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Sample records for pulmonary cavities colonized

  1. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in chronic pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, S.; Respaldiza, N.; Campano, E.; Martínez-Risquez, M.T.; Calderón, E.J.; De La Horra, C.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii causes pneumonia in immunosuppressed individuals. However, it has been reported the detection of low levels of Pneumocystis DNA in patients without signs and symptoms of pneumonia, which likely represents colonization. Several studies performed in animals models and in humans have demonstrated that Pneumocystis induces a local and a systemic response in the host. Since P. jirovecii colonization has been found in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases it has been suggested that P. jirovecii may play a role in the physiopathology and progression of those diseases. In this report we revise P. jirovecii colonization in different chronic pulmonary diseases such us, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung diseases, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:21678787

  2. Colonization of the oral cavity by probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravn, I; Dige, I; Meyer, R L; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if three probiotic bacteria present in the milk product Cultura Dofilus® naturell could be detected in saliva and on oral mucosal surfaces, and if they colonized dental surfaces in situ in 8 caries-inactive individuals after 8 daily exposures to the milk product for up to 3 days. Bacteria were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. While probiotic bacteria were present sporadically in the oral cavity on mucosal surfaces and in saliva after 3 days of frequent use of the probiotic milk, they were not detected on dental surfaces. Probiotic bacteria may thus contribute to general oral health, but their potential role in biofilm-induced dental diseases remains unclear.

  3. An African woman with pulmonary cavities: TB or not TB?

    PubMed

    Delsing, C E; Ruesen, C; Boeree, M J; van Damme, P A; Kuipers, S; van Crevel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity. PMID:25387555

  4. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent.

  5. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent. PMID:23279770

  6. RELATED FACTORS FOR COLONIZATION BY Candida SPECIES IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    MENEZES, Ralciane de Paula; BORGES, Aércio Sebastião; de ARAUJO, Lúcio Borges; PEDROSO, Reginaldo dos Santos; RÖDER, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2015-01-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity is a prerequisite to the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Aims: The aims of this study were: to evaluate colonization and quantify Candida spp. in the oral cavity; to determine the predisposing factors for colonization; and to correlate the levels of CD4+ cells and viral load with the yeast count of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) in HIV-positive individuals treated at a University Hospital. Saliva samples were collected from 147 HIV patients and were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and chromogenic agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 h. Colonies with similar morphology in both media were counted and the result expressed in CFU/mL. Results: Of the 147 HIV patients, 89 had positive cultures for Candida spp., with a total of 111 isolates, of which C. albicans was the most frequent species (67.6%), and the mean of colonies counted was 8.8 × 10³ CFU/mL. The main predisposing factors for oral colonization by Candida spp. were the use of antibiotics and oral prostheses. The use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears to have a greater protective effect for colonization. A low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is associated with a higher density of yeast in the saliva of HIV patients. PMID:26603229

  7. A rare case of pulmonary cysticercosis manifesting as lung cavity with pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Meena, Manoj; Harish, Sabarigirivasan; Patil, Chetan B; Kewlani, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary cysticercosis is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease which is distributed worldwide. Most common sites which provide perfect nourishment for the growth of cysticercosis are muscle and brain followed by eye. Pulmonary involvement in cysticercosis is very rare and if at all present, then ill-defined nodular shadows distributed throughout the lung is the usual radiological presentation. No case of cysticercosis presenting as lung cavity with pleural effusion has been reported so far in literature. We came across a rarest presentation of cysticercosis as cavity in the lung with effusion. After nullifying all the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions, a diagnosis of pulmonary cysticercosis was made by histopathological examination of the lung cavity aspirate and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticercosis. Case was successfully treated with albendazole (15mg/kg) with steroid cover. PMID:26628774

  8. A rare case of pulmonary cysticercosis manifesting as lung cavity with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeraj; Meena, Manoj; Harish, Sabarigirivasan; Patil, Chetan B; Kewlani, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary cysticercosis is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease which is distributed worldwide. Most common sites which provide perfect nourishment for the growth of cysticercosis are muscle and brain followed by eye. Pulmonary involvement in cysticercosis is very rare and if at all present, then ill-defined nodular shadows distributed throughout the lung is the usual radiological presentation. No case of cysticercosis presenting as lung cavity with pleural effusion has been reported so far in literature. We came across a rarest presentation of cysticercosis as cavity in the lung with effusion. After nullifying all the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions, a diagnosis of pulmonary cysticercosis was made by histopathological examination of the lung cavity aspirate and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticercosis. Case was successfully treated with albendazole (15mg/kg) with steroid cover. PMID:26628774

  9. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula ruptured to pleural cavity in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Freixinet, J; Sanchez-Palacios, M; Guerrero, D; Rodriguez de Castro, F; Gonzalez, D; Lopez, L; Guerra, M

    1995-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is frequently associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber disease). With the increased blood flow in pregnancy such fistulas enlarge, occasionally giving rise to haemothorax, which generally has a poor prognosis. A familial case is presented in which massive haemothorax required emergency thoracotomy in the 27th week of pregnancy.

  10. Transformation of a Ruptured Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm into an Air Cavity After Transcatheter Embolization in a Behcet's Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Turkbey, Baris; Canyigit, Murat; Kumbasar, Ozlem O.; Celik, Gokhan; Demirkazik, Figen B.

    2006-02-15

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms due to Behcet's disease are mainly seen in young males and very rarely in females. To our knowledge there are only 10 cases reported in the related literature. Emergent transcatheter embolization was performed in a female patient with a known history of Behcet's disease in whom massive hemoptysis developed because of rupture of a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. At 6-month follow-up, transformation of the aneurysm sac into an air cavity was detected. To our knowledge, such a transformation has never been reported in the literature before. Embolization of the pulmonary artery aneurysm and the mechanism of cavity transformation are reviewed and discussed.

  11. Oligosaccharide modification by swainsonine treatment inhibits pulmonary colonization by B16-F10 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, M J; Matsumoto, K; White, S L; Olden, K

    1986-01-01

    Oligosaccharide moieties of cell-surface glycoconjugates are thought to be involved in recognition events associated with tumor metastasis and invasion. Using swainsonine (SW), an inhibitor of Golgi alpha-mannosidase II that results in the formation of hybrid-type oligosaccharides on N-linked glycoproteins, we have tested the hypothesis that specific glycan structures are required for pulmonary colonization by tumor cells. B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were treated with SW in growth medium and then injected intravenously into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. This treatment resulted in dramatic inhibition of colonization, but it had no effect on B16-F10 viability or on cellular tumorigenicity after subcutaneous implantation. SW-treated radiolabeled B16-F10 cells were cleared from the lungs at a greater rate than control cells, suggesting that one effect of treatment is to alter tumor cell retention in the target organ. Our results implicate specific glycan structures in pulmonary colonization and offer a potential approach for identification of specific macromolecules involved in tumor cell-organ recognition during metastasis. Images PMID:3081900

  12. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronically colonized with Haemophilus influenzae during stable disease phase have increased airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Ekberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show increased airway inflammation and bacterial colonization during stable phase. The aim of this study was to follow COPD patients and investigate chronic colonization with pathogenic bacteria during stable disease phase, and relate these findings to clinical parameters, inflammatory pattern, lung function, and exacerbations. Methods Forty-three patients with COPD were included while in a stable state and followed up monthly until exacerbation or for a maximum of 6 months. The patients completed the Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale questionnaires, and exhaled breath condensate was collected, followed by spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and sputum induction. Results Ten patients were chronically colonized (ie, colonized at all visits) with Haemophilus influenzae during stable phase. These patients had higher sputum levels of leukotriene B4 (P<0.001), 8-isoprostane (P=0.002), myeloperoxidase activity (P=0.028), and interleukin-8 (P=0.02) during stable phase when compared with other patients. In addition, they had lower forced vital capacity (P=0.035) and reactance at 5 Hz (P=0.034), but there was no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity % predicted, exhaled breath condensate biomarkers, C-reactive protein, or Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale results. Three patients had intermittent colonization (colonized at only some visits) of H. influenzae during stable phase, and had lower levels of inflammatory biomarkers in sputum when compared with the chronically colonized patients. The difference in airway inflammation seen during stable phase in patients chronically colonized with H. influenzae was not observed during exacerbations. Conclusion Some COPD patients who were chronically colonized with H. influenzae during stable phase showed increased airway

  13. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  14. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer: a review of the fascial composition of the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Mike, Makio; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2015-02-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has generally been performed for digestive diseases. Many patients with colon cancer undergo laparoscopic procedures. The outcomes of laparoscopic colectomy and open colectomy are the same in terms of the long-time survival. It is important to dissect the embryological plane to harvest the lymph nodes and to avoid bleeding during colon cancer surgery. To date, descriptions of the anatomy of the fascial composition have mainly involved observations unrelated to fundamental embryological concepts, causing confusion regarding the explanations of the surgical procedures, with various vocabularies used without definitions. We therefore examined the fascia of the abdominal space using a fascia concept based on clinical anatomy and embryology. Mobilization of the bilateral sides of the colon involves dissection between the fusion fascia of Toldt and the deep subperitoneal fascia. It is important to understand that the right fusion fascia of Toldt is divided into the posterior pancreatic fascia of Treitz dorsally and the anterior pancreatic fascia ventrally at the second portion of the duodenum. A comprehensive understanding of fascia composition between the stomach and transverse colon is necessary for dissecting the splenic flexure of the colon. As a result of these considerations of the fascia, more accurate surgical procedures can be performed for the excision of colon cancer.

  15. Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... The tooth may hurt even without stimulation (spontaneous toothache). If irreversible damage to the pulp occurs and ... To detect cavities early, a dentist inquires about pain, examines the teeth, probes the teeth with dental instruments, and may take x-rays. People should ...

  16. [Clinical diagnosis of HIV infection in patients with acute surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity organs and pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nguen, V Kh; Stroganov, P V; Geshelin, S A

    2011-09-01

    The results of treatment of 81 patients, suffering tuberculosis and operated in emergency for an acute surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity organs, are adduced, in 29 of them--nonspecific diseases of nontuberculosis genesis were diagnosed. In 52 patients the indication for emergency operation performance were complications of abdominal tuberculosis (perforation of the tuberculosis ulcers of small intestine--in 37, the tuberculosis mesadenitis--in 15), of them in 34--pulmonary tuberculosis was in inactive phase, that's why the HIV presence was supposed. In 26 patients the diagnosis was confirmed, basing on serologic analysis data. The presence of intraabdominal catastrophe, caused by abdominal tuberculosis complications on inactive pulmonary tuberculosis background witnesses with 85.3% probability the HIV-infectioning of the patient.

  17. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization is associated with enhanced Th1 inflammatory gene expression in lungs of humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Meghan E.; Tedrow, John R.; Hillenbrand, Maria E.; Lucht, Lorrie; Richards, Thomas; Norris, Karen A.; Zhang, Yingze; Sciurba, Frank C.; Kaminski, Naftali; Morris, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease, the pathogenesis of which remains incompletely understood. Colonization with Pneumocystis jirovecii may play a role in COPD pathogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which such colonization contributes to COPD are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine lung gene expression profiles associated with Pneumocystis colonization in patients with COPD to identify potential key pathways involved in disease pathogenesis. Using COPD lung tissue samples made available through the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC), Pneumocystis colonization status was determined by nested PCR. Microarray gene expression profiles were performed for each sample and the profiles of colonized and non-colonized samples compared. Overall, 18 participants (8.5%) were Pneumocystis-colonized. Pneumocystis colonization was associated with fold increase in expression of four closely related genes: INF-γ and the three chemokine ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. These ligands are chemoattractants for the common cognate receptor CXCR3, which is predominantly expressed on activated Th1 T-lymphocytes. Although these ligand–receptor pairs have previously been implicated in COPD pathogenesis, few initiators of ligand expression and subsequent lymphocyte trafficking have been identified: our findings implicate Pneumocystis as a potential trigger. The finding of upregulation of these inflammatory genes in the setting of Pneumocystis colonization sheds light on infectious-immune relationships in COPD. PMID:24438206

  18. Early colonization of the oral cavity in 6- and 12-month-old infants by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Merglova, Vlasta; Polenik, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens occurs earlier than previously thought. This study aimed to identify the presence and quantity of representative cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavities of 6- and 12-month olds and to evaluate the influence of C-section delivery on early Streptococcus mutans (Sm) colonization of the oral cavity. The research cohort was composed of 59 infants (35 infants were delivered vaginally and 24 via C-section) and their mothers. At 6 months of age, the infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples were collected. Variables concerning mothers were DMF index and salivary levels of Sm. Repeated saliva samples were taken 6 months later. The representative cariogenic and periodontal microorganisms were identified, and their quantities were measured using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The relationships between the presence of detected microbes, the mode of delivery, and maternal variables were evaluated using paired t tests, chi-squared test, and ANOVAs. High rates of cariogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), were found in both infant cohorts. An analysis of the differences between delivery methods revealed that the group of 6-month-old vaginally delivered infants had a significantly higher amount of Sm. We conclude that the cariogenic bacteria, Aa and Fn, are present in edentulous infants. This presence increases in the months following the eruption of the deciduous teeth. Results did not confirm the influence of C-section delivery on the early Sm colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:26914065

  19. Effects of antenatal colonization with ureaplasma urealyticum on pulmonary disease in the immature baboon.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Bradley A; Coalson, Jacqueline J; Winter, Vicki T; Siler-Khodr, Teresa; Duffy, Lynne B; Cassell, Gail H

    2003-12-01

    Current nonhuman models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia have not included perinatal infection. We studied the effects of antenatal Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) infection in the 125-d immature baboon. Ten 125-d gestation (term = 185 d) baboon dams were delivered after intra-amniotic inoculation with Uu. Serial blood and tracheal aspirate samples were analyzed for Uu colony-forming units, IL-6, IL-8, and cell counts. Physiologic parameters were serially recorded. Lung histology was examined after 14 d of ventilation and compared with unexposed controls. All Uu-exposed animals had >4 x 102 CFU in tracheal aspirate at 24 h. Four of nine Uu animals remained heavily colonized [(+) Uu] at necropsy (>6 x 103). Five animals had negative or low tracheal colony-forming units. All Uu animals had significant increases for white blood cells, IL-6, and IL-8 in amniotic and fetal lung fluid. Compared with controls, (+) Uu animals had significantly higher fraction of inspired oxygen, airway pressures, oxygenation index, and ventilation efficiency index between 48 and 240 h and had significantly elevated tracheal IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations between 72 and 240 h. Compared with controls (-) Uu animals had significantly better oxygenation index and ventilation efficiency index scores between 48 and 144 h. Lung histopathology in both Uu groups showed more severe bronchiolitis and interstitial pneumonitis compared with controls. Two patterns of disease were observed after Uu perinatal infection. Persistent colonization manifested a picture consistent with acute pneumonitis, worse lung function from 2 to 10 d, and prolonged elevated tracheal cytokines. Colonized animals that subsequently cleared Uu from the lung demonstrated early improved lung function compared with unexposed controls yet still manifested mixed bronchiolitis and interstitial pneumonitis at necropsy. Inherent immune system responses may determine outcome of perinatal Ureaplasma colonization.

  20. Pulmonary vascular and alveolar development in preterm lambs chronically colonized with Ureaplasma parvum

    PubMed Central

    Polglase, Graeme R.; Dalton, Richard G. B.; Nitsos, Ilias; Knox, Christine L.; Pillow, J. Jane; Jobe, Alan H.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Newnham, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Ureaplasma species, the most commonly isolated microorganisms in women with chorioamnionitis, are associated with preterm delivery. Chorioamnionitis increases the risk and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is not known whether the timing of exposure to inflammation in utero is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We hypothesized that chronic inflammation would alter the pulmonary air space and vascular development after 70 days of exposure to infection. Pregnant ewes were given intra-amniotic injection of Ureaplasma parvum serovars 3 or 6 at low (2 × 104 cfu) or high doses (2 × 107 cfu) or media (controls) at 55 days gestational age. Fetuses were delivered at 125 days (term = 150 days). U. parvum was grown from the lungs of all exposed fetuses, and neutrophils and monocytes were increased in the air spaces. Lung mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-8, but not IL-6, was modestly increased in U. parvum-exposed fetuses. U. parvum exposure increased surfactant and improved lung gas volumes. The changes in lung inflammation and maturation were independent of serovar or dose. Exposure to U. parvum did not change multiple indices of air space or vascular development. Parenchymal elastin and collagen content were similar between groups. Expression of several endothelial proteins and pulmonary resistance arteriolar media thickness were also not different between groups. We conclude that chronic exposure to U. parvum does not cause sustained effects on air space or vascular development in premature lambs. PMID:20495079

  1. Colonic hydrogen generated from fructan diffuses into the abdominal cavity and reduces adipose mRNA abundance of cytokines in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naomichi; Tanabe, Hiroki; Adachi, Misato; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen (H2) protects against inflammation-induced oxidative stress. Nondigestible saccharides (NDSs) enhance colonic H2 production. We examined whether colonic H2 transfers to tissues in the abdominal cavity and whether it affects expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In Expts. 1 and 2, rats were fed diets containing fructooligosaccharides [FOSs; 25 (Expt. 1) and 50 g/kg (Expts. 1 and 2)] for 7 and 14 d, respectively. The no-FOS diet was used as the control diet. At the end of the experiment, H2 excretion and the portal H2 concentration were significantly greater in the FOS group than in the control group. In the FOS group, the arterial H2 concentration was no more than 1.5% of the portal H2 concentration (P = 0.03). The H2 concentration in abdominal cavity tissues, especially adipose tissue, in the FOS group was 5.6- to 43-fold of that in the control group (P < 0.05). The H2 content in the abdominal cavity in the FOS group was 11-fold of that in the control group (P < 0.05). In Expt. 3, rats were fed a high-fat diet containing FOS and inulin (50 g/kg) for 28 d. The area under the curve for H2 excretion between 0 and 28 d and portal and adipose H2 concentrations were significantly higher in the FOS and inulin groups than in the high-fat control group. Adipose mRNA abundance of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells 1 was lower in the FOS group than in the control group (P = 0.02) and those of interleukin-6 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 tended to be lower (P < 0.11). Colonic H2 generated from NDS diffuses to the abdominal cavity before transferring to abdominal tissues. Reduced cytokine expression by FOS feeding might be dependent on increased colonic H2. Colonic H2 may have important implications in the suppressive effect on metabolic syndrome via oxidative stress.

  2. Surgical treatment of empyema after pulmonary resection using pedicle skeletal muscle plombage, thoracoplasty, and continuous cavity ablution procedures: a report on three cases

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakao, Yukinori; Uchida, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present three cases of postoperative empyema after pulmonary resection: case 1, acute empyema without fistula after lobectomy and chest wall resection; case 2, continuing empyema with fistula and total left residual lung abscess after upper divisionectomy; and case 3, chronic empyema with middle lobe bronchopleural fistula after lower lobectomy. Pedicle skeletal muscle plombage into the cavity, thoracoplasty, and continuous cavity ablution with 24-h instillation of minocycline and saline solution through drains were used for treatment. In case 2, a completion extrapleural left pneumonectomy was concurrently performed. In all three cases, the surgery was successful; however, case 2 developed a massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which led to blood aspiration pneumonitis, renal failure, and death. Muscle plombage effectively achieves the closure of empyema cavity and thoracoplasty complements this. When a residual space remains, cavity ablution is considered to be effective. However, concurrent completion lung parenchyma resection might be excessively aggressive. PMID:27293855

  3. Antifungal Effects of Common Mouthwashes on Candida Strains Colonized in the Oral Cavities of Liver Transplant Recipients in South Iran in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Haddadi, Pardis; Badiee, Parisa; Malekhoseini, Seyed Ali; Jafarian, Hadis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the opportunistic microorganisms, fungi, particularly Candida, play an important role in the mortality of transplant recipients. Thus, controlling and preventing fungal colonizations in various parts of the body, including the oral cavity, can reduce the possibility of post-transplant invasive fungal infections. This can be done simply by using mouthwashes. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of fungal species of Candida within the oral cavities of liver transplant recipients, and to evaluate the effects on Candida colonization of different exposure times to common mouthwashes. Patients and Methods: Specimens were taken from the oral cavities of 101 liver transplant recipients who were referred to our clinic for their first monthly examination. After cultivation and DNA extraction, yeast strains were identified with the RFLP technique. Each strain’s susceptibility to 0.2% chlorhexidine, Vi-One, Oral-B, Nanosil D1, and Nystatin mouthwashes was determined based on the CLSI M27-A2 standard method. Results: The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS. Out of 101 samples from liver transplant recipients, 68 cases showed fungi growing within the culture media (67.4%). C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively, were the first and second most frequent types. Mouthwash susceptibility tests revealed that their antifungal effects over 60 seconds were significantly higher than with an exposure time of 30 seconds. At both 30 and 60 seconds, chlorhexidine was significantly the most efficient. Conclusions: Chlorhexidine mouthwash with an exposure time of 60 seconds or more is suggested as an effective antifungal agent to be included in the medication regimen of liver transplant patients pre- and postoperatively, in order to prevent fungal colonization and subsequent systemic infections. PMID:27110254

  4. 5-Fluorouracil causes leukocytes attraction in the peritoneal cavity by activating autophagy and HMGB1 release in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Lucia; Capobianco, Annalisa; Gualteroni, Chiara; Perrotta, Cristiana; Bianchi, Marco E; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2015-03-15

    Signals released by leukocytes contribute to tumor growth and influence the efficacy of antineoplastic treatments. The outcome of peritoneal carcinomatosis treatments is unsatisfactory, possibly because chemotherapy activates events that have in the long-term deleterious effects. In this study we offer evidence that 5-fluorouracile (5-FU), besides provoking apoptosis of MC38 colon carcinoma cells, induces a striking attraction of leukocytes both in an orthotopic model of colon carcinomatosis in vivo and in monocyte-migration assays in vitro. Leukocyte attraction depends on the presence of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), an endogenous immune adjuvant and chemoattractant released by dying cells. Leukocyte recruitment is prevented in vivo and in vitro using blocking antibodies against HMGB1 and its competitive antagonist BoxA or by interfering with HMGB1 expression. Autophagy is required for leukocyte chemoattraction, since the latter abates upon pharmacological blockade of the autophagic flux while activation of autophagy per se, in the absence of death of colon carcinoma cells, is not sufficient to attract leukocytes. Our results identify autophagy induction and HMGB1 release in colon carcinoma cells as key events responsible for 5-FU elicited leukocyte attraction and define a novel rate-limiting target for combinatorial therapies.

  5. Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gadkowski, L. Beth; Stout, Jason E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host. PMID:18400799

  6. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  7. Certain surfactants significantly enhance the activity of antibiotics in the mouse model of MTB and drug resistant MTB infection and effectively remove the bacteria from a pulmonary cavity in human ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Risin, Semyon A; Hunter, Robert L; Kobak, Mikhail; Ariel, Boris; Vishnevsky, Boris; Erokhin, Vladislav; Demikhova, Olga; Bocharova, Irina; Stoops, James K

    2014-01-01

    Surfactants have the potential to overcome natural resistance of MTB to antibiotics which is mediated by barriers that impede the penetration of drugs to their targets. A major component of this barrier is trehalose dimycolate (TDM) which surrounds the bacteria with a thick lipid shield. In this study dodecyl maltoside (DDM) was evaluated for this purpose. This surfactant is an excellent cellular permeabilizing agent with associated low toxicity. The administration of the surfactant as an aerosol into the lungs of the infected mice achieved a 5-10 times enhancement of the isoniazid (INH) treatment gauged by the reduction of the colony forming units. This study also established proof of principle that surfactants alone applied as an aerosol can reduce the bacteria count in lungs infected with MTB. The potential of the surfactant in the therapy of human cavitary TB was also investigated using a surgically removed lung from a patient with extreme drug resistant MTB (XDR-TB). A cavity in this lung was flushed with DDM solution ex-vivo. The procedure readily removed the bacteria, excessive amounts of TDM and necrotic tissue from the cavity. These studies demonstrate that DDM can disrupt the layers of TDM and free embedded MTB and, consequently, surfactants have promise as a proficient modality for the treatment of pulmonary MTB.

  8. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  9. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  10. A pulmonary fungus ball produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    PubMed

    Kwon-Chung, K J; Schwartz, I S; Rybak, B J

    1975-10-01

    A case of pulmonary fungus ball produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides is reported. The fungus occupied a cavity in the upper lobe of right lung. Invasion of the cavitary wall or adjacent pulmonary tissue by the fungus was not observed.

  11. [Colonic balantidiasis].

    PubMed

    González de Canales Simón, P; del Olmo Martínez, L; Cortejoso Hernández, A; Arranz Santos, T

    2000-03-01

    Balantidium coli is a Protozoa that is not usually pathogenic in man, although epidemics have been described in tropical areas. It mainly affects the colon and clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic forms to severe dysenteric syndromes. We present a case of endoscopically diagnosed colonic balantidiasis and review the most important characteristics of this parasite-induced disease. PMID:10804691

  12. Aspergillosis complicating a microwave ablation cavity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh; Bandula, Steven; Brown, Jeremy; Whelan, Jeremy; Illing, Rowland

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a patient who following chemotherapy developed semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and an aspergilloma in a lung cavity previously formed by microwave ablation (MWA). A 55-year-old woman presented with cough and shortness of breath after finishing three cycles of chemotherapy for a metastatic nerve sheath tumour. She had been treated by MWA for pulmonary metastases 2 years previously which resulted in a residual right apical lung cavity. Postchemotherapy imaging showed that this cavity had enlarged, developed a thicker wall and contained lobulated soft tissue with a crescent sign on coronal reformats. In addition, the patient's Aspergillus-specific IgG was markedly raised. Treatment with itraconazole improved the symptoms and reduced the cavity size and wall thickness. This case shows that persisting lung cavities after MWA are a potential site for semi-invasive aspergillosis and has implications for the timing of chemotherapy in patient with metastatic lung disease. PMID:27624446

  13. Metastatic Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Obenauf, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death from cancer. To colonize distant organs, circulating cancer cells must overcome many obstacles through mechanisms that we are starting to understand. Infiltrating distant tissue, evading immune defences, adapting to supportive niches, surviving as latent tumour-initiating seeds, and eventually breaking out to replace the host tissue, are key steps for metastatic colonization. These obstacles make metastasis a highly inefficient process, but once metastases are established current treatments frequently fail to provide durable responses. A better understanding of the mechanistic determinants of metastatic colonization is needed to better prevent and treat metastatic cancer. PMID:26791720

  14. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-surface glycoprotein apa as a potential adhesin to colonize target cells via the innate immune system pulmonary C-type lectin surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Ragas, Aude; Roussel, Lucie; Puzo, Germain; Rivière, Michel

    2007-02-23

    Tuberculosis is still a major health problem, and understanding the mechanism by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) invades and colonizes its host target cells remains an important issue for the control of infection. The innate immune system C-type lectins (C-TLs), including the human pulmonary surfactant protein A (PSP-A), have been recently identified as determinant players in the early recognition of the invading pathogen and in mounting the host defense response. Although the antigenic lipoglycan mannosylated lipoarabinomannan is currently considered to be the major C-TL target on the mycobacterial surface, the recognition by some C-TLs of the only mycobacterial species composing the "Mtb complex" indicates that mannosylated lipoarabinomannan cannot account alone for this specificity. Thus, we searched for the mycobacterial molecules targeted by human PSP-A, focusing our attention on the Mtb surface glycoproteins. We developed an original functional proteomic approach based on a lectin blot assay using crude human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a source of physiological PSP-A. Combined with selective cell-surface protein extraction and mass spectrometry peptide mapping, this strategy allowed us to identify the Apa (alanine- and proline-rich antigenic) glycoprotein as new potential target for PSP-A. This result was supported by direct binding of PSP-A to purified Apa. Moreover, EDTA addition or deglycosylation of purified Apa samples completely abolished the interaction, demonstrating that the interaction is calcium- and mannose-dependent, as expected. Finally, we provide convincing evidence that Apa, formerly considered as mainly secreted, is associated with the cell wall for a sufficiently long time to aid in the attachment of PSP-A. Because, to date, Apa seems to be restricted to the Mtb complex strains, we propose that it may account for the selective recognition of those strains by PSP-A and other immune system C-TLs containing homologous functional

  15. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  16. Cavity magnomechanics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2016-03-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  17. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - pulmonary atresia; Cyanotic heart disease - pulmonary atresia; Valve - disorder pulmonary atresia ... septum may also have a poorly developed tricuspid valve. They may also have an underdeveloped right ventricle ...

  18. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  19. Botryomycosis in a lung cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, D; Ramasubramanian, V; Gopalakrishnan, Ram; Jessani, Laxman G

    2016-01-01

    Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India. The index case was a 62 year old female who presented to us with recurrent episodes of non-massive streaky hemoptysis with CT chest revealing ‘Air Crescent’ sign with a probable fungal ball in a left upper lobe cavity. Left upper pulmonary lobectomy was done and histopathology of the cavitary tissue revealed Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and features suggestive of Botryomycosis. Tissue culture from the cavitary specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Botryomycosis can mimic Aspergilloma radiologically as was seen in our case, but therapy is often a combination of both medical and surgical measures unlike Aspergilloma. PMID:27625451

  20. Botryomycosis in a lung cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, D; Ramasubramanian, V; Gopalakrishnan, Ram; Jessani, Laxman G

    2016-01-01

    Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India. The index case was a 62 year old female who presented to us with recurrent episodes of non-massive streaky hemoptysis with CT chest revealing ‘Air Crescent’ sign with a probable fungal ball in a left upper lobe cavity. Left upper pulmonary lobectomy was done and histopathology of the cavitary tissue revealed Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and features suggestive of Botryomycosis. Tissue culture from the cavitary specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Botryomycosis can mimic Aspergilloma radiologically as was seen in our case, but therapy is often a combination of both medical and surgical measures unlike Aspergilloma.

  1. Botryomycosis in a lung cavity.

    PubMed

    Vinay, D; Ramasubramanian, V; Gopalakrishnan, Ram; Jessani, Laxman G

    2016-01-01

    Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India. The index case was a 62 year old female who presented to us with recurrent episodes of non-massive streaky hemoptysis with CT chest revealing 'Air Crescent' sign with a probable fungal ball in a left upper lobe cavity. Left upper pulmonary lobectomy was done and histopathology of the cavitary tissue revealed Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and features suggestive of Botryomycosis. Tissue culture from the cavitary specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Botryomycosis can mimic Aspergilloma radiologically as was seen in our case, but therapy is often a combination of both medical and surgical measures unlike Aspergilloma. PMID:27625451

  2. A case of pulmonary artery sarcoma presented as cavitary pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Min, Daniel; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hye-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Suk-Pyo; Kim, Hong-Min; Han, Kyu Hyun; Jeong, Hye Yun; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare, poorly differentiated malignancy arising from the intimal layer of the pulmonary artery. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) is a good diagnostic modality that shows a low-attenuation filling defect of the pulmonary artery in PAS patients. An 18-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the evaluation and management of cavitary pulmonary lesions that did not respond to treatment. A contrast-enhanced CT of the chest was performed, which showed a filling defect within the right interlobar pulmonary artery. The patient underwent a curative right pneumonectomy after confirmation of PAS. Although lung parenchymal lesions of PAS are generally nonspecific, it can be presented as cavities indicate pulmonary infarcts. Clinicians must consider the possibility of PAS as well as pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with pulmonary infarcts. So, we report the case with PAS that was diagnosed during the evaluation of cavitary pulmonary lesions and reviewed the literatures. PMID:24734102

  3. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  4. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  5. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  6. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  7. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  8. [Lung cavities, mycetomas and hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Domej, Wolfgang; Hermann, Josef; Krause, Robert; Wehrschütz, Martin; Maier, Alfred; Flögel, Erich

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary mycetomas, or fungus balls, consist of spherical masses of mycelia and hyphae, fibrin and granulocytes that grow and partly fill cavitary lesions without invading tissue. They are usually caused by molds of the Aspergillus species, rarely by Mucor or yeast fungi such as Candida species, that colonize damaged lung tissue. Hemoptysis is the most frequent symptom. Since systemic and local administration of antifungal agents is of uncertain efficacy, resectional surgery should be the treatment of choice in cases of severe hemoptysis, if lung function is not severely compromised. As pulmonary resection in the form of lobectomy or pneumonectomy is associated with raised mortality, cavernostomy and cavernoplasty may be options for high-risk patients. PMID:18030549

  9. [Lung cavities, mycetomas and hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Domej, Wolfgang; Hermann, Josef; Krause, Robert; Wehrschütz, Martin; Maier, Alfred; Flögel, Erich

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary mycetomas, or fungus balls, consist of spherical masses of mycelia and hyphae, fibrin and granulocytes that grow and partly fill cavitary lesions without invading tissue. They are usually caused by molds of the Aspergillus species, rarely by Mucor or yeast fungi such as Candida species, that colonize damaged lung tissue. Hemoptysis is the most frequent symptom. Since systemic and local administration of antifungal agents is of uncertain efficacy, resectional surgery should be the treatment of choice in cases of severe hemoptysis, if lung function is not severely compromised. As pulmonary resection in the form of lobectomy or pneumonectomy is associated with raised mortality, cavernostomy and cavernoplasty may be options for high-risk patients.

