Science.gov

Sample records for pulmonary defense mechanisms

  1. Pulmonary defense mechanisms against opportunistic fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, A R

    1989-01-01

    Though of critical importance, nonimmune host defense mechanisms against aspergillosis and mucormycosis are not completely understood. Prevention of these infections presumably requires control of either spore germination and/or hyphal growth by the host. The data suggest that the host provides an important barrier to infection by control of spore or conidia germination, the critical step involving conversion of the fungus to its tissue-invasive form. The mechanisms of host defense against A. fumigatus are not strictly dependent on inhibition of conidia germination. Rather, pulmonary defense against Aspergillus appears to depend to a greater degree on early killing of fungal conidia by alveolar macrophages. In contrast, prevention of mucormycosis appears to require inhibition of fungal spore germination by the bronchoalveolar macrophage, thereby preventing conversion of the fungus to its hyphal form, although resident bronchoalveolar macrophages are unable to kill R. oryzae spores. Thus, host pulmonary defenses to Rhizopus and Aspergillus vary, even in normal animals. The tissue-invasive hyphal forms of the fungi which cause aspergillosis and mucormycosis are too large to be ingested by phagocytic cells. Although macrophages and monocytes can damage hyphae, the bulk of this role appears to fall upon the neutrophil. However, antihyphal mechanisms of neutrophils may not necessarily be identical for all types of hyphae. Moreover, interactions of several potential oxidative and nonoxidative antihyphal mechanisms may define the host's ability to limit fungal infections. In individuals where concentrations of oxidative or nonoxidative substances are limiting or suboptimal, interactions of mechanisms may be required for antihyphal activity, and studies of these interactions are important to gain better knowledge of the defense mechanisms against opportunistic mycoses in the intact host. In summary, at least two distinct lines of defense against Aspergillus and Rhizopus

  2. Current concepts on pulmonary host defense mechanisms in children.

    PubMed

    Wilmott, R W; Khurana-Hershey, G; Stark, J M

    2000-06-01

    The respiratory tract is exposed continuously to noxious agents, microbial organisms, particles, and allergens. It has therefore evolved both innate and specific defense mechanisms. The innate host defense mechanisms include components such as collectins, beta-defensins, lactoferrin, and complement, all of which have an important role in modulating the immune response. Immune protection of the lungs by specific antibody is reviewed. The airways are protected by alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and their origins, regulation, functions, and antimicrobial activity are summarized. Antimicrobial peptides and immune-modulating peptides are likely to have a significant therapeutic role for infection and inflammation in the respiratory tract.

  3. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM.

  4. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  5. Physiological mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    MacIver, David H; Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, Iain R; Revell, Alistair; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is usually related to obstruction of pulmonary blood flow at the level of the pulmonary arteries (eg, pulmonary embolus), pulmonary arterioles (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension), pulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease) or mitral valve (mitral stenosis and regurgitation). Pulmonary hypertension is also observed in heart failure due to left ventricle myocardial diseases regardless of the ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is often regarded as a passive response to the obstruction to pulmonary flow. We review established fluid dynamics and physiology and discuss the mechanisms underlying pulmonary hypertension. The important role that the right ventricle plays in the development and maintenance of pulmonary hypertension is discussed. We use principles of thermodynamics and discuss a potential common mechanism for a number of disease states, including pulmonary edema, through adding pressure energy to the pulmonary circulation. PMID:27659877

  6. Thermoregulatory defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sessler, Daniel I

    2009-07-01

    Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated by an effective thermoregulatory system. Thermoregulatory control is sometimes impaired by serious illness, but more typically remains intact. The primary autonomic defenses against heat are sweating and active precapillary vasodilation; the primary autonomic defenses against cold are arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction and shivering. The core temperature triggering each response defines its activation threshold. Temperatures between the sweating and vasoconstriction thresholds define the inter-threshold range. The shivering threshold is usually a full 1 degrees C below the vasoconstriction threshold and is therefore a "last resort" response. Both vasoconstriction and shivering are associated with autonomic and hemodynamic activation; and each response is effective, thus impeding induction of therapeutic hypothermia. It is thus helpful to accompany core cooling with drugs that pharmacologically induce a degree of thermal tolerance. No perfect drug or drug combination has been identified. Anesthetics, for example, induce considerable tolerance, but are rarely suitable. Meperidine-especially in combination with buspirone-is especially effective while provoking only modest toxicity. The combination of buspirone and dexmedetomidine is comparably effective while avoiding the respiratory depression association with opioid administration.

  7. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Integrating theory, research, and practical applications, this book provides a comprehensive examination of defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. The author describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem,…

  8. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  9. Defense mechanisms: 40 years of empirical research.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on defense mechanisms carried out over the past 40 years with children, adolescents, adults, and psychiatric patients. Both experimental and observational studies are included.

  10. Activation of Hepatic STAT3 Maintains Pulmonary Defense during Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Kristie L.; Allen, Eri; Traber, Katrina E.; Kim, Yuri; Wasserman, Gregory A.; Jones, Matthew R.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia and infection-induced sepsis are worldwide public health concerns. Both pathologies elicit systemic inflammation and induce a robust acute-phase response (APR). Although APR activation is well regarded as a hallmark of infection, the direct contributions of liver activation to pulmonary defense during sepsis remain unclear. By targeting STAT3-dependent acute-phase changes in the liver, we evaluated the role of liver STAT3 activity in promoting host defense in the context of sepsis and pneumonia. We employed a two-hit endotoxemia/pneumonia model, whereby administration of 18 h of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg of body weight) was followed by intratracheal Escherichia coli (106 CFU) in wild-type mice or those lacking hepatocyte STAT3 (hepSTAT3−/−). Pneumonia alone (without endotoxemia) was effectively controlled in the absence of liver STAT3. Following endotoxemia and pneumonia, however, hepSTAT3−/− mice, with significantly reduced levels of circulating and airspace acute-phase proteins, exhibited significantly elevated lung and blood bacterial burdens and mortality. These data suggested that STAT3-dependent liver responses are necessary to promote host defense. While neither recruited airspace neutrophils nor lung injury was altered in endotoxemic hepSTAT3−/− mice, alveolar macrophage reactive oxygen species generation was significantly decreased. Additionally, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from this group of hepSTAT3−/− mice allowed greater bacterial growth ex vivo. These results suggest that hepatic STAT3 activation promotes both cellular and humoral lung defenses. Taken together, induction of liver STAT3-dependent gene expression programs is essential to countering the deleterious consequences of sepsis on pneumonia susceptibility. PMID:26216424

  11. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-10-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.

