases the AOE bioavailability and enhances protective effects in animal models. Pluronic-based micelles formed with AOEs show even more potent protective effects. Furthermore, polymeric nanocarriers (PNCs) based on PEG-copolymers protect encapsulated AOEs from proteolysis and improve delivery to the target cells, such as the endothelium lining the vascular lumen. Antibodies to endothelial determinants conjugated to AOEs or AOE carriers provide targeting and intracellular delivery. Targeted liposomes, protein conjugates and magnetic nanoparticles deliver AOEs to sites of vascular oxidative stress in the cardiovascular, pulmonary and nervous systems. Further advances in nanodevices for AOE delivery will provide a basis for the translation of this approach in the clinical domain. PMID:21929460

  15. Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary valve.

    PubMed

    Scheidl, Stefan; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Reiter, Ursula; Tröster, Natascha; Kovacs, Gabor; Rienmüller, Rainer; Lang, Susanna; Klepetko, Walter; Olschewski, Horst

    2010-04-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma is a rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary valve itself has not been described. Embolization into pulmonary arteries originating from the pulmonary valve intimal sarcoma can mimic chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and mislead the diagnosis. We present and discuss a patient initially diagnosed as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, treated by pulmonary endarterectomy. After 24 months, a tumor of the pulmonary valve was detected by echocardiography. The patient underwent removal and replacement of the pulmonary valve. Histology revealed pulmonary valve intimal sarcoma.

  16. Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39 mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9 mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis.

  17. Pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance relationship in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chemla, Denis; Lau, Edmund M T; Papelier, Yves; Attal, Pierre; Hervé, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Right ventricular adaptation to the increased pulmonary arterial load is a key determinant of outcomes in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total arterial compliance (C) quantify resistive and elastic properties of pulmonary arteries that modulate the steady and pulsatile components of pulmonary arterial load, respectively. PVR is commonly calculated as transpulmonary pressure gradient over pulmonary flow and total arterial compliance as stroke volume over pulmonary arterial pulse pressure (SV/PApp). Assuming that there is an inverse, hyperbolic relationship between PVR and C, recent studies have popularised the concept that their product (RC-time of the pulmonary circulation, in seconds) is "constant" in health and diseases. However, emerging evidence suggests that this concept should be challenged, with shortened RC-times documented in post-capillary PH and normotensive subjects. Furthermore, reported RC-times in the literature have consistently demonstrated significant scatter around the mean. In precapillary PH, the true PVR can be overestimated if one uses the standard PVR equation because the zero-flow pressure may be significantly higher than pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Furthermore, SV/PApp may also overestimate true C. Further studies are needed to clarify some of the inconsistencies of pulmonary RC-time, as this has major implications for our understanding of the arterial load in diseases of the pulmonary circulation.

  18. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour. PMID:26353086

  19. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  20. "New Sport" in the street: self-defence, security and space in belle epoque Paris.

    PubMed

    Freundschuh, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Near the turn of the twentieth century, traditional self-defence methods (for example, jiu-jitsu) were revamped into a more accessible and practical set of techniques and tactics for everyday use in urban public space. Framed as a "new sport" with broad public utility, early urban self-defence developed against the backdrop of heightening fears of violent crime and a burgeoning politics of security, as well as tensions provoked by the increasingly common appearance of unchaperoned, middle-class women in public. Self-defence masters pitched their innovations in an inclusive rhetoric, always with separate lessons for men and women and their respective spaces of risk. This article places modern self-defence practices in tension with historical transformations in the urban landscape, arguing that urban self-defence posited a certain subjective relation to the city that tapped simultaneously into the desire for empowerment, fantasies of criminal danger and a law-and-order tone that shaded into urban vigilantism.

  1. Strong host resistance targeted against a viral suppressor of the plant gene silencing defence mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Li, H W; Lucy, A P; Guo, H S; Li, W X; Ji, L H; Wong, S M; Ding, S W

    1999-01-01

    The 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Cmv2b) acts as an important virulence determinant by suppressing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a natural plant defence mechanism against viruses. We report here that the tomato aspermy cucumovirus 2b protein (Tav2b), when expressed from the unrelated tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) RNA genome, activates strong host resistance responses to TMV in tobacco which are typical of the gene-for-gene disease resistance mechanism. Domain swapping between Cmv2b, which does not elicit these responses, and Tav2b, revealed functional domains in Tav2b critical for triggering virus resistance and hypersensitive cell death. Furthermore, substitution of two amino acids from Tav2b by those found at the same positions in Cmv2b, Lys21-->Val and Arg28-->Ser, abolished the ability to induce hypersensitive cell death and virus resistance. However, in Nicotiana benthamiana, a species related to tobacco, Tav2b functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses PTGS. Thus, a viral suppressor of the host gene silencing defence mechanism is the target of another independent host resistance mechanism. Our results provide new insights into the complex molecular strategies employed by viruses and their hosts for defence, counter-defence and counter counter-defence. PMID:10329615

  2. Future directions in the ontogeny of plant defence: understanding the evolutionary causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Barton, Kasey E; Boege, Karina

    2017-04-01

    Plant defence often varies by orders of magnitude as plants develop from the seedling to juvenile to mature and senescent stages. Ontogenetic trajectories can involve switches among defence traits, leading to complex shifting phenotypes across plant lifetimes. While considerable research has characterised ontogenetic trajectories for now hundreds of plant species, we still lack a clear understanding of the molecular, ecological and evolutionary factors driving these patterns. In this study, we identify several non-mutually exclusive factors that may have led to the evolution of ontogenetic trajectories in plant defence, including developmental constraints, resource allocation costs, multi-functionality of defence traits, and herbivore selection pressure. Evidence from recent physiological studies is highlighted to shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation and activation of these developmental changes. Overall, our goal is to promote new research avenues that would provide evidence for the factors that have promoted the evolution of this complex lifetime phenotype. Future research focusing on the questions and approaches identified here will advance the field and shed light on why defence traits shift so dramatically across plant ontogeny, a widespread but poorly understood ecological pattern.