  10. Cavity magnomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhang, Xufeng; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, cavity magnonics has attracted much attention for potential applications of coherent information transduction and hybrid quantum devices. The magnon is a collective spin wave excitation in ferromagnetic material. It is magnetically tunability, with long coherence time and non-reciprocical interaction with electro-magnetic fields. We report the coherent coupling between magnon, microwave photon and phonon. First, we demonstrate strong coupling and ultrastrong coupling between the magnon in YIG sphere and microwave photon in three-dimensional cavity. Then, based on the hybridized magnon-photon modes, we observe the triply resonant magnon-mcirowave photon-phonon coupling, where the ultrahigh-Q mechanical vibration of YIG sphere is dispersively coupled with the magnon via magnetostrictive interaction. We observe interesting phenomena, including electromagnetically induced transparency/absorption and parametric amplification. In particular, benefit from the large tunability of the magnon, we demonstrate a tunable microwave amplifier with gain as high as 30 dB. The single crystal YIG also has excellent optical properties, and thus provide a unique platform bridging MHz, GHz and THz information carriers. Finally, we present the latest progress towards coherent magnon to optical photon conversion.

  11. Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium malmoense.

    PubMed

    Alberts, W M; Chandler, K W; Solomon, D A; Goldman, A L

    1987-06-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense was isolated from pulmonary material from 4 patients. Two patients had repeatedly positive smears and cultures along with roentgenographic progression of pulmonary disease in the absence of another pathogen. These 2 patients therefore meet the criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Isolation of the organism may represent colonization in a third patient, and M. malmoense has been isolated from a fourth patient on 2 occasions. It is not yet definite, however, that the pulmonary process is due to mycobacterial disease. Although uncommon, pulmonary disease caused by this organism has been reported from Europe. Only 1 prior case of pulmonary disease caused by M. malmoense, however, has been reported in the United States. PMID:3592410

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  13. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  14. Coinfection of Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst and Aspergilloma: Case Report and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Aliyali, Masoud; Badali, Hamid; Shokohi, Tahereh; Moazeni, Maryam; Nosrati, Anahita; Godazandeh, Gholamali; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Nabili, Mojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Aspergilloma infection consists of a mass of fungal hyphae, inflammatory cells, fibrin, mucus, and tissue debris and can colonize lung cavities due to underlying diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis, cavitary lung cancer, neoplasms, ankylosing spondylitis, bronchial cysts, and pulmonary infarction. Here we report coinfection of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma in a 34-year-old female who had had history of minor thalassemia and suffered from chest pain, dyspnea, non-productive cough for at least five months, and hemoptysis for 20 days. Radiographic sign showed a large cavitary lesion (5 × 6 × 6 cm) involving left lower lobe (LLL). Dichotomous septate hyphae were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy specimens from LLL. The patient subsequently improved after combined anti-helminth therapies with albendazole (400 mg/bd) and lobectomy. According to morphological and molecular characterization, Aspergillus niger was confirmed. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that the MIC values for the antifungals used in this case in increasing order were posaconazole (0.125 µg/ml), itraconazole and voriconazole (0.5 µg/ml), and amphotericin B (1 µg/ml). The minimum effective concentration for caspofungin was 0.125 µg/ml. Subsequently, we systematically reviewed 22 confirmed cases of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma during a period of 19 years (1995-2014) and discussed the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of this disease. PMID:26666549

  15. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with oral aphthae

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Kevser; Gürer, Gülcan

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. Tuberculosis primarily affects the lungs. Patients mainly complain of cough, sputum, night sweating, weight loss, and fever. However, there may be cases of atypical presentations. Although aphthous mouth ulcers are mostly present in the oral cavity in primary tuberculosis patients, our literature search showed only one case report of pulmonary tuberculosis with oral aphthae. Here we report a case of a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis admitted to the hospital with the complaint of oral aphthae.

  17. Pulmonary gangrene as a complication of mucormycosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zagoria, R.J.; Choplin, R.H.; Karstaedt, N.

    1985-06-01

    Pulmonary gangrene, a rare complication of pneumonia occurs when vascular thrombosis leads to necrosis of a large portion of lung. The devitalized lung is then sloughed into a cavity, resulting in a characteristic radiographic appearance. The previously reported cases of pulmonary gangrene have been associated with either bacterial or tuberculous pneumonia; the authors describe a case resulting from mucormycosis. In addition to the plain-film findings, the computed tomographic (CT) appearance is described.

  18. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  19. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  20. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  1. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... that damage the lungs, such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis Birth defects of the heart Blood clots in the lung ( pulmonary embolism ) Heart failure Heart valve disease HIV infection Low oxygen levels in the blood ...

  2. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis See also: Aspergillosis Symptoms You may not have ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Update Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  4. [Spontaneous pneumothorax due to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lamadrid, Jorge; Iñiguez-Rodríguez, María Del Rocío; Criales-Vera, Sergio Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by the soil fungus Coccidioides immitis. It is endemic in northern Mexico and the southwest part of the United States. Radiologic manifestations are varied. Rupture of a coccidioidal pulmonary cavity with subsequent pneumothorax is a rare clinical event, even in endemic areas. We present a case with a brief review of this rare condition. PMID:21527974

  5. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  6. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  7. Management of colonic volvulus.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-12-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  8. Pulmonary artery segmentation and quantification in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Mukherjee, Nisha; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Summers, Ronald M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a known complication associated with sickle-cell disease; roughly 75% of sickle cell disease-afflicted patients have pulmonary arterial hypertension at the time of death. This prospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to act as a surrogate for presence and extent of disease, and whether the size change of the pulmonary arteries of sickle cell patients could be linked to sickle-cell associated pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary CT-Angiography scans from sickle-cell patients were obtained and retrospectively analyzed. Randomly selected pulmonary CT-Angiography studies from patients without sickle-cell anemia were used as negative controls. First, images were smoothed using anisotropic diffusion. Then, a combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery. An algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute the centerline of the segmented arteries. From the centerline, the diameters at the pulmonary trunk and first branch of the pulmonary arteries were measured automatically. Arterial diameters were normalized to the width of the thoracic cavity, patient weight and body surface. Results show that the pulmonary trunk and first right and left pulmonary arterial branches at the pulmonary trunk junction are significantly larger in diameter with increased blood flow in sickle-cell anemia patients as compared to controls (p values of 0.0278 for trunk and 0.0007 for branches). CT with image processing shows great potential as a surrogate indicator of pulmonary hemodynamics or response to therapy, which could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance.

  9. The Prevalence of Oral Inflammation Among Denture Wearing Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowska, D; Rubinsztajn, R; Chazan, R; Swoboda-Kopeć, E; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2015-01-01

    Oral inflammation is an important contributor to the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can impact patient's health status. Previous studies indicate that people with poor oral health are at higher risk for nosocomial pneumonia. Denture wearing is one promoting factor in the development of mucosal infections. Colonization of the denture plaque by Gram-negative bacteria, Candida spp., or other respiratory pathogens, occurring locally, may be aspirated to the lungs. The studies showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients treated with combinations of medicines with corticosteroids more frequently suffer from Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Treatment of oral candidiasis in patients with COPD constitutes a therapeutic problem. Therefore, it is essential to pay attention to the condition of oral mucosal membrane and denture hygiene habits. The guidelines for care and maintenance of dentures for COPD patients are presented in this paper. The majority of patients required improvement of their prosthetic and oral hygiene. Standard oral hygiene procedures in relation to dentures, conducted for prophylaxis of stomatitis complicated by mucosal infection among immunocompromised patients, are essential to maintain healthy oral tissues. The elimination of traumatic denture action in dental office, compliance with oral and denture hygiene, proper use and storage of prosthetic appliances in a dry environment outside the oral cavity can reduce susceptibility to infection. Proper attention to hygiene, including brushing and rinsing the mouth, may also help prevent denture stomatitis in these patients.

  10. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  11. Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

  12. Autogenous bone grafts contamination after exposure to the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Nary Filho, Hugo; Pinto, Tábata Fernandes; de Freitas, Caio Peixoto; Ribeiro-Junior, Paulo Domingos; dos Santos, Pâmela Letícia; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze specimens of autogenous bone block grafts exposed to the oral cavity after ridge reconstructions. Specimens of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis (CSO) of the jaws were used as comparison for bacterial colonization pattern. For this, 5 specimens of infected autogenous bone grafts were used and 10 specimens of CSO embedded in paraffin were stained with Brown and Brenn technique and analyzed under light microscopy. The results showed a similar colonization pattern in both situations, with the establishment of bacterial biofilm and the predominance of Gram-positive bacteria. The conclusion was that the similarity in bacterial distribution and colonization between autogenous bone grafts and CSO stresses the necessity of more invasive procedures for the treatment of the autogenous bone grafts early exposed to the oral cavity.

  13. Autogenous bone grafts contamination after exposure to the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Nary Filho, Hugo; Pinto, Tábata Fernandes; de Freitas, Caio Peixoto; Ribeiro-Junior, Paulo Domingos; dos Santos, Pâmela Letícia; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze specimens of autogenous bone block grafts exposed to the oral cavity after ridge reconstructions. Specimens of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis (CSO) of the jaws were used as comparison for bacterial colonization pattern. For this, 5 specimens of infected autogenous bone grafts were used and 10 specimens of CSO embedded in paraffin were stained with Brown and Brenn technique and analyzed under light microscopy. The results showed a similar colonization pattern in both situations, with the establishment of bacterial biofilm and the predominance of Gram-positive bacteria. The conclusion was that the similarity in bacterial distribution and colonization between autogenous bone grafts and CSO stresses the necessity of more invasive procedures for the treatment of the autogenous bone grafts early exposed to the oral cavity. PMID:24621694

  14. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  15. Pulmonary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, C M; Thompson, J E

    1979-07-28

    A case of pulmonary ascariasis is reported for the first time in Australia. Because of increasing immigration from countries which have a high incidence of ascariasis (especially those of South-East Asia), and increasing travel to Asian countries, the awareness of this infestation as a cause of respiratory disease may be of great importance. PMID:40103

  16. Pulmonary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R; Turk, E P

    1980-09-01

    Two cases are reported of the incidental finding of pulmonary schistosomiasis in the victims of a fatal aircraft accident. The presence of this disease had no bearing on the causation of the accident, but it gives insight into the potential hazards of dissemination of diseases by travellers. The finding also emphasises the value of routine postmortems and histology in all aircraft accident victims.

  17. DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY COCCIDIOIDAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Charles E.

    1951-01-01

    A wide variety of pulmonary lesions may be caused by coccidioidomycosis. Suspicion of coccidioidomycosis may be substantiated by careful clinical-epidemiological histories. The first laboratory procedure should be a coccidioidin skin test. If the reaction to the test is positive, serological tests are next. Also, if there is no reaction to coccidioidin, serological tests are still indicated if dissemination is suspected. The more severe the infection, the greater the probability of establishing a diagnosis serologically. In only three-fifths of patients with coccidioidal cavities can the diagnosis be fixed serologically. In such patients if differential skin tests are not conclusive, attempt should be made to recover the fungus. However, this is accompanied by great risk of laboratory infection. Eosinophilia and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation are only circumstantial items of evidence, as is the appearance of the pulmonary roentgenogram. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14886741

  18. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  19. Electromagnetic SCRF Cavity Tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.; Borissov, E.; Foster, G.W.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Khabiboulline, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    A novel prototype of SCRF cavity tuner is being designed and tested at Fermilab. This is a superconducting C-type iron dominated magnet having a 10 mm gap, axial symmetry, and a 1 Tesla field. Inside the gap is mounted a superconducting coil capable of moving {+-} 1 mm and producing a longitudinal force up to {+-} 1.5 kN. The static force applied to the RF cavity flanges provides a long-term cavity geometry tuning to a nominal frequency. The same coil powered by fast AC current pulse delivers mechanical perturbation for fast cavity tuning. This fast mechanical perturbation could be used to compensate a dynamic RF cavity detuning caused by cavity Lorentz forces and microphonics. A special configuration of magnet system was designed and tested.

  20. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  1. Characterization of cavity wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, James A.

    Scope and Method of Study. This research focused on flow over deep cavities at subsonic speeds with emphasis on the wake downstream of the cavity. Cavity wake behaviors have not been studied in detail and are a major concern for air vehicles with cavities and in particular for optical sensor systems installed in cavities. Other key behaviors for sensor survival and performance are cavity resonance and turbulence scales in the shear layer. A wind tunnel test apparatus was developed to explore cavity and wake characteristics. It consisted of a test section insert for the OSU Indraft Wind Tunnel with an additional contraction cone for significantly increased speed. The test section included a variable depth cavity in a boundary layer splitter plate/fairing assembly, a Y-Z traverse and pitot rake with in-situ pressure transducers for high frequency response. Flows were measured over clean cavities with length to depth (L/D) ratios of 4 to 1/2 and on cavities with a porous fence for resonance suppression. Measurements were taken in streamwise and cross-stream sections to three cavity lengths downstream of the cavity trailing edge. Flow visualization using laser sheet and smoke injection was also used. Findings and Conclusions. The high speed insert demonstrated a significant new capability for the OSU wind tunnel, reaching speeds of 0.35 Mach (390 feet/second) in a 14"x14" test section. Inlet room flow was found to be quite unsteady and recommendations are made for improved flow and quantitative visualization. Key findings for cavity wake flow include its highly three dimensional nature with asymmetric peaks in cross section with boundary layer thicknesses and integral length scales several times that of a normal flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Turbulent intensities (TI) of 35% to 55% of freestream speeds were measured for the clean configuration. Fence configuration TI's were 20% to 35% of free stream and, in both configurations, TI's decayed to

  2. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  3. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2009-11-03

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  4. Retroperitoneal pulmonary choristoma in a newborn calf.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Patrizia; Gentile, Arcangelo; Militerno, Gianfranco

    2010-11-01

    A newborn male Romagnola calf, who had died a few hours after birth, was submitted for postmortem examination. Necropsy revealed a 23 cm × 22 cm × 5 cm, pale pink, lobulated, elastic, partially fluctuant mass that protruded from the dorsal retroperitoneal space into the abdominal cavity, extending from the diaphragm to the left kidney. The mass consisted of mature pulmonary tissue and was consistent with a pulmonary choristoma. The gross and microscopic appearance of this rare tumor-like congenital lesion and the possible pathogenesis are discussed.

  5. [Pulmonary melioidosis].

    PubMed

    Perret, J L; Vidal, D; Thibault, F

    1998-12-01

    Melioidosis is most frequently encountered in pulmonary localization. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei first described by Whitmore in 1912 in Burma. B. pseudomallei is a Gram negative rod belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. Soil and water are the natural reservoirs for the germ which is a specific pathogen for several mammal species. Long endemic in Southeast Asia and several tropical zones, B. pseudomallei has recently been found in temperate zones, including France. Human contamination occurs via the transcutaneous route and often leads to dormant inapparent infection. Many conditions, such as diabetes, renal lithiasis, various circumstances of immunodepression or stress, facilitate clinical manifestations which vary greatly. Pulmonary manifestations may be acute and extensive, producing a torpid pseudo-tuberculous condition or a variety of clinical and radiological features mimicking other diseases. Bacteriological and serological tests may be negative. Exposure in an endemic zone, the notion of a favorable context, weight loss, cavitary images on successive chest x-rays and the presence of extra-pulmonary localizations may be suggestive. Ceftazidime or the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination are indicated, but mortality in acute forms still reaches 40%. Relapse can be expected if the treatment duration is too short. PMID:10100350

  6. Successful endoscopic treatment of colonic gallstone ileus using electrohydraulic lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Martin D; Ferreira, Lincoln E; Baron, Todd H

    2010-01-01

    The surgical management of gallstone ileus is complex and potentially highly morbid. Initial management requires enterolithotomy and is generally followed by fistula resection at a later date. There have been reports of gallstone extraction using various endoscopic modalities to relieve the obstruction, however, to date, there has never been a published case of endoscopic stone extraction from the colon using electrohydraulic lithotripsy. In this report, we present the technique employed to successfully perform an electrohydraulic lithotripsy for removal of a large gallstone impacted in the sigmoid colon. A cavity was excavated in an obstructing 4.1 cm lamellated stone in the sigmoid colon using electrohydraulic lithotripsy. A screw stent retractor and stent extractor bored a larger lumen which allowed for guidewire advancement and stone fracture via serial pneumatic balloon dilatation. The stone fragments were removed. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy is a safe and effective method to treat colonic obstruction in the setting of gallstone ileus. PMID:20333797

  7. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  8. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  9. Liquid laser cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, S.; Filipescu, N.; Kellermeyer, G. L.; Mc Avoy, N.

    1969-01-01

    Liquid laser cavities have plenum chambers at the ends of the capillary cell which are terminated in transparent optical flats. By use of these cavities, several new europium chelates and a terbium chelate can provide laser action in solution at room temperature.

  10. CAVITY EXCITATION CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Franck, J.V.

    1959-10-20

    An electronic oscillator is described for energizing a resonant cavity and to a system for stabilizing the operatin g frequency of the oscillator at the particular frequency necessary to establish a particular preferred field configuration or mode in the cavity, in this instance a linear accelerator. A freely rnnning oscillator has an output coupled to a resonant cavity wherein a field may be built up at any one of several adjacent frequencies. A pickup loop in the cavity is suitably shielded and positioned in the cavity so that only energy at the panticular desired frequency is fed back to stabilize the oscillator. A phase and gain control is in cluded in the feedback line.

  11. Passivated niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  12. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  13. Cetuximab and Everolimus in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Colon Cancer or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-07-06

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Colon

  14. Giant colon diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Chater, C; Saudemont, A; Zerbib, P

    2015-11-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum is defined by a diverticulum whose diameter is greater than 4 cm. This is a rare entity, arising mainly in the sigmoid colon. The diagnosis is based on abdominal computed tomography that shows a gas-filled structure communicating with the adjacent colon, with a smooth, thin diverticular wall that does not enhance after injection of contrast. Surgical treatment is recommended even in asymptomatic diverticula, due to the high prevalence and severity of complications. The gold standard treatment is segmental colectomy. Some authors propose a diverticulectomy when the giant diverticulum is unique.

  15. Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Ricardo de Amorim; Silva, Luciana Cristina dos Santos; Rezende, Cláudia Juliana; Bernardes, Rodrigo Castro; Prata, Tarciane Aline; Silva, Henrique Lima

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery dissection is a fatal complication of long-standing pulmonary hypertension, manifesting as acute, stabbing chest pain, progressive dyspnea, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death. Its incidence has been underestimated, and therapeutic options are still scarce. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, new chest pain, acute chest pain, or cardiogenic shock should raise the suspicion of pulmonary artery dissection, which can result in sudden death. PMID:23670510

  16. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Uçvet, Ahmet; Tözüm, Halil; Gürsoy, Soner; Gülle, Ali Alper; Yaldiz, Sadik; Aydoğdu Dinç, Zekiye

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is a rare fibrosing nodular disease of the lung characterized by solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules. They can occur after inflammatory or post-inflammatory changes. A 60 years old asymptomatic patient admitted to our clinic because of a solid mass of 6 cm in his routine chest radiography. A lobectomy was performed and the histological diagnosis was reported as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This case, mimicking pulmonary carcinoma, is rarely found in the literature. PMID:16615022

  17. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with resultsmore » of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have

  18. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  19. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double

  20. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

    1986-05-01

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

  1. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  2. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  3. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  4. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections

    PubMed Central

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  5. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  6. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  7. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach.

    PubMed

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Reischl, Udo; Behr, Anke; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Lehn, Norbert; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ruhl, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The oral cavity has been suspected as an extra-gastroduodenal reservoir for Helicobacter pylori infection and transmission, but conflicting evidence exists regarding the occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth, independently of stomach colonization. Ninety-four gastric biopsy patients were analysed for the concurrent presence of H. pylori in the mouth and stomach. Samples were collected from different areas within the mouth and H. pylori DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by sequencing. Helicobacter pylori-specific serology was performed, and stomach colonization was determined by culture. In addition, relevant dental and periodontal parameters, as well as general health parameters, were recorded. Helicobacter pylori was found in the stomach of 29 patients and in the oral cavity of 16 patients. In only six patients was the bacterium detected simultaneously in the stomach and mouth. Notably, the 10 patients in whom the bacterium was found solely in the mouth did not have serum antibodies to H. pylori. The occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth was found to be correlated neither to any general or oral health parameters, nor to any particular site of collection. This study shows that H. pylori can occur in the oral cavity independently of stomach colonization.

  8. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  9. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  10. Multicolor cavity soliton.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rui; Liang, Hanxiao; Lin, Qiang

    2016-07-25

    We show a new class of complex solitary wave that exists in a nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The cavity soliton consists of multiple soliton-like spectro-temporal components that exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, formed together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor cavity soliton shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which would be very useful for versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy. PMID:27464131

  11. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  12. Pulmonary endarterectomy after pulmonary infectious embolisms

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, Johan; Ilkjær, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a well-established procedure in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). The procedure is known to increase functional outcome and to raise the 5-year survival rate. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis and secondary embolisms causing sustained pulmonary hypertension. Both were treated with PEA. In none of the cases, a cleavage between the thrombotic masses and the vessel wall was obtainable, and both attempts were therefore inadequate. Based on our reports, we recommend not attempting PEA in cases of CTPH after infectious embolisms. PMID:23248168

  13. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Barberán, José; Mensa, José

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common infection in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies or allogenic stem cell transplantation, and is less frequent in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucociliary activity impairment, immunosuppression due to the inhibition of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils by steroids, and receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, play a role in the development of IPA in COPD patients. Colonized patients or those with IPA are older, with severe CODP stage (GOLD≥III), and have a higher number of comorbidities. The mortality rate is high due to the fact that having a definitive diagnosis of IPA in COPD patients is often difficult. The main clinical and radiological signs of IPA in these types of patients are non-specific, and tissue samples for definitive diagnosis are often difficult to obtain. The poor prognosis of IPA in COPD patients could perhaps be improved by faster diagnosis and prompt initiation of antifungal treatment. Some tools, such as scales and algorithms based on risk factors of IPA, may be useful for its early diagnosis in these patients.

  14. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  15. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Associate Professor View full profile More Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Information Forms Causes Genetic Counseling Print Page Email ...

  16. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  17. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

  18. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  19. Discrete cavity solitons.

    PubMed

    Peschel, U; Egorov, O; Lederer, F

    2004-08-15

    We derive evolution equations describing light propagation in an array of coupled-waveguide resonators and predict the existence of discrete cavity solitons. We identify stable, unstable, and oscillating solitons by varying the coupling strength between the anticontinuous and the continuous limit. PMID:15357356

  20. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  1. Physiological mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    MacIver, David H; Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, Iain R; Revell, Alistair; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is usually related to obstruction of pulmonary blood flow at the level of the pulmonary arteries (eg, pulmonary embolus), pulmonary arterioles (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension), pulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease) or mitral valve (mitral stenosis and regurgitation). Pulmonary hypertension is also observed in heart failure due to left ventricle myocardial diseases regardless of the ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is often regarded as a passive response to the obstruction to pulmonary flow. We review established fluid dynamics and physiology and discuss the mechanisms underlying pulmonary hypertension. The important role that the right ventricle plays in the development and maintenance of pulmonary hypertension is discussed. We use principles of thermodynamics and discuss a potential common mechanism for a number of disease states, including pulmonary edema, through adding pressure energy to the pulmonary circulation. PMID:27659877

  2. Influence of denture plaque biofilm on oral mucosal membrane in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowska, D; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E; Rubinsztajn, R; Chazan, R; Rolski, D; Swoboda-Kopeć, E

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have the lower airways colonized with pathogenic bacteria in a stable period of the disease and during exacerbations. The etiology of bacterial exacerbations of COPD depends on the underlying disease, the frequency of exacerbations and antibiotic therapy. Microorganisms can be aspirated off the denture plaque biofilm into the lower respiratory tract and could reduce the patient's immunity and cause pneumonia. COPD patients, who are using acrylic dentures in oral cavity, are exposed to denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to establish the composition of denture plaque biofilm and its impact on the oral mucosa in COPD patients. The study included patients in a stable phase of COPD using removable denture and the control group included healthy wearer's appliances. Examinations concerned the oral mucosal membrane and the hygienic condition of prosthetic restorations. Microbiological examinations were performed by taking a direct swab from the surface of acrylic dentures. Seventeen bacterial and fungal strains were isolated from denture plaque of COPD patients, which could be a reservoir of pathogens in the upper and lower airways. The results showed a greater frequency of prosthetic stomatitis complicated by mucosal infections among COPD patients compared to healthy subjects.

  3. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  4. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Gans, S J; van der Elst, A M; Straks, W

    1988-04-01

    A patient with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is presented. PHG is a rare disease with very specific histological characteristics. Roentgenograms display multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules which may be cavitated. Evidence exists that the nodules are the result of an exaggerated chronic immune response. The course of the disease is generally favourable. PHG should be considered in patients showing multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. PMID:2456228

  5. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  6. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma with massive infiltration of lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Fujishima, N; Takada, T; Moriyama, H; Saito, Y; Suzuki, E; Yoshiya, K; Yamato, Y; Kourakata, H; Honma, T; Gejyo, F

    2001-12-01

    A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for examination of multiple nodules and infiltrates on a chest radiograph. His chest HRCT revealed multiple nodules with or without thick- or thin-walled cavities. Specimens obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy showed bundles of hyalinized collagen fibers, some of which contained accumulated plasma cells in the center. The nodules were surrounded by massive lymphoid cells which formed germinal centers. These findings are compatible with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. The lymphoid cells looked uniform in some areas and had infiltrated along the bronchioles and small vessels and into the intralobular septa in a manner resembling pulmonary lymphoma or pseudolymphoma. The findings suggested that pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma may overlap pulmonary lymphoma. The disease has shown no progression for four years although no treatment has been given. PMID:11875809

  7. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  8. Does airway colonization cause systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis?

    PubMed

    Ergan Arsava, Begüm; Cöplü, Lütfi

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the presence of accompanying systemic inflammation in chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma; however little is known regarding the presence of systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis. Although bronchiectasis was initially considered a stationary process, chronic bacterial colonization causes airway inflammation and progressive airway damage. The aim of this study was to determine the level of systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis patients and identify its relationship with colonization. White blood cell (WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma fibrinogen, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and leptin levels were determined in clinically stable bronchiectasis patients (n= 50), and age- and sex-matched controls. Bronchiectasis patients were also analyzed according to colonization in sputum samples. There was no significant difference between bronchiectasis and control groups with respect to inflammatory markers but median (interquartile range-IQR) WBC count, CRP and fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in colonized patients (n= 14) when compared to non-colonized patients [8.2 (6.4-9.5) vs. 6.4 (5.8-7.7) x 103/mm3, 0.91 (0.45-1.29) vs. 0.42 (0.30-0.77) mg/dL, 433.5 (390.3-490.3) vs. 392.0 (327.0-416.0) mg/dL, respectively; p< 0.05]. There was no evidence supporting the presence of systemic inflammation in the overall bronchiectasis group when compared to controls. However, elevated WBC count, CRP and fibrinogen levels in patients with colonization suggest the presence of a systemic inflammatory response in clinically stable bronchiectasis patients with colonization. PMID:22233303

  9. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  10. Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor, alternative method of measuring cavity microphonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski; G. Davis; Hai Dong; J. Hovater; John Musson; Thomas Powers

    2005-09-20

    As is well known, mechanical vibration or microphonics in a cryomodule causes the cavity resonance frequency to change at the vibration frequency. One way to measure the cavity microphonics is to drive the cavity with a Phase Locked Loop. Measurement of the instantaneous frequency or PLL error signal provides information about the cavity microphonic frequencies. Although the PLL error signal is available directly, precision frequency measurements require additional instrumentation, a Cavity Resonance Monitor (CRM). The analog version of such a device has been successfully used for several cavity tests [1]. In this paper we present a prototype of a Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor designed and built in the last year. The hardware of this instrument consists of an RF downconverter, digital quadrature demodulator and digital processor motherboard (Altera FPGA). The motherboard processes received data and computes frequency changes with a resolution of 0.2 Hz, with a 3 kHz output bandwidth.

  11. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    PubMed Central

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations. PMID:26481853

  12. Access cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  13. CAVITY CONTROL ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski, J. Hovater

    2010-09-01

    A digital low level radio frequency (RF) system typically incorporates either a heterodyne or direct sampling technique, followed by fast ADCs, then an FPGA, and finally a transmitting DAC. This universal platform opens up the possibilities for a variety of control algorithm implementations. The foremost concern for an RF control system is cavity field stability, and to meet the required quality of regulation, the chosen control system needs to have sufficient feedback gain. In this paper we will investigate the effectiveness of the regulation for three basic control system algorithms: I&Q (In-phase and Quadrature), Amplitude & Phase and digital SEL (Self Exciting Loop) along with the example of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV cavity field control system.

  14. Dielectric cavity relativistic magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. M. A.

    2010-02-01

    An alteration in the structure of the A6 relativistic magnetron is proposed, which introduces an extra degree of freedom to its design and enhances many of its quality factors. This modification involves the partial filling of the cavities of the device with a low-loss dielectric material. The operation of a dielectric-filled A6 is simulated; the results indicate single-mode operation at the desired π mode and a substantially cleaner rf spectrum.

  15. [Multiple cavitary pulmonary metastases from ovarian cancer: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, S; Takechi, A; Kashiyama, T

    2001-06-01

    Cavitation in pulmonary metastases is thought to be uncommon. To date, few cases of pulmonary metastases originating from ovarian cancer and showing cavitation have been reported. We report a patient with multiple cavitation in pulmonary metastases from ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital presenting with cough and fever. The patient had undergone right ovariectomy for ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma at the age of 23 years. Her chest radiograph on admission showed multiple cavities associated with infiltration in both lungs. Histological sections obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy revealed mucus-secreting adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of metastatic lung cancer from the ovary was made. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest demonstrated various findings, including multiple thick-walled cavities, thin-walled cavities, air-space consolidations, ground glass opacities, and centrilobular nodular shadows formed by aspiration of the mucinous secretions. It is important to recognize that cavitation can occur in pulmonary metastases from ovarian cancer. PMID:11530393

  16. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  17. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  18. RF Cavity Characterization with VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, C.D. Zhou, F. Marhauser

    2011-03-01

    When designing a radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity structure various figures of merit are considered before coming to a final cavity design. These figures of merit include specific field and geometry based quantities such as the ratio of the shunt impedance to the quality factor (R/Q) or the normalized peak fields in the cavity. Other important measures of cavity performance include the peak surface fields as well as possible multipacting resonances in the cavity. High fidelity simulations of these structures can provide a good estimate of these important quantities before any cavity prototypes are built. We will present VORPAL simulations of a simple pillbox structure where these quantities can be calculated analytically and compare them to the results from the VORPAL simulations. We will then use VORPAL to calculate these figures of merit and potential multipacting resonances for two cavity designs under development at Jefferson National Lab for Project X.