  12. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

  13. Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Cramer, Phebe

    2003-08-01

    The association between maturity of defense use and psychological functioning was assessed in a group of 95 elementary school children. Defense mechanisms were measured using a valid and reliable storytelling task, and psychological adjustment was assessed through a combination of parent and self-report questionnaires. Correlational analyses indicated that children who relied on the developmentally immature defense of denial reported higher levels of self-rated social anxiety and depression and received higher ratings of parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, children who made use of the developmentally mature defense of identification exhibited higher scores on perceived competence in social, academic, conduct, athletic, and global domains. Significantly, there was no relationship between children's use of denial and their level of perceived competence or between children's use of identification and their degree of maladjustment.

  14. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that is precipitated by hypertrophic pulmonary vascular remodeling of distal arterioles to increase pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in the absence of left heart, lung parenchymal, or thromboembolic disease. Despite available medical therapy, pulmonary artery remodeling and its attendant hemodynamic consequences result in right ventricular dysfunction, failure, and early death. To limit morbidity and mortality, attention has focused on identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant pulmonary artery remodeling to identify pathways for intervention. While there is a well-recognized heritable genetic component to PAH, there is also evidence of other genetic perturbations, including pulmonary vascular cell DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response, and variations in microRNA expression. These findings likely contribute, in part, to dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways akin to what is observed in cancer; changes in cellular metabolism, metabolic flux, and mitochondrial function; and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as key signaling pathways that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. This review will highlight recent advances in the field with an emphasis on the aforementioned molecular mechanisms as contributors to the pulmonary vascular disease pathophenotype. PMID:27213345

  16. Pulmonary defense mechanisms in Boa constrictor.

    PubMed

    Grant, M M; Brain, J D; Vinegar, A

    1981-05-01

    We studied aerosol deposition and the response to inhaled particles and irritants in lungs of Boa constrictor. Snakes which breathed submicrometric particles radiolabeled with 99mTc retained 41.4 +/- 9.9% of the aerosol in the trachea, 42.5 +/- 8.8% in the anterior faveolar regions, and 8.7 +/- 4.1% in the posterior saccular regions of the lungs. Low activity recovered in the gastrointestinal tract over a 5-h period following aerosol exposure indicated slow clearance of inhaled particles. In contrast to mammalian lungs, there are no macrophages resident on the surface of boa lungs, and uningested particles persist for up to 4 days without being phagocytized. Particles and irritant stimuli (Fe2O3, endotoxin, and N-formylmethionylphenylalanine) elicited only eosinophilic granulocytes that were not phagocytic. The numbers of these cells peaked at 24 h following exposure and declined gradually over the next 7 days. Lavage fluid from stimulated snake lungs contained many large lamellar figures continuous with tubular myelin, a form of surfactant. Very little of this material was recovered from control lungs. Response to inhaled particles and lung injury in boas increased surfactant release, elicited eosinophilic granulocytes, but did not recruit phagocytic mononuclear cells.

  17. Defense Mechanisms: Discussions and Bibliographies; General or Multiple, and Specific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This publication considers some Freudian ego mechanisms. The first discussion and bibliography concerns defense mechanisms, in general or in multiple; after which, the discussions and bibliographies concern specific defense mechanisms: denial; displacement, substitution, sublimation; fixation; identification, introjection, incorporation,…

  18. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth`s interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges.

  19. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Günter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. PMID:25703560

  20. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Günter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. PMID:25703560

  1. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars. PMID:26154741

  2. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

  3. Validity of Self-Report Measures of Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed

    Mehlman; Slane

    1994-06-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI), and the FIRO Coping Operations Preferences Enquiry (FIRO) were administered to 187 undergraduates in order to determine convergent and discriminant validity of self-report measures of defense mechanisms. A correlational analysis of the four scales resulted in low correlations among subscales measuring similar defense mechanisms. A factor analysis produced factors based on particular scales rather than identical or similar constructs. Results suggest that self-report measures may not be an effective method for assessing various ego defense strategies.

  4. Defense mechanisms development in typical children.

    PubMed

    Tallandini, Maria Anna; Caudek, Corrado

    2010-09-01

    The defense mechanisms (DMs) of 103 nonreferred children ages 47 to 102 months were assessed through dollhouse play. The authors measured the children's temperament (Temperament Assessment Battery for Children-Teacher Form [TABC]) and verbal capacities (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). Four main findings were derived: (1) DM use decreased with age with different developmental trajectories; (2) regression, displacement, and reaction formation were more frequent in girls and denial more frequent in boys; (3) the number of DMs used was negatively associated with the TABC Adaptability score and positively with the TABC Approach/Withdrawal score; and (4) children who used rationalization and did not use identification and suppression scored better on verbal capacities.

  5. Hyperleptinemia is associated with impaired pulmonary host defense

    PubMed Central

    Ubags, Niki D.J.; Stapleton, Renee D.; Vernooy, Juanita H.J.; Burg, Elianne; Bement, Jenna; Hayes, Catherine M.; Ventrone, Sebastian; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Poynter, Matthew E.; Parsons, Polly E.; Dixon, Anne E.; Wargo, Matthew J.; Littenberg, Benjamin; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that obesity attenuates pulmonary inflammation in both patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in mouse models of the disease. We hypothesized that obesity-associated hyperleptinemia, and not body mass per se, drives attenuation of the pulmonary inflammatory response and that this e_ect could also impair the host response to pneumonia. We examined the correlation between circulating leptin levels and risk, severity, and outcome of pneumonia in 2 patient cohorts (NHANES III and ARDSNet-ALVEOLI) and in mouse models of diet-induced obesity and lean hyperleptinemia. Plasma leptin levels in ambulatory subjects (NHANES) correlated positively with annual risk of respiratory infection independent of BMI. In patients with severe pneumonia resulting in ARDS (ARDSNet-ALVEOLI), plasma leptin levels were found to correlate positively with subsequent mortality. In obese mice with pneumonia, plasma leptin levels were associated with pneumonia severity, and in obese mice with sterile lung injury, leptin levels were inversely related to bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, as well as to plasma IL-6 and G-CSF levels. These results were recapitulated in lean mice with experimentally induced hyperleptinemia. Our findings suggest that the association between obesity and elevated risk of pulmonary infection may be driven by hyperleptinemia. PMID:27347561