  3. Crowd-out of defence and health spending: is Israel different from other industrialised nations?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Does high defence spending limit the growth of public health investment? Using comparative data from 31 OECD countries between 1980 and 2010, we find little evidence that defence crowds out public health spending. Whether measured in terms of long-term levels or short-term changes, per capita defence and health spending positively and significantly correlate. To investigate the possibility that countries with high security needs such as Israel exhibit differing patterns, we also compare crowd-out among countries experiencing violent conflicts as well as current high military-spending countries. We observed a greater positive correlation between changes in health and defence spending among conflict-countries (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) than in non-conflict countries (r = 0.12, p = 0.01). However, similar to other high-military spending countries, Israel’s politicians reduced defence spending while increasing health expenditure during its recent recession. These analyses reveal that while Israel’s politicians have chronically underinvested in public health, there are modest steps being taken to rectify the country’s unique and avoidable crowding out of public health from its high military spending. PMID:23607605

  4. Natural selection on quantitative immune defence traits: a comparison between theory and data.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, O

    2015-01-01

    Parasites present a threat for free-living species and affect several ecological and evolutionary processes. Immune defence is the main physiological barrier against infections, and understanding its evolution is central for predicting disease dynamics. I review theoretical predictions and empirical data on natural selection on quantitative immune defence traits in the wild. Evolutionary theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection owing to trade-offs between immune function and life-history traits. Empirical data, however, support mainly positive directional selection, but also show variation in the form of selection among study systems, immune traits and fitness components. I argue that the differences between theory and empirical data may at least partly arise from methodological difficulties in testing stabilizing selection as well as measuring fitness. I also argue that the commonness of positive directional selection and the variation in selection may be caused by several biological factors. First, selection on immune function may show spatial and temporal variation as epidemics are often local/seasonal. Second, factors affecting the range of phenotypic variation in immune traits could alter potential for selection. Third, different parasites may impose different selective pressures depending on their characteristics. Fourth, condition dependence of immune defence can obscure trade-offs related to it, thus possibly modifying observed selection gradients. Fifth, nonimmunological defences could affect the form of selection by reducing the benefits of strong immune function. To comprehensively understand the evolution of immune defence, the role of above factors should be considered in future studies.

  5. Plant defence suppression is mediated by a fungal sirtuin during rice infection by Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jessie; Marroquin-Guzman, Margarita; Nandakumar, Renu; Shijo, Sara; Cornwell, Kathryn M; Li, Gang; Wilson, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    Crop destruction by the hemibiotrophic rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae requires plant defence suppression to facilitate extensive biotrophic growth in host cells before the onset of necrosis. How this is achieved at the genetic level is not well understood. Here, we report that a M. oryzae sirtuin, MoSir2, plays an essential role in rice defence suppression and colonization by controlling superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene expression. Loss of MoSir2 function in Δsir2 strains did not affect appressorial function, but biotrophic growth in rice cells was attenuated. Compared to wild type, Δsir2 strains failed to neutralize plant-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicited robust defence responses in rice epidermal cells that included elevated pathogenesis-related gene expression and granular depositions. Deletion of a SOD-encoding gene under MoSir2 control generated Δsod1 deletion strains that mimicked Δsir2 for impaired rice defence suppression, confirming SOD activity as a downstream output of MoSir2. In addition, comparative protein acetylation studies and forward genetic analyses identified a JmjC domain-containing protein as a likely target of MoSir2, and a Δsir2 Δjmjc double mutant was restored for MoSOD1 expression and defence suppression in rice epidermal cells. Together, this work reveals MoSir2 and MoJmjC as novel regulators of early rice cell infection.

  6. Growth-defence balance in grass biomass production: the role of jasmonates.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Christine; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Growth-defence balance is the selective partitioning of resources between biomass accumulation and defence responses. Although it is generally postulated that reallocation of limited carbon pools drives the antagonism between growth and defence, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this regulation. Jasmonates (JAs) are a group of oxylipins that are required for a broad range of responses from defence against insects to reproductive growth. Application of JAs to seedlings also leads to inhibited growth and repression of photosynthesis, suggesting a role for JAs in regulating growth-defence balance. The majority of JA research uses dicot models such as Arabidopsis and tomato, while understanding of JA biology in monocot grasses, which comprise most bioenergy feedstocks, food for human consumption, and animal feed, is limited. Interestingly, JA mutants of grasses exhibit unique phenotypes compared with well-studied dicot models. Gene expression analyses in bioenergy grasses also suggest roles for JA in rhizome development, which has not been demonstrated in Arabidopsis. In this review we summarize current knowledge of JA biology in panicoid grasses-the group that consists of the world's emerging bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, sugarcane, Miscanthus, and sorghum. We discuss outstanding questions regarding the role of JAs in panicoid grasses, and highlight the importance of utilizing emerging grass models for molecular studies to provide a basis for engineering bioenergy grasses that can maximize biomass accumulation while efficiently defending against stress.

  7. Priming of anti-herbivore defence in Nicotiana attenuata by insect oviposition: herbivore-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Grichnik, Roland; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes plant defence against its larvae that consequently suffer reduced performance. To reveal whether this is a general response of tobacco to insect oviposition or species-specific, we investigated whether also Manduca sexta oviposition primes N. attenuata's anti-herbivore defence. The plant response to M. sexta and S. exigua oviposition overlapped in the egg-primed feeding-induced production of the phenylpropanoid caffeoylputrescine. While M. sexta larvae were unaffected in their performance, they showed a novel response to the oviposition-mediated plant changes: a reduced antimicrobial activity in their haemolymph. In a cross-resistance experiment, S. exigua larvae suffered reduced performance on M. sexta-oviposited plants like they did on S. exigua-oviposited plants. The M. sexta oviposition-mediated plant effects on the S. exigua larval performance and on M. sexta larval immunity required expression of the NaMyb8 transcription factor that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids such as caffeoylputrescine. Thus, NaMyb8-dependent defence traits mediate the effects that oviposition by both lepidopteran species exerts on the plant's anti-herbivore defence. These results suggest that oviposition by lepidopteran species on N. attenuata leaves may generally prime the feeding-induced production of certain plant defence compounds but that different herbivore species show different susceptibility to egg-primed plant effects.

  8. The nexus between growth and defence signalling: auxin and cytokinin modulate plant immune response pathways.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Muhammad; Kaltdorf, Martin; Dandekar, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Plants deploy a finely tuned balance between growth and defence responses for better fitness. Crosstalk between defence signalling hormones such as salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonates (JAs) as well as growth regulators plays a significant role in mediating the trade-off between growth and defence in plants. Here, we specifically discuss how the mutual antagonism between the signalling of auxin and SA impacts on plant growth and defence. Furthermore, the synergism between auxin and JA benefits a class of plant pathogens. JA signalling also poses growth cuts through auxin. We discuss how the effect of cytokinins (CKs) is multifaceted and is effective against a broad range of pathogens in mediating immunity. The synergism between CKs and SA promotes defence against biotrophs. Reciprocally, SA inhibits CK-mediated growth responses. Recent reports show that CKs promote JA responses; however, in a feedback loop, JA suppresses CK responses. We also highlight crosstalk between auxin and CKs and discuss their antagonistic effects on plant immunity. Efforts to minimize the negative effects of auxin on immunity and a reduction in SA- and JA-mediated growth losses should lead to better sustainable plant protection strategies.