  19. Association of juvenile and adenomatous polyposis with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Prieto, G; Polanco, I; Sarria, J; Larrauri, J; Lassaletta, L

    1990-07-01

    The juvenile form is the usual type of colonic polyp seen during childhood. However, mixed forms associating juvenile and adenomatous polyps have been reported. A syndrome including the association of generalized juvenile polyposis, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy has been described in three cases; however, this is the first report of the association of mixed juvenile and adenomatous polyposis, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

  20. Rupture of sigmoid colon caused by compressed air.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wan-Bin; Hu, Ji-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Shen; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Lu, Yun

    2016-03-14

    Compressed air has been generally used since the beginning of the 20(th) century for various applications. However, rupture of the colon caused by compressed air is uncommon. We report a case of pneumatic rupture of the sigmoid colon. The patient was admitted to the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain and distention. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle against his anus as a practical joke 2 h previously. On arrival, his pulse rate was 126 beats/min, respiratory rate was 42 breaths/min and blood pressure was 86/54 mmHg. Physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and the abdomen was markedly distended. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a large volume of air in the abdominal cavity. Peritoneocentesis was performed to relieve the tension pneumoperitoneum. Emergency laparotomy was done after controlling shock. Laparotomy revealed a 2-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. The perforation was sutured and temporary ileostomy was performed as well as thorough drainage and irrigation of the abdominopelvic cavity. Reversal of ileostomy was performed successfully after 3 mo. Follow-up was uneventful. We also present a brief literature review. PMID:26973403

  1. Superconducting cavities and modulated RF

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1981-02-01

    If a cavity has an infinite Q/sub o/, 81.5% of the energy contained in a pulse incident upon the cavity is transferred into the cavity by the end of the pulse if the cavity Q/sub e/ is chosen so that the cavity time constant is 0.796 pulse width (T/sub a/). As Q/sug o/ decreases, the energy in the cavity at the end of the pulse decreases very slowly as long as T/sub a/ is much less than the unloaded cavity time constant, T/sub co/. SC cavities with very high Q/sub o/ enable one to obtain very high gradients with a low power cw source. At high gradients, however, one often does not attain the high Q/sub o/ predicted by theory. Therefore, if one is inteerested in attaining maximum energy in the cavity, as is the case for RF processing and diagnostics, for a given available source energy there is no point in keeping the power on for longer than 0.1 T/sub co/ because the energy expended after 0.1 T/sub co/ is wasted. Therefore, to attain high fields at moderate Q/sub o/, pulsed operation is indicated. This note derives the fields and energy stored and dissipated in the cavity when Q/sub e/ is optimized for a given T/sub a/. It shows how to use this data to measure Q/sub o/ of an SC cavity as a function of field level, how to process the cavity with high RF fields, how to operate SC cavities in the pulsed mode to obtain higher efficiencies and gradients. Experimental results are also reported.

  2. Fungal infection of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

  3. Cavity optomechanical magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Forstner, S; Prams, S; Knittel, J; van Ooijen, E D; Swaim, J D; Harris, G I; Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H

    2012-03-23

    A cavity optomechanical magnetometer is demonstrated. The magnetic-field-induced expansion of a magnetostrictive material is resonantly transduced onto the physical structure of a highly compliant optical microresonator and read out optically with ultrahigh sensitivity. A peak magnetic field sensitivity of 400  nT  Hz(-1/2) is achieved, with theoretical modeling predicting the possibility of sensitivities below 1  pT  Hz(-1/2). This chip-based magnetometer combines high sensitivity and large dynamic range with small size and room temperature operation.

  4. [Pulmonary hypertension: current aspects].

    PubMed

    Tello de Meneses, R; Gómez Sánchez, M A; Delgado Jiménez, J; Gómez Pajuelo, C; Sáenz de la Calzada, C; Zarco Gutiérrez, P

    1996-08-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension, although less frequent than secondary forms, represents the true paradigm of this disease. The recent investigations on pulmonary vascular response mechanisms to different stimuli has increased our knowledge about the mechanism of high pulmonary pressure. Molecular biology of the endothelial cell has provided evidence that endothelial injury plus a genetic individual predisposition may be the pathogenic mainstream of this disease. The histologic findings of pulmonary hypertension are still a matter of controversy, although the clinical, epidemiological and prognostic features are better defined. Therapeutically, there has been important advances, specially with various vasodilators, like calciumantagonists, prostacyclin, adenosine and nitric oxide, as well as new routes of administration. In more advance stages of the disease, atrial septostomy (only paliative) and pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary transplantation, are other therapeutic options to consider, after an adequate selection of patients.

  5. Pulmonary nocardiosis in patients with connective tissue disease: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Shinya; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Hagiya, Chihiro; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Hirota, Tomoya; Ebe, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ogishima, Hiroshi; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Yuya; Umeda, Naoto; Suzuki, Takeshi; Hitomi, Shigemi; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reported here are 2 patients with connective tissue disease who developed pulmonary nocardiosis. Case 1 involved a 73-year-old man with malignant rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisolone 25 mg/day. Chest X-rays revealed a pulmonary cavity and bronchoscopy detected Nocardia species. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Case 2 involved a 41-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient received remission induction therapy with 50 mg/day of prednisolone and tacrolimus. Six weeks later, a chest CT scan revealed a pulmonary cavity; bronchoscopy resulted in a diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis. The patient had difficulty tolerating trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, so she was switched to and successfully treated with imipenem/cilastatin and amikacin. PMID:25343123

  6. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  7. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Masquerading as Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ugur; Calpar, Ilknur; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yanartas, Mehmet; Filinte, Deniz; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with pulmonary artery sarcoma, a very rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Her tumor was initially misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, and she underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is crucial. That alternative should always be considered before settling on a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Suspicion should be aroused by the failure of anticoagulant treatment to alleviate pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and systemic symptoms. Surgical resection of the tumor—preferably by pulmonary endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction as needed—is currently the most promising treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma. PMID:25425987

  8. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  9. Shed syndecan-2 enhances tumorigenic activities of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sojoong; Choi, Youngsil; Jun, Eunsung; Kim, In-San; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Sung-Ae; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Because earlier studies showed the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-2, sheds from colon cancer cells in culture, the functional roles of shed syndecan-2 were assessed. A non-cleavable mutant of syndecan-2 in which the Asn148-Leu149 residues were replaced with Asn148-Ile149, had decreased shedding, less cancer-associated activities of syndecan-2 in vitro, and less syndecan-2-mediated metastasis of mouse melanoma cells in vivo, suggesting the importance of shedding on syndecan-2-mediated pro-tumorigenic functions. Indeed, shed syndecan-2 from cancer-conditioned media and recombinant shed syndecan-2 enhanced cancer-associated activities, and depletion of shed syndecan-2 abolished these effects. Similarly, shed syndecan-2 was detected from sera of patients from advanced carcinoma (625.9 ng/ml) and promoted cancer-associated activities. Furthermore, a series of syndecan-2 deletion mutants showed that the tumorigenic activity of shed syndecan-2 resided in the C-terminus of the extracellular domain and a shed syndecan-2 synthetic peptide (16 residues) was sufficient to establish subcutaneous primary growth of HT29 colon cancer cells, pulmonary metastases (B16F10 cells), and primary intrasplenic tumor growth and liver metastases (4T1 cells). Taken together, these results demonstrate that shed syndecan-2 directly enhances colon cancer progression and may be a promising therapeutic target for controlling colon cancer development. PMID:25686828

  10. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation. PMID:25379393

  11. Improving pulmonary rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Beckford, Katy

    The Clinical Audit of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Services in England and Wales was the first national audit of pulmonary rehabilitation services in England and Wales. Forming part of the National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Audit Programme, it was commissioned by Healthcare Quality Improvement Programme and conducted by the Royal College of Physicians and British Thoracic Society. The audit was undertaken to geographically map pulmonary rehabilitation services and identify how they can improve. This article summarises the key findings of the audit, and its recommendations. PMID:27400620

  12. Neostigmine and pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Bijapur, Mubina Begum; Shreyavathi, Shreyavathi; R S, Raghavendra Rao

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old child with no pre-existing cardiac or respiratory disease developed frank pulmonary oedema after administration of a neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture to reverse neuromuscular blockade during general anaesthesia. Possible cardiac and extra-cardiac factors that could cause pulmonary oedema in this child were ruled out by appropriate investigations. As the pulmonary oedema manifested shortly after administration of the neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture, we concluded that neostigmine was the most probable cause. This article briefly reports the occurrence of events and successful management of perioperative pulmonary oedema. PMID:25199191

  13. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Cavity-optomechanics” aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  14. Multicolor cavity metrology.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kiwamu; Arai, Koji; Barr, Bryan; Betzwieser, Joseph; Brooks, Aidan; Dahl, Katrin; Doravari, Suresh; Driggers, Jennifer C; Korth, W Zach; Miao, Haixing; Rollins, Jameson; Vass, Stephen; Yeaton-Massey, David; Adhikari, Rana X

    2012-10-01

    Long-baseline laser interferometers used for gravitational-wave detection have proven to be very complicated to control. In order to have sufficient sensitivity to astrophysical gravitational waves, a set of multiple coupled optical cavities comprising the interferometer must be brought into resonance with the laser field. A set of multi-input, multi-output servos then lock these cavities into place via feedback control. This procedure, known as lock acquisition, has proven to be a vexing problem and has reduced greatly the reliability and duty factor of the past generation of laser interferometers. In this article, we describe a technique for bringing the interferometer from an uncontrolled state into resonance by using harmonically related external fields to provide a deterministic hierarchical control. This technique reduces the effect of the external seismic disturbances by 4 orders of magnitude and promises to greatly enhance the stability and reliability of the current generation of gravitational-wave detectors. The possibility for using multicolor techniques to overcome current quantum and thermal noise limits is also discussed. PMID:23201656

  15. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  16. [Colonic histiocytosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Remmele, W; Endris, R

    1977-02-01

    Macrophages accumulating various substances can be detected in the mucosa of the small and large bowel under physiological and various pathological conditions. Among these the so-called PAS-positive macrophages have attracted much attention in recent times. Abundant occurrence of such cells in the intestinal mucosa has been termed "colonic histiocytosis". The occurrence of PAS-positive macrophages was investigated in 200 unselected and otherwise normal biopsy specimens of rectal mucosa; no correlation was found between the occurrence of these cells on the one hand and any intestinal or extraintestinal disease on the other. PAS-positive macrophages were mostly found close to the surface of the mucosa or to the cryptal epithelium as well as between the crypts. It is suggested to abandon the term "colonic histiocytosis" since it induces a false impression of a disease entity in the clinician (and may be related falsely e.g. to "histiocytosis X", and since the clinician may tend to attribute unnecessary importance to this harmless finding.

  17. Extremely Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.

    2002-05-01

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which provides a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.

  18. Extremely large cusp diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.

  19. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118

  20. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  1. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  2. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, T.; Cormick, C.; Landa, H.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Demler, E.; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  3. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  4. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458 Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life.

  5. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458 Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

  6. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-12-16

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458 Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life.

  7. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458 Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

  8. Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development.

    PubMed

    Romano-Keeler, Joann; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization.

  9. Anatomically correct deformable colon phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, James A.; Barton, Michael D.; Davis, Brynmor J.; Bieszczad, Jerry; Meunier, Norm L.; Brown, Nathan W.; Kynor, David B.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a technique to build a soft-walled colon phantom that provides realistic lumen anatomy in computed tomography (CT) images. The technique begins with the geometry of a human colon measured during CT colonography (CTC). The three-dimensional air-filled colonic lumen is segmented and then replicated using stereolithography (SLA). The rigid SLA model includes large-scale features (e.g., haustral folds and tenia coli bands) down to small-scale features (e.g., a small pedunculated polyp). Since the rigid model represents the internal air-filled volume, a highly-pliable silicone polymer is painted onto the rigid model. This thin layer of silicone, when removed, becomes the colon wall. Small 3 mm diameter glass beads are affixed to the outer wall. These glass beads show up with high intensity in CT scans and provide a ground truth for evaluating performance of algorithms designed to register prone and supine CTC data sets. After curing, the silicone colon wall is peeled off the rigid model. The resulting colon phantom is filled with air and submerged in a water bath. CT images and intraluminal fly-through reconstructions from CTC scans of the colon phantom are compared against patient data to demonstrate the ability of the phantom to simulate a human colon.

  10. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  11. A scanning cavity microscope.

    PubMed

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm(2); we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  12. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  13. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Tan, Sze Khen

    2016-05-01

    Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55-year-old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  14. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation. PMID:14664293

  15. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is Pulmonary Hypertension? Updated:Aug 12,2014 Is pulmonary hypertension different ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  16. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kj; Basu, Arup; Khana, Shilpi; Wattal, Chand

    2015-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is a disease which is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. In the areas where people eat crab/crayfish this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid antituberculosis treatment for a non-tubercular condition. We are reporting a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis who had been treated for tuberculosis. PMID:27604443

  17. Quench studies of ILC cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari; Dai, Jin

    2011-07-01

    Quench limits accelerating gradient in SRF cavities to a gradient lower than theoretically expected for superconducting niobium. Identification of the quenching site with thermometry and OST, optical inspection, and replica of the culprit is an ongoing effort at Jefferson Lab aimed at better understanding of this limiting phenomenon. In this contribution we present our finding with several SRF cavities that were limited by quench.

  18. Trislot-cavity microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flush-mountable assembly composed of disk radiator sandwiched between planes of metal-clad dielectric board has greater bandwidths and beamwidths than simple disk antenna. Conducting planes connect so that disk is enclosed in cavity with Y-shaped slot in top plane. Cavity is excited by microwave energy from disk and radiates from trislot aperature.

  19. Pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis involving the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Monga, Varun; Silverman, Margarida

    2015-02-24

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs as a complication of hematologic disorders such as myelofibrosis, sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. The extramedullary tissue usually involves liver, spleen and lymph nodes, less frequently the chest. We present a recent case of a man with myeloproliferative neoplasm who developed pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to EMH in the lung and pulmonary artery. Radiation therapy was considered the best approach, but it didn't work and the patient died a week after radiation therapy was completed. We also review herein the present literature. PMID:25852851

  20. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1984-02-09

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  1. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, Salvatore

    1985-01-01

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  3. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  4. Prevalence of pulmonary embolism at necropsy in patients with cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, E; Karwinski, B

    1989-01-01

    The series studied comprised 6197 patients who had died of or who had cancer at death and represents all patients with cancer from 21,530 necropsies performed at this department from 1960-84. Pulmonary embolism was significantly more common among cancer patients than in those with non-neoplastic diseases. Among those palliatively treated, patients with ovarian cancer, cancer of the extrahepatic bile duct system, and cancer of the stomach had the highest prevalence of pulmonary embolism (34.6%, 31.7%, and 15.2%, respectively). Necropsy patients with cancer of the oesophagus and larynx, together with leukaemia, myelomatosis, and malignant lymphoma had the lowest prevalence (0-5.6%). Palliatively treated cancers in organs of the peritoneal cavity had a significantly higher incidence than all other cancers combined. Cancer of the peritoneal cavity may impede venous drainage from the lower limbs and thus be an important factor in the onset of deep calf vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. It is concluded that cancer represents an increased risk factor for onset of pulmonary embolism, in particular in patients with ovarian cancer and cancer of the extrahepatic bile duct system. PMID:2475526

  5. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  6. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease.

  7. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dan; Eliakim, Rami

    2016-08-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE-the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  8. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  9. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H; Delcroix, Marion; Jenkins, David P; Channick, Richard; Dartevelle, Philippe; Jansa, Pavel; Lang, Irene; Madani, Michael M; Ogino, Hitoshi; Pengo, Vittorio; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Since the last World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in 2008, we have witnessed numerous and exciting developments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Emerging clinical data and advances in technology have led to reinforcing and updated guidance on diagnostic approaches to pulmonary hypertension, guidelines that we hope will lead to better recognition and more timely diagnosis of CTEPH. We have new data on treatment practices across international boundaries as well as long-term outcomes for CTEPH patients treated with or without pulmonary endarterectomy. Furthermore, we have expanded data on alternative treatment options for select CTEPH patients, including data from multiple clinical trials of medical therapy, including 1 recent pivotal trial, and compelling case series of percutaneous pulmonary angioplasty. Lastly, we have garnered more experience, and on a larger international scale, with pulmonary endarterectomy, which is the treatment of choice for operable CTEPH. This report overviews and highlights these important interval developments as deliberated among our task force of CTEPH experts and presented at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice, France. (J Am Coil Cardiol 2013;62:D92-9) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

  10. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  11. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  12. Progressive cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.W.

    1989-04-04

    A progressive cavity pump is described, comprising: a first housing portion defining an inlet; a second housing portion attachable to the first housing portion and defining an outlet; a substantially elastomeric stator comprising an outer portion removably attached to the first and second housing portions, having a first end and a second end spaced from the first end, an inner portion defining a pumping chamber and spaced an annular end portion interconnecting the first ends of the outer and inner portions; a rotor disposed in the inner portion of the stator and extending through the pumping chamber for pumping fluid from the inlet to the outlet in response to rotation of the rotor; and an elongated member disposed in the housing portions and generally annularly between the inner and outer portions of the stator and longitudinally between the annular end portion of the stator and a portion of the second housing portion, the member being removable from the housing portions and separable from the stator.

  13. Nonlocal intracranial cavity extraction.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Eskildsen, Simon F; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E; Collins, D Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  14. Cavity-state preparation using adiabatic transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jonas; Andersson, Erika

    2005-05-01

    We show how to prepare a variety of cavity field states for multiple cavities. The state preparation technique used is related to the method of stimulated adiabatic Raman passage. The cavity modes are coupled by atoms, making it possible to transfer an arbitrary cavity field state from one cavity to another and also to prepare nontrivial cavity field states. In particular, we show how to prepare entangled states of two or more cavities, such as an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state and a W state, as well as various entangled superpositions of coherent states in different cavities, including Schrödinger cat states. The theoretical considerations are supported by numerical simulations.

  15. Shape Determination for Deformed Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Xiao, Liling; Ko, Kwok; Ghattas, Omar; /Texas U.

    2006-10-04

    A realistic superconducting RF cavity has its shape deformed comparing to its designed shape due to the loose tolerance in the fabrication process and the frequency tuning for its accelerating mode. A PDE-constrained optimization problem is proposed to determine the deformation of the cavity. A reduce space method is used to solve the PDE-constrained optimization problem where design sensitivities were computed using a continuous adjoint approach. A proof-of-concept example is given in which the deformation parameters of a single cavity-cell with two different types of deformation were computed.

  16. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  17. [A rare variant of enterocele entrapment in the abdominal cavity of a woman].

    PubMed

    Vinnik, Yu S; Prusov, I A; Serova, E V; Shirokobokov, A O; Berdnikov, S I; Struzik, A S; Loginovsky, A S

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal enterocele is a result of entering abdominal organs into peritoneal pockets and folds through the holes in mesenterium or into the adjoining cavities through defects in their walls. Enteroceles are localized at the sites where one segment of the gastrointestinal tract passes into another, in a pocket behind the cecum and sigmoid, between mesenteric layers of small intestine and colon, in the holes of mesenterium of vermiform appendage, gastrocolic and falciform ligaments, pockets and holes of broad ligament of the uterine, omental foramen, rectouterine excavation, and diaphragmal defects. We observed a 26 year old woman with enterocele entrapment in the abdominal cavity complicated by necrosis of part of the small intestine.

  18. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  19. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

  20. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough, shortness of breath, fatigue and low blood oxygen levels. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by an ... breath. Your health care provider may notice the oxygen levels in your blood drop when you walk. ...

  1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measurements of blood oxygen level (arterial blood gases) Pulmonary function tests 6-minute walk test Tests for connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis , lupus, or scleroderma Open lung (surgical) lung biopsy

  2. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Belts! For PFF Spend an evening with the stars on Monday, February 27, 2017. MORE PFF Moved ... Patients The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has a four-star rating from Charity Navigator and is a Better ...

  3. Pulmonary hyalinizing granulomas.

    PubMed

    Macedo, E V; Adolph, J

    1985-03-01

    Little has been written about pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma as a cause of nodules in the lungs. In a patient with a past history of carcinoma of the breast, the diagnosis made a significant difference in the prognosis. PMID:2984210

  4. Pulmonary rehabilitation in adults.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation can help people with long-term lung conditions whose symptoms, such as breathlessness and being easily tired out by daily activities, seriously impact their lives. PMID:27408642

  5. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  6. [The effect of thymogen on the state of immunity in destructive pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Medus, A I; Pisarevskaia, L I; Nikishina, E V

    1999-10-01

    The article shows that the immunocorrector timoguen stimulates T-cell link in patients with destructive forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, increases tolerance for ethiotropics, makes intoxication syndromes disappear and heals decomposition cavities and stops the bacteria discharge. It recommends 2 courses of timoguen immunostimulation (1% solution by 1 ml injection N 10 in 2 days for 2 and 4 mouths' treatment course).

  7. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control. PMID:27521039

  8. CRAB Cavity in CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Beam collisions with a crossing angle at the interaction point are often necessary in colliders to reduce the effects of parasitic collisions which induce emittance growth and decrease beam lifetime. The crossing angle reduces the geometrical overlap of the beams and hence the luminosity. Crab cavity offer a promising way to compensate the crossing angle and to realize effective head-on collisions. Moreover, the crab crossing mitigates the synchro-betatron resonances due to the crossing angle. A crab cavity experiment in SPS is proposed as a proof of principle before deciding on a full crab-cavity implementation in the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a single crab cavity on beam dynamics in the SPS and life time.

  9. Geometry-invariant resonant cavities

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, I.; Mahmoud, A. M.; Engheta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modelling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of their geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected to operate at a specific frequency. Here we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, that is, resonators whose eigenfrequencies are invariant with respect to geometrical deformations of their external boundaries. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, such as epsilon-near-zero media, which enable decoupling of the temporal and spatial field variations in the lossless limit. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices. PMID:27010103

  10. Design of rf conditioner cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, R.; Rimmer, R.A.; Sessler, A.; Kirk, H.G.

    1992-06-01

    Theoretical studies are made of radio frequency structures which can be used to condition electron beams so as to greatly reduce the stringent emittance requirements for successful lasing in a free-electron laser. The basic strategy of conditioning calls for modulating an electron beam in the transverse dimension, by a periodic focusing channel, while it traverses a series of rf cavities, each operating in a TM{sub 210} mode. In this paper, we analyze the cavities both analytically and numerically (using MAFIA simulations). We find that when cylindrical symmetry is broken the coupling impedance can be greatly enhanced. We present results showing various performance characteristics as a function of cavity parameters, as well as possible designs for conditioning cavities.

  11. Transcatheter Embolization of Splenic Artery Pseudo-Aneurysm Rupturing into Colon After Post-Operative Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Iwama, Yuki; Sugimoto, Koji Zamora, Carlos A.; Yamaguchi, Masato; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Taniguchi, Takanori; Mori, Takeki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-02-15

    Splenic pseudoaneurysms following chronic pancreatitis can rarely become a source of life-threatening bleeding by rupturing into various regions or components, including pseudocysts, the abdominal cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreatic duct. In such cases, prompt diagnosis and therapy are warranted. We report herein the case of a 52-year-old man in whom a splenic pseudoaneurysm ruptured into the colon via a fistula with an abscess cavity, causing massive bleeding, which was successfully managed by trans-catheter arterial embolization (TAE)

  12. High-resolution CT findings of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Naoki; Saraya, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Ken; Takata, Saori; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Sayuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Yonetani, Shota; Araki, Koji; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Background Opportunistic pulmonary infection with Nocardia species is rare in humans, and only a few studies have radiologically analyzed patients with pulmonary nocardiosis using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis at our hospital between April 2006 and December 2011 to assess HRCT and clinical findings. We also searched the medical literature for pulmonary nocardiosis reported in Japan between 2002 and 2011 for comparison. Results We identified seven patients at our institution and 33 reported infections in Japan. Four of our patients were immunocompetent, whereas the other three had impaired cellular immunity due to type 2 diabetes mellitus or having been inappropriately treated with steroid. Thoracic HRCT revealed no zonal predominance, but tropism for distribution from the middle to the peripheral area, and radiological findings of nodules, cavitation, mass, consolidations, bronchial wall thickening, septal line thickening and ground glass opacity (GGO) were evident. The main HRCT finding in our study comprised nodules (n=5, 71.4%) <30 mm and four patients had multiple nodules as described in other reports. Furthermore, we discovered a crazy paving appearance (CPA) around nodules, cavities, masses or consolidations in five patients (71.4%). Conclusions Multiple nodules distributed from the middle to the peripheral area on HRCT might reflect pulmonary nocardiosis, and CPA seemed to be a worth paying attention to the diagnosis. PMID:23205281

  13. All fiber based multispeckle modality endoscopic system for imaging medical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Sujatha, N.

    2007-05-01

    Disease detection in body cavities, such as the detection of abnormal growths in the colon path, has been illustrated here using an image fiber guided catheter based multispeckle modality endoscopic system. An all fiber-optic approach for the illumination and imaging of the inner cavity walls is adopted here. An endoscope probe to carry the illumination fibers as well as the imaging lens-image fiber unit is designed and custom fabricated in order to operate the probe in its various direction sensitive configurations. This is facilitated by the selection of suitable optical elements such as beam combiner and biprism at the probe proximal end. Experimental investigations were carried out using the endoscope system employing phantom model of colon as the test specimen that has normal and abnormal (representing growth) regions and the obtained results indicated the system effectiveness in identifying the abnormal growths at an early stage.

  14. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  15. Probabilistic Generation of Entanglement in Optical Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Anders S.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2003-03-01

    We propose to produce entanglement by measuring the reflection from an optical cavity. Conditioned on the detection of a reflected photon, pairs of atoms in the cavity are prepared in maximally entangled states. The success probability depends on the cavity parameters, but high quality entangled states may be produced with a high probability even for cavities of moderate quality.

  16. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Caron M; Galvagno, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic pulmonary disease is common among the surgical population and the importance of a thorough and detailed preoperative assessment is monumental for minimizing morbidity and mortality and reducing the risk of perioperative pulmonary complications. These comorbidities contribute to pulmonary postoperative complications, including atelectasis, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, and can predict long-term mortality. The important aspects of the preoperative assessment for patients with chronic pulmonary disease, and the value of preoperative testing and smoking cessation, are discussed. Specifically discussed are preoperative pulmonary assessment and management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, restrictive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and obesity. PMID:24182721

  17. Pulmonary hypertension imitating HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension in a woman with mixed connective tissue disease presenting with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes imitating severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is described. Connective tissue disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Maternal mortality rates with pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy are extremely high. All women with connective tissue disorders should have pulmonary hypertension excluded by echocardiography before attempting conception. End-stage pulmonary hypertension may be associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia and thus may imitate severe preeclampsia in pregnant women. There may be a role for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the peripartum management of women with severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27656251

  18. Pulmonary hypertension imitating HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension in a woman with mixed connective tissue disease presenting with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes imitating severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is described. Connective tissue disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Maternal mortality rates with pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy are extremely high. All women with connective tissue disorders should have pulmonary hypertension excluded by echocardiography before attempting conception. End-stage pulmonary hypertension may be associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia and thus may imitate severe preeclampsia in pregnant women. There may be a role for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the peripartum management of women with severe pulmonary hypertension.

  19. TEM observations of crack tip: cavity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.A.; Ohr, S.M.; Jesser, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crack tip-cavity interactions have been studied by performing room temperature deformation experiments in a transmission electron microscope on ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel with small helium containing cavities. Slip dislocations emitted from a crack tip cut, sheared, and thereby elongated cavities without a volume enlargement. As the crack tip approached, a cavity volume enlargement occurred. Instead of the cavities continuing to enlarge until they touch, the walls between the cavities fractured. Fracture surface dimples do not correlate in size or density with these enlarged cavities.

  20. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function. The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities. The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction. The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P < 0.001). The frequency of infarction increased linearly with increasing height, and decreased with increasing BMI. In logistic regression, the covariates significantly associated with the probability of infarction were age, body height, BMI, and current smoking. The risk of infarction grew with age, peaked at approximately age 40, and decreased afterwards. Increasing body height and current smoking were significant amplifiers of the risk of infarction, whereas increasing BMI appeared to confer some protection. Our data indicate that pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  1. Computed Tomography Features of Pulmonary Nocardiosis in Immunocompromised and Immunocompetent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehrian, Payam; Esfandiari, Ehsan; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Memari, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Nocardiosis primarily occurs in the setting of immunocompromising conditions. However, it may also occur in immunocompetent patients. We described computed tomography features of pulmonary nocardiosis and compared immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Material/Methods CT images of 25 patients (Mean age of 39.5 years; 76% male) with pulmonary nocardiosis proved by bronchoalveolar lavage or biopsy were reviewed by two experienced pulmonary radiologists and detailed findings were reported on. Fourteen patients (56%) were immunocompetent, while 44% had an underlying immunocompromising condition, including chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) (n=4), diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=2), malignancy (n=2), HIV (n=1), concomitant CGD and DM (n=1), and steroid therapy for nephrotic syndrome (n=1). Results Most patients had bilateral involvement with no zonal predominance. Multiple pulmonary nodules (96%) were the most common CT findings, followed by consolidation (76%) and cavity (52%). Other findings included bronchiectasis (48%), pleural thickening (40%), ground glass opacity (32%), mass-like consolidation (20%), intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (16%), pleural effusion (12%), reticular infiltration (4%), and pericardial effusion (4%). There was no statistically significant difference in the CT findings of immunocompromised and immunocompetent groups. Conclusions Pulmonary nocardiosis presents mainly as multiple pulmonary nodules, consolidations, and cavity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. However, these features are more suggestive of nocardiosis in the setting of an underling immunocompromised condition. PMID:25584096

  2. Taste sensing in the colon.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Izumi; Karaki, Shin-ichiro; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2014-01-01

    The colonic lumen is continually exposed to many compounds, including beneficial and harmful compounds that are produced by colonic microflora. The intestinal epithelia form a barrier between the internal and luminal (external) environments. Chemical receptors that sense the luminal environment are thought to play important roles as sensors and as modulators of epithelial cell functions. The recent molecular identification of various membrane receptor proteins has revealed the sensory role of intestinal epithelial cells. Nutrient sensing by these receptors in the small intestine is implicated in nutrient absorption and metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological roles of chemosensors in the large intestine. Since 1980s, researchers have examined the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), the primary products of commensal bacteria, on gut motility, secretion, and incretin release, for example. In this decade, the SCFA receptor genes and their expression were identified in the mammalian colon. Furthermore, many other chemical receptors, including taste and olfactory receptors have been found in colonic epithelial cells. These findings indicate that the large intestinal epithelia express chemosensors that detect the luminal contents, particularly bacterial metabolites, and induce the host defense systems and the modulation of systemic metabolism via incretin release. In this review, we describe the local effects of chemical stimuli on the lumen associated with the expression pattern of sensory receptors. We propose that sensory receptors expressed in the colonic mucosa play important roles in luminal chemosensing to maintain homeostasis.