  6. Fibrinolytic therapy for mechanical pulmonary valve thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Shabnam; Maleki, Majid; Peighambari, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghpoor, Anita; Ghavidel, Alireza; Elahi, Behrad; Mirzaaghayan, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of prosthetic heart valve thrombosis using intravenous thrombolytics, although an acceptable alternative to surgery, is not complication free, and the literature has a dearth of data on the subject. This study analyzed the results of fibrinolytic treatment (FT) among a single-center group of patients with mechanical pulmonary valve thrombosis. Between 2000 and 2013, 23 consecutive patients with 25 episodes of pulmonary valve thrombosis received FT. The diagnosis of mechanical pulmonary valve thrombosis was established by fluoroscopy and echocardiography. Streptokinase (SK) was used in 24 cases and alteplase in 1 case. The FT was continued a second day for 14 patients (58.3%), a third day for 1 patient, and a fourth day for 1 patient. Echocardiography and fluoroscopy were performed every day until improvement of malfunction was achieved. Of the 23 patients, 19 had complete resolution of hemodynamic abnormalities after FT, 1 had partial resolution, and 2 showed no change. No patient had major complications. Five minor complications were detected, namely, fever, nausea, thrombophlebitis, epistaxi, and pain. Seven patients (30%) experienced recurrence of thrombosis, whereas four patients had surgery (biological pulmonary valve replacement) without re-thrombolytic therapy, one patient was treated with Alteplase, one patient received SK, and one patient received intense anticoagulation using heparin and warfarin. Overall, FT had a success rate of 84%. The results indicate that regardless of the time to pulmonary valve replacement and echocardiographic and fluoroscopic findings, FT was effective in most cases of mechanical pulmonary valve thrombosis. The efficacy increased with second-day thrombolytic therapy. Major complications were not common after lytic therapy for mechanical pulmonary valve thrombosis.

  7. Denial Defense Mechanism in Dialyzed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Zbigniew; Wańkowicz, Zofia; Laudanski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Background It is a struggle to identify the most adaptive coping strategies with disease-mediated stress. Here, we hypothesize that intensity of coping strategies, including denial, in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), varies with type of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Material/Methods We enrolled 60 in-center hemodialyzed patients (HD) and 55 patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We administered the Coping Inventory with Stressful Situation, Profile of Mood States, and Stroop Anxiety Inventory to measure patient coping strategies in the context of their ESRD. Denial defense mechanism was measured via the IBS-R/ED. The Nottingham Health Profile was used to evaluate self-perceived quality of life. Serum potassium, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, albumin, and hematocrit were utilized as the measurements of adequacy of dialysis. Results HD patients had higher self-reported intensity of denial mechanism and avoidance-oriented strategies versus CAPD patients. Because a single strategy is almost never employed, we conducted cluster analysis. We identify 3 patterns of coping strategies using cluster analysis. “Repressors” employed denial and avoidance strategies and were predominant in HD. The second cluster consists of subjects employing predominantly task-oriented strategies with equal distribution among dialyzed patients. The third cluster encompassed a small group of patients who shared higher intensity of both denial and task-oriented strategies. Health-related outcome, anxiety, and mood profile were similar across all patients. Conclusions HD patients predominantly used “repressive” strategies. Patients on RRT utilized denial and avoidance-based strategies to achieve satisfactory outcome in terms of perceived quality of life. We conclude that these coping mechanisms that were previously thought to be inferior are beneficial to patient compliance with RRT. PMID:26094792

  8. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  9. Ego Defenses and Reaction to Stress: A Validation Study of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleser, Goldine C.; Sacks, Marilyn

    1973-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between scores on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory and reaction to an experimental conflict situation in which Ss (85 undergraduate college students) were led to believe that their performance was deficient on a new test of scholastic ability. The pattern of defenses predicted residual posttest estimates of…

  10. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  11. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  12. The circadian clock regulates rhythmic activation of the NRF2/glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense pathway to modulate pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; Gibbs, Julie; Yoshitane, Hikari; Yang, Nan; Pathiranage, Dharshika; Guo, Baoqiang; Sagami, Aya; Taguchi, Keiko; Bechtold, David; Loudon, Andrew; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Chan, Jefferson; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T.J.; Fukada, Yoshitaka; Meng, Qing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The disruption of the NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2)/glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense pathway is a critical step in the pathogenesis of several chronic pulmonary diseases and cancer. While the mechanism of NRF2 activation upon oxidative stress has been widely investigated, little is known about the endogenous signals that regulate the NRF2 pathway in lung physiology and pathology. Here we show that an E-box-mediated circadian rhythm of NRF2 protein is essential in regulating the rhythmic expression of antioxidant genes involved in glutathione redox homeostasis in the mouse lung. Using an in vivo bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model, we reveal a clock “gated” pulmonary response to oxidative injury, with a more severe fibrotic effect when bleomycin was applied at a circadian nadir in NRF2 levels. Timed administration of sulforaphane, an NRF2 activator, significantly blocked this phenotype. Moreover, in the lungs of the arrhythmic ClockΔ19 mice, the levels of NRF2 and the reduced glutathione are constitutively low, associated with increased protein oxidative damage and a spontaneous fibrotic-like pulmonary phenotype. Our findings reveal a pivotal role for the circadian control of the NRF2/glutathione pathway in combating oxidative/fibrotic lung damage, which might prompt new chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of human lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24637114

  13. First Line of Defense: Innate Cell-Mediated Control of Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Vanessa; Rivera, Amariliz