  9. Light acclimation, retrograde signalling, cell death and immune defences in plants.

    PubMed

    Karpiński, Stanisław; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Wituszyńska, Weronika; Burdiak, Paweł

    2013-04-01

    This review confronts the classical view of plant immune defence and light acclimation with recently published data. Earlier findings have linked plant immune defences to nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-dependent recognition of pathogen effectors and to the role of plasma membrane-localized NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase (AtRbohD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and salicylic acid (SA). However, recent results suggest that plant immune defence also depends on the absorption of excessive light energy and photorespiration. Rapid changes in light intensity and quality often cause the absorption of energy, which is in excess of that required for photosynthesis. Such excessive light energy is considered to be a factor triggering photoinhibition and disturbance in ROS/hormonal homeostasis, which leads to cell death in foliar tissues. We highlight here the tight crosstalk between ROS- and SA-dependent pathways leading to light acclimation, and defence responses leading to pathogen resistance. We also show that LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1) regulates and integrates these processes. Moreover, we discuss the role of plastid-nucleus signal transduction, photorespiration, photoelectrochemical signalling and 'light memory' in the regulation of acclimation and immune defence responses. All of these results suggest that plants have evolved a genetic system that simultaneously regulates systemic acquired resistance (SAR), cell death and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA).

  10. Targeted predation of extrafloral nectaries by insects despite localized chemical defences.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2015-10-07

    Extrafloral (EF) nectaries recruit carnivorous arthropods that protect plants from herbivory, but they can also be exploited by nectar thieves. We studied the opportunistic, targeted predation (and destruction) of EF nectaries by insects, and the localized chemical defences that plants presumably use to minimize this effect. In field and laboratory experiments, we identified insects that were possibly responsible for EF nectary predation in Vicia faba (fava bean) and determined the extent and accuracy of the feeding damage done to the EF nectaries by these insects. We also performed biochemical analyses of plant tissue samples in order to detect microscale distribution patterns of chemical defences in the area of the EF nectary. We observed selective, targeted feeding on EF nectaries by several insect species, including some that are otherwise not primarily herbivorous. Biochemical analyses revealed high concentrations of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a non-protein amino acid that is toxic to insects, near and within the EF nectaries. These results suggest that plants allocate defences to the protection of EF nectaries from predation, consistent with expectations of optimal defence theory, and that this may not be entirely effective, as insects limit their exposure to these defences by consuming only the secreting tissue of the nectary.

  11. Targeted predation of extrafloral nectaries by insects despite localized chemical defences

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2015-01-01

    Extrafloral (EF) nectaries recruit carnivorous arthropods that protect plants from herbivory, but they can also be exploited by nectar thieves. We studied the opportunistic, targeted predation (and destruction) of EF nectaries by insects, and the localized chemical defences that plants presumably use to minimize this effect. In field and laboratory experiments, we identified insects that were possibly responsible for EF nectary predation in Vicia faba (fava bean) and determined the extent and accuracy of the feeding damage done to the EF nectaries by these insects. We also performed biochemical analyses of plant tissue samples in order to detect microscale distribution patterns of chemical defences in the area of the EF nectary. We observed selective, targeted feeding on EF nectaries by several insect species, including some that are otherwise not primarily herbivorous. Biochemical analyses revealed high concentrations of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a non-protein amino acid that is toxic to insects, near and within the EF nectaries. These results suggest that plants allocate defences to the protection of EF nectaries from predation, consistent with expectations of optimal defence theory, and that this may not be entirely effective, as insects limit their exposure to these defences by consuming only the secreting tissue of the nectary. PMID:26446809

  12. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Imroze, K; Prasad, N G

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  13. Pulmonary hypertension and hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Téllez Villajos, L; Martínez González, J; Moreira Vicente, V; Albillos Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common phenomenon in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can appear through various mechanisms. The most characteristic scenario that binds portal and pulmonary hypertension is portopulmonary syndrome. However, hyperdynamic circulation, TIPS placement and heart failure can raise the mean pulmonary artery pressure without increasing the resistances. These conditions are not candidates for treatment with pulmonary vasodilators and require a specific therapy. A correct assessment of hemodynamic, ultrasound and clinical variables enables the differential diagnosis of each situation that produces pulmonary hypertension in patients with cirrhosis.

  14. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Xin; Rice, Shawn J; Belani, Chandra P

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer remains a challenging disease with high morbidity and mortality despite targeted therapy. Symptom burden related to cancer impairs quality of life and functional status in patients with lung cancer and in survivors. Pulmonary rehabilitation has been recognized as an effective, noninvasive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory disease. It is well established that pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients with chronic obstruction pulmonary disease through improved exercise capacity and symptoms. Evidence is increasing that the benefit of pulmonary rehabilitation can be applied to patients with lung cancer. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation has made its way as a cornerstone of integrated care for patients with lung cancer.

  15. Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice and provides pulmonary restoration.

    PubMed

    Koike, Kengo; Ishigami, Akihito; Sato, Yasunori; Hirai, Toyohiro; Yuan, Yiming; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Tobino, Kazunori; Sato, Tadashi; Sekiya, Mitsuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Maruyama, Naoki; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant and is essential for collagen synthesis. We investigated whether VC treatment prevents and cures smoke-induced emphysema in senescence marker protein-30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice, which cannot synthesize VC. Two smoke-exposure experiments using SMP30-KO mice were conducted. In the first one (a preventive study), 4-month-old mice received minimal VC (0.0375 g/l) [VC(L)] or physiologically sufficient VC (1.5 g/l) [VC(S)] and exposed to cigarette smoke or smoke-free air for 2 months. Pulmonary evaluations followed when the mice were 6 months of age. The second study began after the establishment of smoke-induced emphysema (a treatment study). These mice no longer underwent smoke exposure but received VC(S) or VC(L) treatment for 2 months. Morphometric analysis was performed, and measurements of oxidative stress, collagen synthesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the lungs were evaluated. Chronic smoke exposure caused emphysema (29.6% increases of mean linear intercepts [MLI] and 106.5% increases of destructive index compared with the air-only group) in 6-month-old SMP30-KO mice, and this emphysema closely resembled human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoke-induced emphysema persisted in the VC(L) group after smoking cessation, whereas VC treatment provided pulmonary restoration (18.5% decrease of MLI and 41.3% decrease of destructive index compared with VC(L) group). VC treatment diminished oxidative stress, increased collagen synthesis, and improved vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the lungs. Our results suggest that VC not only prevents smoke-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice but also restores emphysematous lungs. Therefore, VC may provide a new therapeutic strategy for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans.