  3. Serrated polyps of the colon.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, Aravind; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2010-12-17

    Until recently, colonic polyps were traditionally classified as either hyperplastic or adenomatous, and only the latter were believed to have the potential to progress to carcinoma. However, it is now appreciated that a subset of serrated polyps also appear to have malignant potential. Serrated polyps are a heterogeneous group of colon polyps that include hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs), traditional serrated adenomas, and mixed polyps. Insights into these polyps were derived, in part, from studies of patients with the hyperplastic polyposis syndrome. SSAs show a predilection for the right colon, have a distinct histology, and their molecular genetic profile has recently been linked to a pathway for colon tumorigenesis that is characterized by microsatellite instability. Based upon available evidence, it is recommended that patients with serrated adenomas undergo colonoscopic follow-up at the same frequency as for conventional adenomas. It is important that physicians are aware of serrated polyps, particularly serrated adenomas and their relationship to colon cancer, and their proper clinical management.

  4. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  5. Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the body's natural defenses function to protect the oral cavity from the myriad of bacteria that colonize its surfaces is an ongoing topic of research that can lead to breakthroughs in treatment and prevention. One key defense mechanism on all moist epithelial linings, such as the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs, is a layer of thick, well-hydrated mucus. The main gel-forming components of mucus are mucins, large glycoproteins that play a key role in host defense. This study focuses on elucidating the connection between MUC5B salivary mucins and dental caries, one of the most common oral diseases. Dental caries is predominantly caused by Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Once S. mutans attaches to the tooth, it produces organic acids as metabolic by-products that dissolve tooth enamel, leading to cavity formation. We utilize CFU counts and fluorescence microscopy to quantitatively show that S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation are most robust in the presence of sucrose and that aqueous solutions of purified human MUC5B protect surfaces by acting as an antibiofouling agent in the presence of sucrose. In addition, we find that MUC5B does not alter S. mutans growth and decreases surface attachment and biofilm formation by maintaining S. mutans in the planktonic form. These insights point to the importance of salivary mucins in oral health and lead to a better understanding of how MUC5B could play a role in cavity prevention or diagnosis. PMID:25344244

  6. Is Helicobacter pylori resident or transient in the human oral cavity?

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, A; Kürschner, A; Weckesser, S; Wittmer, A; Rauberger, H; Jakob, T; Hellwig, E; Kist, M; Waidner, B

    2012-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of at least half of the world's human population. The role of the oral cavity in this colonization is not clear and there are, to date, no comprehensive data that clearly demonstrate the isolation of this bacterium from the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori in the oral cavity of 15 patients who tested positive for H. pylori. A comprehensive dental examination of all patients was conducted. Samples were taken from supragingival and subgingival plaque, saliva, periapical exudates and tongue swabs. All samples were taken before the application of antibiotics. A total of 163 oral samples were investigated by PCR using two different H. pylori-specific primer pairs. A PCR inhibition control using a modified plasmid was always included for the most specific primer pair. In addition, a culture technique was used to confirm PCR results. Despite a PCR detection limit of 10(2) bacteria ml(-1), out of 14 patients, H. pylori could not be detected in any of the samples taken. In one patient, H. pylori-positive PCR signals were obtained in two samples using only one primer pair. H. pylori could not be cultivated from these two PCR-positive samples; therefore, no correlation to oral colonization status could be established. This study challenges the misleading preconception that H. pylori resides in the human oral cavity and suggests that this bacterium should be considered transient and independent of the oral status. To date, positive PCR results for H. pylori in the oral cavity have been overestimated and not critically interpreted in literature.

  7. Pulmonary oedema of immersion.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Lepawsky, Michael; McKenzie, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema has been described in individuals participating in three aquatic activities: (i) scuba diving; (ii) breath-hold diving; and (iii) endurance swimming. In this review, 60 published cases have been compiled for comparison. Variables considered included: age; past medical history; activity; water depth, type (salt or fresh) and temperature; clinical presentation; investigations; management; and outcome. From these data, we conclude that a similar phenomenon is occurring among scuba, breath-hold divers and swimmers. The pathophysiology is likely a pulmonary overperfusion mechanism. High pulmonary capillary pressures lead to extravasation of fluid into the interstitium. This overperfusion is caused by the increase in ambient pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction from ambient cold, and increased pulmonary blood flow resulting from exercise. Affected individuals are typically healthy males and females. Older individuals may be at higher risk. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnoea, with haemoptysis also a frequent occurrence. Chest pain has never been reported. Radiography is the investigation of choice, demonstrating typical findings for pulmonary oedema. Management is supportive, with oxygen the mainstay of treatment. Cases usually resolve within 24 hours. In some cases, diuretics have been used, but there are no data as to their efficacy. Nifedipine has been used to prevent recurrence, but there is only anecdotal evidence to support its use.

  8. The ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Darve, Christine; Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Renard, Bertrand; Olivier, Gilles; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four elliptical Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules. An Elliptical Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

  9. The ESS spoke cavity cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Bousson, Sebastien; Duthil, Patxi; Reynet, Denis; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design and expected operation of the ESS spoke cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain two double spoke bulk Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 352.21 MHz. The superconducting section of the Spoke Linac accelerates the beam from 90 MeV to 220 MeV. A Spoke Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

  10. Coupling of an overdriven cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Garbin, H.D.

    1993-11-01

    It is well known that when a nuclear test is conducted in a sufficiently large cavity, the resulting seismic signal is sharply reduced when compared to a normal tamped event. Cavity explosions are of interest in the seismic verification community because of this possibility of reducing the seismic energy generated which can lower signal amplitudes and make detection difficult. Reduced amplitudes would also lower seismic yield estimates which has implications in a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT). In the past several years, there have been a number of nuclear tests at NTS (Nevada Test Site) inside hemispherical cavities. Two such tests were MILL YARD and MISTY ECHO which had instrumentation at the surface and in the free-field. These two tests differ in one important aspect. MILL YARD was completely decoupled i.e., the cavity wall behaved in an elastic manner. It was estimated that MILL YARD`s ground motion was reduced by a factor of at least 70. In contrast, MISTY ECHO was detonated in a hemispherical cavity with the same dimensions as MILL YARD, but with a much larger device yield. This caused an inelastic behavior on the wall and the explosion was not fully decoupled.

  11. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve. Some drug-induced lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, may never go away. ... Complications that may develop include: Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis Hypoxemia (low blood oxygen) Respiratory failure

  12. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that makes it difficult to empty air out of the lungs. This difficulty in ...

  13. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  14. Bacterial colonization of percutaneous sutures.

    PubMed

    Gristina, A G; Price, J L; Hobgood, C D; Webb, L X; Costerton, J W

    1985-07-01

    The direct electron microscopic examination of 15 sutures and 15 staples removed from 10 healed surgical wounds showed, on the intradermal portions, consistent colonization by bacteria growing in adherent biofilms. This clearly demonstrable bacterial colonization of biomaterials within the wound tract had not resulted in infection or perceptible inflammation in any of the wounds. These bacterial cells were of several morphotypes, including gram-positive cocci, and all specimens yielded cultures of the autochthonous (native) skin bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis. The bacteria within the wound tracts were enveloped by extracellular material that appeared on scanning electron microscopy to be a condensed amorphous residue and on transmission electron microscopy to be a fibrous extracellular matrix. We suggest that this mode of growth, in which the colonizing bacteria are enveloped in a copious exopolysaccharide glycocalix, protects the bacteria from host defense factors and accounts for their persistence on the suture surfaces until they are removed with the sutures.

  15. Physical stress and bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria--in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens--use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multilayered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion.

  16. Modelling pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

  17. Aging and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Selman, Moisés; Buendía-Roldán, Ivette; Pardo, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, and usually fatal lung disorder of unknown etiology. The disease likely results from the interaction of genetic susceptibility architecture, environmental factors such as smoking, and an abnormal epigenetic reprogramming that leads to a complex pathogenesis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis occurs in middle-aged and mainly elderly adults, and in this context age has emerged as its strongest risk factor. However, the mechanisms linking it to aging are uncertain. Recently, nine molecular and cellular hallmarks of aging have been proposed: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. In this review, we provide an overview of these molecular mechanisms and their involvement in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, while emphasizing that the studies on this disease are few and the findings are not definitive. PMID:27103043

  18. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

  19. Symptomatic pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, J; Mehta, J B; Taylor, R A; Byrd, R P; Roy, T M

    1998-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 37-year-old man came to the emergency room with left-sided dull chest pain of 4 weeks' duration. Physical examination, laboratory studies, and electrocardiogram were all unremarkable. A chest x-ray film revealed calcified pulmonary nodules. Computed tomography of the chest confirmed bilateral parenchymal cavitary lesions. Via limited thoracotomy, a tan nodule measuring 2.5 to 3.0 cm in diameter was excised from the left upper lobe. Histopathologic examination revealed a well circumscribed lesion and extensive lamellar hyalinization. A few foci of finely granular calcification were present within the hyalinizing areas. After surgery and short-term use of nonnarcotic analgesics, the chest pain resolved. Although pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is known to produce cavitating lesions, calcification at multiple sites is also consistent with this diagnosis. Clinicians should remember to include PHG in the differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules. PMID:9743062

  20. RRR Characteristics for SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yoochul; Hyun, Myungook; Joung, Mijoung

    2015-10-01

    The first heavy ion accelerator is being constructed by the rare isotope science project (RISP) launched by the Institute of Basic Science (IBS) in South Korea. Four different types of superconducting cavities were designed, and prototypes such as a quarter-wave resonator (QWR), a half-wave resonator (HWR) and a single-spoke resonator (SSR) were fabricated. One of the critical factors determining the performances of superconducting cavities is the residual resistance ratio (RRR). The RRR values essentially represent how pure niobium is and how fast niobium can transmit heat. In general, the RRR degrades during electron beam welding due to impurity incorporation. Thus, it is important to maintain the RRR above a certain value at which a niobium cavity shows target performance. In this study, RRR degradation related with electron beam welding conditions, for example, the welding power, welding speed, and vacuum level, will be discussed.

  1. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Yousem, S A; Hochholzer, L

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granulomas are distinct fibrosing lesions of lung, having central whorled deposits of lamellar collagen. Twenty-four cases of this unusual pulmonary lesion are reported herein. Hyalinizing granulomas occur in middle-aged persons and are frequently mistaken for metastatic carcinoma radiographically. More than half of the patients had autoimmune phenomena or previous exposures to mycobacterial or fungal antigens. Four patients had sclerosing mediastinitis develop. A progressive debilitating clinical course was related to increasing dyspnea and bilateral disease on chest radiographs. A discussion of the histogenesis and histologic differential diagnosis is presented. PMID:3799538

  2. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  3. Experimental cavity pressure distributions at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, Robert L., Jr.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to define pressure distributions for rectangular cavities over a range of free-stream Mach numbers and cavity dimensions. These pressure distributions together with schlieren photographs are used to define the critical values of cavity length-to-depth ratio that separate open type cavity flows from closed type cavity flows. For closed type cavity flow, the shear layer expands over the cavity leading edge and impinges on the cavity floor, whereas for open type cavity flow, the shear layer bridges the cavity. The tests were conducted by using a flat-plate model permitting the cavity length to be remotely varied from 0.5 to 12 in. Cavity depths and widths were varied from 0.5 to 2.5 in. The flat-plate boundary layer approaching the cavity was turbulent and had a thickness of approximately 0.2 in. at the cavity front face for the range of test Mach numbers from 1.5 to 2.86. Presented are a discussion of the results and a complete tabulation of the experimental data.

  4. All-fiber optic endoscope probe distal end for disease diagnosis in body cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukeshan, Vadakke M.; Sujatha, N.; Seah, Leong K.; Ong, Lin S.

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present the design of an endoscope probe, which can image the inner cavity walls as well as collect fluorescence emission from the same cavity inner surfaces, for disease diagnosis in body cavities. The probe makes use of a single coherent laser illumination / excitation source for both modalities. An imaging lens at the probe end collects the fluorescence emission as well as the image from the test surface. Two types of imaging lens are used in the probe and their fluorescence collection efficiencies and imaging capabilities are compared with each other. An eyepiece at the end of the probe directs the transmitted light into a CCD camera / Monochromator through selected filters to display the image / analyze the emission spectrum. The developed probe has been tested in a phantom colon model, where cancerous growths and fluorophores are simulated, so as to illustrate the probe diagnostic efficiency.

  5. Pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance relationship in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chemla, Denis; Lau, Edmund M T; Papelier, Yves; Attal, Pierre; Hervé, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Right ventricular adaptation to the increased pulmonary arterial load is a key determinant of outcomes in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total arterial compliance (C) quantify resistive and elastic properties of pulmonary arteries that modulate the steady and pulsatile components of pulmonary arterial load, respectively. PVR is commonly calculated as transpulmonary pressure gradient over pulmonary flow and total arterial compliance as stroke volume over pulmonary arterial pulse pressure (SV/PApp). Assuming that there is an inverse, hyperbolic relationship between PVR and C, recent studies have popularised the concept that their product (RC-time of the pulmonary circulation, in seconds) is "constant" in health and diseases. However, emerging evidence suggests that this concept should be challenged, with shortened RC-times documented in post-capillary PH and normotensive subjects. Furthermore, reported RC-times in the literature have consistently demonstrated significant scatter around the mean. In precapillary PH, the true PVR can be overestimated if one uses the standard PVR equation because the zero-flow pressure may be significantly higher than pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Furthermore, SV/PApp may also overestimate true C. Further studies are needed to clarify some of the inconsistencies of pulmonary RC-time, as this has major implications for our understanding of the arterial load in diseases of the pulmonary circulation.

  6. [Use of essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita) in the complex treatment of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Shkurupiĭ, V A; Odintsova, O A; Kazarinova, N V; Tkrachenko, K G

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil inhaled by patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis in the penitentiary system. This procedure is shown to be most effective in infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis in the phase of resorption of infiltrates and/or closure of decay cavities. The efficiency is determined by the rapid positive changes in a tuberculous process, which appear as a rapider regression of tuberculous inflammation, causing small residual changes. This procedure may be used to prevent recurrences and exacerbations of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. [Possible correlations between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Martos, Renáta; Márton, Ildikó

    2011-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex, multifactorial inflammatory disease of the airways and the pulmonary parenchyme, caused by infection, air pollution and particles. 4-7% of the adult population is involved. COPD is the 4th-6th common cause of death throughout the world. The main aetiological factor is smoking. Bacteria, such as bacteria from the oral cavity, could play a keyrole in the progression of the disease. Epidemiologic studies have noted a relationship between poor oral hygiene or periodontal bone loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The prevalence and mortality of the disease is increasing worldwide, the treatment is expensive, the efficiency of the present pharmacotherapy is poor, so the importance of prevention should be increasing. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prone to frequent exacerbations which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This review is a short summary of studies about the possible relationship between periodontitis and COPD. PMID:22039714

  8. [Immune complex glomerulonephritis associated with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Villar, I; Hernández, E; Cozzi, J; Paletta, C; Mathurín, S

    1994-01-01

    A 32 year old man was admitted for dyspnea, hemoptysis, macroscopic hematuria, hypertension (140/100), peripheral edema and hemodynamic decompensation. Lung Xrays revealed pulmonary edema and a cavity in the left apex. Laboratory determinations revealed an altered renal function with increased creatinine and urea levels and nephrotic syndrome. There was leucocyturia, hematuria and cylindruria. The sputum showed a large number of acid-fast bacilli. The patient began anti-tuberculosis treatment with three drugs (isoniacid, rifampicin, pirazinamide). On ultrasonography, both kidneys revealed ecogenic lesions with size, shape and cortico-medular relationship preserved. The patient persisted with altered renal function, steady levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine and potassium, preserved diuresis and hypertension. Bidimensional echocardiogram: LVDD 55 mm, hypoquinetic septum, pericardic effusion, thickened pericardium, pleural effusion, shortening fraction decreased. He received treatment for this congestive cardiac failure and hypertension with enalapril, nifedipine and fursemide. A percutaneous renal biopsy was performed with anatomopathologic diagnosis of diffuse encocapillar proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescents (15%) and total glomerular sclerosis (33%). Immunofluorescence: positive, immune-complexes with IgM and C3. The patient gradually recovered his normal renal function, improved his pleural effusions and normalized his cardiac function. He was discharged in good clinical condition on the 69th day of anti-tuberculosis treatment. An association between pulmonary tuberculosis and glomerulonephritis is discussed. It is proposed that renal lesions might be the consequence of the tuberculosis due to the sedimentation of circulating immune-complexes. PMID:7854090

  9. Pulmonary Balantidium coli infection in a leukemic patient.

    PubMed

    Anargyrou, K; Petrikkos, G L; Suller, M T E; Skiada, A; Siakantaris, M P; Osuntoyinbo, R T; Pangalis, G; Vaiopoulos, G

    2003-07-01

    A 59-year-old woman suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed pulmonary lesions; bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for possible systemic fungal infection. However, direct microscopic analysis revealed ciliated protozoa identified as Balantidium coli. B. coli is the only known pathogenic ciliate, and is usually associated with intestinal infection in areas associated with pig rearing. On very rare occasions the organisms may invade extra-intestinal organs, in this case the lungs of an immunocompromised patient. This case is unusual as balantidiasis is rare in Europe, the patient had no obvious contact with pigs, and there was no history of diarrhea prior to pulmonary colonization. Metronidazole was rapidly administered, and the condition improved after 24-48 hr. PMID:12827655

  10. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  11. Teaching about the Colonization of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate course, The Colonization of Space, which introduces nonscience majors at the University of North Florida to current topics in the exploration, industrialization, and colonization of space. References to the audiovisual resources and literature are also included. (HM)

  12. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  13. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2001-05-15

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  14. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  15. Progress on a Be Cavity Design

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Palmer, R.; Stratakis, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-12-24

    Previous RF experiments with normal-conducting cavities have demonstrated that there is a significant degradation in maximum gradient when the cavity is subjected to a strong axial magnetic field. We have developed a model suggesting that a cavity with beryllium walls may perform better than copper cavities. In this paper we outline the issues that led us to propose fabricating a Be-wall cavity. We also discuss a concept for fabricating such a cavity and mention some of the manufacturing issues we expect to face.

  16. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a healthy bacterial composition, known as your microflora. “Your microflora plays a crucial role in protecting your body ... potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing changes your microflora. “You may think you’re getting rid of ...

  17. Pulmonary hypertension and hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Téllez Villajos, L; Martínez González, J; Moreira Vicente, V; Albillos Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common phenomenon in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can appear through various mechanisms. The most characteristic scenario that binds portal and pulmonary hypertension is portopulmonary syndrome. However, hyperdynamic circulation, TIPS placement and heart failure can raise the mean pulmonary artery pressure without increasing the resistances. These conditions are not candidates for treatment with pulmonary vasodilators and require a specific therapy. A correct assessment of hemodynamic, ultrasound and clinical variables enables the differential diagnosis of each situation that produces pulmonary hypertension in patients with cirrhosis.

  18. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Review and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy utilizing PillCam COLON 2 capsule allows for visualization potentially of the entire colon and is currently approved for patients who cannot withstand the rigors of traditional optical colonoscopy (OC) and associated sedation as well as those that had an OC that was incomplete for technical reasons other than a poor preparation. We will then describe the prior experience and current status of colon capsule endoscopy. PMID:27698664

  19. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  20. Piezoelectric tunable microwave superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, N. C.; Fan, Y.; Tobar, M. E.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of engineered quantum systems, there is a demand for superconducting tunable devices, able to operate with high-quality factors at power levels equivalent to only a few photons. In this work, we developed a 3D microwave re-entrant cavity with such characteristics ready to provide a very fine-tuning of a high-Q resonant mode over a large dynamic range. This system has an electronic tuning mechanism based on a mechanically amplified piezoelectric actuator, which controls the resonator dominant mode frequency by changing the cavity narrow gap by very small displacements. Experiments were conducted at room and dilution refrigerator temperatures showing a large dynamic range up to 4 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively, and were compared to a finite element method model simulated data. At elevated microwave power input, nonlinear thermal effects were observed to destroy the superconductivity of the cavity due to the large electric fields generated in the small gap of the re-entrant cavity.

  1. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  2. ADPF spoke cavity cryomodule concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J. P.; Roybal, P. L.; La Fave, R. P.; Waynert, J. A.; Schrage, D. L.; Schmierer, E. N.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Garnett, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Driven Test Facility (ADTF) is being developed as a reactor concepts test bed for transmutation of nuclear waste. A 13.3 mA continuous-wave (CW) proton beam will be accelerated to 600 MeV and impinged on a spallation target. The subsequent neutron shower is used to create a nuclear reaction within a subcritical assembly of waste material that reduces the waste half-life from the order of 10{sup 5} years to 10{sup 2} years. Additionally, significant energy is produced that can be used to generate electrical power. The ADTF proton accelerator consists of room-temperature (RT) structures that accelerate the beam to 6.7-MeV and superconducting (SC) elements that boost the beam's energy to 600-MeV. Traditional SC elliptical cavities experience structural difficulties at low energies due to their geometry. Therefore, stiff-structured SC spoke cavities have been adopted for the energy range between 6.7 and 109 MeV. Elliptical cavities are used at the higher energies. This paper describes a multi-spoke-cavity cryomodule concept for ADTF.

  3. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  4. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A; Rasmussen, S L; Campbell, T M; Lester, W M

    1984-01-01

    An elderly man had a 10-year history of multiple pulmonary nodules that he had refused to have investigated. He died of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. At autopsy the nodules were shown to consist of amyloid. There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6744167

  5. [Pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Ohmichi, M; Hiraga, Y; Hirasawa, M

    1990-01-01

    We reported about intrathoracic changes and prognosis of 686 patients with sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital between 1963 and 1988. We evaluated CT findings in 135 patients with sarcoidosis and found pulmonary involvements in 81. We analyzed CT findings according to the classification by Tuengerthal which classified radiographic findings combining ILO classification of pneumoconiosis and characteristic findings of bronchovascular sheath with sarcoidosis. The CT findings were as follows: small opacities (44 out of 81 cases, 54.3%), large opacities (37 cases, 46.7%). Additional findings were as follows: peribronchial marking (42 cases, 51.9%), contraction (17 cases, 21.0%), pleural involvement (9 cases, 11.1%), bulla (5 cases, 6.2%). The characteristic CT findings of serious sarcoidosis were extasis of bronchus, thickening of the bronchial wall, unclearness of vascular shadow, atelectasis and thickening of pleura. Concerning the prognosis of pulmonary involvement, according to age, patients younger than 30 years old at initial diagnosis were better than those of 30 years and over in terms of disappearance of pulmonary involvements. According to stage, patients of stage I and stage II were better than those of stage III. Among the patients we were able to observe chest X-ray findings during five years according to the character of shadow, ill-defined shadow of small opacities and rounded shadows of large opacities had a higher disappearance rate of pulmonary involvements than irregular shadows of large opacities, atelectasis and contraction.

  6. [Multiple pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma].

    PubMed

    Haro, M; Ruiz, J; Vila, X; Avellanet, M; Izquierdo, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of multiple pulmonary nodules are many, with metastasis being the most feared. A rare but possible etiology, however, is hyalinizing multiple granuloma. We present a case that allows us to review this condition and its course, as well as a variety of associated immunological changes and possible complications. PMID:8087395

  7. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma].

    PubMed

    Westhoff, M; Litterst, P; Albert, M; Welim, B

    2015-01-01

    Benign lesions as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma may mimic a malign disease. A 63-year old patient complained dyspnea and a weight loss of 30 kg. CT-thorax scans showed a destructive and infiltrative pulmonary process with pleural thickening. Histologic examination of transbronchial and transthoracic biopsies as well as of biopsies taken by minithoracotomy was not conclusive. Due to further progression the patient underwent a left-sided pleuropneumonectomy despite a VO2 peak of 9 ml/kg/min. Histology revealed DIP-like infiltrations, a histiocytic reaction and hyaline granulomas. Among less than 100 published cases of pulmonary hyaline granuloma a comparable rapid progression with a total functional loss of the affected lung is not reported. Mostly hyalinizing granuloma presents with infiltrations, which may mimic lung cancer, or nodular lesions, partly with cavitations or calcifications. The etiology is unknown, a persistent immunologic response to an antigenic stimulus is discussed. Associations with infections, lymphomas, amyloidosis or IgG4-related disease are reported. Some cases have features of multifocal fibrosis. In the case reported none of these associations could be found. The prognosis of pulmonary hyaline granuloma is regarded as benign. There is no effective treatment yet. Once the diagnosis has been established a conservative approach as well as a resection of nodules and a therapeutic attempt with steroids are an option. Extensive resections as pleuropneumonectomy are an exception. PMID:25599140

  8. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Maijub, A G; Giltman, L I; Verner, J L; Peace, R J

    1985-03-01

    We describe a recent case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting classically in a young black American female. The diagnosis was made by histopathologic examination. The etiology of this entity remains elusive, however, an abnormal response involving the immune system to an undefined agent (or agents) is the most likely explanation. PMID:3977139

  9. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  10. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Shumaila; El Damati, Ahmed; El Baz, Ayman; Alsayyah, Ahmed; ElSharkawy, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is a rare disease. Herein, we report a case of PPHL with diagnostic concerns encountered during initial evaluation which is of paramount importance to keep the differential diagnosis in cases with high index of suspicion for this rare entity. PMID:26788271

  11. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  12. A Case of Acinetobacter Septic Pulmonary Embolism in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Ananthan, Anitha; David, Jane; Ghildiyal, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Case Characteristics. An 11-month-old girl presented with fever and breathlessness for 5 days. Patient had respiratory distress with bilateral coarse crepitations. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse infiltrations in the right lung with thick walled cavities in mid and lower zone. Computed tomography showed multiple cystic spaces and emboli. Blood culture grew Acinetobacter species. Intervention. Patient was treated with Meropenem and Vancomycin. Outcome. Complete clinical and radiological recovery was seen in child. Message. Blood cultures and CT of the chest are invaluable in the evaluation of a patient with suspected septic pulmonary embolism. With early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, complete recovery can be expected in patients with septic pulmonary embolism. PMID:27529040

  13. Pulmonary carcinoma in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rettenmund, Christy; Sladky, Kurt K; Rodriguez, Daniel; Petersen, Michael; Pinkerton, Marie E; Rao, Deepa

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary carcinoma was diagnosed in an 18+-year-old captive female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). The owl presented with a history of progressive weakness and sudden onset of frank blood in the droppings. On physical examination, the owl had multiple white to yellow plaques in the oral cavity, decreased air sac sounds on the right side, dyspnea (during manual restraint), and reduced pectoral musculature. Whole-body radiographs revealed obliteration of the right-sided air sacs, a soft tissue plaque/density in the left caudal thoracic air sac, soft tissue opacity over the coelomic organs, and increased medullary opacity in the distal right humerus. The owl died during anesthetic recovery, and the body was submitted for necropsy. Although the clinical signs, physical examination results, radiographic signs, and gross pathology supported a diagnosis of mycotic infection, such as aspergillosis, histopathology confirmed pulmonary carcinoma with metastases to the air sacs and humerus. PMID:20722257

  14. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759

  15. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is a... restorative materials. The device is intended to prevent penetration of restorative materials, such as...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is a... restorative materials. The device is intended to prevent penetration of restorative materials, such as...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is a... restorative materials. The device is intended to prevent penetration of restorative materials, such as...

  18. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  19. Oral cavity contains distinct niches with dynamic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; He, Jinzhi; Xue, Jing; Wang, Yan; Li, Kun; Zhang, Keke; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Xianghong; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Li, Yan; Shi, Wenyuan; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-03-01

    Microbes colonize human oral surfaces within hours after delivery. During postnatal development, physiological changes, such as the eruption of primary teeth and replacement of the primary dentition with permanent dentition, greatly alter the microbial habitats, which, in return, may lead to community composition shifts at different phases in people's lives. By profiling saliva, supragingival and mucosal plaque samples from healthy volunteers at different ages and dentition stages, we observed that the oral cavity is a highly heterogeneous ecological system containing distinct niches with significantly different microbial communities. More importantly, the phylogenetic microbial structure varies with ageing. In addition, only a few taxa were present across the whole populations, indicating a core oral microbiome should be defined based on age and oral niches. PMID:24800728

  20. Understanding cavity resonances with intracavity dispersion properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Jiteng; Wu Haibin; Mumba, M.; Gea-Banacloche, J.; Xiao Min

    2011-02-15

    We experimentally study the strongly coupled three-level atom-cavity system at both cavity and coupling frequency detuning cases. Side peak splitting and anti-crossing-like phenomena are observed under different experimental conditions. Intracavity dispersion properties are used to explain qualitatively the complicated cavity resonance structures in the composite system of inhomogeneously broadened three-level atoms inside an optical ring cavity with relatively strong driving intensities.

  1. Transverse Colon Diverticulitis with Calcified Fecalith

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Solak, Ilhami; Genç, Berhan; Sahin, Neslin; Yalaz, Seyhan

    2013-01-01

    Left colonic diverticula are common in Western populations, whereas right colonic diverticulosis primarily occurs in Oriental populations. Diverticulitis of the transverse colon is very rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of transverse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone in a 69-year-old female. This was a solitary diverticulum. The signs and symptoms of the disease are similar to acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI findings of a patient with trans-verse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone. PMID:25610254

  2. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  3. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  4. [PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS FOR SEVERE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Fedorkiv, M B

    2015-06-01

    Increased of proinflammatory cytokines levels, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on severe acute pancreatitis causes vasodilatation, increased permeability of the wall, accumulation of fluid in lung tissue and pleural sinuses. Transudate from acute parapancreatyc clusters of hot liquid and abdomen falls into the chest cavity through microscopic defects in the diaphragm due to the formation of pathological pleural-peritoneal connections or the relevant pressure gradient between the abdominal and pleural cavities. Remediation and removal of acute parapancreatyc clusters combined with the use of a multicomponent drug infusion therapy Cytoflavin provide a reduction in the frequency of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis from 48.3 to 31.0%. Use of the drug Cytoflavin reduces the severity of endogenous intoxication and mortality from acute lung injury from 12.9 to 6.1%. PMID:26521460

  5. Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

  6. Power coupler for the ILC crab cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Jenkins, R.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Bellantoni, Leo; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The ILC crab cavity will require the design of an appropriate power coupler. The beam-loading in dipole mode cavities is considerably more variable than accelerating cavities, hence simulations have been performed to establish the required external Q. Simulations of a suitable coupler were then performed and were verified using a normal conducting prototype with variable coupler tips.

  7. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and deposited these data in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject: PRJNA248297). In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects. The nasal cavity bacterial communities were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria and were statistically distinct from those on the tongue and buccal mucosa. For example, the same Staphylococcaceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was present in all of the nasal cavity samples, comprising up to 55% of the community, but Staphylococcaceae was comparatively uncommon in the oral cavity. Conclusions There are clear differences between nasal cavity microbiota and oral cavity microbiota in healthy adults. This study expands our knowledge of the nasal cavity microbiota and the relationship between the microbiota of the nasal and oral cavities. PMID:25143824

  8. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cavity varnish. 872.3260 Section 872.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cavity varnish. 872.3260 Section 872.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is...

  10. Septic Pulmonary Embolism Requiring Critical Care: Clinicoradiological Spectrum, Causative Pathogens and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Deng-Wei; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chung, Kuo-Mou; Han, Shu-Chen; Cheung, Bruno Man-Hon

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome developed in 85% of the patients, and acute respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (75%). The most common computed tomographic findings included a feeding vessel sign (90%), peripheral nodules without cavities (80%) or with cavities (65%), and peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (75%). The most common primary source of infection was liver abscess (40%), followed by pneumonia (25%). The two most frequent causative pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (50%) and Staphylococcus aureus (35%). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly higher serum creatinine, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and they were significantly more likely to have acute kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and lung abscesses. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30%. Pneumonia was the most common cause of death, followed by liver abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care, especially those with pneumonia and liver abscess, are associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention and respiratory support are essential. PMID:27759843

  11. Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

  12. Absence of Pneumocystis jirovecii Colonization in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals With and Without Airway Obstruction and With Undetectable Viral Load.