    2016-01-01

    Mycotic infections and their effect on the human condition have been widely overlooked and poorly surveilled by many health organizations even though mortality rates have increased in recent years. The increased usage of immunosuppressive and myeloablative therapies for the treatment of malignant as well as non-malignant diseases has contributed significantly to the increased incidence of fungal infections. Invasive fungal infections have been found to be responsible for at least 1.5 million deaths worldwide. About 90% of these deaths can be attributed to Cryptococcus, Candida, Aspergillus, and Pneumocystis. A better understanding of how the host immune system contains fungal infection is likely to facilitate the development of much needed novel antifungal therapies. Innate cells are responsible for the rapid recognition and containment of fungal infections and have been found to play essential roles in defense against multiple fungal pathogens. In this review we summarize our current understanding of host-fungi interactions with a focus on mechanisms of innate cell-mediated recognition and control of pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:26973640

  14. Girls' use of defense mechanisms following peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Cramer, Phebe

    2003-08-01

    This study explores the relation between girls' social adjustment and their use of defense mechanisms. We recruited girls representing four sociometric status classifications (rejected, neglected, average, and popular), and assessed their use of defense mechanisms both before and after encountering a peer rejection experience in the laboratory. We hypothesized that increasing degrees of social maladjustment would be associated with higher levels of defense use, particularly after encountering a rejection experience. Our results supported these hypotheses. There was a significant negative relationship between social adjustment and defense use, both prior to and immediately following the rejection experience. Categorical analyses revealed that rejected and neglected girls used more defenses following the rejection experience than did popular and average girls.

  15. A content validity study of the defense mechanism inventory.

    PubMed

    Blacha, M D; Fancher, R E

    1977-08-01

    The content validity of the Defense Mechanism Inventory was tested by 20 raters who evaluated each item in terms of which 15 defenses and three ego threats it represented. Items purportedly measuring the global defense categories of principalization, turning against self, and reversal, achieved relatively high rater agreement (over 70%) while projection and turning against Object fared poorly (29% and 39% respectively). Differential content validity was found in the levels and areas of the Inventory, indicating that the context in which items appear affect their representativeness of defensive behaviors. The individual defense mechanisms were disproportionately represented by the Inventory. Ratings suggested that aggressiveness was the major ego threat being measured by the items. Most of the problems appear correctable through rewriting many of the items.

  16. Defense mechanisms development in children, adolescents, and late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, J H; Thomas, S; Hibbard, S; Cogan, R

    1998-12-01

    To replicate and extend Cramer's (1987) original cross-sectional study concerning the development of defense mechanisms, the Thematic Apperception Test responses of 148 students in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11, and college freshmen were collected and scored for denial, projection, and identification using Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual (1991). Our results supported the notion that the relative use of denial and projection decreases and identification increases as a function of grade level. The findings provide additional support for the psychoanalytic view (Freud, 1966) of an ontogenetic developmental line of defense.

  17. Polyphenol oxidase as a biochemical seed defense mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, E. Patrick; Okubara, Patricia A.; Anderson, James V.; Morris, Craig F.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), when wild oat (Avena fatua L.) caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea), non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems. PMID:25540647

  18. Serum Lipoproteins Are Critical for Pulmonary Innate Defense against Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing.

    PubMed

    Manifold-Wheeler, Brett C; Elmore, Bradley O; Triplett, Kathleen D; Castleman, Moriah J; Otto, Michael; Hall, Pamela R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia has been extensively studied in the context of atherosclerosis, whereas the potential health consequences of the opposite extreme, hypolipidemia, remain largely uninvestigated. Circulating lipoproteins are essential carriers of insoluble lipid molecules and are increasingly recognized as innate immune effectors. Importantly, severe hypolipidemia, which may occur with trauma or critical illness, is clinically associated with bacterial pneumonia. To test the hypothesis that circulating lipoproteins are essential for optimal host innate defense in the lung, we used lipoprotein-deficient mice and a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in which invasive infection requires virulence factor expression controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) operon. Activation of agr and subsequent virulence factor expression is inhibited by apolipoprotein B, the structural protein of low-density lipoprotein, which binds and sequesters the secreted agr-signaling peptide (AIP). In this article, we report that lipoprotein deficiency impairs early pulmonary innate defense against S. aureus quorum-sensing-dependent pathogenesis. Specifically, apolipoprotein B levels in the lung early postinfection are significantly reduced with lipoprotein deficiency, coinciding with impaired host control of S. aureus agr-signaling and increased agr-dependent morbidity (weight loss) and inflammation. Given that lipoproteins also inhibit LTA- and LPS-mediated inflammation, these results suggest that hypolipidemia may broadly impact posttrauma pneumonia susceptibility to both Gram-positive and -negative pathogens. Together with previous reports demonstrating that hyperlipidemia also impairs lung innate defense, these results suggest that maintenance of normal serum lipoprotein levels is necessary for optimal host innate defense in the lung.

  19. The Role of Surfactant in Lung Disease and Host Defense against Pulmonary Infections.

    PubMed

    Han, SeungHye; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is essential for life as it lines the alveoli to lower surface tension, thereby preventing atelectasis during breathing. Surfactant is enriched with a relatively unique phospholipid, termed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and four surfactant-associated proteins, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D. The hydrophobic proteins, SP-B and SP-C, together with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, confer surface tension-lowering properties to the material. The more hydrophilic surfactant components, SP-A and SP-D, participate in pulmonary host defense and modify immune responses. Specifically, SP-A and SP-D bind and partake in the clearance of a variety of bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens and can dampen antigen-induced immune function of effector cells. Emerging data also show immunosuppressive actions of some surfactant-associated lipids, such as phosphatidylglycerol. Conversely, microbial pathogens in preclinical models impair surfactant synthesis and secretion, and microbial proteinases degrade surfactant-associated proteins. Deficiencies of surfactant components are classically observed in the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, where surfactant replacement therapies have been the mainstay of treatment. However, functional or compositional deficiencies of surfactant are also observed in a variety of acute and chronic lung disorders. Increased surfactant is seen in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, a disorder characterized by a functional deficiency of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor or development of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies. Genetic polymorphisms of some surfactant proteins such as SP-C are linked to interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we briefly review the composition, antimicrobial properties, and relevance of pulmonary surfactant to lung disorders and present its therapeutic implications.