  16. Primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rashid, A; Lehrman, S; Romano, P; Frishman, W; Dobkin, J; Reichel, J

    2000-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a condition characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) without demonstrable cause. The most common symptom at presentation is dyspnea. Other complaints include fatigue, chest pain, syncope, leg edema, and palpitations. Right heart catheterization is diagnostic, showing a mean PAP >25 mmHg at rest and >30 mmHg during exercise, with a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. In the National Institutes of Health-PPH registry, the median survival period was 2.8 years. Treatment is aimed at lowering PAP, increasing cardiac output, and decreasing in situ thrombosis. Vasodilators have been used with some success in the treatment of PPH. They include prostacyclin, calcium-channel blockers, nitric oxide and adenosine. Anticoagulation has also been advised for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and in situ thromboses of the lungs. New drug treatments under investigation include L-arginine, plasma endothelin-I, and bosentan. Use of oxygen, digoxin, and diuretics for symptomatic relief have also been recommended. Patients with severe PPH refractory to medical management should be considered for surgery.

  17. Pulmonary lobectomy - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100094.htm Pulmonary lobectomy - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 ...

  18. Treprostinil for pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Skoro-Sajer, Nika; Lang, Irene; Naeije, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Treprostinil is a stable, long-acting prostacyclin analogue which can be administered as a continuous subcutaneous infusion using a portable miniature delivery system. Subcutaneous treprostinil has been shown in a large multicenter randomized controlled trial to improve exercise capacity, clinical state, functional class, pulmonary hemodynamics, and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, an uncommon disease of poor prognosis. Side effects include facial flush, headache, jaw pain, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea, all typical of prostacyclin, and manageable by symptom-directed dose adjustments, and infusion site pain which may make further treatment impossible in 7%–10% of the patients. Long-term survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients treated with subcutaneous treprostinil is similar to that reported with intravenous epoprostenol. There are uncontrolled data suggesting efficacy of subcutaneous treprostinil in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Treprostinil can also be administered intravenously, although increased doses, up to 2–3 times those given subcutaneously, appear to be needed to obtain the same efficacy. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial of inhaled treprostinil on top of bosentan and sildenafil therapies have shown significance on the primary endpoint, which was exercise capacity as assessed by the distance walked in 6 minutes. Trials of oral formulations of treprostinil have been initiated. PMID:18827901

  19. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a referral to a counselor. A support group for people living with pulmonary hypertension can be invaluable in learning how to cope with the illness. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  20. Pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Gregg L; Enright, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing is often considered the basis for diagnosis in many categories of pulmonary disease. Although most of the testing methodologies are well established and widely employed, there are still many questions regarding how tests should be performed, how to ensure that reliable data are produced, what reference values and rules should be used, and how pulmonary function tests (PFTs) should be interpreted to best support clinical decision making. This conference was organized around a set of questions aimed at many of these issues. Each presenter was asked to address a specific topic regarding what tests should be done, how those test should be performed to answer a particular clinical question, and to relate test results to an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the patient. These topics included testing of adults and children, with concentration on important disease entities such as COPD, asthma, and unexplained dyspnea. Special emphasis was given to discussing reference values, lower limits of normal, interpretive strategies to optimize disease classification, and those factors directly affecting data quality. Established techniques for spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, exercise testing, and bronchial challenges were compared and contrasted with new technologies, and with technologies that might be part of pulmonary function laboratories in the near future.

  1. Pulmonary hypertension in polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Liu, Tao; Cai, Ying-ying; Luo, Lian; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mengmeng; Cai, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is relatively common in connective tissue diseases. However, few studies have focused on the pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with polymyositis (PM). Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of PH and determine the associated factors for PH in patients with PM. Multicenter study of 61 patients with PM underwent evaluation including general information, physical examination, laboratory indictors, thoracic high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging, and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). TTE was performed to estimate the pulmonary arterial pressure. PH was defined as resting systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) ≥40 mmHg. PH was identified in ten patients (16.39 %) who had few cardiopulmonary symptoms. PM patients with PH had higher prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pericardial effusion (PE) compared with patients without PH (18 vs. 11.5 %, p = 0.005; 11.5 vs. 9.8 %, p = 0.004; respectively). After controlling for age, gender, and potential factors, ILD and PE were independently associated with PH in patients with PM in multivariate analysis (OR = 8.193, 95 % CI 1.241-54.084, p = 0.029; OR = 8.265, 95 % CI 1.298-52.084, p = 0.025; respectively). Depending on TTE, the possible prevalence of PH was 16.39 % in patients with PM. Both ILD and PE may contribute to the development of PH in PM.

  2. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray High-resolution CT scan of the chest Pulmonary function tests Open lung biopsy (surgical biopsy) Treatment Treatment involves washing out the protein substance from the lung (whole-lung lavage) from time to time. Some persons may need a lung ... References Levine SM. ...

  3. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis.

    PubMed

    Malcon, Maura Cavada; Malcon, Claudio Mattar; Cavada, Marina Neves; Caruso, Paulo Eduardo Macedo; Real, Lara Flório

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with left lung agenesis, without any other congenital malformations. When the patient presented symptoms, including cough, wheezing, and dyspnea, with no clinical improvement after a period of 30 days, imaging studies were conducted and the diagnosis was made.

  4. The effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen on antioxidant defences and oxidative damage in the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, E D; Lapidus, S J H; Brown, A C

    2013-03-01

    Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas maintained at 25° C for 6 h had significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than fish maintained at 7 or 32° C, but hypoxic conditions (3 mg l(-1) O2 ) over the same time period did not affect SOD activity. Fish in better body condition (length-adjusted mass) had higher SOD activity. In a separate experiment, P. promelas maintained at three water temperatures (7, 23 and 32° C) for 31 days did not differ in liver acrolein, a biomarker of oxidative stress.