    PubMed

    Ronit, Andreas; Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Kildemoes, Anna Overgaard; Benfield, Thomas; Gerstoft, Jan; Vestbo, Jørgen; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization has been associated with non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pulmonary comorbidity. We used spirometry to measure pulmonary function and analyzed oral wash specimens by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), targeting the large mitochondrial ribosomal subunit. For sensitivity control, a blinded subsample was subjected to touch-down PCRs, targeting both large and small ribosomal subunits and the major surface glycoprotein. Pneumocystis jirovecii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 1 of 156 (95% confidence interval, .1%-3.5%) virologically suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals confirmed by all PCR methods. Thus, prevalence of P jirovecii colonization was low and unlikely to be a major cause of pulmonary comorbidity in this group of well treated HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27006967

  13. Volumetric Colon Wall Unfolding Using Harmonic Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie; Gu, Xianfeng David

    2011-01-01

    Volumetric colon wall unfolding is a novel method for virtual colon analysis and visualization with valuable applications in virtual colonoscopy (VC) and computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. A volumetrically unfolded colon enables doctors to visualize the entire colon structure without occlusions due to haustral folds, and is critical for performing efficient and accurate texture analysis on the volumetric colon wall. Though conventional colon surface flattening has been employed for these uses, volumetric colon unfolding offers the advantages of providing the needed quantities of information with needed accuracy. This work presents an efficient and effective volumetric colon unfolding method based on harmonic differentials. The colon volumes are reconstructed from CT images and are represented as tetrahedral meshes. Three harmonic 1-forms, which are linearly independent everywhere, are computed on the tetrahedral mesh. Through integration of the harmonic 1-forms, the colon volume is mapped periodically to a canonical cuboid. The method presented is automatic, simple, and practical. Experimental results are reported to show the performance of the algorithm on real medical datasets. Though applied here specifically to the colon, the method is general and can be generalized for other volumes. PMID:21765563

  14. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is

  15. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli. PMID:26562990

  16. Pulmonary Strongyloidiasis Masquerading as Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Gourahari; Behera, Priyadarshini; Bhuniya, Sourin; Mohapatra, Prasanta Raghab; Turuk, Jyotirmayee; Mohanty, Srujana

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary strongyloidiasis is an uncommon presentation of Strongyloides infection, usually seen in immunocompromised hosts. The manifestations are similar to that of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, the diagnosis of pulmonary strongyloidiasis could be challenging in a COPD patient, unless a high index of suspicion is maintained. Here, we present a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection in a COPD patient mimicking acute exacerbation, who was on chronic steroid therapy. PMID:27790284

  17. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  18. A micropillar for cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2014-12-04

    Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

  19. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  20. Mold colonization of fiberglass insulation of the air distribution system: effects on patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Takahiro; Okada, Kaoru; Yamagata, Akihiro; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Niki, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    We investigated mold colonization of air handling units (AHUs) of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and its effects, including invasive pulmonary mycoses and febrile neutropenia, in patients with hematological malignancies. Sample collection with transparent adhesive tape and culture swabs revealed that AHUs were heavily colonized with molds, including thermotolerant, variously distributed Penicillium spp. Cases of nosocomial invasive pulmonary mycosis were not clustered in specific patient rooms but did occur frequently when the HVAC systems were not in use, prior to intervention (i.e., sealing and disuse of AHUs in private room), and during construction of a new hospital building. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of initial episodes of febrile neutropenia showed that the rate of febrile neutropenia was significantly associated with the duration of neutropenia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.27) and with sex (OR: 0.469; CI: 0.239-0.902). An evaluation of private rooms showed that female patients also had a lower rate of fever after intervention (OR: 0.0016; 95% CI: 0.000-0.209). The reduced rate of febrile neutropenia after intervention suggests that mold colonization of AHUs had adverse effects on patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:20807030

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that is precipitated by hypertrophic pulmonary vascular remodeling of distal arterioles to increase pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in the absence of left heart, lung parenchymal, or thromboembolic disease. Despite available medical therapy, pulmonary artery remodeling and its attendant hemodynamic consequences result in right ventricular dysfunction, failure, and early death. To limit morbidity and mortality, attention has focused on identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant pulmonary artery remodeling to identify pathways for intervention. While there is a well-recognized heritable genetic component to PAH, there is also evidence of other genetic perturbations, including pulmonary vascular cell DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response, and variations in microRNA expression. These findings likely contribute, in part, to dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways akin to what is observed in cancer; changes in cellular metabolism, metabolic flux, and mitochondrial function; and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as key signaling pathways that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. This review will highlight recent advances in the field with an emphasis on the aforementioned molecular mechanisms as contributors to the pulmonary vascular disease pathophenotype. PMID:27213345

  2. Subpleural pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun; Kim, Jo Heon; Kim, Young Chul

    2007-08-01

    We introduce a case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presented as a solitary pulmonary nodule located subpleurally. The patient was a 57-year-old man who had abnormal chest roentgenograms showing a solitary pulmonary nodule in the right lower lung field. The nodule was resected for definitive diagnosis and histopathologically proved to be pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. In previously reported cases, most patients had ill-defined margins and usually bilateral, multiple lesions radiographically. In our case, the subpleural location is an uncommon location of this rare entity. PMID:17762348

  3. Occult pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis presenting as 'chronic cough' with a normal HRCT chest

    PubMed Central

    Jinnur, Praveen K.; Pannu, Bibek S.; Boland, Jennifer M.; Iyer, Vivek N.

    2016-01-01

    A diagnosis of ‘chronic cough’ (CC) requires the exclusion of sinister pulmonary pathology, including infection and malignancy. We present a patient with a 3 month history of CC who had an extensive workup including a normal high resolution computed tomography of the chest (HRCT) 6 weeks prior to consultation at our center. He subsequently developed constitutional symptoms including weight loss and loss of appetite 5 weeks after initial consultation. A repeat HRCT chest and a subsequent whole body PET scan found that he had developed extensive pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC) from a colon primary. Treatment of the colon cancer resulted in significant decrease in metastatic disease burden and cough resolution. PLC is a very rare cause of ‘chronic cough’ and incipient/occult PLC presenting with chronic cough and a normal initial HRCT chest has not been previously reported. PMID:26958342

  4. Occult pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis presenting as 'chronic cough' with a normal HRCT chest.

    PubMed

    Jinnur, Praveen K; Pannu, Bibek S; Boland, Jennifer M; Iyer, Vivek N

    2016-03-01

    A diagnosis of 'chronic cough' (CC) requires the exclusion of sinister pulmonary pathology, including infection and malignancy. We present a patient with a 3 month history of CC who had an extensive workup including a normal high resolution computed tomography of the chest (HRCT) 6 weeks prior to consultation at our center. He subsequently developed constitutional symptoms including weight loss and loss of appetite 5 weeks after initial consultation. A repeat HRCT chest and a subsequent whole body PET scan found that he had developed extensive pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC) from a colon primary. Treatment of the colon cancer resulted in significant decrease in metastatic disease burden and cough resolution. PLC is a very rare cause of 'chronic cough' and incipient/occult PLC presenting with chronic cough and a normal initial HRCT chest has not been previously reported. PMID:26958342

  5. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  6. [Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Popper, H H

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is regarded as a reactive proliferation of the dendritic Langerhans cell population stimulated by chronic tobacco-derived plant proteins due to incomplete combustion but can also occur in childhood as a tumor-like systemic disease. Currently, both these forms cannot be morphologically distinguished. In the lungs a nodular proliferation of Langerhans cells occurs in the bronchial mucosa and also peripherally in the alveolar septa with an accompanying infiltration by eosinophilic granulocytes and destruction of the bronchial wall. Langerhans cells can be selectively detected with antibodies against CD1a and langerin. In the reactive isolated pulmonary form, abstinence from tobacco smoking in most patients leads to regression of infiltration and improvement of symptoms. In high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) the small star-like scars can still be detected even after complete cessation of tobacco smoking.

  7. Optomechanic interactions in phoxonic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Oudich, Mourad; Pennec, Yan; El-Jallal, Said

    2014-12-15

    Phoxonic crystals are periodic structures exhibiting simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps, thus allowing the confinement of both excitations in the same cavity. The phonon-photon interaction can be enhanced due to the overlap of both waves in the cavity. In this paper, we discuss some of our recent theoretical works on the strength of the optomechanic coupling, based on both photoelastic and moving interfaces mechanisms, in different (2D, slabs, strips) phoxonic crystals cavities. The cases of two-dimensional infinite and slab structures will enable us to mention the important role of the symmetry and degeneracy of the modes, as well as the role of the materials whose photoelastic constants can be wavelength dependent. Depending on the phonon-photon pair, the photoelastic and moving interface mechanisms can contribute in phase or out-of-phase. Then, the main part of the paper will be devoted to the optomechanic interaction in a corrugated nanobeam waveguide exhibiting dual phononic/photonic band gaps. Such structures can provide photonic modes with very high quality factor, high frequency phononic modes of a few GHz inside a gap and optomechanical coupling rate reaching a few MHz.

  8. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  9. Controlled directional scattering cavity for tubular absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1982-01-01

    A specular cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity is provided with a series of V groove-like indentations (or pyramidal-type indentations) which redirect energy entering between the receiver and cavity structure onto the receiver. The aperture opening of each V groove is less than half the cavity opening and in most preferred embodiments, much less than half. This enables the optical receiver to be emplaced a distance g from the cavity wherein 0.414r

  10. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.; Jackaway, Adam D.

    2000-05-16

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  11. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  12. Acoustic cavity technology for high performance injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of damping more than one mode of rocket engine combustion instability by means of differently tuned acoustic cavities sharing a common entrance was shown. Analytical procedures and acoustic modeling techniques for predicting the stability behavior of acoustic cavity designs in hot firings were developed. Full scale testing of various common entrance, dual cavity configurations, and subscale testing for the purpose of obtaining motion pictures of the cavity entrance region, to aid in determining the mechanism of cavity damping were the two major aspects of the program.

  13. [Neonatal pulmonary fibrosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Desrousseaux, B; Gourdin, C; Atat, I; Podvin, A; Vix, M; Dusol, F; Bayart, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of pulmonary fibrosarcoma in a newborn. The respiratory distress imposed an urgent thoracotomy at the fifth hour of live. A lobectomy was performed. Three months later a relapse occurred. A second thoracotomy permitted an incomplete resection. The total involution was achieved after 6 months of chemotherapy. Actually no recidive is shown after 20 months of follow up. Its an exceptional case. A unique one was published in 1977. PMID:2698289

  14. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  15. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  16. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Wu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed. PMID:20054434

  17. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective testing for pulmonary embolism is necessary, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. No single test has ideal properties (100% sensitivity and specificity, no risk, low cost). Pulmonary angiography is regarded as the final arbiter but is ill suited for diagnosing a disease present in only a third of patients in whom it is suspected. Some tests are good for confirmation and some for exclusion of embolism; others are able to do both but are often non-diagnostic. For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial test should be guided by clinical assessment of the likelihood of embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. Standardised clinical estimates can be used to give a pre-test probability to assess, after appropriate objective testing, the post-test probability of embolism. Multidetector computed tomography can replace both scintigraphy and angiography for the exclusion and diagnosis of this disease and should now be considered the central imaging investigation in suspected pulmonary embolism. PMID:15192162

  18. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Smith, J. D.A.; Rimmer, R.; Wang, H.; Delayen, J.; Calaga, R.

    2009-05-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme but the frequency cannot be increased any higher due to the long bunch length of the LHC beam. This will require a novel compact crab cavity design. A superconducting version of a two rod coaxial deflecting cavity as a suitable design is proposed in this paper.

  19. Control of Cavity Resonance Using Oscillatory Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarfe, Alison Lamp; Chokani, Ndaona

    2000-01-01

    The near-zero net mass oscillatory blowing control of a subsonic cavity flow has been experimentally investigated. An actuator was designed and fabricated to provide both steady and oscillatory blowing over a range of blowing amplitudes and forcing frequencies. The blowing was applied just upstream of the cavity front Wall through interchangeable plate configurations These configurations enabled the effects of hole size, hole shape, and blowing angle to be examined. A significant finding is that in terms of the blowing amplitude, the near zero net mass oscillatory blowing is much more effective than steady blowing; momentum coefficients Lip two orders of magnitude smaller than those required for steady blowing are sufficient to accomplish the same control of cavity resonance. The detailed measurements obtained in the experiment include fluctuating pressure data within the cavity wall, and hot-wire measurements of the cavity shear layer. Spectral and wavelet analysis techniques are applied to understand the dynamics and mechanisms of the cavity flow with control. The oscillatory blowing, is effective in enhancing the mixing in the cavity shear layer and thus modifying the feedback loop associated with the cavity resonance. The nonlinear interactions in the cavity flow are no longer driven by the resonant cavity modes but by the forcing associated with the oscillatory blowing. The oscillatory blowing does not suppress the mode switching behavior of the cavity flow, but the amplitude modulation is reduced.

  20. Actinomyces--gathering evidence of human colonization and infection.

    PubMed

    Hall, Val

    2008-02-01

    The roles of the 'classical'Actinomyces spp. as colonizers of oral cavities of man and animals, in development of intra-oral infections and as agents of actinomycosis have been well documented. This mini-review focuses on perceptions of human colonization and infection that have emerged in the past decade, largely as a result of advances in classification, identification and direct detection from clinical material. Arguably, of the greatest importance is the recognition of actinomycosis as a major factor and indicator of poor prognosis in both infected osteoradionecrosis and bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Among recently described species, Actinomyces graevenitzii has been isolated almost exclusively from oral and respiratory sites and may be a causative agent of actinomycosis. Conversely, several other Actinomyces spp. are isolated commonly from superficial soft tissue infections. Members of the genus Actinobaculum, which is closely related to Actinomyces, are strongly associated with urosepsis. Isolation and identification of Actinomyces and related genera by conventional methods remain difficult. Diagnosis is commonly belated and based solely upon histological findings. Development of direct detection methods may aid patient management and further elucidate clinical associations.

  1. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases.

  2. Ultrasound for the Pulmonary Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Chichra, Astha; Makaryus, Mina; Chaudhri, Parag; Narasimhan, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos. PMID:27398039

  3. Shape Determination for Deformed Electromagnetic Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, Volkan; Ko, Kwok; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zhenghai; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2007-12-10

    The measured physical parameters of a superconducting cavity differ from those of the designed ideal cavity. This is due to shape deviations caused by both loose machine tolerances during fabrication and by the tuning process for the accelerating mode. We present a shape determination algorithm to solve for the unknown deviations from the ideal cavity using experimentally measured cavity data. The objective is to match the results of the deformed cavity model to experimental data through least-squares minimization. The inversion variables are unknown shape deformation parameters that describe perturbations of the ideal cavity. The constraint is the Maxwell eigenvalue problem. We solve the nonlinear optimization problem using a line-search based reduced space Gauss-Newton method where we compute shape sensitivities with a discrete adjoint approach. We present two shape determination examples, one from synthetic and the other from experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is very effective in determining the deformed cavity shape.

  4. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2010-05-23

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  5. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall,G. Burt,C. Lingwood,Robert Rimmer,Haipeng Wang; Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Lingwood, C.; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2010-05-01

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  6. Scaled experiments of explosions in cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, J.; Cranch, G. A.; Lunsford, R.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Weaver, J.; Dunlop, W.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-05-01

    Consequences of an explosion inside an air-filled cavity under the earth's surface are partly duplicated in a laboratory experiment on spatial scales 1000 smaller. The experiment measures shock pressures coupled into a block of material by an explosion inside a gas-filled cavity therein. The explosion is generated by suddenly heating a thin foil that is located near the cavity center with a short laser pulse, which turns the foil into expanding plasma, most of whose energy drives a blast wave in the cavity gas. Variables in the experiment are the cavity radius and explosion energy. Measurements and GEODYN code simulations show that shock pressures measured in the block exhibit a weak dependence on scaled cavity radius up to ˜25 m/kt1/3, above which they decrease rapidly. Possible mechanisms giving rise to this behavior are described. The applicability of this work to validating codes used to simulate full-scale cavity explosions is discussed.

  7. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Treated? Doctors may prescribe medicines, oxygen therapy , pulmonary ... PR), and lung transplant to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medicines Currently, no medicines are proven to ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary pulmonary hypertension 2 Primary pulmonary hypertension 3 Primary pulmonary hypertension 4 ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (4 links) ...

  9. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management. PMID:26949600

  10. Imaging of congenital pulmonary malformations.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Francesco Emanuele; Corrado, Michele; Della Casa, Giovanni; Parziale, Raffaele; Russo, Giuseppe; Gazzani, Silvia Eleonora; Rossi, Enrica; Borgia, Daniele; Mostardi, Maurizio; Bacchini, Emanuele; Cella, Simone; De Filippo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary malformations represent a broad spectrum of anomalies that may result in varied clinical and pathologic pictures, ranging from recurrent pulmonary infections and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which require timely drug therapy, up to large space-occupying lesions needing surgical treatment. This classification includes three distinct anatomical and pathological entities, represented by Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation, Bronchopulmonary Sequestration and Congenital Lobar Emphysema. The final result in terms of embryological and fetal development of these alterations is a Congenital Lung Hypoplasia. Since even Bronchial Atresia, Pulmonary Bronchogenic Cysts and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias are due to Pulmonary Hypoplasia, these diseases will be discussed in this review (1, 2). PMID:27467867

  11. Chronic idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Magdi H.; Thompson, Vernon C.

    1971-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis is a condition related to mediastinal fibrosis, characterized by localization of the fibrosing process to one or both pulmonary hila. This results in pulmonary hypertension and bronchial narrowing. Three patients suffering from this disease, in whom the diagnosis has been confirmed by thoracotomy, are reported. The clinical and pathological features are described and previously reported cases are reviewed. The syndrome is classified into two types, according to whether the obstruction affects mainly the pulmonary artery or veins. The disease is a self-limiting one but may lead to organic changes in the lungs causing severe disability. Images PMID:5565782

  12. Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenehan, Sean Michael

    The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent experiments utilizing the optomechanical interaction to cool mechanical resonators to their motional quantum ground state allow for a variety of quantum engineering applications, including preparation of non-classical mechanical states and coherent optical to microwave conversion. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs), in which bandgaps for both optical and mechanical waves can be introduced through patterning of a material, provide one particularly attractive means for realizing strong interactions between high-frequency mechanical resonators and near-infrared light. Beyond the usual paradigm of cavity optomechanics involving isolated single mechanical elements, OMCs can also be fashioned into planar circuits for photons and phonons, and arrays of optomechanical elements can be interconnected via optical and acoustic waveguides. Such coupled OMC arrays have been proposed as a way to realize quantum optomechanical memories, nanomechanical circuits for continuous variable quantum information processing and phononic quantum networks, and as a platform for engineering and studying quantum many-body physics of optomechanical meta-materials. However, while ground state occupancies (that is, average phonon occupancies less than one) have been achieved in OMC cavities utilizing laser cooling techniques, parasitic absorption and the concomitant degradation of the mechanical quality factor fundamentally limit this approach. On the other hand, the high

  13. Systemic and Pulmonary Vascular Remodelling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Esquerre, Mariana; López-Sánchez, Marta; Escobar, Ignacio; Huertas, Daniel; Penín, Rosa; Molina-Molina, María; Manresa, Frederic; Dorca, Jordi; Santos, Salud

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with subclinical systemic atherosclerosis and pulmonary vascular remodelling characterized by intimal hyperplasia and luminal narrowing. We aimed to determine differences in the intimal thickening of systemic and pulmonary arteries in COPD subjects and smokers. Secondary aims include comparisons with a non-smokers group; determining the clinical variables associated with systemic and pulmonary intimal thickening, and the correlations between systemic and pulmonary remodelling changes. Methods All consecutive subjects undergoing lung resection were included and divided into 3 groups: 1) COPD, 2) smokers, and 3) non-smokers. Sections of the 5th intercostal artery and muscular pulmonary arteries were measured by histo-morphometry. Four parameters of intimal thickening were evaluated: 1) percentage of intimal area (%IA), 2) percentage of luminal narrowing, 3) intimal thickness index, and 4) intima-to-media ratio. Results In the adjusted analysis, the systemic arteries of COPD subjects showed greater intimal thickening (%IA) than those of smokers (15.6±1.5% vs. 14.2±1.6%, p = 0.038). In the pulmonary arteries, significant differences were observed for %IA between the 2 groups (37.3±2.2% vs. 29.3±2.3%, p = 0.016). Among clinical factors, metabolic syndrome, gender and COPD status were associated with the systemic intimal thickening, while only COPD status was associated with pulmonary intimal thickening. A correlation between the %IA of the systemic and pulmonary arteries was observed (Spearman’s rho = 0.46, p = 0.008). Conclusions Greater intimal thickening in systemic and pulmonary arteries is observed in COPD patients than in smokers. There is a correlation between systemic and pulmonary vascular remodelling in the overall population. PMID:27046203

  14. Pulmonary Thromboembolism: Evaluation By Intravenous Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Gerald D.; Cook, Glenn C.; Woolfenden, James M.; Dodge, Russell R.

    1981-11-01

    Using perfusion lung scans as a guide, digital video subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries was performed in human subjects suspected of having pulmonary embolism. Dogs were employed as a pulmonary embolism model and both routine pulmonary angiography and intravenous pulmonary angiograms were obtained for comparison purposes. We have shown by our preliminary results that the technique is extremely promising as a safe and accurate alternative to routine pulmonary angiography in selected patients.

  15. Severe Pulmonary Arteriopathy Is Associated with Persistent Hypoxemia after Pulmonary Endarterectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ishida, Keiichi; Naito, Akira; Kato, Fumiaki; Takeuchi, Takao; Sekine, Ayumi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Masuda, Masahisa; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by occlusion of pulmonary arteries by organized chronic thrombi. Persistent hypoxemia and residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) following successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) are clinically important problems; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously reported that residual PH is closely related to severe pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypothesize that this arteriopathy might also be involved in impaired gas exchange. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hypoxemia and pulmonary arteriopathy after PEA. Methods and Results Between December 2011 and November 2014, 23 CTEPH patients underwent PEA and lung biopsy. The extent of pulmonary arteriopathy was quantified pathologically in lung biopsy specimens. We then analyzed the relationship between the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy and gas exchange after PEA. We observed that the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was negatively correlated with postoperative and follow-up PaO2 (postoperative PaO2: r = -0.73, p = 0.0004; follow-up PaO2: r = -0.66, p = 0.001), but not with preoperative PaO2 (r = -0.373, p = 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed that the obstruction ratio and patient age were determinants of PaO2 one month after PEA (R2 = 0.651, p = 0.00009). Furthermore, the obstruction ratio and improvement of pulmonary vascular resistance were determinants of PaO2 at follow-up (R2 = 0.545, p = 0.0002). Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and impair diffusion capacity, resulting in hypoxemia following PEA. Conclusion The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was closely associated with postoperative and follow-up hypoxemia. PMID:27571267

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Dayane de Melo; Kipnis, André; Leão-Vasconcelos, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; Rocha-Vilefort, Larissa Oliveira; Telles, Sheila Araújo; André, Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borges; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; Ribeiro, Nádia Ferreira Gonçalves; Pereira, Mayara Regina; Prado-Palos, Marinésia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking. PMID:25477910

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital.

    PubMed

    Costa, Dayane de Melo; Kipnis, André; Leão-Vasconcelos, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; Rocha-Vilefort, Larissa Oliveira; Telles, Sheila Araújo; André, Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borges; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; Ribeiro, Nádia Ferreira Gonçalves; Pereira, Mayara Regina; Prado-Palos, Marinésia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking. PMID:25477910

  18. Localised pulmonary metastatic calcification associated with pulmonary artery obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, J; Tomashefski, J F

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic pulmonary calcification, a complication of uraemia and disordered calcium metabolism, may be diffuse or localised. The factors that determine calcium precipitation are complex, but tissue alkalosis is thought to be important. As obstruction of the pulmonary artery theoretically causes local alkalosis a retrospective necropsy study was carried out to examine the relation between metastatic pulmonary calcification and vascular obstruction. METHODS: Five patients with focal and two with diffuse metastatic calcification in the lungs were identified over eight years. Lungs were studied macroscopically and by light microscopy, haematoxylin and eosin and histochemical stains being used for calcium. RESULTS: Underlying risk factors for calcification in these patients included renal failure in six and disseminated malignancy in five. In the five patients with localised calcification obstruction of the pulmonary artery by thrombus or tumour was found proximal or adjacent to areas of calcium deposition. In two patients metastatic calcification was confined to a lung with unilateral pulmonary artery thromboembolic occlusion. Calcification was not specifically associated with infarction, pneumonia, or diffuse alveolar damage. Lesions of the pulmonary artery were not seen in the two patients with diffuse bilateral metastatic calcification. CONCLUSION: In this small series there was a spatial association between pulmonary artery obstruction and localised metastatic calcification. It is proposed that pulmonary artery obstruction alters the microchemical environment of the lung, favouring tissue alkalosis and thereby enhancing parenchymal calcification in patients predisposed to this condition. Images PMID:1519194

  19. Endothelial HIF signaling regulates pulmonary fibrosis-associated pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Andrew J; Carrick, Ryan P; McConaha, Melinda E; Jones, Brittany R; Shay, Sheila D; Moore, Christy S; Blackwell, Thomas R; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L; Burman, Ankita; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Hemnes, Anna R; Karwandyar, Ayub K; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Talati, Megha A; Dong, Hui-Jia; Gleaves, Linda A; Carrier, Erica J; Gaskill, Christa; Scott, Edward W; Majka, Susan M; Fessel, Joshua P; Haase, Volker H; West, James D; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating chronic parenchymal lung disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, results in significant morbidity and mortality. Since the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway is important for development of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hypoxia, we investigated whether HIF signaling in vascular endothelium regulates development of PH related to pulmonary fibrosis. We generated a transgenic model in which HIF is deleted within vascular endothelial cells and then exposed these mice to chronic intraperitoneal bleomycin to induce PH associated with lung fibrosis. Although no differences in the degree of fibrotic remodeling were observed, we found that endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected against development of PH, including right ventricle and pulmonary vessel remodeling. Similarly, endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected from PH after a 4-wk exposure to normobaric hypoxia. In vitro studies of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells isolated from the HIF-targeted mice and controls revealed that endothelial HIF signaling increases endothelial cell expression of connective tissue growth factor, enhances vascular permeability, and promotes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and wound healing ability, all of which have the potential to impact the development of PH in vivo. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that vascular endothelial cell HIF signaling is necessary for development of hypoxia and pulmonary fibrosis associated PH. As such, HIF and HIF-regulated targets represent a therapeutic target in these conditions.

  20. Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

    2010-01-01

    The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

  1. Primary Isolated Extramedullary Plasmacytoma in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Baek, Sung-Uhn; Chang, Hee-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Primary isolated extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare tumor. Although it commonly involves nasopharynx or upper respiratory tract, only 10% of cases involves the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach and small intestine are the most commonly involved sites in the gastrointestinal tract. Primary isolated extramedullary plasmacytoma of colon is extremely rare. We report a case of 45-year-old man who presented with 1-year history of lower abdominal pain. Colonoscopy showed a colonic stricture about 50 cm from the anal verge. Colonoscopic biopsy showed lymphoid hyperplasia. On computed tomography, enhancing circumferential wall thickening and luminal narrowing with pericolic lymph node enlargement in the transverse colon was identified. Patient underwent extended left hemicolectomy. Histopathologic examination of resected colon identified an isolated primary colonic plasmacytoma of 1.7 cm in diameter with regional lymph node involvement (8/50 positive). To administer adequate treatment, further study about clinical features of primary isolated extramedullary plasmacytoma of colon is necessary.

  2. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caroline H; Dejea, Christine M; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T; Santidrian, Antonio F; Felding, Brunhilde H; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; White, James R; Patti, Gary J; Sears, Cynthia L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine in both biofilm-positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm-negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression.

  3. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Steven B.; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  4. [Successful management of sigmoidectomy with sildenafil citrate in a patient with acute exacerbation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Mita, Norikatsu; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Masataka; Kagaya, Shin; Miyoshi, Sohtaro; Okada, Takayoshi

    2013-10-01

    An 84-year-old woman with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to chronic pulmonary thromboembolism suffered from continuous warfarin dependent bleeding from sigmoid colon cancer. Sigmoidectomy was scheduled to control continuous bleeding. Six hours after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy for elective sigmoidectomy, the patient showed hypoxia, pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of 81 mmHg. The operation was postponed and heparin was infused. Since two-day heparinization therapy did not improve PH, oral administration of sildenafil citrate 60 mg daily was initiated. Seven days after initiation of sildenafil administration, RVSP decreased to 49 mmHg without improvement of hypoxia. Sigmoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. The patient showed severe hypotension managed with noradrenaline and dopamine infusion during and after surgery, resulting from interaction between sildenafil and vasodilators. The patient was discharged 36 days after the operation without complications. PMID:24228461

  5. Spontaneous colonic adenocarcinoma in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Lushbaugh, C C; Humason, G L; Swartzendruber, D C; Richter, C B; Gengozian, N

    1978-01-01

    We find that colonic adenocarcinoma, which is an extremely rare neoplasm of all animals except man and carcinogen-treated rodents, occurs spontaneously in some marmosets. The cotton-topped Saguinus oedipus oedipus is particularly prone to develop it, but we have found it also at necropsy in Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's marmoset). Numerous metastases to regional lymph nodes develop. The cancers arise de novo in the mucosa and early invade the submucosa and lymphatic apparatus and paracolonic lymph nodes. These findings and the continuing occurrence of this cancer in our colony suggests that the marmoset may be the long-sought primate model for experimental intestinal carcinogenesis.

  6. Developmental pathways in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Fred E.; Angus, C. William; Partis, William J.; Sigounas, George

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer is reactivation/alteration of pathways that control cellular differentiation during developmental processes. Evidence indicates that WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways have a role in normal epithelial cell differentiation, and that alterations in these pathways accompany establishment of the tumorigenic state. Interestingly, there is recent evidence that these pathways are intertwined at the molecular level, and these nodes of intersection may provide opportunities for effective targeted therapies. This review will highlight the role of the WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways in colon cancer. PMID:23032367

  7. A terahertz plasmon cavity detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, G. C.; Vinh, N. Q.; Allen, S. J.; Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Reno, J. L.; Shaner, E. A.

    2010-11-08

    Sensitivity of a plasmonic detector is enhanced by integrating a broadband log-periodic antenna with a two-dimensional plasma cavity that is defined by source, drain, and multiple gates of a GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistor. Both narrow-band terahertz detection and a rich harmonic spectrum are evident. With a bolometric sensor in the channel, we report responsivity, on resonance at 235-240 GHz and at 20 K, of up to 7 kV/W and a noise equivalent power of 5x10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.

  8. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  9. Mass renormalization in cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Matloob, Reza

    2011-01-15

    We show that the presence of a background medium and a boundary surface or surfaces in cavity QED produces no change in the energy shift of a free charged particle due to its coupling to the fluctuating electromagnetic field of the vacuum. This clarifies that the electromagnetic and the observed mass of the charged particle are not affected by the modification of the field of the vacuum. The calculations are nonrelativistic and restricted to the dipole approximation but are otherwise based on the general requirements of causality.

  10. Basketballs as spherical acoustic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel A.

    2010-06-01

    The sound field resulting from striking a basketball is found to be rich in frequency content, with over 50 partials in the frequency range of 0-12 kHz. The frequencies are found to closely match theoretical expectations for standing wave patterns inside a spherical cavity. Because of the degenerate nature of the mode shapes, explicit identification of the modes is not possible without internal investigation with a microphone probe. A basketball proves to be an interesting application of a boundary value problem involving spherical coordinates.

  11. Three-dimensional field structure in open unstable cavities Part II: Active cavity results.

    PubMed

    Oughstun, K; Khamnei, C

    1999-05-10

    The three-dimensional field distribution of the diffractive cavity mode structure in an active, open, unstable laser resonator is presented as a function of the equivalent Fresnel number of the cavity. The active cavity mode structures are compared to that of the corresponding passive cavity so that the effects of a spatially extended, homogeneously broadened, saturable gain medium on the cavity field structure may be ascertained. The qualitative structure of this intracavity field distribution, including the central intensity core (or oscillator filament), is explained in terms of the Fresnel zone structure defined over the cavity feedback aperture. PMID:19396296

  12. [Septic pulmonary emboli caused by parenteral nutrition catheter infection].