  20. Effects of arsenic trioxide inhalation exposure on pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Aranyi, C.; Bradof, J.N.; O'Shea, W.J.; Graham, J.A.; Miller, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single and multiple (5 and 20) 3-h inhalation exposures to aerosols of arsenic trioxide on the pulmonary defense system of mice were investigated. Arsenic trioxide mist was generated from an aqueous solution and dried to produce particulate aerosols of 0. 4 micron mass median aerodynamic diameter. Aerosol mass concentration ranged from 125 to 1000 micrograms As/m3. Effects of the exposures were evaluated by determination of changes in susceptibility to experimentally induced streptococcal aerosol infection and in pulmonary bactericidal activity to /sup 35/S-labeled Klebsiella pneumoniae. Significant increases in mortality due to the infectious challenge and decreases in bactericidal activity were seen after single 3-h exposures to 270, 500, and 940 micrograms As/m3. Similarly, 5 or 20 multiple 3-h exposures to 500 micrograms As/m3 produced consistently significant increases in mortality and decreases in pulmonary bactericidal activity. At 125 or 250 micrograms As/m3, a decrease in bactericidal activity was seen only after 20 exposures to 250 micrograms/m3. Results from earlier studies with an arsenic-containing copper smelter dust were compared to these data. The possibility of the development of adaptation during multiple exposures to arsenic trioxide is also considered.

  1. Mechanisms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2015-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are important events that contribute to worsening health status, disease progression, and mortality. They are mainly triggered by respiratory viruses (especially rhinovirus, the cause of the common cold), but airway bacteria are also involved in their pathogenesis. Exacerbations are associated with both airway and systemic inflammation and, this is mainly neutrophilic in origin. Some patients are especially prone to develop exacerbations, and these have been identified as a high-risk group with increased airway inflammation and greater disease progression. Management of acute exacerbations involves therapy with oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics, and new therapies are needed. A number of interventions may prevent exacerbations, including vaccination, long-acting bronchodilators, antiinflammatory agents, and long-term antibiotic therapy. Understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of COPD exacerbations is important to develop novel therapies.

  2. Grooming Behavior as a Mechanism of Insect Disease Defense

    PubMed Central

    Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Yanagawa, Aya; Forschler, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Grooming is a well-recognized, multipurpose, behavior in arthropods and vertebrates. In this paper, we review the literature to highlight the physical function, neurophysiological mechanisms, and role that grooming plays in insect defense against pathogenic infection. The intricate relationships between the physical, neurological and immunological mechanisms of grooming are discussed to illustrate the importance of this behavior when examining the ecology of insect-pathogen interactions. PMID:26462526

  3. Interventional therapy of supravalvular pulmonary stenosis via a mechanical valve in the pulmonary position.

    PubMed

    Habash, Sheeraz; Haas, Nikolaus A; Laser, Kai Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing number of patients with congenital heart disease and pathology of the right ventricular outflow tract in whom a mechanical pulmonary valve replacement is chosen for permanent palliation. Despite corrective surgery, some of these patients may have residual or secondary supravalvular pulmonary stenosis or peripheral pulmonary stenosis, which necessitate interventional therapy after valve replacement. There is a general understanding that interventional therapy via a mechanical valve in pulmonary position may induce mechanical valve dysfunction and should therefore be avoided. We report our experience in three patients with a St. Jude Medical mechanical valve in pulmonary position and supravalvular pulmonary stenosis or a peripheral pulmonary stenosis where we have safely performed standard interventions (i.e., balloon angioplasty and stent implantation) across the mechanical valve without any complications. Our specific technique using a long sheath as safety guard, which holds the mechanical valve open during the procedure but allows the positioning of all mechanical devices and catheters necessary for the procedures, is described. In all patients, the long-term follow-up of the valve function is excellent.

  4. Pulmonary mechanics and diffusion after 'shock lung'.

    PubMed Central

    Yernault, J C; Englert, M; Sergysels, R; De Coster, A

    1975-01-01

    Pulmonary function studies performed in seven patients who had recovered from 'shock lung' showed a highly significant decrease of diffusing properties of the lung, a slight loss of lung recoil pressure, and a borderline increase of residual volume with normal vital capacity and total lung capacity. Pulmonary compliance was normal. The interpretation of these findings is discussed. PMID:1145529

  5. Modulation of pulmonary inflammatory responses and antimicrobial defenses in mice exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Gowdy, Kymberly; Krantz, Quentin T.; Daniels, Mary; Linak, William P.; Jaspers, Ilona; Gilmour, M. Ian

    2008-06-15

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and has been shown to increase the severity of infectious and allergic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on pulmonary inflammation, mediator production and antimicrobial defenses in an exposure model that had previously been shown to increase susceptibility to influenza. BALB/c mice were exposed to filtered air, or to DE diluted to yield 0.5 or 2 mg/m{sup 3} of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) for 4 h per day for 1 or 5 days. Immediately and 18 h after one or five diesel exposures mice were euthanized to assess both immediate and delayed effects. DE exposure for 5 days at either concentration caused higher neutrophil numbers and lesion scoring compared to air controls. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which recruits inflammatory cells and is an entry site for rhinoviruses was increased immediately after 1 or 5 days of DE exposure. Several inflammatory and immune cytokines (TNF-{alpha}, MIP-2, IL-6, IFN-{gamma}, and IL-13) were also upregulated at various time points and concentrations. In contrast, clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), surfactant protein A (SP-A), and surfactant protein D (SP-D) which are important host defense molecules, were significantly decreased at both the message and protein level with DE exposure. We conclude that exposure to moderate and high occupational levels of DE caused an increase in lung injury and inflammation, and a decrease in host defense molecules, which could result in increased susceptibility to respiratory pathogens.

  6. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  7. Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2007-02-01

    Based on longitudinal data from the Institute of Human Development Intergenerational Study, the use and change in defense mechanisms of more than 150 individuals, as assessed from TAT stories, was studied across ages 11, 12, and 18. The findings of this study, based on an earlier generation, were generally consistent with cross-sectional findings from current samples, showing that the defenses of projection and identification were used more frequently than denial at all three ages and that the use of projection and identification increased from early to late adolescence. However, unlike current findings, the 18-year-olds did not show greater use of identification than of projection, perhaps due to IQ differences between this community sample and the samples of more recent studies.