  5. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W

    2012-01-01

    The bile pigments, biliverdin, and bilirubin, are endogenously derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  6. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  7. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  8. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of infusions from leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2009-04-01

    Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves.

  9. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

  10. The influence of endurance exercise on the antioxidative status of human skin.

    PubMed

    Vierck, H B; Darvin, M E; Lademann, J; Reisshauer, A; Baack, A; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is supposed to be responsible for a diversity of diseases. For protection purposes, the human organism exhibits a line-up of antioxidant substances functioning as radical catchers. As a result of neutralization of free radicals, antioxidants are destroyed. Therefore, the degradation of the antioxidants can be utilized as an indirect parameter for the measurement of free radical formation. As physical exercise may also induce oxidative stress, the aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant substances, and more precisely, the carotenoid concentration in the skin of male volunteers during different sportive exposures (cycling and running with two different exercise intensities) with resonance Raman spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that moderate and high intensity cycling and running decrease the carotenoid concentration of the skin, whereas both sport disciplines and both exercise intensities revealed similar results. It can be concluded that above a certain threshold, physical exercise leads to oxidative stress also in the skin associated with the decrease in the antioxidant concentration. This gives rise to the impairment of the first defence line of the skin and means an increase in the risk of sun exposure-induced damage, e.g., when exercise training is performed outside. Nevertheless, it has to be emphasized that sport in general applied at moderate loads has predominantly positive effects on the health of humans especially concerning cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  11. Technical and Organizational Aspects of Protection from Ionizing Radiations within the Defence

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbatini, Vittorio

    2000-12-31

    When the Defence is not interested in the nuclear aspects connected with energy production or basic research, it must feel compelled to follow the nuclear activities for what concerns the nuclear protection needs within the operational forces. During the years, this has caused the installation and utilization of a nuclear reactor, laboratories specialized in radiological and nuclear matters and the management and utilization of radioactive material and radiogenic machines to satisfy additional requirements. A specific structure (CISAM) has been created within the Defence for these activities; it is able both to offer a valid protection organization to the forces assigned to operate militarily and to operate in peace time for the safety of personnel and the protection of environment. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quick analysis of the Defence nuclear and radioprotection needs and to illustrate CISAM's function, the technical methods adopted and some specific protection arrangements connected with radiological emergencies.

  12. Immigration of susceptible hosts triggers the evolution of alternative parasite defence strategies.

    PubMed

    Chabas, Hélène; van Houte, Stineke; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Buckling, Angus; Westra, Edze R

    2016-08-31

    Migration of hosts and parasites can have a profound impact on host-parasite ecological and evolutionary interactions. Using the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 and its phage DMS3vir, we here show that immigration of naive hosts into coevolving populations of hosts and parasites can influence the mechanistic basis underlying host defence evolution. Specifically, we found that at high levels of bacterial immigration, bacteria switched from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas) to surface modification-mediated defence. This effect emerges from an increase in the force of infection, which tips the balance from CRISPR to surface modification-based defence owing to the induced and fixed fitness costs associated with these mechanisms, respectively.

  13. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  14. A mathematical model of the defence mechanism of a bombardier beetle

    PubMed Central

    James, Alex; Morison, Ken; Todd, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of bombardier beetles have shown that some species have a continuous discharge while others exhibit a pulsed discharge. Here, a mathematical model of the defence mechanism of the bombardier beetle is developed and the hypothesis that almost all bombardiers' defences have some sort of cyclic behaviour at frequencies much higher than previously thought is put forward. The observation of pulses arises from secondary lower frequency cycles that appear for some parameter values. For realistic parameter values, the model can exhibit all the characteristics seen in the various species of bombardier. The possibility that all bombardiers have the same underlying defence mechanism gives weight to the theory that all bombardiers' explosive secretory mechanisms have diversified from a common ancestral mechanism. PMID:23173197

  15. Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy for Pulmonary Hypertension Before Considering Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Kooperkamp, Hannah; Mehta, Inder; Fary, David; Bates, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cases of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), referral for possible surgical intervention is important because surgery can be curative. Surgery necessitates cardiopulmonary bypass and deep circulatory arrest with pulmonary thrombectomy and bilateral endarterectomy (PTE). If surgery fails, lung transplant is the next best surgical option. Medical treatment is also an important adjunct. Case Report: A 35-year-old female presented 3 months after a pulmonary embolus was found to be completely occluding her left pulmonary artery. She was found to have pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 81/33 mmHg, with a mean pressure of 52 mmHg. The right atrial pressure was also severely elevated at 29 mmHg, and her echocardiogram revealed severe tricuspid regurgitation and severe right ventricular dysfunction. She underwent PTE and postoperatively was followed by the heart failure team. Her 6-minute walk distance improved from 396 meters at 1 month to 670 meters at 7 months, and her pulmonary artery pressure improved significantly to 55/17 mmHg with a mean pressure of 31 mmHg. The patient's right atrial pressure also improved significantly from 29 mmHg to 13 mmHg. Conclusion: CTEPH is likely underrecognized, and patients with pulmonary hypertension or a history of pulmonary embolism should be screened for CTEPH. This case illustrates the surgical treatment for CTEPH and discusses alternative and adjunctive treatments. Residual pulmonary hypertension after PTE occurs in approximately 35% of patients. Overall, 4-year mortality rates after surgery appear to be approximately 15%, and mortality rates correlate with the postoperative pulmonary vascular resistance. Recognition of chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease as the etiology of pulmonary hypertension warrants evaluation for surgery. PMID:28331450

  16. Uncovering the defence responses of Eucalyptus to pests and pathogens in the genomics age.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten; Zwart, Lizahn; Mangwanda, Ronishree; Oates, Caryn N; Visser, Erik A; Wilken, Febé E; Mamni, Thandekile B; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    Long-lived tree species are subject to attack by various pests and pathogens during their lifetime. This problem is exacerbated by climate change, which may increase the host range for pathogens and extend the period of infestation by pests. Plant defences may involve preformed barriers or induced resistance mechanisms based on recognition of the invader, complex signalling cascades, hormone signalling, activation of transcription factors and production of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with direct antimicrobial or anti-insect activity. Trees have evolved some unique defence mechanisms compared with well-studied model plants, which are mostly herbaceous annuals. The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden has recently become available and provides a resource to extend our understanding of defence in large woody perennials. This review synthesizes existing knowledge of defence mechanisms in model plants and tree species and features mechanisms that may be important for defence in Eucalyptus, such as anatomical variants and the role of chemicals and proteins. Based on the E. grandis genome sequence, we have identified putative PR proteins based on sequence identity to the previously described plant PR proteins. Putative orthologues for PR-1, PR-2, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6, PR-7, PR-8, PR-9, PR-10, PR-12, PR-14, PR-15 and PR-17 have been identified and compared with their orthologues in Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The survey of PR genes in Eucalyptus provides a first step in identifying defence gene targets that may be employed for protection of the species in future. Genomic resources available for Eucalyptus are discussed and approaches for improving resistance in these hardwood trees, earmarked as a bioenergy source in future, are considered.