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, M; Itoi, K; Ariyasu, T; Yanagihara, K; Nasu, T

    1990-09-01

    A case of septic pulmonary emboli due to parenteral nutrition catheter infection was reported. Characteristic radiologic features were recognized. A 50-year-old man, who was receiving parenteral nutrition after total gastrectomy, consulted our department with complaints of fever and general malaise. A chest radiograph showed scattered ill-defined small peripheral nodules, which were not present before parenteral nutrition, and these nodules were quickly formed cavities + in 2nd day. He was suffering from high fever, hemo-sputum and dyspnea after removal of the parenteral nutrition catheter. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the tip of parenteral nutrition catheter and sputum cultures. Septic pulmonary emboli were diagnosed and antibiotic therapy was performed. Bacterial endocarditis and septic thrombophlebitis were ruled out. The multiple cavity nodules extended to involve the peripheral areas of the lung and invasive shadows appeared on the chest radiograph in 8th day. Then, the invasive shadows disappeared and the walls of the cavitary lesions became thinner. After 2 months, all cavitary lesions disappeared with only linear shadows remaining. PMID:2125088

  13. Quantitative measurement of feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Somers, M.B.; Maurer, A.H.; Malmud, L.S.; Knight, L.C.; Fisher, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Colonic transit scintigraphy, a method for quantitatively evaluating the movement of the fecal stream in vivo, was employed to evaluate colonic transit in the cat. Scintigraphy was performed in duplicate in five cats and repeated four times in one cat. After instillation of an 111In marker into the cecum through a surgically implanted silicone cecostomy tube, colonic movement of the instillate was quantitated for 24 h using gamma scintigraphy. Antegrade and retrograde motion of radionuclide was observed. The cecum and ascending colon emptied rapidly, with a half-emptying time of 1.68 +/- 0.56 h (mean +/- SE). After 24 h, 25.1 +/- 5.2% of the activity remained in the transverse colon. The progression of the geometric center was initially rapid, followed later by a delayed phase. Geometric center reproducibility was found to be high when analyzed using simple linear regression (slope = 0.92; r = 0.73; P less than 0.01). Atropine (0.1 mg/kg im) was found to delay cecum and ascending colon emptying and delay progression of the geometric center. These results demonstrate both 1) the ability of colonic transit scintigraphy to detect changes in transit induced by pharmacological manipulation and 2) the fact that muscarinic blockade inhibits antegrade transit of the fecal stream. We conclude that feline colonic transit may be studied in a quantitative and reproducible manner with colonic transit scintigraphy.

  14. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  16. Isolated pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as cavitary lesion in an immunocompetent adult: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth; Noman, Obaid; Dawande, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Cavitary lung lesions have a specific array of differential diagnosis. Among rare causes is mucormycosis that should not be overlooked. A high index of suspicion is necessary for a correct diagnosis and aggressive management. It usually occurs in immunosupressed patients. It is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive, and angioinvasive fungal infection. We present a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as a cavity in an immunocompetent middle aged male. PMID:26958531

  17. Awake video-assisted thoracic surgery in acute infectious pulmonary destruction

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Vladimir; Deynega, Igor; Ionov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of thoracic minimally invasive interventions have been proven to be possible without general anesthesia. This article presents results of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) application under local anesthesia in patients with lung abscesses and discusses its indications in detail. Methods The study involved prospective analysis of treatment outcomes for all acute infectious pulmonary destruction (AIPD) patients undergoing VATS under local anesthesia and sedation since January 1, 2010, till December 31, 2013. Patients with pulmonary destruction cavity at periphery of large size (>5 cm) underwent non-intubated video abscessoscopy (NIVAS). Patients with pyopneumothorax (lung abscess penetration into pleural cavity) underwent non-intubated video thoracoscopy (NIVTS). Indications for NIVAS and NIVTS were as follows: cavity debridement and washing, necrotic sequestra removal, adhesion split, biopsy. All interventions were done under local anesthesia and sedation without trachea intubation and epidural anesthesia. Results Sixty-five enrolled patients had 42 NIVAS and 32 NIVTS interventions, nine patients underwent two surgeries. None of the patients required trachea intubation or epidural anesthesia. In none of our cases with conversion to thoracotomy was required. Post-surgical complications developed after 11 interventions (13%): subcutaneous emphysema (five cases), chest wall phlegmon (three cases), pulmonary bleeding (two cases), and pneumothorax (one case). One patient died due to the main disease progression. In 50 patients NIVAS and NIVTS were done within 5 to 8 days after abscess/pleural cavity draining, while in other 15 patients—immediately prior to draining; both pulmonary bleeding episodes and all cases of chest wall phlegmon took place in the latter group. Conclusions NIVAS and NIVTS under local anesthesia and sedation are well tolerated by patients, safe and should be used more often in AIPD cases. Timing of NIVAS and NIVTS procedures

  18. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis: 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.; Mittman, C. )

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the topic of pulmonary emphysema. Included are the following chapters: Abnormality of secretion of Z Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Proteases, antiproteases, and oxidants in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, Alveolar Leukocytes and protease responses with continuous vs. intermittent exposures to NO{sub 2}.

  19. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder. Alternative Names Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease Images Respiratory system References Channick RN, Rubin LJ. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  20. Imaging Features of Pulmonary CT in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongbo; Ren, Yanwei; Lu, Xiwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Until now, radiographic manifestations of multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR- TB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been reported. We conducted a study to investigate the imaging features of pulmonary computed tomography (CT) for type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with MDR-TB. Methods The clinical data and pulmonary CT findings of 39 type 2 diabetic patients with MDR-TB, 46 type 2 diabetic patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB), and 72 pure drug-susceptible TB cases (without T2DM and MDR) treated at Dalian Tuberculosis Hospital from 2012 to 2015 were collected, and the clinical features and imaging differences of the three groups were compared. Results The clinical characteristics of the three groups of patients were not significantly different except with respect to age and previous treatment history. However, on imaging, the patients with MDR-TB showed consolidation in and above the pulmonary segments was significantly more extensive than that seen in the DS-TB group with or without T2DM. Conclusion Consolidation in or above multiple pulmonary segments with multiple mouth-eaten cavities and bronchial damage on pulmonary CT images in type 2 diabetic patients with tuberculosis suggests the possibility of multi-drug resistance. PMID:27022735

  1. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  2. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kevan; Dell, Sharon; Birken, Catherine; Al-Saleh, Suhail

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is often asymptomatic despite significant changes in chest imaging. Diagnosis is often made when patients become symptomatic in adulthood. There are still no proven treatments, but earlier diagnosis may allow for evaluation of preventative strategies that could improve outcome. It is an important diagnosis to consider in children who have marked radiographic findings with no or very mild symptoms or physical findings. Diagnosis can be made with imaging alone but may necessitate lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. PMID:27445543

  3. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Allameh, Seyyed Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a case of primary cryptococcal pneumonia in a 25-year-old woman who presented with several weeks' history of cough, dyspnoea and night sweating. These symptoms started in the third trimester of her pregnancy. She was being treated for infertility and got pregnant with in vitro fertilisation. On chest imaging, there were bilateral air space consolidation and cavitary lesions. Fungal pulmonary infection was diagnosed after surgical lung biopsy. She received fluconazole 400 mg per day orally for 6 months and recovered completely. PMID:24692384

  4. Cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasulu Raju, S.; Umapathy, M.; Uma, G.

    2015-11-01

    Energy harvesting employing piezoelectric materials in mechanical structures such as cantilever beams, plates, diaphragms, etc, has been an emerging area of research in recent years. The research in this area is also focused on structural tailoring to improve the harvested power from the energy harvesters. Towards this aim, this paper presents a method for improving the harvested power from a cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester by introducing multiple rectangular cavities. A generalized model for a piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple rectangular cavities at a single section and two sections is developed. A method is suggested to optimize the thickness of the cavities and the number of cavities required to generate a higher output voltage for a given cantilever beam structure. The performance of the optimized energy harvesters is evaluated analytically and through experimentation. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the energy harvester can be increased with multiple cavities compared to the harvester with a single cavity.

  5. Rebuild of Capture Cavity 1 at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, E.; Arkan, T.; Borissov, E.; Dhanaraj, N.; Hocker, A.; Orlov, Y.; Peterson, T.; Premo, K.

    2014-01-01

    The front end of the proposed Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab employs two single cavity cryomodules, known as 'Capture Cavity 1' and 'Capture Cavity 2', for the first stage of acceleration. Capture Cavity 1 was previously used as the accelerating structure for the A0 Photoinjector to a peak energy of ~14 MeV. In its new location a gradient of ~25 MV/m is required. This has necessitated a major rebuild of the cryomodule including replacement of the cavity with a higher gradient one. Retrofitting the cavity and making upgrades to the module required significant redesign. The design choices and their rationale, summary of the rebuild, and early test results are presented.

  6. Tunable-cavity QED with phase qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Jed D.; da Silva, Fabio; Allman, Michael Shane; Lecocq, Florent; Cicak, Katarina; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We describe a tunable-cavity QED architecture with an rf SQUID phase qubit inductively coupled to a single-mode, resonant cavity with a tunable frequency that allows for both tunneling and dispersive measurements. Dispersive measurement is well characterized by a three-level model, strongly dependent on qubit anharmonicity, qubit-cavity coupling and detuning. The tunable cavity frequency provides dynamic control over the coupling strength and qubit-cavity detuning helping to minimize Purcell losses and cavity-induced dephasing during qubit operation. The maximum decay time T1 = 1 . 5 μs is limited by dielectric losses from a design geometry similar to planar transmon qubits. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  7. Cavity-Dumped Communication Laser Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T.

    2003-01-01

    Cavity-dumped lasers have significant advantages over more conventional Q-switched lasers for high-rate operation with pulse position modulation communications, including the ability to emit laser pulses at 1- to 10-megahertz rates, with pulse widths of 0.5 to 5 nanoseconds. A major advantage of cavity dumping is the potential to vary the cavity output percentage from pulse to pulse, maintaining the remainder of the energy in reserve for the next pulse. This article presents the results of a simplified cavity-dumped laser model, establishing the requirements for cavity efficiency and projecting the ultimate laser efficiency attainable in normal operation. In addition, a method of reducing or eliminating laser dead time is suggested that could significantly enhance communication capacity. The design of a laboratory demonstration laser is presented with estimates of required cavity efficiency and demonstration potential.

  8. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, J.H.

    1996-11-26

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the {pi}-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is {beta}{lambda}, where {lambda} is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a {pi}/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range. 5 figs.

  9. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  10. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the .pi.-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is .beta..lambda., where .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a .pi./2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range.

  11. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna

    2016-07-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  12. [Pulmonary manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Morawska, Justyna; Domysławska, Izabela; Bagrowska, Magdalena; Sierakowski, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destructive cartilages, bones and other structures formed joints. RA belongs to connective tissue diseases represented by systemic nature, internal illness, extra-articular features and rapidly progress of atherosceirosis. The extra-articular complications cause the reduction of patient longevity. The frequency of symptoms in patient with RA and respiratory disorders occur in 10-20% of cases. Pulmonary complications are the second most common cause of premature of patient deaths. Respiratory disorders associated with RA are devided into 3 groups: infection, lung disease caused by drugs and pulmonary manifestation connected by RA. These last affect interstitial tissue, bronchioli, pulmonary vessels, pleura, also are presented by pulmonary rheumatoid nodules and pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  14. [Four cases of pulmonary tuberculosis resembling pulmonary abscess with a so-called niveau-like shadow in a medical school hospital: discussion concerning the formation mechanism of niveau-like shadows].

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Y; Niki, Y; Kawane, H; Matsushima, T

    1996-04-01

    Four cases of pulmonary tuberculosis resembling pulmonary abscess radiographically were reviewed from their clinical features, chest X-ray and chest CT, and the mechanism of formation of so-called niveau-like shadows was discussed. Only one case showed a newly formed tuberculous cavity with air fluid level on chest X-ray, however, even in this case, the possibility of the infection with tubercle bacilli of an emphysematous bulla of the lung could not be completely excluded as several bulla were found on chest CT. The remaining three cases showed a slightly different mechanism of the formation of niveau-like shadows. Namely, mycobacterium tuberculosis spread into an existed bulla and a tubercle bacilli infected bulla was formed. Regarding the clinical features, no remarkable findings were detected and we could find no differences with common tuberculosis. Based on these experiences, the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis resembling the shadow of pulmonary abscess should be emphasized. PMID:8683908

  15. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-03-01

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  16. Silicon Integrated Cavity Optomechanical Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Miao, Houxun; Michels, Thomas; Liu, Yuxiang; Srinivasan, Kartik; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    Cavity optomechanics enables measurements of mechanical motion at the fundamental limits of precision imposed by quantum mechanics. However, the need to align and couple devices to off-chip optical components hinders development, miniaturization and broader application of ultrahigh sensitivity chip-scale optomechanical transducers. Here we demonstrate a fully integrated and optical fiber pigtailed optomechanical transducer with a high Q silicon micro-disk cavity near-field coupled to a nanoscale cantilever. We detect the motion of the cantilever by measuring the resonant frequency shift of the whispering gallery mode of the micro-disk. The sensitivity near the standard quantum limit can be reached with sub-uW optical power. Our on-chip approach combines compactness and stability with great design flexibility: the geometry of the micro-disk and cantilever can be tailored to optimize the mechanical/optical Q factors and tune the mechanical frequency over two orders of magnitudes. Electrical transduction in addition to optical transduction was also demonstrated and both can be used to effectively cool the cantilever. Moreover, cantilevers with sharp tips overhanging the chip edge were fabricated to potentially allow the mechanical cantilever to be coupled to a wide range of off-chip systems, such as spins, DNA, nanostructures and atoms on clean surfaces.

  17. Cavity QED Deutsch quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Salgueiro, A. N.; Nemes, M. C.

    2001-10-01

    The two-atom correlation scheme originally proposed by Davidovich, Brune, Raimond, and Haroche for measuring the decoherence of a mesoscopic superposition of coherent states of a QED cavity field is shown to be equivalent to a quantum computer solving Deutsch's problem. Using the existing analysis of decoherence in the Master equation formalism, and other important losses in this system, the final probability for obtaining the correct result for the computation is found in terms of the time period between atom traversals, the number of photons in the cavity, and the precision of the atomic velocity. The error due to decoherence in this system amounts to a phase error, and in the Master equation approach is a linear effect at small time scales. By explicitly considering the dynamics of the decoherence process when the system is coupled to a bath of oscillators with finite mode cutoff the error due to decoherence is found to decrease significantly and becomes a quadratic effect at short-time scales.

  18. SPINNING MOTIONS IN CORONAL CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Stenborg, G. E-mail: guillermo.stenborg.ctr.ar@nrl.navy.mi

    2010-08-20

    In movies made from Fe XII 19.5 nm images, coronal cavities that graze or are detached from the solar limb appear as continually spinning structures, with sky-plane projected flow speeds in the range 5-10 km s{sup -1}. These whirling motions often persist in the same sense for up to several days and provide strong evidence that the cavities and the immediately surrounding streamer material have the form of helical flux ropes viewed along their axes. A pronounced bias toward spin in the equatorward direction is observed during 2008. We attribute this bias to the poleward concentration of the photospheric magnetic flux near sunspot minimum, which leads to asymmetric heating along large-scale coronal loops and tends to drive a flow from higher to lower latitudes; this flow is converted into an equatorward spinning motion when the loops pinch off to form a flux rope. As sunspot activity increases and the polar fields weaken, we expect the preferred direction of the spin to reverse.

  19. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2016-07-12

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  20. Compact Superconducting Crabbing and Deflecting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika

    2012-09-01

    Recently, new geometries for superconducting crabbing and deflecting cavities have been developed that have significantly improved properties over those the standard TM{sub 110} cavities. They are smaller, have low surface fields, high shunt impedance and, more importantly for some of them, no lower-order-mode with a well-separated fundamental mode. This talk will present the status of the development of these cavities.

  1. Grating cavity dual wavelength dye laser.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Nava, Oscar Javier; Rodríguez-Montero, Ponciano; Iturbe-Castillo, M David; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos Gerardo

    2011-02-14

    We report simultaneous dual wavelength dye laser emission using Littman-Metcalf and Littrow cavity configurations with minimum cavity elements. Dual wavelength operation is obtained by laser operation in two optical paths inside the cavity, one of which uses reflection in the circulating dye cell. Styryl 14 laser dye operating in the 910 nm to 960 nm was used in a 15%:85% PC/EG solvent green pumped with a Q-switched doubled Nd3+:YAG laser. PMID:21369171

  2. Ray splitting in paraxial optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Puentes, G; Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P

    2004-03-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the ray dynamics in a paraxial optical cavity when a ray-splitting mechanism is present. The cavity is a conventional two-mirror stable resonator and the ray splitting is achieved by inserting an optical beam splitter perpendicular to the cavity axis. We show that depending on the position of the beam splitter the optical resonator can become unstable and the ray dynamics displays a positive Lyapunov exponent. PMID:15089394

  3. Passive venting technique for shallow cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor); Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A device is introduced for reducing drag and store separation difficulties caused by shallow cavities on aircraft in supersonic flight consisting of a group of hollow pipes the same length as the cavity. The pipes are attached to the cavity floor so as to allow air to flow through the pipes. This device allows air to flow through the pipes opposite to the direction of flow outside the pipes. This results in reduced drag and improved store separation characteristics.

  4. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, Jr., Francis W.; Chiu, Shiu-Chu; Parks, Paul; Rawls, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a resonant coil cavity wave launcher for energizing a plasma immersed in a magnetic field. Energization includes launching fast Alfven waves to excite ion cyclotron frequency resonances in the plasma. The cavity includes inductive and capacitive reactive members spaced no further than one-quarter wavelength from a first wall confinement chamber of the plasma. The cavity wave launcher is energized by connection to a waveguide or transmission line carrying forward power from a remote radio frequency energy source.

  5. Non linear effects in ferrite tuned cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.; Walling, L.; Enegren, T.; Hulsey, G. ); Yakoviev, V.; Petrov, V. )

    1993-05-01

    The phenomenon of dependence of the resonance shape and frequency on the RF power level in perpendicular biased ferrite-tuned cavities has been observed by G. Hulsey and C. Friedrichs in the SSC test cavity experiment. This paper presents a theoretical as well as numerical analysis of this phenomenon and compares the results with experimental data. The effect of this nonlinearity on the SSC low energy booster prototype cavity is discussed.

  6. Purinergic dysregulation in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Visovatti, Scott H; Hyman, Matthew C; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Anyanwu, Anuli C; Kanthi, Yogendra; Robichaud, Patrick; Wang, Jintao; Petrovic-Djergovic, Danica; Rattan, Rahul; Burant, Charles F; Pinsky, David J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the fact that nucleotides and adenosine help regulate vascular tone through purinergic signaling pathways, little is known regarding their contributions to the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension, a condition characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and remodeling. Even less is known about the potential role that alterations in CD39 (ENTPD1), the ectonucleotidase responsible for the conversion of the nucleotides ATP and ADP to AMP, may play in pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study we identified decreased CD39 expression on the pulmonary endothelium of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We next determined the effects of CD39 gene deletion in mice exposed to normoxia or normobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen). Compared with controls, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice were found to have a markedly elevated ATP-to-adenosine ratio, higher pulmonary arterial pressures, more right ventricular hypertrophy, more arterial medial hypertrophy, and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice exhibited a marked increase in lung P2X1 receptors. Systemic reconstitution of ATPase and ADPase enzymatic activities through continuous administration of apyrase decreased pulmonary arterial pressures in hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice to levels found in hypoxic CD39(+/+) controls. Treatment with NF279, a potent and selective P2X1 receptor antagonist, lowered pulmonary arterial pressures even further. Our study is the first to implicate decreased CD39 and resultant alterations in circulating purinergic signaling ligands and cognate receptors in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Reconstitution and receptor blocking experiments suggest that phosphohydrolysis of purinergic nucleotide tri- and diphosphates, or blocking of the P2X1 receptor could serve as treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27208163

  7. Intravenous leiomyomatosis with inferior vena cava or intracardiac extension and concurrent bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guorui; Yu, Xin; Lang, Jinghe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a special type of uterine leiomyoma and features formation and growth of benign leiomyoma tissue within vascular wall. Benign metastatic leiomyoma refers to benign leiomyoma metastasizing to extra-uterine sites, dominantly lung. Solitary or multiple small nodules in the lung can be seen in image scans. Methods: We report 2 cases of intravenous leiomyomatosis with inferior vena cava or intracardiac extension and concurrent multiple nodules in bilateral lungs. Results: Case 1 was a 40-year-old woman with a large mass in pelvic cavity, masses in heart chambers, and disseminates pulmonary nodules detected at preoperative image scans. Masses in pelvic cavity and heart were resected in a 2-stage surgery. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis. Pulmonary nodules stayed stable during follow-up. Case 2 was a 37-year-old woman with 3 times of uterine-related surgeries. A pelvic mass appeared again and filling defect was observed in left ovarian vein, right renal vein, right common iliac vein, and inferior vena cava. Tumors in pelvic cavity and within vessels were removed in a 1-stage surgery. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis. Pulmonary nodules remained stable during follow-up. Conclusion: The incidence of benign metastatic leiomyoma in patients with intravenous leiomyomatosis might be relatively high. Metastasis of intravenous leiomyomatosis lesions was a possible source of benign metastatic leiomyoma in these cases. PMID:27583911

  8. Severe Hypoglycemia Caused by Recurrent Sarcomatoid Carcinoma in the Pelvic Cavity: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Fan, Chuan Wen; Yu, Yong Yang; Wang, Cun; Yang, Lie; Li, Yuan; Mo, Xian Ming; Zhou, Zong Guang

    2015-10-01

    Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by persistent, severe hypoglycemia in different tumor types of mesochymal or epithelial origin; however, NICTH is infrequently induced by sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC). Despite some sarcomatoid and epithelioid characteristics in few cases of malignancies from epithelium, NICTH induced by recurrent SC in pelvic cavity in this report is extremely rare.We report a case in which NICTH caused by recurrence and pulmonary metastases from SC in the pelvic cavity, and the computed tomography scan revealed multiple pelvic masses and multiple large masses in the pulmonary fields. During the treatment of intestinal obstruction, the patient presented paroxysmal loss of consciousness and sweating. Her glucose even reached 1.22 mmol/L while the serum glycosylated hemoglobin was normal and previous history of diabetes or use of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin denied.The laboratory examination showed that the low level of insulin, C-peptide, and growth hormone levels in the course of hypoglycemic episodes suggesting to the diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by nonislet cell tumor, and the decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGFBP3 and the high expression of big IGF-II in the serum further confirmed the diagnosis of NICTH. Because of the widely pelvic recurrence and pulmonary metastases were unresected, the patient was discharged from the hospital after 2 weeks treatment with dexamethasone and glucose and unfortunately died 1 week later.NICTH caused by SC in the pelvic cavity is extremely rare case in clinical. The aim of this report was to present the importance to examine big IGF-II expression in patient's serum in order to reach the diagnosis of NICTH in cases of intractable cancer-associated hypoglycemia. PMID:26496258

  9. Superconducting cavity driving with FPGA controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Koprek, Waldemar; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Simrock, Stefan; Brandt, Alexander; Chase, Brian; Carcagno, Ruben; Cancelo, Gustavo; Koeth, Timothy W.

    2006-12-01

    A digital control of superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. FPGA-based controller, supported by Matlab system, was applied. Electrical model of a resonator was used for design of a control system. Calibration of the signal path is considered. Identification of cavity parameters has been carried out for adaptive control algorithm. Feed-forward and feedback modes were applied in operating the cavities. Required performance has been achieved; i.e. driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time, while keeping reasonable level of the power consumption. Representative results of the experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient.

  10. Cavity-locked ring down spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Harb, Charles C.; Spence, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Distinct locking and sampling light beams are used in a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system to perform multiple ring-down measurements while the laser and ring-down cavity are continuously locked. The sampling and locking light beams have different frequencies, to ensure that the sampling and locking light are decoupled within the cavity. Preferably, the ring-down cavity is ring-shaped, the sampling light is s-polarized, and the locking light is p-polarized. Transmitted sampling light is used for ring-down measurements, while reflected locking light is used for locking in a Pound-Drever scheme.

  11. Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, H; Doherty, A C

    2002-11-15

    Modern cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) illuminates the most fundamental aspects of coherence and decoherence in quantum mechanics. Experiments on atoms in cavities can be described by elementary models but reveal intriguing subtleties of the interplay of coherent dynamics with external couplings. Recent activity in this area has pioneered powerful new approaches to the study of quantum coherence and has fueled the growth of quantum information science. In years to come, the purview of cavity QED will continue to grow as researchers build on a rich infrastructure to attack some of the most pressing open questions in micro- and mesoscopic physics.

  12. Large Scale Shape Optimization for Accelerator Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, Volkan; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Xiao, Li-Ling; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC

    2011-12-06

    We present a shape optimization method for designing accelerator cavities with large scale computations. The objective is to find the best accelerator cavity shape with the desired spectral response, such as with the specified frequencies of resonant modes, field profiles, and external Q values. The forward problem is the large scale Maxwell equation in the frequency domain. The design parameters are the CAD parameters defining the cavity shape. We develop scalable algorithms with a discrete adjoint approach and use the quasi-Newton method to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. Two realistic accelerator cavity design examples are presented.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Ingot Nb Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Matalevich, Joseph; Rao Myneni, Ganapati

    2014-07-01

    This contribution presents the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and of strain along the contour of a single-cell cavity made of ingot Nb subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. The data were used to infer mechanical properties of this material after cavity fabrication, by comparison with the results from simulation calculations done with ANSYS. The objective is to provide useful information about the mechanical properties of ingot Nb cavities which can be used in the design phase of SRF cavities intended to be built with this material.

  14. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics: Coherence in Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabuchi, H.; Doherty, A. C.

    2002-11-01

    Modern cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) illuminates the most fundamental aspects of coherence and decoherence in quantum mechanics. Experiments on atoms in cavities can be described by elementary models but reveal intriguing subtleties of the interplay of coherent dynamics with external couplings. Recent activity in this area has pioneered powerful new approaches to the study of quantum coherence and has fueled the growth of quantum information science. In years to come, the purview of cavity QED will continue to grow as researchers build on a rich infrastructure to attack some of the most pressing open questions in micro- and mesoscopic physics.

  15. Quantum teleportation with atoms trapped in cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2004-09-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the quantum teleportation protocol with single atoms trapped in cavities. The scheme is based on the adiabatic passage and the polarization measurement. We show that it is possible to teleport the internal state of an atom trapped in a cavity to an atom trapped in another cavity with the success probability of 1/2 and the fidelity of 1. The scheme is resistant to a number of considerable imperfections such as the violation of the Lamb-Dicke condition, weak atom-cavity coupling, spontaneous emission, and detection inefficiency.

  16. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  17. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  18. [The treatment of pulmonary bleedings and its' complicsations by the blunt thoracic trauma].

    PubMed

    Danielian, Sh N; Abakumov, M M; Saprin, A A; Chernen'kaia, T V

    2012-01-01

    The experience of treatment of 224 patients with pulmonary bleeding after the blunt thoracic trauma were analyzed. All patients were diagnosed with lung contusion, of them 134 had traumatic cavities (hematomas) in the lung. The complete regression of contusion foci was observed within 13.7±4.2 days, whereas only 65.4% of patients demonstrated the regression of lung hematomas after 3 months of follow-up. 5.36% of pulmonary bleeding required the urgent thoracotomy on the reason of the continuous bleeding. The thorough analysis of etiology of posttraumatic infectious pulmonary complications after the blunt thoracic trauma is submitted. The drainage of septic foci allowed the fast recovery of the majority of patients. 7,4% of lung abscesses and pleural empyem required thoracotomy.

  19. [Pulmonary artery aneurism in a patient with Behçet disease. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Fernandez A, Daniel G; Florez S, Cristian Fabián; Bastidas, Alirio; Bello, Juan Manuel; Valle O, Rafael; Londoño P, John; Reyes S, Elsa; Santos M, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Behçet disease is a systemic disease with diverse clinical symptoms which vary according to the organs and systems involved. Typically, patients have oral and genital ulcers and episodic ocular involvement with periods of clinical improvement. We report an 18-year-old mole presenting with chest pain and hemoptysis and a history of ulcers in the oral cavity and scrotum. A chest CAT scan showed a mass located adjacent to the heart that a pulmonary arteriography defined as a left pulmonary artery aneurism. The patient was operated, excising left inferior pulmonary lobe. Due to skin and ocular involvement, the patient complied with criteria for Behçet disease. Immunosuppressive treatment with prednisone and azathioprine was started and the patient was discharged from the hospital.

  20. Gene expression profiles of bronchoalveolar cells in Pulmonary TB

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Bindu; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Belitskaya-Lévy, Ilana; Dawson, Rod; Ress, Stanley; Gold, Jeffrey A.; Condos, Rany; Pine, Richard; Brown, Stuart; Nolan, Anna; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes macrophage activation, inflammation with increased immune effector cells, tissue necrosis and cavity formation, and fibrosis, distortion, and bronchiectasis. To evaluate the molecular basis of the immune response in the lungs of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), we used bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain cells at the site of infection. Affymetrix Genechip micro-arrays and cDNA nylon filter microarrays interrogated gene expression in BAL cells from 11 healthy controls and 17 patients with active pulmonary TB. We found altered gene expression for 69 genes in TB versus normal controls that included cell surface markers, cytokines, chemokines, receptors, transcription factors, and complement components. In addition, TB BAL cell gene expression patternssegregated into 2 groups: one suggestive of a T helper type 1 (Th1) cellular immune response with increased STAT-4, IFN-γ receptor, and MIG expression with increased IFN-γ protein levels in BAL fluid; the other group displayed characteristics of Th2 immunity with increased STAT-6, CD81, and IL-10 receptor expression. We were able to demonstrate that a Th2 presentation could change to a Th1 pattern after anti-tuberculous treatment in one TB patient studied serially. These gene expression data support the conclusion that pulmonary TB produces a global change in the BAL cell transcriptome with manifestations of either Th1 or Th2 immunity. PMID:17921069

  1. Meandering right pulmonary vein associated with severe and progressive "idiopathic-like" pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Sofia; Bret, Montserrat; del Cerro, Maria Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary veins are rare. Meandering right pulmonary vein, considered a part of the Scimitar syndrome spectrum, is often an incidental finding during chest imaging. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with meandering pulmonary vein, who developed pulmonary hypertensive disease with an aggressive course, in spite of absence of hypoxia or elevated pulmonary wedge pressure.