  8. Mechanics of the pulmonary valve in the aortic position.

    PubMed

    Soares, A L F; van Geemen, D; van den Bogaerdt, A J; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Baaijens, F P T

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models can provide valuable information to assess and evaluate the mechanical behavior and remodeling of native tissue. A relevant example when studying collagen remodeling is the Ross procedure because it involves placing the pulmonary autograft in the more demanding aortic valve mechanical environment. The objective of this study was therefore to assess and evaluate the mechanical differences between the aortic valve and pulmonary valve and the remodeling that may occur in the pulmonary valve when placed in the aortic position. The results from biaxial tensile tests of pairs of human aortic and pulmonary valves were compared and used to determine the parameters of a structurally based constitutive model. Finite element analyzes were then performed to simulate the mechanical response of both valves to the aortic diastolic load. Additionally, remodeling laws were applied to assess the remodeling of the pulmonary valve leaflet to the new environment. The pulmonary valve showed to be more extensible and less anisotropic than the aortic valve. When exposed to aortic pressure, the pulmonary leaflet appeared to remodel by increasing its thickness and reorganizing its collagen fibers, rotating them toward the circumferential direction. PMID:24035437

  9. The strawberry plant defense mechanism: a molecular review.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2011-11-01

    Strawberry, a small fruit crop of great importance throughout the world, has been considered a model plant system for Rosaceae, and is susceptible to a large variety of phytopathogenic organisms. Most components and mechanisms of the strawberry defense network remain poorly understood. However, from current knowledge, it seems clear that the ability of a strawberry plant to respond efficiently to pathogens relies first on the physiological status of injured tissue (pre-formed mechanisms of defense) and secondly on the general ability to recognize and identify the invaders by surface plant receptors, followed by a broad range of induced mechanisms, which include cell wall reinforcement, production of reactive oxygen species, phytoalexin generation and pathogenesis-related protein accumulation. Dissection of these physiological responses at a molecular level will provide valuable information to improve future breeding strategies for new strawberry varieties and to engineer strawberry plants for durable and broad-spectrum disease resistance. In turn, this will lead to a reduction in use of chemicals and in environmental risks. Advances in the understanding of the molecular interplay between plant (mainly those considered model systems) and various classes of microbial pathogens have been made in the last two decades. However, major progress in the genetics and molecular biology of strawberry is still needed to uncover fully the way in which this elaborate plant innate immune system works. These fundamental insights will provide a conceptual framework for rational human intervention through new strawberry research approaches. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview and discuss recent advances in molecular research on strawberry defense mechanisms against pathogens.

  10. Respiratory infections may reflect deficiencies in host defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, H Y

    1985-02-01

    Serious respiratory tract infections are rare in the healthy individual and most of the nuisance morbidity that occurs results from nasopharyngeal viral infections that many people get once or twice a year. The economic impact from these upper respiratory tract infections is appreciable, however, in terms of absenteeism from school or work, but unfortunately there is little that can be done to ward them off in a practical way. Pneumonia is an infrequent lifetime experience for most non-smoking adults and when it occurs, unusual circumstances may pertain--a particularly virulent microorganism is in circulation, or perhaps one has been exposed to a newly recognized germ, such as has occurred with Legionella species in the past 8 years or so. What protects us the great majority of the time is a very effective network of respiratory tract host defenses. These include many mechanical and anatomical barrier mechanisms concentrated in nose and throat; mucociliary clearance, coughing and mucosal immunoglobulins in the conducting airways and in the air-exchange region of the alveolar structures, phagocytes, opsonins, complement, surfactant and many other factors combine to clear infectious agents. The ability to mount an inflammatory response in the alveoli may represent the maximal and ultimate expression of local host defense. In some way these host defenses are combating constantly the influx of micro-organisms, usually inhaled or aspirated into the airways, that try to gain a foothold on the mucosal surface and colonize it. But many general changes in overall health such as debility, poor nutrition, metabolic derangements, bone marrow suppression and perhaps aging promote abnormal microbial colonization and undermine the body's defenses that try to cope with the situation. It is a dynamic struggle. The departure from normal respiratory health may not be obvious immediately to the patient or to the physician and repeated episodes of infection or persisting symptoms of

  11. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  12. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  13. Do toxic heavy metals affect antioxidant defense mechanisms in humans?

    PubMed

    Wieloch, Monika; Kamiński, Piotr; Ossowska, Anna; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Dymek, Grażyna; Mańkowska, Aneta; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to prove whether anthropogenic pollution affects antioxidant defense mechanisms such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, ferritin (FRT) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) in human serum. The study area involves polluted and salted environment (Kujawy region; northern-middle Poland) and Tuchola Forestry (unpolluted control area). We investigated 79 blood samples of volunteers from polluted area and 82 from the control in 2008 and 2009. Lead, cadmium and iron concentrations were measured in whole blood by the ICP-MS method. SOD and CAT activities were measured in serum using SOD and CAT Assay Kits by the standardized colorimetric method. Serum TAS was measured spectrophotometrically by the modified Benzie and Strain (1996) method and FRT concentration-by the immunonefelometric method. Pb and Cd levels and SOD activity were higher in volunteers from polluted area as compared with those from the control (0.0236 mg l(-1) vs. 0.014 mg l(-1); 0.0008 mg l(-1) vs. 0.0005 mg l(-1); 0.137 Um l(-1) vs. 0.055 Um l(-1), respectively). Fe level, CAT activity and TAS were lower in serum of volunteers from polluted area (0.442 g l(-1) vs. 0.476 gl(-1); 3.336 nmol min(-1)ml(-1) vs. 6.017 nmol min(-1)ml(-1); 0.731 Trolox-equivalents vs. 0.936 Trolox-equivalents, respectively), whilst differences in FRT concentration were not significant (66.109 μg l(-1) vs. 37.667 μg l(-1), p=0.3972). Positive correlations between Pb (r=0.206), Cd (r=0.602) and SOD in the inhabitants of polluted area, and between Cd and SOD in the control (r=0.639) were shown. In volunteers from both studied environments TAS-FRT (polluted: r=0.625 vs. control: r=0.837) and Fe-FRT (polluted area: r=0.831 vs. control: r=0.407) correlations, and Pb-FRT (r=0.360) and Pb-TAS (r=0.283) in the control were stated. The higher lead and cadmium concentrations in blood cause an increase of SOD activity. It suggests that this is one of the defense mechanisms of an