  17. Requirements for a successful defence reaction by the CRISPR-Cas subtype I-B system.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Britta; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Lange, Sita J; Brendel, Jutta; Fischer, Susan; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Uptake of foreign mobile genetic elements is often detrimental and can result in cell death. For protection against invasion, prokaryotes have developed several defence mechanisms, which take effect at all stages of infection; an example is the recently discovered CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) immune system. This defence system directly degrades invading genetic material and is present in almost all archaea and many bacteria. Current data indicate a large variety of mechanistic molecular approaches. Although almost all archaea carry this defence weapon, only a few archaeal systems have been fully characterized. In the present paper, we summarize the prerequisites for the detection and degradation of invaders in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. H. volcanii encodes a subtype I-B CRISPR-Cas system and the defence can be triggered by a plasmid-based invader. Six different target-interference motifs are recognized by the Haloferax defence and a 9-nt non-contiguous seed sequence is essential. The repeat sequence has the potential to fold into a minimal stem-loop structure, which is conserved in haloarchaea and might be recognized by the Cas6 endoribonuclease during the processing of CRISPR loci into mature crRNA (CRISPR RNA). Individual crRNA species were present in very different concentrations according to an RNA-Seq analysis and many were unable to trigger a successful defence reaction. Recognition of the plasmid invader does not depend on its copy number, but instead results indicate a dependency on the type of origin present on the plasmid.

  18. Growth and reproductive costs of larval defence in the aposematic lepidopteran Pieris brassicae.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Andrew D; Delf, Jon; Ruxton, Graeme D; Speed, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    1. Utilization of plant secondary compounds for antipredator defence is common in immature herbivorous insects. Such defences may incur a cost to the animal, either in terms of survival, growth rate or in the reproductive success. 2. A common defence in lepidopterans is the regurgitation of semi-digested material containing the defensive compounds of the food plant, a defence which has led to gut specialization in this order. Regurgitation is often swift in response to cuticular stimulation and deters predators from consuming or parasitizing the larva. The loss of food and other gut material seems likely to impact on fitness, but evidence is lacking. 3. Here, we raised larvae of the common crop pest Pieris brassicae on commercial cabbage leaves, simulated predator attacks throughout the larval period, and measured life-history responses. 4. We found that the probability of survival to pupation decreased with increasing frequency of attacks, but this was because of regurgitation rather than the stimulation itself. There was a growth cost to the defence such that the more regurgitant that individuals produced over the growth period, the smaller they were at pupation. 5. The number of mature eggs in adult females was positively related to pupal mass, but this relationship was only found when individuals were not subjected to a high frequency of predator simulation. This suggests that there might be cryptic fitness costs to common defensive responses that are paid despite apparent growth rate being maintained. 6. Our results demonstrate a clear life-history cost of an antipredator defence in a model pest species and show that under certain conditions, such as high predation threat, the expected relationship between female body size and potential fecundity can be disrupted.

  19. Pulmonary Actinomycosis Mimicking Pulmonary Aspergilloma and a Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Yoshitsugu; Nakamura, Shigeki; Ashizawa, Nobuyuki; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Akitaka; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare pulmonary infection that often exhibits unspecific symptoms and radiological findings. We herein report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that mimicked pulmonary aspergilloma in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:28202870

  20. Chronic Ethanol Exposure: Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Disease and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Traphagen, Nicole; Tian, Zhi; Allen-Gipson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) is the world’s most commonly used drug, and has been widely recognized as a risk factor for developing lung disorders. Chronic EtOH exposure affects all of the organ systems in the body and increases the risk of developing pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and pneumonia, while exacerbating the symptoms and resulting in increased mortality in many other lung disorders. EtOH and its metabolites inhibit the immune response of alveolar macrophages (AMs), increase airway leakage, produce damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disrupt the balance of antioxidants/oxidants within the lungs. In this article, we review the role of EtOH exposure in the pathogenesis and progression of pulmonary disease. PMID:26492278

  1. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  2. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  3. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-07-06

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  4. Evolution of host innate defence: insights from C. elegans and primitive invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Irazoqui, Javier E.; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Preface The genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was first used to model bacterial virulence in vivo a decade ago. Since then, great strides have been made in the identification of host response pathways that are involved in the defence against infection. Strikingly, C. elegans seems to detect and respond to infection without the involvement of its Toll-like receptor homologue, in contrast to the well-established role for these proteins in innate immunity in mammals. What, therefore, do we know about host defence mechanisms in C. elegans, and what can they tell us about innate immunity in higher organisms? PMID:20029447

  5. When a pulmonary embolism is not a pulmonary embolism: a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Muganlinskaya, Nargiz; Guzman, Amanda; Dahagam, Chanukya; Selinger, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial leiomyosarcomas account for up to 21% of vascular leiomyosarcomas, with 56% of arterial leiomyosarcomas occurring in the pulmonary artery. While isolated cases of primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma document survival up to 36 months after treatment, these uncommon, aggressive tumors are highly lethal, with 1-year survival estimated at 20% from the onset of symptoms. We discuss a rare case of a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma that was originally diagnosed as a pulmonary embolism (PE). A 72-year-old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with ‘saddle pulmonary embolism’ based on computerized tomographic angiography of the chest 2 months prior to admission and placed on anticoagulation. Dyspnea escalated, and serial computed tomography scans showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary emboli involving the right and left main pulmonary arteries with extension into the right and left upper and lower lobe branches. An echocardiogram on admission showed severe pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 82.9 mm Hg, and a severely enlarged right ventricle. Respiratory distress and multiorgan failure developed and, unfortunately, the patient expired. Autopsy showed a lobulated, yellow mass throughout the main pulmonary arteries measuring 13 cm in diameter. The mass extended into the parenchyma of the right upper lobe. On microscopy, the mass was consistent with a high-grade primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Median survival of patients with primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma without surgery is one and a half months, and mortality is usually due to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease commonly mistaken for PE. Thus, we recommend clinicians to suspect this malignancy when anticoagulation fails to relieve initial symptoms. In conclusion, early detection and suspicion of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma should be considered in patients refractory to anticoagulation, prompting initiation

  6. Sex-related differences in growth and carbon allocation to defence in Populus tremula as explained by current plant defence theories.