  2. Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis and Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Neal F; Dodson, Mark W; Elliott, Charles Gregory

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH), two disorders that challenge clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists because they often mimic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The article reviews the features that differentiate PVOD and PCH from PAH. The article also describes the overlap of PVOD and PCH, highlighted by recent reports of families diagnosed with PVOD or PCH caused by EIF2AK4 mutations. In addition, the article outlines current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of PVOD and PCH. PMID:27514598

  3. [Inflammatory changes of oral cavity proceeding appearance of clinical symptoms of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, Katarzyna; Darczuk, Dagmara; Owczarek, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Crohn's disease belongs to the inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammatory changes can be located in any part of the gastrointestinal tract including rarely oral cavity. We present a case of a 21 years old woman with unhealed by the local treatment, and verified by histological examination, inflammatory changes of oral cavity. These changes had proceed the diagnosis of typical changes in gastrointestinal tract for 6 months. Changes were located in terminal ileum and colon and were confirmed by colonoscopic, histologic and radiologic studies. Standard therapy of Crohn's disease with antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs led to the healing of oral changes. We point out on the necessity of proper differential diagnosis of problematic unhealing changes, particularly with ulcerations of oral mucosa in young patients. Dental examination with histological confirmation of mucosal changes may be helpful in proper diagnosis of Crohn's disease in the young group of patients. PMID:21591368

  4. Diagnostic enigma: primary pulmonary artery sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Krishna; Hallam, Jane; Antippa, Phillip; Larobina, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of pulmonary artery is a very rare lesion. We present a case of primary angiosarcoma that was initially misdiagnosed as a subacute massive pulmonary thromboembolism in a 30-year-old man. This rare disease is usually indistinguishable from acute or chronic thromboembolic disease of the pulmonary arteries. The clinical and radiological findings of pulmonary artery angiosarcoma are similar to those of pulmonary thromboembolism. Although the incidence of pulmonary artery angiosarcoma is very low, our case demonstrates that this disease entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. Patients with early identification can have curative potential with aggressive surgical intervention. PMID:22159261

  5. Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Beth; Weyer, George

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. Patients often initially present to family physicians; however, because the symptoms are typically nonspecific or easily attributable to comorbid conditions, diagnosis can be challenging and requires a stepwise evaluation. There is limited evidence to support screening of asymptomatic individuals. Echocardiography is recommended as the initial step in the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. A definitive diagnosis cannot be made on echocardiographic abnormalities alone, and some patients require invasive evaluation by right heart catheterization. For certain categories of pulmonary hypertension, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, treatment options are rapidly evolving, and early diagnosis and prompt referral to an expert center are critical to ensure the best prognosis. There are no directed therapies for many other categories of pulmonary hypertension; therefore, family physicians have a central role in managing contributing comorbidities. Other important considerations for patients with pulmonary hypertension include influenza and pneumonia immunizations, contraception counseling, preoperative assessment, and mental health. PMID:27637122

  6. [The intraoperative colonic irrigation in emergency surgery].

    PubMed

    Kiss, L

    2001-01-01

    Bowel preparations is frequently impossible in various ante colonic diseases, such as left-sided colonic obstruction. The goal of intraoperative colonic irrigation is to obtain, during surgery, a bowel preparation offering the possibility of primary resection with immediate anastomosis, when preoperative bowel preparation has not been feasible. Technical aspects of intra-operative colonic irrigation are described. Indications for this methods are presented: left-sided obstructing carcinomas, diverticulitis, more rarely inflammatory stenosis or functional obstruction. The surgical management of left colonic emergencies has evolved in the past few decades. Recently, there has been increasing interest in resection with primary anastomosis in selected cases. The post operative mortality rate was 13 per cent. The incidence of clinical anastomotic leakage was 6.65 per cent. PMID:12731192

  7. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    PubMed

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life.

  8. A Push-pull Protocol to Reduce Colonization of Bird Nest Boxes by Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Efstathion, Caroline A; Kern, William H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of the invasive Africanized honey bee (AHB) into the Neotropics is a serious problem for many cavity nesting birds, specifically parrots. These bees select cavities that are suitable nest sites for birds, resulting in competition. The difficulty of removing bees and their defensive behavior makes a prevention protocol necessary. Here, we describe a push-pull integrated pest management protocol to deter bees from inhabiting bird boxes by applying a bird safe insecticide, permethrin, to repel bees from nest boxes, while simultaneously attracting them to pheromone-baited swarm traps. Shown here is an example experiment using Barn Owl nest boxes. This protocol successfully reduced colonization of Barn Owl nest boxes by Africanized honey bees. This protocol is flexible, allowing adjustments to accommodate a wide range of bird species and habitats. This protocol could benefit conservation efforts where AHB are located. PMID:27685258

  9. Prevalence of the colonization of Helicobacter pylori among students of the school of dentistry, University of Granada, Spain

    PubMed Central

    García-Casas, Violeta; Liébana-Cabanillas, Francisco; Arias-Moliz, María-Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Background The oral cavity is a reservoir for Helicobacter pylori, and occupations that involve close contact with it, like Dentistry, could entail a higher risk of colonization. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the length of stay at the School of Dentistry of the University of Granada could influence colonization by H. pylori, and to furthermore correlate colonization by H. pylori, with the state of oral health and oral hygiene habits. Material and Methods The study groups were: Group 1, 35 students of Odontology in their first year of studies; Group 2, the same 35 students when they were in their fifth academic year; Group 3, 35 students from University study programs unrelated with Health and of the same age as the group 2 students. All underwent H. pylori, colonization determinations by means of the urea breath test (UBT), stool antigen test and a serological test. Also studied were the variables plaque index, gingival index and the number of times teeth were brushed per day. The Student t test was used for comparisons among the three studied groups. The Chi-squared test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to determine any connection between colonization by H. pylori, and the variables studied. Results Comparisons between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 2 and 3 showed significant differences regarding colonization by H. pylori, plaque index, gingival bleeding index and tooth brushing. A positive correlation was found between being colonized by H. pylori, and having a gingival index higher than 10% and tooth brushing once a day or less, in all the studied groups. Conclusions Colonization by H. pylori, among Dentistry students at the University of Granada decreased over a four-year time period at the University. Factors related with better oral health, such as a lower gingival index and more frequent tooth brushings, would explain these results. Key words:Dental students, Helicobacter pylori, serological test, stool antigen test, urea breath

  10. Epithelial Dysplasia in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Samaneh; Kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Homayoni, Solmaz

    2014-01-01

    Among oral lesions, we encounter a series of malignant epithelial lesions that go through clinical and histopathologic processes in order to be diagnosed. Identifying these processes along with the etiology knowledge of these lesions is very important in prevention and early treatments. Dysplasia is the step preceding the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in lesions which have the potential to undergo dysplasia. Identification of etiological factors, clinical and histopathologic methods has been the topic of many articles. This article, reviews various articles presenting oral cavity dysplasia, new clinical methods of identifying lesions, and the immunohistochemical research which proposes various markers for providing more precise identification of such lesions. This article also briefly analyzes new treatment methods such as tissue engineering. PMID:25242838

  11. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eric B; Noble, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000) than in women (13.2/100,000). The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock). IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis), forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational) exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant disability. The median

  12. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  13. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  14. Oral cavity as a potential source of gastric reinfection by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, Elzbieta; Konturek, Joanna E; Konturek, Peter C; Cześnikiewicz, Marta; Sito, Edward; Bielański, Władysław; Kwiecień, Nina; Obtułowicz, Wojciech; Ziemniak, Witold; Majka, Jolanta; Hahn, Eckhart G; Konturek, Stanislaw J

    2002-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a common pathogen colonizing the a gastric mucosa, but some reports indicated that it may also be found in the oral cavity, which could serve as a reservoir of the bacteria and a source of gastric reinfection. Accordingly, we aimed to study whether the oral cavity, particularly gingival pockets, are colonized by Hp and whether it could be the source of gastric reinfection. We studied 329 patients with dyspeptic symptoms (257 with chronic gastritis, 15 with gastric ulcer, and 57 with duodenal ulcer). The [13C]urea breath test (UBT), gastroscopy, and Hp culture from gastric biopsies were carried out, and material was collected from the oral cavity (gingival pocket) for bacteriological culture and genomic DNA studies. The serum was obtained for anti-Hp IgG and anti-CagA assays and saliva for anti-Hp IgA determination using the ELISA technique. Bacteria in material from gingival pockets and biopsies from the corpus and antrum of stomach of 30 DU patients before and after Hp eradication were also examined by PCR technique, using primers specific for 16S rRNA. All Hp-positive patients (276) were subjected to one week of triple therapy (omeprazole 2 x 20 mg twice a day, clarithromycin 2 x 500 mg twice a day, and metronidazole 2 x 500 mg twice a day). The measurements described above were then repeated at four weeks and six months. Bacteriological culture showed the presence of Hp in the material from oral cavity in about 50% of patients, whereas UBT, used as a gold standard, revealed gastric Hp infection in about 84% of these patients. The eradication was successful in the majority of patients (87%), but about 13% of them were still Hp positive after four weeks and about 21% after six months. Four weeks after Hp therapy, Hp was found in culture from oral samples in 23% (P < 0.05 vs initial) and after six months in 35.1%. The IgA levels recorded in saliva were in a close agreement with UBT results. Hp DNA assessed by PCR in 30 DUs before

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to COPD.

    PubMed

    Shujaat, Adil; Bajwa, Abubakr A; Cury, James D

    2012-01-01

    The development of pulmonary hypertension in COPD adversely affects survival and exercise capacity and is associated with an increased risk of severe acute exacerbations. Unfortunately not all patients with COPD who meet criteria for long term oxygen therapy benefit from it. Even in those who benefit from long term oxygen therapy, such therapy may reverse the elevated pulmonary artery pressure but cannot normalize it. Moreover, the recent discovery of the key roles of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in the pathogenesis of PH provides the rationale for considering specific pulmonary vasodilators that also possess antiproliferative properties and statins.

  16. Large grain cavities from pure niobium ingot

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Kneisel, Peter; Cameiro, Tadeu

    2012-03-06

    Niobium cavities are fabricated by the drawing and ironing of as cast niobium ingot slices rather than from cold rolled niobium sheet. This method results in the production of niobium cavities having a minimum of grain boundaries at a significantly reduced cost as compared to the production of such structures from cold rolled sheet.

  17. Continuous optical discharge in a laser cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivel', Yu. A.

    2016-08-01

    Optical discharge in a laser cavity is experimentally studied. A significant increase in the absorption of laser radiation (up to total absorption) is revealed. Optical schemes for initiation and maintaining of optical discharge in the cavity are proposed for technological applications of the optical discharge.

  18. Fast tuning of superconducting microwave cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, M.; Wilson, C. M.; Persson, F.; Johansson, G.; Shumeiko, V.; Bauch, T.; Duty, T.; Delsing, P.

    2008-11-07

    Photons are fundamental excitations of electromagnetic fields and can be captured in cavities. For a given cavity with a certain size, the fundamental mode has a fixed frequency f which gives the photons a specific 'color'. The cavity also has a typical lifetime {tau}, which results in a finite linewidth {delta}f. If the size of the cavity is changed fast compared to {tau}, and so that the frequency change {delta}f>>{delta}f, then it is possible to change the 'color' of the captured photons. Here we demonstrate superconducting microwave cavities, with tunable effective lengths. The tuning is obtained by varying a Josephson inductance at one end of the cavity. We show data on four different samples and demonstrate tuning by several hundred linewidths in a time {delta}t<<{tau}. Working in the few photon limit, we show that photons stored in the cavity at one frequency will leak out from the cavity with the new frequency after the detuning. The characteristics of the measured devices make them suitable for different applications such as dynamic coupling of qubits and parametric amplification.

  19. Folded cavity design for a ruby resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arunkumar, K. A.; Trolinger, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A folded cavity laser resonator operating in the TEM(00) mode has been built and tested. The new oscillator configuration leads to an increase in efficiency and to better line narrowing due to the increased number of passes through the laser rod and tuning elements, respectively. The modification is shown to lead to cavity ruggedization.

  20. Developing of superconducting niobium cavities for accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pobol, I. L.; Yurevich, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of a study of structure and mechanical properties of welding joints, superconducting characteristics of the material after joining of welded components of superconducting radio frequency cavities are presented. The paper also describes the results of testing of the RF 1.3 GHz single-cell niobium cavity manufactured in the PTI NAS Belarus.

  1. Design of multilamp nonimaging laser pump cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppenheimer, J.D. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    A technique has been developed to design single laser rod, multiple flash lamp pump cavities that allow all of the energy generated by the lamp to pass through the laser rod before entering another lamp cavity. The effective lamp and rod perimeters are matched, guaranteeing maximal concentration and uniformity of pumping.

  2. Mode suppression means for gyrotron cavities

    DOEpatents

    Chodorow, Marvin; Symons, Robert S.

    1983-08-09

    In a gyrotron electron tube of the gyro-klystron or gyro-monotron type, having a cavity supporting an electromagnetic mode with circular electric field, spurious resonances can occur in modes having noncircular electric field. These spurious resonances are damped and their frequencies shifted by a circular groove in the cavity parallel to the electric field.

  3. Compact microwave cavity for hydrogen atomic clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Dejun; Zhang, Yan; Fu, Yigen; Zhang, Yanjun

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented that introduces the compact microwave cavity used in the hydrogen atomic clock. Special emphasis is placed on derivation of theoretical calculating equations of main parameters of the microwave cavity. A brief description is given of several methods for discriminating the oscillating modes. Experimental data and respective calculated values are also presented.

  4. Pulmonary mucormycosis mimicking as pulmonary tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajiv; Marak, Rungmei Sk; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Jagdeep; Sanjay; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-07-01

    Pulmonary Mucormycosis is an uncommon disease caused by fungi of class Zygomycetes. It occurs predminantly in an immunodeficient host most common risk factor being diabetes mellitus. The lesions are localized in the lungs or the mediastinum. We are reporting a case of 70 years old male, having cough, haemoptysis, fever and chest pain. He was on antituberculosis treatment (RHEZ) for last 10 days and was later found to have Pulmonary Mucormycosis on further evaluation.

  5. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Surender; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with bilateral intra-alveolar calcium and phosphate deposition throughout the lung parenchyma with predominance to lower and midzone. Although, etiology and pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, the mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium-phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type II cells resulting in the accumulation and forming of microliths rich in calcium phosphate (due to impaired clearance) are considered to be the cause of the disease. Chest radiograph and high-resolution CT of thorax are nearly pathognomonic for diagnosing PAM. HRCT demonstrates diffuse micronodules showing slight perilobular predominance resulting in calcification of interlobular septa. Patients with PAM are asymptomatic till development of hypoxemia and cor-pulmonale. No therapy has been proven to be beneficial except lung transplantation. PMID:23741096

  6. Recurrent pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Guilherme D'Andréa Saba; Carvalho, Paulo César Ribeiro de; Andrade, Mara Patrícia Guilhermino de; Cusmanich, Maurício Campos; Bandeira, Gustavo; Tozaki, Felipe Shigueo Passos

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient who underwent surgical excision of a lung mass for anatomopathological study. The patient had previously presented with fever, dry cough, and chest pain, together with lung masses detected by chest X-ray, and had undergone thoracotomy for diagnostic investigation on two occasions (1976 and 1981), although a conclusive diagnosis had not been made. A CT scan of the chest revealed large masses with areas of calcification in both lung fields. The anatomopathological study was consistent with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. In the postoperative period, the patient experienced several episodes of bronchospasm, which was reversible with the use of symptomatic medication. At this writing, the patient was receiving maintenance therapy with prednisone (40 mg/day) and had shown clinical improvement. PMID:21085833

  7. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Engleman, P; Liebow, A A; Gmelich, J; Friedman, P J

    1977-06-01

    Twenty patients with pulmonary nodules consisting of concentric hyaline lamellae, usually accompanied by perivascular collections of plasma cells and lymphocytes, were studied. In most instances, the lesions were multiple, bilateral, and mildly symptomatic. Many of these nodules showed all of the staining characteristics of amyloid, but others had an atypical birefringence pattern. No infectious agents were identified, and no consistent pattern of dysproteinemia was observed. Two of the patients had prior histories of tuberculosis. In other cases, the nodules were of unknown origin and pathogenesis. Four cases were complicated by sclerosing mediastinitis, and one, by retroperitoneal fibrosis and amyloidosis. Our current working hypothesis is that these lesions represent an exaggerated and, possibly, continuing immune response, perhaps to one of a number of agents. PMID:262110

  8. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary Cavitation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Catherine W. M.; Elkington, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease of global importance, is facing the emergence of drug-resistant strains with few new drugs to treat the infection. Pulmonary cavitation, the hallmark of established disease, is associated with very high bacillary burden. Cavitation may lead to delayed sputum culture conversion, emergence of drug resistance, and transmission of the infection. The host immunological reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is implicated in driving the development of TB cavities. TB is characterized by a matrix-degrading phenotype in which the activity of proteolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is relatively unopposed by the specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Proteases, in particular MMPs, secreted from monocyte-derived cells, neutrophils, and stromal cells, are involved in both cell recruitment and tissue damage and may cause cavitation. MMP activity is augmented by proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, is tightly regulated by complex signaling paths, and causes matrix destruction. MMP concentrations are elevated in human TB and are closely associated with clinical and radiological markers of lung tissue destruction. Immunomodulatory therapies targeting MMPs in preclinical and clinical trials are potential adjuncts to TB treatment. Strategies targeting patients with cavitary TB have the potential to improve cure rates and reduce disease transmission. PMID:24713029

  9. Tuberculosis, pulmonary cavitation, and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Ong, Catherine W M; Elkington, Paul T; Friedland, Jon S

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease of global importance, is facing the emergence of drug-resistant strains with few new drugs to treat the infection. Pulmonary cavitation, the hallmark of established disease, is associated with very high bacillary burden. Cavitation may lead to delayed sputum culture conversion, emergence of drug resistance, and transmission of the infection. The host immunological reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is implicated in driving the development of TB cavities. TB is characterized by a matrix-degrading phenotype in which the activity of proteolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is relatively unopposed by the specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Proteases, in particular MMPs, secreted from monocyte-derived cells, neutrophils, and stromal cells, are involved in both cell recruitment and tissue damage and may cause cavitation. MMP activity is augmented by proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, is tightly regulated by complex signaling paths, and causes matrix destruction. MMP concentrations are elevated in human TB and are closely associated with clinical and radiological markers of lung tissue destruction. Immunomodulatory therapies targeting MMPs in preclinical and clinical trials are potential adjuncts to TB treatment. Strategies targeting patients with cavitary TB have the potential to improve cure rates and reduce disease transmission.

  10. TESLA cavity driving with FPGA controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Simrock, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The digital control of the TESLA (TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator) resonator is presented. The laboratory setup of the CHECHIA cavity in DESY-Hamburg has been driven by the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology system. This experiment focused attention to the general recognition of the cavity features and projected control methods. The electrical model of the resonator is taken as a consideration origin. The calibration of the signal channel is considered as a key preparation for an efficient cavity driving. The identification of the resonator parameters is confirmed as a proper approach for the required performance: driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time with reasonable power consumption. The feed-forward and feedback modes were applied successfully for the CHECHIA cavity driving. Representative results of experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient.

  11. Experimental study of turbulent axisymmetric cavity flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. H.; Sung, H. J.

    1994-08-01

    An experimental study is made of turbulent axisymmetric cavity flow. The flow configuration consists of a sudden expansion and contraction pipe joint. In using the LDV system, in an effort to minimize refraction of laser beams at the curved interface, a refraction correction formula for the Reynolds shear stress is devised. Three values of the cavity length ( L = 300, 600 and 900 mm) are chosen, and the cavity height ( H) is fixed at 55 mm. Both open and closed cavities are considered. Special attention is given to the critical case L = 600 mm, where the cavity length L is nearly equal to the reattachment length of the flow. The Reynolds number, based on the inlet diameter ( D = 110 mm) is 73,000. Measurement data are presented for the static wall pressure, mean velocity profiles, vorticity thickness distributions, and turbulence quantities.

  12. Voltage control of cavity magnon polariton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, S.; Yao, B. M.; Rao, J. W.; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally investigated the microwave transmission of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) generated by integrating a low damping magnetic insulator onto a 2D microwave cavity. The high tunability of our planar cavity allows the cavity resonance frequency to be precisely controlled using a DC voltage. By appropriately tuning the voltage and magnetic bias, we can observe the cavity photon magnon coupling and the magnetic coupling between a magnetostatic mode and the generated CMP. The dispersion of the generated CMP was measured by either tuning the magnetic field or the applied voltage. This electrical control of CMP may open up avenues for designing advanced on-chip microwave devices that utilize light-matter interaction.

  13. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  14. Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere.

    PubMed

    Millen, J; Fonseca, P Z G; Mavrogordatos, T; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2015-03-27

    Optomechanical cavity cooling of levitated objects offers the possibility for laboratory investigation of the macroscopic quantum behavior of systems that are largely decoupled from their environment. However, experimental progress has been hindered by particle loss mechanisms, which have prevented levitation and cavity cooling in a vacuum. We overcome this problem with a new type of hybrid electro-optical trap formed from a Paul trap within a single-mode optical cavity. We demonstrate a factor of 100 cavity cooling of 400 nm diameter silica spheres trapped in vacuum. This paves the way for ground-state cooling in a smaller, higher finesse cavity, as we show that a novel feature of the hybrid trap is that the optomechanical cooling becomes actively driven by the Paul trap, even for singly charged nanospheres. PMID:25860743

  15. Large Grain Superconducting RF Cavities at DESY

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Brinkmann, A.; Ermakov, A.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G.; Matheisen, A.; Proch, D.; Reschke, D.; Singer, X.; Spiwek, M.; Wen, H.; Brokmeier, H. G.

    2007-08-09

    The DESY R and D program on cavities fabricated from large grain niobium explores the potential of this material for the production of approx. 1000 nine-cell cavities for the European XFEL. The program investigates basic material properties, comparing large grain material to standard sheet niobium, as well as fabrication and preparation aspects. Several single-cell cavities of TESLA shape have been fabricated from large grain niobium. A gradient up to 41 MV/m at Q0 = 1.4{center_dot}1010 (TB = 2K) was measured after electropolishing. The first three large grain nine-cell cavities worldwide have been produced under contract of DESY with ACCEL Instruments Co. The first tests have shown that all three cavities reach an accelerating gradient up to 30 MV/m after BCP (Buffered Chemical Polishing) treatment, what exceeds the XFEL requirements for RF test in the vertical cryostat.

  16. Microphonics Measurements in SRF Cavities for RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.P.; Fuerst, Joel; Kedzie, M.; Sharamentov, S.I.; Shepard, Kenneth; Delayen, Jean

    2003-05-01

    Phase stabilization of the RIA drift tube cavities in the presence of microphonics will be a key issue for RIA. Due to the relatively low beam currents (lte 0.5 pmA) required for the RIA driver, microphonics will impact the rf power required to control the cavity fields. Microphonics measurements on the ANL Beta=0.4 single spoke cavity and on the ANL Beta=0.4 two-cell spoke cavity have been performed many at high fields and using a new "cavity resonance monitor" device developed in collaboration with JLAB. Tests on a cold two-cell spoke are the first ever on a multi-cell spoke geometry. The design is essentially a production model with an integral stainless steel housing to hold the liquid helium bath.

  17. Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter K.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Jelezov, I.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.

    2009-11-01

    In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the “Q-drop” in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

  18. Air flow in a collapsing cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo R.; Gekle, Stephan; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2013-03-01

    We experimentally study the airflow in a collapsing cavity created by the impact of a circular disc on a water surface. We measure the air velocity in the collapsing neck in two ways: Directly, by means of employing particle image velocimetry of smoke injected into the cavity and indirectly, by determining the time rate of change of the volume of the cavity at pinch-off and deducing the air flow in the neck under the assumption that the air is incompressible. We compare our experiments to boundary integral simulations and show that close to the moment of pinch-off, compressibility of the air starts to play a crucial role in the behavior of the cavity. Finally, we measure how the air flow rate at pinch-off depends on the Froude number and explain the observed dependence using a theoretical model of the cavity collapse.

  19. Casimir forces of metallic microstructures into cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenanakis, George; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2015-08-01

    A theoretical estimate of the Casimir force of a metallic structure embedded into a cubic cavity is proposed. We demonstrate that by calculating the eigenmodes of the system we can determine the Casimir force, which can be either attractive or repulsive, by simply changing the geometry of the structures relative to the walls of the cavity. In this analysis, several cases of structures are taken into account, from rectangular slabs to chiral "omega" particles, and the predicted data are consistent with recent literature. We demonstrate that the sidewalls of the studied cavity contribute decisively to the repulsive Casimir force between the system and the nearby top surface of the cavity. Finally, we provide evidence that the medium embedded into the studied cavity (and especially its permittivity) can change the intensity of the Casimir force, while its repulsive nature, once established (owing to favorable geometrical features), remains quite robust.

  20. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  1. Design of half-reentrant SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidlinger, M.; Grimm, T. L.; Hartung, W.

    2006-07-01

    The shape of a TeSLA inner cell can be improved to lower the peak surface magnetic field at the expense of a higher peak surface electric field by making the cell reentrant. Such a single-cell cavity was designed and tested at Cornell, setting a world record accelerating gradient [V. Shemelin et al., An optimized shape cavity for TESLA: concept and fabrication, 11th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, Travemünde, Germany, September 8-12, 2003; R. Geng, H. Padamsee, Reentrant cavity and first test result, Pushing the Limits of RF Superconductivity Workshop, Argonne National Laboratory, September 22-24, 2004]. However, the disadvantage to a cavity is that liquids become trapped in the reentrant portion when it is vertically hung during high pressure rinsing. While this was overcome for Cornell’s single-cell cavity by flipping it several times between high pressure rinse cycles, this may not be feasible for a multi-cell cavity. One solution to this problem is to make the cavity reentrant on only one side, leaving the opposite wall angle at six degrees for fluid drainage. This idea was first presented in 2004 [T.L. Grimm et al., IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 15(6) (2005) 2393]. Preliminary designs of two new half-reentrant (HR) inner cells have since been completed, one at a high cell-to-cell coupling of 2.1% (high- kcc HR) and the other at 1.5% (low- kcc HR). The parameters of a HR cavity are comparable to a fully reentrant cavity, with the added benefit that a HR cavity can be easily cleaned with current technology.

  2. Superconducting cavity tuner performance at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.; Preble, J.; Schneider, W.

    1993-06-01

    At the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), a 4 GeV, multipass CW electron beam is to be accelerated by 338 SRF, 5-cell niobium cavities operating at a resonant frequency of 1497 MHz. Eight cavities arranged as four pairs comprise a cyromodule, a croygenically isolated linac subdivision. The frequency is controlled by a mechanical tune attached to the first and fifth cell of the cavity which elastically deforms the cavity and thereby alters its resonant frequency. The tuner is driven by a stepper motor mounted external to the cryomodule that transfers torque through two rotary feedthroughs. A linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) mounted on the tuner monitors the displacement, and two limit switches interlock the movement beyond a 400 kHz bandwidth. Since the cavity has a loaded Q of 6.6 {center_dot} 10{sup 6}, the control system must maintain the frequency of the cavity to within {plus_minus} 50 Hz of the drive frequency for efficient coupling. This requirement is somewhat difficult to achieve since the difference in thermal contractions of the cavity and the tuner creates a frequency hystersis of approximately 10 kHz. The cavity is also subject to frequency shifts due to pressure fluctuations of the helium bath as well as radiation pressure. This requires that each cavity be characterized in terms of frequency change as a function of applied motor steps to allow proper tuning operations. This paper describes the electrical and mechanical performance of the cavity tuner during the commissioning and operation of the cryomodulus manufactured to date.

  3. Caffeine causes pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kamely, M; Torshizi, M A Karimi; Rahimi, S; Wideman, R F

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), or ascites, is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Experimental models are required for triggering PHS to study the pathogenesis of this syndrome and to select resistant genetic lines. Caffeine increases vascular resistance and promotes systemic hypertension in mammals, but a similar effect of caffeine on the pulmonary circulation had not previously been demonstrated. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of caffeine alone (Exp. 1) or in combination with cold temperature (Exp. 2) on parameters associated with PHS in young broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 288 chicks were distributed among 24 pens and brooded at standard environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 2, 192 chicks were distributed among 16 pens and brooded at cool environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 1 caffeine administered at or above 12.5 mg/(kg BW·d) induced severe PHS and resulted in acute mortality and RVH ( < 0.05). Hematocrit also slightly increased by caffeine supplementation ( = 0.07). In Exp. 2 caffeine-treated broilers exposed to cold temperatures remarkably exhibited PHS incidences and developed RVH with right ventricular to total ventricular weight ratios of 30% or greater. Moreover, hematocrit significantly increased because of caffeine supplementation in cool ambient temperature ( = 0.002). Our data demonstrate that caffeine induces high incidences of PHS in broilers, which is exacerbated by exposure to low temperatures. PMID:27136008

  4. Pulmonary Crohn's Disease in Down Syndrome: A Link or Linkage Problem

    PubMed Central

    Thaver, Danyal; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. It may have pulmonary involvement, which has been rarely reported in pediatric patients. Down syndrome (DS) has been associated with increased frequency of autoimmune diseases. However, associations between CD and DS have been rarely reported. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with known DS and a history of chronic intermittent abdominal pain who presented with persistent pneumonia. Her workup included a chest computed tomography (CT) scan that showed multiple noncalcified pulmonary nodules. An extensive infectious workup was done that was negative. CT-guided needle biopsy of the lung nodules showed necrotizing granulomas. This raised concern for primary CD with extraintestinal pulmonary manifestation. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed, and colon biopsies showed scattered epithelioid granulomas. Based on this information, there was consensus that her lung nodules were secondary to CD. She was started on standard therapy for CD, and her abdominal and respiratory symptoms gradually improved. However, she continues to have mild residual lung calcification and fibrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary CD in a child with DS. The natural history of pulmonary CD in the pediatric population is not very well studied. Furthermore, since DS has been well known to be associated with increased frequency of malignancies and autoimmune conditions due to immune dysregulation, it is difficult to predict the severity and possible complications in this patient. PMID:27462187

  5. Pulmonary Crohn's Disease in Down Syndrome: A Link or Linkage Problem.

    PubMed

    Thaver, Danyal; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. It may have pulmonary involvement, which has been rarely reported in pediatric patients. Down syndrome (DS) has been associated with increased frequency of autoimmune diseases. However, associations between CD and DS have been rarely reported. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with known DS and a history of chronic intermittent abdominal pain who presented with persistent pneumonia. Her workup included a chest computed tomography (CT) scan that showed multiple noncalcified pulmonary nodules. An extensive infectious workup was done that was negative. CT-guided needle biopsy of the lung nodules showed necrotizing granulomas. This raised concern for primary CD with extraintestinal pulmonary manifestation. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed, and colon biopsies showed scattered epithelioid granulomas. Based on this information, there was consensus that her lung nodules were secondary to CD. She was started on standard therapy for CD, and her abdominal and respiratory symptoms gradually improved. However, she continues to have mild residual lung calcification and fibrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary CD in a child with DS. The natural history of pulmonary CD in the pediatric population is not very well studied. Furthermore, since DS has been well known to be associated with increased frequency of malignancies and autoimmune conditions due to immune dysregulation, it is difficult to predict the severity and possible complications in this patient. PMID:27462187

  6. The prevalence and clinical course of HIV-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Samuel D; Worodria, William; Davis, JL; Cattamanchi, Adithya; den Boon, Saskia; Kyeyune, Rachel; Kisembo, Harriet; Huang, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and clinical course of pulmonary cryptococcosis in Sub-Saharan Africa are not well-described. Methods Consecutive HIV-infected adults hospitalized at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) between September 2007 and July 2008 with cough ≥ 2 weeks were enrolled. Patients with negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli were referred for bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL fluid was examined for mycobacteria, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and fungi. Patients were followed two and six months after hospital discharge. Results Of 407 patients enrolled, 132 (32%) underwent bronchoscopy. Of 132 BAL fungal cultures, 15 (11%) grew Cryptococcus neoformans. None of the patients were suspected to have pulmonary cryptococcosis on admission. The median CD4 count among those with pulmonary cryptococcosis was 23 cells/µL (IQR 7–51). Of 13 patients who completed six-month follow-up, four died and nine were improved, including five who had started antiretroviral therapy (ART) but had not received antifungal medication. Conclusions Pulmonary cryptococcosis is common in HIV-infected TB suspects in Uganda. Early initiation of ART in those with isolated pulmonary infection may improve outcomes, even without anti-fungal therapy. This finding suggests that some HIV-infected patients with C. neoformans isolated from respiratory samples may have colonization or localized infection. PMID:20150818

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension: Types and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jones, Lisa J; Mclaughlin, Vallerie V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a panvasculopathy that affects the distal pulmonary arteries and leads to restricted blood flow. This increased afterload leads to adaptive mechanisms of the right ventricle, with eventual failure once it can no longer compensate. Pulmonary hypertension from associated conditions, most importantly left heart disease, i.e. heart failure, can also lead to the same sequela. Patients often experience early vague symptoms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance, and thus PH can elude clinicians until right heart failure symptoms predominate. Evidence-based treatment options with pulmo-nary vasodilators are available for those with PAH and should be employed early. It is essential that patients be accurately categorized by their etiology of PH, as treatment strategies differ, and can potentially be dangerous if employed in the wrong clinical scenario. PMID:24251459

  8. Cardiovascular function in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Visca, Dina; Aiello, Marina; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well. Skeletal mass depletion, which is a common feature in COPD especially in pulmonary emphysema patients, may have also a role in cardiovascular function of these patients, irrespective of lung damage. We reviewed the emerging evidence that highlights the role of lung mechanics and muscle mass impairment on ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and stroke work at rest and on exercise in the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Patients with emphysema may differ among COPD population even in terms of cardiovascular function.