  14. The comprehensive assessment of defense style: measuring defense mechanisms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laor, N; Wolmer, L; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study introduces the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS), a new method to assess descriptively the defensive behavior of children and adolescents. Parents of 124 children and adolescents referred to a mental health clinic, of 104 nontreated children, and of 15 children whose fathers were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder completed the CADS. Factor analysis of 28 defenses yielded one mature factor, one immature factor of defenses expressed in relations with the environment (other-oriented), and one of defenses expressed in relations with the self (self-oriented). The CADS significantly discriminated between patients and nonpatients. Psychiatric patients used more immature and fewer mature defenses than control subjects, and adolescents used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than children. Girls used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than boys. The reliability and validity data of the CADS are encouraging. The three defense factors may be implemented for diagnostic and clinical purposes as well as for screening for psychopathology risk in untreated populations.

  15. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  16. Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  17. Pulmonary artery dilatation: an overlooked mechanism for angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan A; Enache, Roxana; Ungureanu, Catalina; Deleanu, Dan; Platon, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery may lead to the compression of adjacent structures. Of those, the extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery is the most worrisome. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary artery dilatation due to severe, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. She also had angina and coronary angiography revealed a 70% ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. The presence of this isolated lesion in a young woman without risk factors for atherosclerosis suggests extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated pulmonary artery as the likely mechanism. The patient underwent direct stenting of the left main coronary stenosis with a good result.

  18. Host defense mechanism-based rational design of live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yo Han; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Eun-Sook; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Yoon-Jae; Lee, Jinhee; Kim, Kyun-Hwan; Seong, Baik Lin

    2013-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccine (LAV), mimicking natural infection, provides an excellent protection against microbial infection. The development of LAV, however, still remains highly empirical and the rational design of clinically useful LAV is scarcely available. Apoptosis and caspase activation are general host antiviral responses in virus-infected cells. Utilizing these tightly regulated host defense mechanisms, we present a novel apoptosis-triggered attenuation of viral virulence as a rational design of live attenuated vaccine with desired levels of safety, efficacy, and productivity. Mutant influenza viruses carrying caspase recognition motifs in viral NP and the interferon-antagonist NS1 proteins were highly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo by caspase-mediated cleavage of those proteins in infected cells. Both viral replication and interferon-resistance were substantially reduced, resulting in a marked attenuation of virulence of the virus. Despite pronounced attenuation, the viruses demonstrated high growth phenotype in embryonated eggs at lower temperature, ensuring its productivity. A single dose vaccination with the mutant virus elicited high levels of systemic and mucosal antibody responses and provided complete protection against both homologous and heterologous lethal challenges in mouse model. While providing a practical means to generate seasonal or pandemic influenza live vaccines, the sensitization of viral proteins to pathogen-triggered apoptotic signals presents a potentially universal, mechanism-based rational design of live vaccines against many viral infections.

  19. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change…

  20. Pulmonary barotrauma after a free dive--a possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kol, S; Weisz, G; Melamed, Y

    1993-03-01

    Pulmonary barotrauma during scuba diving is a life-threatening event. In a skin diver, who does not use compressed air, this complication is rare and its pathophysiology is not readily understood. We present a young, healthy skin diver who suffered pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema after a sequence of free dives to 5 m, and suggest a possible mechanism.

  1. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors), defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78) were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62) and Mature (5.60) mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p < 0.05). Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school. PMID:20109240

  2. Factors that influence the suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Doerfler, D.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O3) has been shown to increase susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. The study investigated the effect of O3 exposure on the ability of mice to combat an infectious challenge of Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Following a 3-h exposure to either air, 0.4 ppm O3, or 0.8 ppm O3, 5- and 9-week-old mice received an aerosol infection of bacteria. Intrapulmonary killing of the bacteria was impaired in the O3-exposed mice. The effect was most severe at the higher dose of O3 in the younger mice, and showed good correlation to subsequent mortality assessed over a 20-day period. Alveolar macrophages (AM) from O3-exposed mice had an impaired ability to phagocytose the bacteria. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, which are known to depress AM function, were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the younger mice following exposure to O3, while pretreatment with indomethacin in the drinking water blunted the increased of PGE2 and reduced O3 enhanced mortality from 53 to 33%. The data show that O3 inhalation can reduce the defensive capability of the murine lung and that this is associated with a reduction in AM phagocytosis. (Copyright (c) 1993 Taylor Francis.)

  3. Serine/threonine protein phosphatases: multi-purpose enzymes in control of defense mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatases are a group of enzymes involved in the regulation of defense mechanisms in plants. This paper describes the effects of an inhibitor of these enzymes on the expression of all of the genes associated with these defense mechanisms. The results suggest that inhibi...

  4. Pulmonary hypertension associated with sarcoidosis: mechanisms, haemodynamics and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, H; Humbert, M; Capron, F; Brauner, M; Sitbon, O; Battesti, J‐P; Simonneau, G; Valeyre, D

    2006-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare complication of sarcoidosis, although it is not uncommon in advanced disease. Methods A retrospective series of 22 sarcoidosis patients (16 men) of mean (SD) age 46 (13) years with PH was divided into two groups depending on the absence (stage 0: n = 2, stage II: n = 4, stage III: n = 1) or presence (n = 15) of radiographic pulmonary fibrosis at the time of PH diagnosis. Results In both groups PH was moderate to severe and there was no response to acute vasodilator challenge. In non‐fibrotic cases no other cause of PH was found, suggesting a specific sarcoidosis vasculopathy, although no histological specimens were available. In cases with fibrosis there was no correlation between haemodynamics and lung volumes or arterial oxygen tensions, suggesting other mechanisms for PH in addition to pulmonary destruction and hypoxaemia. These included extrinsic arterial compression by lymphadenopathies in three cases and histologically proven pulmonary veno‐occlusive disease in the five patients who underwent lung transplantation. Ten patients received high doses of oral prednisone for PH (stage 0: n  =  1, stage II: n  =  4 and stage IV: n  =  5); three patients without pulmonary fibrosis experienced a sustained haemodynamic response. Survival of the overall population was poor (59% at 5 years). Mortality was associated with NYHA functional class IV but not with haemodynamic parameters or with lung function. Conclusion Two very different phenotypes of sarcoidosis combined with PH are observed depending on the presence or absence of pulmonary fibrosis. PH is a severe complication of sarcoidosis. PMID:16227329