    PubMed

    Randriamanana, Tendry R; Nybakken, Line; Lavola, Anu; Aphalo, Pedro J; Nissinen, Katri; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2014-05-01

    Plant defence theories have recently evolved in such a way that not only the quantity but also the quality of mineral nutrients is expected to influence plant constitutive defence. Recently, an extended prediction derived from the protein competition model (PCM) suggested that nitrogen (N) limitation is more important for the production of phenolic compounds than phosphorus (P). We aimed at studying sexual differences in the patterns of carbon allocation to growth and constitutive defence in relation to N and P availability in Populus tremula L. seedlings. We compared the gender responses in photosynthesis, growth and whole-plant allocation to phenolic compounds at different combination levels of N and P, and studied how they are explained by the main plant defence theories. We found no sexual differences in phenolic concentrations, but interestingly, slow-growing females had higher leaf N concentration than did males, and genders differed in their allocation priority. There was a trade-off between growth and the production of flavonoid-derived phenylpropanoids on one hand, and between the production of salicylates and flavonoid-derived phenylpropanoids on the other. Under limited nutrient conditions, females prioritized mineral nutrient acquisition, flavonoid and condensed tannin (CT) production, while males invested more in above-ground biomass. Salicylate accumulation followed the growth differentiation balance hypothesis as low N mainly decreased the production of leaf and stem salicylate content while the combination of both low N and low P increased the amount of flavonoids and CTs allocated to leaves and to a lesser extent stems, which agrees with the PCM. We suggest that such a discrepancy in the responses of salicylates and flavonoid-derived CTs is linked to their clearly distinct biosynthetic origins and/or their metabolic costs.

  7. Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

  8. Pulmonary hypertension in congenital shunts.

    PubMed

    Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cecile

    2010-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension frequently arises in patients with congenital heart disease. The vast majority present with congenital cardiac shunts. Initially these may manifest as left-to-right (i.e. systemic-to-pulmonary) shunts. The natural history of disease progression involves vascular remodeling and dysfunction that lead to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and, finally, to the development of Eisenmenger's syndrome, which is the most advanced form. The anatomical, pathological and structural abnormalities occurring in the pulmonary circulation of these patients are, to some extent, similar to those observed in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This understanding has recently led to significant changes in the management of Eisenmenger's syndrome, with the introduction of treatment specifically targeting pulmonary vascular disease. Early closure of the cardiac shunt remains the best way of preventing pulmonary vascular lesions. However, it is still not clear which preoperative parameters predict safe and successful repair, though hemodynamic evaluation is still routinely used for assessment. Postoperative pulmonary hypertension, both in the immediate period after surgical repair and during long-term follow-up, remains a real therapeutic challenge. The clinical situation of a single ventricle with Fontan circulation also presents difficulties when pulmonary vascular lesions are present. This article reviews pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital shunts and discusses a number of the specific problems encountered.

  9. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is

  10. An apparent trade-off between direct and signal-based induced indirect defence against herbivores in willow trees.

    PubMed

    Yoneya, Kinuyo; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Signal-based induced indirect defence refers to herbivore-induced production of plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of herbivores. Relationships between direct and indirect defence strategies were studied using tritrophic systems consisting of six sympatric willow species, willow leaf beetles (Plagiodera versicolora), and their natural predators, ladybeetles (Aiolocaria hexaspilota). Relative preferences of ladybeetles for prey-infested willow plant volatiles, indicating levels of signal-based induced indirect defence, were positively correlated with the vulnerability of willow species to leaf beetles, assigned as relative levels of direct defence. This correlation suggested a possible trade-off among the species, in terms of resource limitation between direct defence and signal-based induced indirect defence. However, analyses of volatiles from infested and uninfested plants showed that the specificity of infested volatile blends (an important factor determining the costs of signal-based induced indirect defence) did not affect the attractiveness of infested plant volatiles. Thus, the suggested trade-off in resource limitation was unlikely. Rather, principal coordinates analysis showed that this 'apparent trade-off' between direct and signal-based induced indirect defence was partially explained by differential preferences of ladybeetles to infested plant volatiles of the six willow species. We also showed that relative preferences of ladybeetles for prey-infested willow plant volatiles were positively correlated with oviposition preferences of leaf beetles and with the distributions of leaf beetles in the field. These correlations suggest that ladybeetles use the specificity of infested willow plant volatiles to find suitable prey patches.

  11. Two thiadiazole compounds promote rice defence against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by suppressing the bacterium's production of extracellular polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Xiaoyue; Dong, Wenxia; Guo, Shijian; Xu, Shu; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingguo

    2015-10-01

    Thiazole, isothiazole, thiadiazole, and their derivatives are used to control various human, animal and plant diseases. In addition to having direct anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties, these compounds are thought to induce host defences, but the mechanism of defence induction remains poorly understood. This article reports that the thiadiazoles of zinc thiazole and bismerthiazol induce H2 O2 accumulation, up-regulation of defence-related genes, callose deposition and hypersensitive response-like cell death in rice leaves infected with Xanthomonas oryaze pv. oryzae (Xoo) strain ZJ173, but not in non-infected leaves. These defence responses in Xoo-infected leaves were suppressed by the exogenous application of catalase, which reduces H2 O2 accumulation. The application of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) extracted from strain ZJ173 significantly compromised rice defence against ZJ173 with or without thiadiazole treatment. The EPS-deficient Xoo mutant ∆gumH triggered a stronger defence than its parent strain ZJ173. The thiadiazole treatments reduced EPS production by strain ZJ173, but not by the thiadiazole-resistant strain 2-1-1, which is thiadiazole resistant in vivo, but not in vitro; moreover, enhanced defence was not detected in thiadiazole-treated rice inoculated with 2-1-1. Based on these data, we infer that zinc thiazole and bismerthiazol promote rice defence against Xoo by inhibiting the production of bacterial EPS.