  9. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  10. MedlinePlus: Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... available Research Clinical Trials Journal Articles Resources Reference Desk Find an Expert For You Patient Handouts Summary Pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have chronic breathing problems, including COPD ( ...

  11. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health care ...

  12. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart do not attach normally to the left atrium (left upper chamber of the heart). Instead, they attach ... returns through the pulmonary (lung) veins to the left side of the heart, which sends blood out ...

  13. Reversible Projection Technique for Colon Unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Chowdhury, Ananda S.; Aman, Javed; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Colon unfolding provides an efficient way to navigate the colon in CT colonography. Most existing unfolding techniques only computed forward projections. When radiologists find abnormalities or conduct measurements on the unfolded view (which is often quicker and easier), it is difficult to locate the corresponding region on the 3D view for further examination (which is more accurate and reliable). To address this, we propose a reversible projection technique for colon unfolding. The method makes use of advanced algorithms including rotation-minimizing frames, recursive ring sets, mesh skinning and cylindrical projection. Both forward and reverse transformations are computed for points on the colon surface. Therefore, it allows for detecting and measuring polyps on the unfolded view and mapping them back to the 3D surface. We generated realistic colon simulation incorporating most colon characteristics such as curved centerline, variable distention, haustral folds, teniae coli and colonic polyps. Our method was tested on both the simulated data and 110 clinical CT colonography data. Comparison of polyp size measurements on the unfolded view and the 3D view clearly demonstrates the importance of our reversible projection technique. PMID:20542756

  14. Clinical impact of Clostridium difficile colonization.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Hsiao-Ju; Liu, Hsiao-Chieh; Wu, Yi-Hui; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile can cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic colonization by C. difficile is common during the neonatal period and early infancy, ranging from 21% to 48%, and in childhood. The colonization rate of C. difficile in adult hospitalized patients shows geographic variation, ranging from 4.4% to 23.2%. Asymptomatic carriage in neonates caused no further disease in many studies, whereas adult patients colonized with toxigenic C. difficile were prone to the subsequent development of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). However, the carriage of nontoxigenic C. difficile strains appears to prevent CDAD in hamsters and humans. Risk factors for C. difficile colonization include recent hospitalization, exposure to antimicrobial agents or gastric acid-suppressing drugs (such as proton-pump inhibitors and H2 blockers), a history of CDAD or cytomegalovirus infection, the presence of an underlying illness, receipt of immunosuppressants, the presence of antibodies against toxin B, and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms. Asymptomatic C. difficile carriers are associated with significant skin and environmental contamination, similar to those with CDAD, and contact isolation and hand-washing practices should therefore be employed as infection control policies for the prevention of C. difficile spread. Treating patients with asymptomatic C. difficile colonization with metronidazole or vancomycin is not suggested by the currently available evidence. In conclusion, asymptomatic C. difficile colonization may lead to skin and environmental contamination by C. difficile, but more attention should be paid to the clinical impact of those with C. difficile colonization.

  15. Bacterial Colonization of Particles: Growth and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Tang, Kam; Ploug, Helle

    2003-01-01

    Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present study, we have investigated how this colonization process was further affected by growth and interspecific interactions among the bacteria. Long-term incubation experiments showed that growth dominated over attachment and detachment after a few hours in controlling the bacterial population density on agar particles. In the absence of grazing mortality, this growth led to an equilibrium population density consistent with the theoretical limit due to oxygen diffusion. Interspecific interaction experiments showed that the presence of some bacterial strains (“residents”) on the agar particles either increased or decreased the colonization rate of other strains (“newcomers”). Comparison between an antibiotic-producing strain and its antibiotic-free mutant showed no inhibitory effect on the newcomers due to antibiotic production. On the contrary, hydrolytic activity of the antibiotic-producing strain appeared to benefit the newcomers and enhance their colonization rate. These results show that growth- and species-specific interactions have to be taken into account to adequately describe bacterial colonization of marine particles. Changes in colonization pattern due to such small-scale processes may have profound effects on the transformation and fluxes of particulate matter in the ocean. PMID:12788756

  16. Bacterial colonization of particles: growth and interactions.

    PubMed

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Tang, Kam; Ploug, Helle

    2003-06-01

    Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present study, we have investigated how this colonization process was further affected by growth and interspecific interactions among the bacteria. Long-term incubation experiments showed that growth dominated over attachment and detachment after a few hours in controlling the bacterial population density on agar particles. In the absence of grazing mortality, this growth led to an equilibrium population density consistent with the theoretical limit due to oxygen diffusion. Interspecific interaction experiments showed that the presence of some bacterial strains ("residents") on the agar particles either increased or decreased the colonization rate of other strains ("newcomers"). Comparison between an antibiotic-producing strain and its antibiotic-free mutant showed no inhibitory effect on the newcomers due to antibiotic production. On the contrary, hydrolytic activity of the antibiotic-producing strain appeared to benefit the newcomers and enhance their colonization rate. These results show that growth- and species-specific interactions have to be taken into account to adequately describe bacterial colonization of marine particles. Changes in colonization pattern due to such small-scale processes may have profound effects on the transformation and fluxes of particulate matter in the ocean.

  17. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Colonization of Human Colonic Epithelium In Vitro and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Steven B.; Cook, Vivienne; Tighe, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis and more severe complications, such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pathology is most pronounced in the colon, but to date there is no direct clinical evidence showing EHEC binding to the colonic epithelium in patients. In this study, we investigated EHEC adherence to the human colon by using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) of colonic biopsy samples and polarized T84 colon carcinoma cells. We show for the first time that EHEC colonizes human colonic biopsy samples by forming typical attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions which are dependent on EHEC type III secretion (T3S) and binding of the outer membrane protein intimin to the translocated intimin receptor (Tir). A/E lesion formation was dependent on oxygen levels and suppressed under oxygen-rich culture conditions routinely used for IVOC. In contrast, EHEC adherence to polarized T84 cells occurred independently of T3S and intimin and did not involve Tir translocation into the host cell membrane. Colonization of neither biopsy samples nor T84 cells was significantly affected by expression of Shiga toxins. Our study suggests that EHEC colonizes and forms stable A/E lesions on the human colon, which are likely to contribute to intestinal pathology during infection. Furthermore, care needs to be taken when using cell culture models, as they might not reflect the in vivo situation. PMID:25534942

  18. Multiple chronic benign pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Kalifa, L G; Schimmel, D H; Gamsu, G

    1976-11-01

    Four cases are discussed in which were found unusual multiple chronic pulmonary nodules: leiomyomatous hamartomas, rheumatoid nodules, multiple histoplasmomas, and possible multiple plasma cell granulomas (hyalinizing pulmonary nodules). In each case the initial impression of metastic malignancy was countered by more than 2 years' observation, during which time the lesions appeared to be benign. Histologic examination is necessary to exclude malignancy, although a definitive diagnosis may be difficult to establish. PMID:981596

  19. Pulmonary hydatidosis from Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Arias, Liliana Eugenia; Puzzio, Carla Pia; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Even though different measures are taken including the use of a vaccine in livestock to stop transmission, the continuous diagnoses of cases, mainly of liver and pulmonary hydatidosis, show the failure of the control programs for hydatidosis in our country. A clinical case of pulmonary hydatidosis in a patient from a rural endemic area in Southern Argentina is described. PMID:26629454

  20. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  3. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Girerd, Barbara; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Perros, Frederic; Nossent, Esther; Garcia, Gilles; Parent, Florence; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterised by preferential remodelling of the pulmonary venules. In the current PH classification, PVOD and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) are considered to be a common entity and represent varied expressions of the same disease. The recent discovery of biallelic mutations in the EIF2AK4 gene as the cause of heritable PVOD/PCH represents a major milestone in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PVOD. Although PVOD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) share a similar clinical presentation, with features of severe precapillary PH, it is important to differentiate these two conditions as PVOD carries a worse prognosis and life-threatening pulmonary oedema may occur following the initiation of PAH therapy. An accurate diagnosis of PVOD based on noninvasive investigations is possible utilising oxygen parameters, low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and characteristic signs on high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. No evidence-based medical therapy exists for PVOD at present and lung transplantation remains the preferred definitive therapy for eligible patients. PMID:27009171

  4. Multiple pulmonary sclerosing hemangiomas (pneumocytoma) mimicking lung metastasis detected in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mehta, Sangita; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH), or the alternative name of “sclerosing pneumocytoma,” is a rare benign neoplasm. PSH is often asymptomatic and presents as a solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules on radiologic imaging studies. Few articles have been reported to describe the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings about PSH. The authors describe an interesting but uncommonly encountered cause of false positive FDG PET scan in the thorax in a 25-year-old woman, a known case of arteriovenous malformation of oral cavity who underwent embolization and presented with incidental detection of bilateral lung nodules. She is asymptomatic and is on follow-up. PMID:25210285

  5. Multiple pulmonary sclerosing hemangiomas (pneumocytoma) mimicking lung metastasis detected in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mehta, Sangita; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH), or the alternative name of "sclerosing pneumocytoma," is a rare benign neoplasm. PSH is often asymptomatic and presents as a solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules on radiologic imaging studies. Few articles have been reported to describe the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings about PSH. The authors describe an interesting but uncommonly encountered cause of false positive FDG PET scan in the thorax in a 25-year-old woman, a known case of arteriovenous malformation of oral cavity who underwent embolization and presented with incidental detection of bilateral lung nodules. She is asymptomatic and is on follow-up.

  6. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Causing Colonic Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André Costa; Marques, Ana; Lopes, Joanne; Duarte, Alexandre; da Silva, Pedro Correia; Lopes, José Manuel; Maia, J. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and is caused by a malignant lesion in about 70% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We present a 64-year-old male patient with right colonic intussusception caused by a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), presenting as a giant pedunculated polyp (54 mm of largest diameter). The patient underwent right colectomy with primary anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy. The diagnosis of intussusception of the colon in adults is difficult because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. In this case, the cause was a rare histological type malignant tumor (MANEC). PMID:27525153

  7. Giant ascending colonic diverticulum presenting with intussusception.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Jin; Kim, Jin Ha; Moon, Ok In; Kim, Kyung Jong

    2013-10-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is a common disease, and its incidence is increasing gradually. A giant colonic diverticulum (GCD) is a rare entity and is defined as a diverticulum greater than 4 cm in size. It mainly arises from the sigmoid colon, and possible etiology is a ball-valve mechanism permitting progressive enlargement. A plain abdominal X-ray can be helpful to make a diagnosis initially, and a barium enema and abdominal computed tomography may confirm the diagnosis. Surgical intervention is a definite treatment for a GCD. We report a case of an ascending GCD presenting with intussusception in a young adult.

  8. Early Diagnosis of Colonic Anastomotic Leak With Peritoneal Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gaarden, Morten; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: At present, we do not have a reliable method for the early diagnosis of colorectal anastomotic leakage (AL). We tested peritoneal flexible endoscopy through a port placed in the abdominal wall in the early postoperative course, as a new diagnostic method for detection of this complication and evaluated the suggested method for safety, feasibility, and accuracy. Methods: Ten swine were randomized into 2 groups: group A, colorectal anastomosis without leakage; and group B, colorectal anastomosis with leakage. A button gastrostomy feeding tube was inserted percutaneously into the peritoneal cavity. Colorectal anastomosis (with or without defect) was created 48 hours after the first operation. The swine were examined by peritoneal flexible endoscopy 8 and 24 hours after the colonic operation, by a consultant surgeon who was blinded to both the presence and the allocated location of the of the anastomotic defect. Results: None of the animals showed signs of illness 48 hours after the intraperitoneal gastrostomy tube placement. More than half of the anastomosis circumference was identified in 60 and 10% of the animals at endoscopy 8 and 24 hours, respectively, after the anastomosis was created. Excessive adhesion formation was observed in all animals, irrespective of AL. The sensitivity and specificity of endoscopy in detecting peritonitis 24 hours after AL were both 60%. Conclusions: Peritoneal endoscopy is a safe and simple procedure. Visualization of the peritoneal cavity in the early postoperative course was limited due to adhesion formation. Further studies are needed to clarify the accuracy of the procedure and to address additional methodological concerns. PMID:26273185

  9. Michelson-Morley with a Birefringent Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve, Francisco J.; Hohensee, Michael; Müller, Holger

    2012-06-01

    We report on the progress of a birefringent cavity test of the isotropy of the speed of light. Previous experimental tests have constrained anisotropies in the speed of light at the level of parts in 10^17 [1-2]. These experiments search for frame-dependent variations in the resonant frequencies of two orthogonally mounted optical cavities. Uncorrelated fluctuations in the cavity lengths are a significant challenge for such experiments. Our experiment uses a single dielectric-filled cavity, and measures the difference in the resonant frequency of two orthogonally polarized modes. Anisotropies in the speed of light will manifest as a frame-dependent strain on the dielectric [3-4], giving rise to a frame-dependent variation in the cavity birefringence. By making the length of each cavity mode identical, we expect that our experiment will be less sensitive to thermal cavity fluctuations. [4pt] [1] S. Herrmann, A. Senger, K. M"ohle, M. Nagel, E.V. Kovalchuk and A. Peters, PRD 80, 105011 (2009).[2] Ch. Eisel, A. Yu. Nevsky, and S. Schiller, PRL 103, 090401 (2009).[3] H. M"uller, PRD 71, 045004 (2005).[4] V.A. Kosteleck'y and M. Mewes, PRD 80, 015020 (2009).

  10. Optimized Multi-Ion Cavity Coupling.

    PubMed

    Begley, Stephen; Vogt, Markus; Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Keller, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Recent technological advances in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) are paving the way to utilize multiple quantum emitters confined in a single optical cavity. In such systems, it is crucially important to control the quantum mechanical coupling of individual emitters to the cavity mode. In this regard, combining ion trap technologies with CQED provides a particularly promising approach due to the well-established motional control over trapped ions. Here, we experimentally demonstrate coupling of up to five trapped ions in a string to a high-finesse optical cavity. By changing the axial position and spacing of the ions in a fully deterministic manner, we systematically characterize their coupling to the cavity mode through visibility measurements of the cavity emission. In good agreement with the theoretical model, the results demonstrate that the geometrical configuration of multiple trapped ions can be manipulated to obtain optimal cavity coupling. Our system presents a new ground for exploring CQED with multiple quantum emitters, enabled by the highly controllable collective light-matter interaction. PMID:27314716

  11. Hydroforming of Tesla Cavities at Desy

    SciTech Connect

    W. Singer; H. Kaiser; X. Singer; I. Gonin; I. Zhelezov; T. Khabibullin; P. Kneisel; K. Saito

    2000-07-01

    Since several years the development of seamless niobium cavity fabrication by hydro forming is being pursued at DESY. This technique offers the possibility of lower cost of fabrication and perhaps better rf performance of the cavities because of the elimination of electron-beam welds, which in the standard fabrication technique have sometimes lead to inferior cavity performance due to defects. Several single cell 1300 MHz cavities have been formed from high purity seamless niobium tubes, which are under computer control expanded with internal pressure while simultaneously being swaged axially. The seamless tubes have been made by either back extrusion and flow forming or by spinning or deep drawing. Standard surface treatment techniques such as high temperature post purification, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), electropolishing (EP) and high pressure ultra pure water rinsing (HPR) have been applied to these cavities. The cavities exhibited high Q - values of 2 x 10{sup 10} at 2K and residual resistances as low as 3 n{Omega} after the removal of a surface layer of app. 100 {micro}m by BCP. Surprisingly, even at high gradients up to the maximum measured values of E{sub acc} {approx} 33 MV/m the Q-value did not decrease in the absence of field emission as often observed. After electropolishing of additional 100 {micro}m one of the cavities reached an accelerating gradient of E{sub acc} {ge} 42 MV/m.

  12. Optimized Multi-Ion Cavity Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, Stephen; Vogt, Markus; Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Keller, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Recent technological advances in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) are paving the way to utilize multiple quantum emitters confined in a single optical cavity. In such systems, it is crucially important to control the quantum mechanical coupling of individual emitters to the cavity mode. In this regard, combining ion trap technologies with CQED provides a particularly promising approach due to the well-established motional control over trapped ions. Here, we experimentally demonstrate coupling of up to five trapped ions in a string to a high-finesse optical cavity. By changing the axial position and spacing of the ions in a fully deterministic manner, we systematically characterize their coupling to the cavity mode through visibility measurements of the cavity emission. In good agreement with the theoretical model, the results demonstrate that the geometrical configuration of multiple trapped ions can be manipulated to obtain optimal cavity coupling. Our system presents a new ground for exploring CQED with multiple quantum emitters, enabled by the highly controllable collective light-matter interaction.

  13. Forward Modeling of a Coronal Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a forward model of emission from a coronal cavity in an effort to determine the temperature and density distribution in the cavity. Coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and X-rays. When these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs The model consists of a coronal streamer model with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. We apply this model to a cavity observed in Aug. 2007 by a wide array of instruments including Hinode/EIS, STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/EIT. Studies such as these will ultimately help us understand the the original structures which erupt to become CMEs and ICMES, one of the prime Solar Orbiter objectives.

  14. Profile of bacteria colonizing the exposed bone of patients with anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Zaher; do Nascimento, Cássio; El-Hakim, Michel; Henderson, Janet E; de Albuquerque, Rubens F

    2016-09-01

    Microbial etiology for anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) was suggested. This study investigates any link between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other oral cavity sites. Microbiota samples of 10 ARONJ patients were collected from the exposed bone, adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue. DNA checkerboard hybridization was used for microbiota analysis with 43 genomic DNA probes prepared from human oral bacterial (38) and candida (5) species, using Socransky's bacterial complexes as a guide. The frequency and the mean proportion of each bacterial species were used. Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus constellatus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were dominant in the ARONJ sites and detected in most teeth samples. Staphylococcus aureus was also dominant in the ARONJ sites and tongue. Significant correlations were found between the mean proportions of bacterial species colonizing adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue (p < 0.001, R(2) > 0.69). No significant correlation (p > 0.05, R(2) < 0.025) was found between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other evaluated sites. Within the study limitations, it was concluded that the primary sources of microorganisms colonizing ARONJ sites could be other sites such as teeth and tongue. The microbial profile of the necrotic bone is predominantly colonized with bacteria from Socransky's green and orange complexes, as well as with species associated with bone infections. PMID:27419922

  15. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Ultrafast optical spectroscopy methods, such as transient absorption spectroscopy and 2D-spectroscopy, are widely used across many disciplines. However, these techniques are typically restricted to optically thick samples, such as solids and liquid solutions. Using a frequency comb laser and optical cavities, we present a new technique for performing ultrafast optical spectroscopy with high sensitivity, enabling work in dilute gas-phase molecular beams. Resonantly enhancing the probe pulses, we demonstrate transient absorption measurements with a detection limit of ΔOD = 2 ×10-10 (1 ×10-9 /√{Hz}). Resonantly enhancing the pump pulses allows us to produce a high excitation fraction at high repetition-rate, so that signals can be recorded from samples with optical densities as low as OD 10-8 , or column densities < 1010 molecules/ cm2. To our knowledge, this represents a 5,000-fold improvement of the state-of-the-art. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1404296.

  16. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Brecht, T. Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  17. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, T.; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  18. Gnotobiotic Human Colon Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Frank D.; Folan, David M. A.; Winter, Des C.; Folan, Michael A.; Baird, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background A novel emulsion with efficacy as an agent for eliminating biofilms was selected. The aim of this study was to examine efficacy and effect of a formulation of ML:8 against commensal bacteria harvested from ex vivo human colonic tissues. Methods Mucosal sheets, obtained at the time of surgery, were exposed for 2 minutes to one of four solutions: Krebs-Hensleit (KH) solution, saline (NaCl; 0.9%), povidone iodine (1%), or ML:8 (2%); n = 4. Lumenal surfaces were swabbed for culture under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Following treatment, each sheet was mounted in Ussing chambers and voltage clamped. Tissues were challenged with carbachol. Permeability coefficient (Papp) was determined using mannitol fluxes. At the end of each experiment, tissues were examined histologically. Results Similar colony forming units grew in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in both control and NaCl treated tissues. Iodine reduced and ML:8 virtually abolished viable bacteria. Basal electrophysiological parameters were not different between treatments. Transepithelial electrical resistance values did not differ between groups. All tissues responded to carbachol, although this was attenuated in iodine treated tissue. Papp values were slightly elevated in all treated tissues but this did not reach significance. Histopathological assessment revealed no overt damage to tissues. Conclusion Brief exposure to ML:8 reduced culturable bacterial burden from human intestinal tissues harvested at the time of surgical resection. Such gnotobiotic tissues retain structural and functional integrity. This is a novel approach to reduce bacterial burden. PMID:27785304

  19. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries.

  20. Cavity-Controlled Chemistry in Molecular Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Felipe; Spano, Frank C.

    2016-06-01

    The demonstration of strong and ultrastrong coupling regimes of cavity QED with polyatomic molecules has opened new routes to control chemical dynamics at the nanoscale. We show that strong resonant coupling of a cavity field with an electronic transition can effectively decouple collective electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in a disordered molecular ensemble, even for molecules with high-frequency quantum vibrational modes having strong electron-vibration interactions. This type of polaron decoupling can be used to control chemical reactions. We show that the rate of electron transfer reactions in a cavity can be orders of magnitude larger than in free space for a wide class of organic molecular species.

  1. Clamshell microwave cavities having a superconductive coating

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Arendt, Paul N.; Piel, Helmut

    1994-01-01

    A microwave cavity including a pair of opposing clamshell halves, such halves comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, or a silver-based alloy, wherein the cavity is further characterized as exhibiting a dominant TE.sub.011 mode is provided together with an embodiment wherein the interior concave surfaces of the clamshell halves are coated with a superconductive material. In the case of copper clamshell halves, the microwave cavity has a Q-value of about 1.2.times.10.sup.5 as measured at a temperature of 10K and a frequency of 10 GHz.

  2. Cavity-Assisted Spin Orbit Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chuanzhou; Dong, Lin; Pu, Han

    We consider a single ultracold atom trapped inside a single-mode optical cavity, where a two-photon Raman process induces an effective coupling between atom's pseudo-spin and external center-of-mass (COM) motion. Without the COM motion, this system is described by the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model. We show how the atomic COM motion dramatically modifies the predictions based on the JC model. We also investigated the situation when cavity pumping and decay are taken into account. We take a quantum Master equation approach to study this open system and again show how the cavity-induced spin-orbit coupling affects the properties of the system.

  3. Atom-mirror entanglement via cavity dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lingchao; Hu, Xiangming; Rao, Shi; Xu, Jun

    2015-05-01

    We present a cavity dissipation scheme to prepare a hybrid system of an atomic ensemble and a moving mirror in squeezed and entangled states. This scheme is based on four-wave mixing in the atoms and radiation pressure on the mirror, both of which combine to lead to Bogoliubov interactions of the atoms and the mirror with the cavity fields. Under adiabatic conditions, the cavity fields cause the hybrid Bogoliubov modes to evolve into the vacuum states, which correspond to the two-mode squeezed and entangled states. The dependence of the hybrid entanglement on the system parameters is also presented in and beyond the Bogoliubov interactions.

  4. Multicolor quadripartite entanglement from an optomechanical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Huatang; Li Gaoxiang

    2011-08-15

    We investigate the generation of multicolor quadripartite entangled beams of light with continuous variables via optomechanical coupling in an optical cavity. It is found that the genuine quadripartite entanglement can be achieved among the Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands of two driven cavity fields. This entanglement still exists for the environment temperature up to about 50 K. We also show that the obtained genuine quadripartite entanglement actually results from concurrent four-wave-mixing processes in the system, which can, in principle, be generalized to obtain a genuine 2N-partite entangled state of light from a generic N-mode cavity optomechanical system.

  5. Dielectric detection by an electromagnetic cavity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherall, James C.; Beckley, Howard F.; Gatto, Joseph A.

    2004-09-01

    A method to screen for flammable and explosive materials in bottles by electromagnetic measurement is described. The technique makes use of an aluminum cavity having strong electromagnetic resonances in the radio wave band. An object inserted into the cavity changes the internal field configuration, and causes small, but measurable shifts in the resonant frequencies. The response depends on the electrical permittivity, or dielectric constant, of the material. By measuring the frequency change of many different cavity modes, the dielectric constant of the perturbing object can be inferred independently of the object's size and shape. We demonstrate the detection of materials in bottles using an experimental device.

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in primary amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Lyska L.; Bull, David A.; Hatton, Nathan; Nativi-Nicolai, Jose; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C.; Ryan, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyloidosis involves extravascular deposition of fibrillar proteins within tissues and organs. Primary light chain amyloidosis represents the most common form of systemic amyloidosis involving deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. Although pulmonary amyloid deposition is common in primary amyloidosis, clinically significant pulmonary amyloidosis is uncommon, and elevated pulmonary artery pressures are rarely observed in the absence of other underlying etiologies for pulmonary hypertension, such as elevated filling pressures secondary to cardiac amyloid. In this case report, we present a patient with primary light chain amyloidosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of pulmonary vascular and right ventricular myocardial amyloid deposition. PMID:27252852

  7. Cavity contour segmentation in chest radiographs using supervised learning and dynamic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Maduskar, Pragnya Hogeweg, Laurens; Sánchez, Clara I.; Ginneken, Bram van; Jong, Pim A. de; Peters-Bax, Liesbeth; Dawson, Rodney; Ayles, Helen

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is often monitored using chest radiography. Monitoring size of cavities in pulmonary tuberculosis is important as the size predicts severity of the disease and its persistence under therapy predicts relapse. The authors present a method for automatic cavity segmentation in chest radiographs. Methods: A two stage method is proposed to segment the cavity borders, given a user defined seed point close to the center of the cavity. First, a supervised learning approach is employed to train a pixel classifier using texture and radial features to identify the border pixels of the cavity. A likelihood value of belonging to the cavity border is assigned to each pixel by the classifier. The authors experimented with four different classifiers:k-nearest neighbor (kNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), GentleBoost (GB), and random forest (RF). Next, the constructed likelihood map was used as an input cost image in the polar transformed image space for dynamic programming to trace the optimal maximum cost path. This constructed path corresponds to the segmented cavity contour in image space. Results: The method was evaluated on 100 chest radiographs (CXRs) containing 126 cavities. The reference segmentation was manually delineated by an experienced chest radiologist. An independent observer (a chest radiologist) also delineated all cavities to estimate interobserver variability. Jaccard overlap measure Ω was computed between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation; and between the reference segmentation and the independent observer's segmentation for all cavities. A median overlap Ω of 0.81 (0.76 ± 0.16), and 0.85 (0.82 ± 0.11) was achieved between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation, and between the segmentations by the two radiologists, respectively. The best reported mean contour distance and Hausdorff distance between the reference and the automatic segmentation were

  8. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  9. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  10. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  11. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  12. [Management of traumatic injuries of the colon].

    PubMed

    Wong, J C; Quintero, O; Andrade, R

    1989-01-01

    We have reviewed our experience with penetrating lesions of the colon at the Santo Tomás Hospital. Good results were obtained with immediate suture of the lesions without need for colostomy when favorable conditions permit.

  13. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  14. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  15. [Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of colonic obstruction].

    PubMed

    Legostaeva, T B; Klassovskaia, N Iu

    2007-01-01

    The authors of the present paper outline the results of studying the use of routine transabdominal sonography and ultrasound irrigoscopy (UI) in the diagnosis of acute colonic obstruction (ACO) in 70 patients. The cause of ACO was tumor-induced colonic luminal obturation in 55 patients and colonic evacuatory dysfunction due to congenital anomalies and acquired constrictions of inflammatory genesis in 15 cases. UI was used to determine the presence, degree, and causes of colonic obstruction. The paper details the UI procedure developed by the authors and the ultrasound semiotics of ACO, shown by routine transabdominal sonography and UI. Analysis of the results of the studies allows the authors to state that UI is as highly informative as X-ray irrigoscopy in the diagnosis of ACO and may be included into a diagnostic algorithm in these patients.

  16. Giant colonic diverticulum: radiographic and MDCT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Mahamid, Ahmad; Nachtigal, Alicia; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Shapira-Rootman, Mika

    2015-12-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum (GCD), defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm, is a rare entity that is generally a manifestation of colonic diverticular disease. Because of its rarity and its variable and non-specific presentation, the diagnosis of GCD depends mainly on imaging findings. Knowledge of the spectrum of radiographic and CT features of the GCD is important in making the correct diagnosis and potentially preventing complications. This review focuses on imaging findings characteristic of GCD as well as its complications and radiographic mimics. Teaching points • Giant colonic diverticulum is a rare complication of diverticulosis.• The most common symptom is abdominal pain presenting in approximately 70 % of patients.• Diagnosis is based on imaging findings with plain abdominal radiographs and MDCT.• Treatment consists of en bloc resection of the diverticulum and affected adjacent colon.

  17. Pleomorphic Carcinoma of the Colon: Morphological and Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Giovanni; Barresi, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Irato, Eleonora; Caruso, Rosario Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a poorly differentiated (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) or undifferentiated carcinoma in which at least 10% spindle and/or giant cells are identified, or as a carcinoma constituted purely of spindle and giant cells. Although this entity has initially been shown in the lung, it has been described also in extrapulmonary locations, with only one report for a colonic site. A 65-year-old woman developed a caecal tumour. Gross examination revealed an endophytic/ulcerative mass 7 cm in length. Microscopically, the tumour was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a pleomorphic component that occupied more than 10% of the specimen. The tumour shared these histopathological findings with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma but differed in other clinicopathological features such as a pushing growth pattern, stage pT3N1, and an uneventful outcome 24 months after operation. The pleomorphic component showed morphological and immunohistochemical features compatible with mitotic catastrophe, a non-apoptotic cell death occurring in cycling cells after aberrant mitosis. These features included multinucleation, micronucleation, atypical mitoses, foci of geographic necrosis, as well as immunohistochemical overexpression of p53 and Ki-67. The interpretation of the pleomorphic component as morphological expression of mitotic catastrophe may be useful in comprehending the pathogenesis of this rare neoplasm, and it may have practical implications as a potential cancer therapeutic target. PMID:27462191

  18. Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2006-01-01

    Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era has competing demands from the areas of aeronautics, space science, earth science, space operations and, there are competing demands within the exploration program itself. Under the journey not a race conditions, an entrepreneur thinking about building a hotel on the Moon, with a road to an exploration site, might have difficulty determining where and when NASA might be at a particular place on the Moon. Lunar colonization advocates cannot depend on NASA or other nations with space programs to lead the way to colonization. They must set their own visions, mission goals and schedules. In implementing their colonization programs they will be resource limited. They would be like ``hitchhikers'' following the programs of spacefaring nations identifying programs that might have a fit with their vision and be ready to switch to other programs that may take them in the colonization direction. At times they will have to muster their own limited resources and do things themselves where necessary. The purpose of this paper is to examine current changes within NASA, as a lunar colonization advocate might do, in order to see where there might be areas for fitting into a lunar colonization strategy. The approach will help understand how the ``hitchhiking'' technique might be better utilized.

  19. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  20. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142