  12. Pulmonary embolism caused by intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchida, Masayuki; Iwaki, Taku; Nagamine, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tamotsu; Kawase, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazuhiko; Michishita, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 39-year-old woman with a pulmonary embolism caused by intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. She presented with shortness of breath and leg edema. Computed tomography showed a low density area that extended from the main pulmonary artery to the bilateral pulmonary arteries. We diagnosed her to have a pulmonary thromboembolism. The thrombosis did not decrease after the administration of anti-coagulant therapy, and she underwent resection of the thrombotic tissue. Histopathologically, the surgical specimen was not found to be thrombotic tissue but rather an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. After undergoing surgery, she received radiation therapy and chemotherapy; however, she died 31 months after being diagnosed.

  13. New anti-inflammatory targets for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with chronic inflammation of the peripheral airways and lung parenchyma, which leads to progressive obstruction of the airways. Current management with long-acting bronchodilators does not reduce disease progression, and there are no treatments that effectively suppress chronic inflammation in COPD. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes that are involved in the pathophysiology of COPD has identified several new therapeutic targets. This Review discusses some of the most promising of these targets, including new antioxidants, kinase inhibitors and drugs that target cellular senescence, microbial colonization, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory gene expression and corticosteroid resistance.

  14. Coffee intake, smoking, and pulmonary function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Follis, Jack L; Schabath, Matthew B

    2009-06-15

    Coffee contains polyphenolic antioxidants and caffeine, which may favorably affect pulmonary function. Therefore, the authors studied cross-sectional associations (1987-1989) between coffee intake and pulmonary function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a population-based cohort study (analytic sample = 10,658). They also conducted analyses stratified by smoking status, since smoking is a strong risk factor for respiratory disease and could influence the effects of caffeine and antioxidants. Self-reported coffee intake was categorized as rare/never, <7 cups/week, 1 cup/day, 2-3 cups/day, and >or=4 cups/day. Pulmonary function was characterized by the spirometric measures forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). After adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle characteristics, and dietary factors, pulmonary function values increased across increasing categories of coffee consumption in never and former smokers but not in current smokers. In never or former smokers who consumed >or=4 cups of coffee daily, FVC and FEV(1) were 2%-3% greater than in never or former smokers who rarely/never consumed coffee (P(trend) values: in never smokers, 0.04 for FVC and 0.07 for FEV(1); in former smokers, <0.001 for FVC and <0.001 for FEV(1)). These data show a possible beneficial effect of coffee (or a coffee ingredient) on pulmonary function, but it appears to be limited to nonsmokers.

  15. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action.

  16. Pulmonary Strongyloidiasis Masquerading as Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Gourahari; Behera, Priyadarshini; Bhuniya, Sourin; Mohapatra, Prasanta Raghab; Turuk, Jyotirmayee; Mohanty, Srujana

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary strongyloidiasis is an uncommon presentation of Strongyloides infection, usually seen in immunocompromised hosts. The manifestations are similar to that of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, the diagnosis of pulmonary strongyloidiasis could be challenging in a COPD patient, unless a high index of suspicion is maintained. Here, we present a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection in a COPD patient mimicking acute exacerbation, who was on chronic steroid therapy. PMID:27790284

  17. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  18. Proteomic and genetic approaches to identifying defence-related proteins in rice challenged with the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyun; Bricker, Terry M; Lefevre, Michael; Pinson, Shannon R M; Oard, James H

    2006-09-01

    SUMMARY Sheath blight, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is a major disease of rice world-wide, but little is known about the host response to infection. The objective of this study was to identify proteins and DNA markers in resistant and susceptible rice associated with response to infection by R. solani. Replicated two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments were conducted to detect proteins differentially expressed under inoculated and non-inoculated conditions. Tandem mass spectra analysis using electrospray ionization quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI Q-TOF MS) was carried out for protein identification with the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Seven proteins were increased after inoculation in both susceptible and resistant plants. Six of the seven proteins were identified with presumed antifungal, photosynthetic and proteolytic activities. An additional 14 proteins were detected in the response of the resistant line. Eleven of the 14 proteins were identified with presumed functions relating to antifungal activity, signal transduction, energy metabolism, photosynthesis, molecular chaperone, proteolysis and antioxidation. The induction of 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase was detected for the first time in resistant rice plants after pathogen challenge, suggesting a defensive role of this enzyme in rice against attack by R. solani. The chromosomal locations of four induced proteins were found to be in close physical proximity to genetic markers for sheath blight resistance in two genetic mapping populations. The proteomic and genetic results from this study indicate a complex response of rice to challenge by R. solani that involves simultaneous induction of proteins from multiple defence pathways.

  19. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lang, Irene; Meyer, Bernhard C; Ogo, Takeshi; Matsubara, Hiromi; Kurzyna, Marcin; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Mayer, Eckhard; Brenot, Philippe

    2017-03-31

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is thought to result from incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboemboli that undergo organisation into fibrous tissue within pulmonary arterial branches, filling pulmonary arterial lumina with collagenous obstructions. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in CTEPH centres, which has low post-operative mortality and good long-term survival. For patients ineligible for PEA or who have recurrent or persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgery, medical treatment with riociguat is beneficial. In addition, percutaneous balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is an emerging option, and promises haemodynamic and functional benefits for inoperable patients. In contrast to conventional angioplasty, BPA with undersized balloons over guide wires exclusively breaks intraluminal webs and bands, without dissecting medial vessel layers, and repeat sessions are generally required. Observational studies report that BPA improves haemodynamics, symptoms and functional capacity in patients with CTEPH, but controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Complications include haemoptysis, wire injury, vessel dissection, vessel rupture, reperfusion pulmonary oedema, pulmonary parenchymal bleeding and haemorrhagic pleural effusions. This review summarises the available evidence for BPA, patient selection, recent technical refinements and periprocedural imaging, and discusses the potential future role of BPA in the management of CTEPH.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that is precipitated by hypertrophic pulmonary vascular remodeling of distal arterioles to increase pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in the absence of left heart, lung parenchymal, or thromboembolic disease. Despite available medical therapy, pulmonary artery remodeling and its attendant hemodynamic consequences result in right ventricular dysfunction, failure, and early death. To limit morbidity and mortality, attention has focused on identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant pulmonary artery remodeling to identify pathways for intervention. While there is a well-recognized heritable genetic component to PAH, there is also evidence of other genetic perturbations, including pulmonary vascular cell DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response, and variations in microRNA expression. These findings likely contribute, in part, to dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways akin to what is observed in cancer; changes in cellular metabolism, metabolic flux, and mitochondrial function; and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as key signaling pathways that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. This review will highlight recent advances in the field with an emphasis on the aforementioned molecular mechanisms as contributors to the pulmonary vascular disease pathophenotype. PMID:27213345