  5. Anomalies and specific functions in the clinical identification of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Standard teaching about defense mechanisms generally focuses on definitions, which do not readily aid the clinician in identifying defenses whenever individuals use them. This report demonstrates a process by which the clinician can identify when a defense is used, which ones are likely being used, and with what aim. Clinicians first notice that a defense may be operating whenever the other individual presents with anomalies in the expression of affect, behavior, speech, or its content. Some of these anomalies are described. Next, to identify the specific defense or general level of defensive functioning used, the clinician must identify the specific function of the defense in context using a process of guided clinical inference. This report examines 2 verbatim examples from recorded interviews of one case to demonstrate this process. The examples present a microcosm of clinical concerns that have a surprising relationship to the individual's course and prognosis.

  6. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  7. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  8. Factors that influence the suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Doerfler, D.; Selgrade, M.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Exposure to ozone (O3) has been shown to increase susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. This study investigated the effect of O3 exposure on the ability of mice to combat an infectious challenge of Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Following a 3-h exposure to either air, 0.4 ppm O3, or 0.8 ppm O3, 5- and 9-week-old mice received an aerosol infection of bacteria. Intrapulmonary killing of the bacteria was impaired in the O3-exposed mice. The effect was most severe at the higher dose of O3 in the younger mice, and showed good correlation to subsequent mortality assessed over a 20-day period. Alveolar macrophages (AM) from O3-exposed mice had an impaired ability to phagocytose the bacteria. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, which are known to depress AM function, were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the younger mice following exposure to O3, while pretreatment with indomethacin in the drinking water blunted the increased of PGE2 and reduced O3 enhanced mortality from 53 to 33%. The data show that O3 inhalation can reduce the defensive capability of the murine lung and that this is associated with a reduction in AM phagocytosis. The defect is more marked in young mice, suggesting that they may be more susceptible to oxidant exposure. Further studies are required to distinguish between direct toxicity of O3 on the AM and indirect suppression due to modulation of pharmacologic or inflammatory mediators.

  9. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Rialp Cervera, G; del Castillo Blanco, A; Pérez Aizcorreta, O; Parra Morais, L

    2014-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with conventional therapy improves the outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure due to hypercapnic decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). This review summarizes the main effects of NIV in these pathologies. In COPD, NIV improves gas exchange and symptoms, reducing the need for endotracheal intubation, hospital mortality and hospital stay compared with conventional oxygen therapy. NIV may also avoid reintubation and may decrease the length of invasive mechanical ventilation. In ACPE, NIV accelerates the remission of symptoms and the normalization of blood gas parameters, reduces the need for endotracheal intubation, and is associated with a trend towards lesser mortality, without increasing the incidence of myocardial infarction. The ventilation modality used in ACPE does not affect the patient prognosis.

  10. Change in coping and defense mechanisms across adulthood: longitudinal findings in a European American sample.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L; Lumley, Mark A; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-02-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change trajectories for sublimation and suppression showed that their use increased from adolescence to late middle age and early old age and remained mostly stable into late old age. The change trajectory for intellectualization showed that the use of this defense mechanism increased from adolescence to middle age, remained stable until late midlife, and started to decline thereafter. The defense mechanisms of doubt, displacement, and regression showed decreases from adolescence until early old age, with increases occurring again after the age of 65. Linear age-related decreases were found for the coping mechanism of ego regression and the defense mechanisms of isolation and rationalization. Gender and socioeconomic status were associated with the mean levels of several coping and defense mechanisms but did not moderate age-related changes. Increases in ego level were associated with increased use of the defense mechanism intellectualization and decreased use of the defense mechanisms of doubt and displacement. Overall, these findings in a European American sample suggest that most individuals showed development in the direction of more adaptive and less maladaptive coping and defense strategies from adolescence until late middle age or early old age. However, in late old age this development was reversed, presenting potential challenges to the adaptive capacity of older adults.

  11. Modulation of pulmonary inflammatory responses and anti-microbial defenses in mice exposed to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and has been shown to increase the severity of infectious and allergic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on pulmonary inflammation, mediator production and ...

  12. 17β-Estradiol Attenuates Conduit Pulmonary Artery Mechanical Property Changes With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiping; Tian, Lian; Golob, Mark; Eickhoff, Jens C; Boston, Madison; Chesler, Naomi C

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a rapidly fatal vascular disease, strikes women more often than men. Paradoxically, female PAH patients have better prognosis and survival rates than males. The female sex hormone 17β-estradiol has been linked to the better outcome of PAH in females; however, the mechanisms by which 17β-estradiol alters PAH progression and outcomes remain unclear. Because proximal pulmonary arterial (PA) stiffness, one hallmark of PAH, is a powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, we hypothesized that 17β-estradiol attenuates PAH-induced changes in mechanical properties in conduit proximal PAs, which imparts hemodynamic and energetic benefits to right ventricular function. To test this hypothesis, female mice were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol or placebo. PAH was induced in mice using SU5416 and chronic hypoxia. Extra-lobar left PAs were isolated and mechanically tested ex vivo to study both static and frequency-dependent mechanical behaviors in the presence or absence of smooth muscle cell activation. Our static mechanical test showed significant stiffening of large PAs with PAH (P<0.05). 17β-Estradiol restored PA compliance to control levels. The dynamic mechanical test demonstrated that 17β-estradiol protected the arterial wall from the PAH-induced frequency-dependent decline in dynamic stiffness and loss of viscosity with PAH (P<0.05). As demonstrated by the in vivo measurement of PA hemodynamics via right ventricular catheterization, modulation by 17β-estradiol of mechanical proximal PAs reduced pulsatile loading, which contributed to improved ventricular-vascular coupling. This study provides a mechanical mechanism for delayed disease progression and better outcome in female PAH patients and underscores the therapeutic potential of 17β-estradiol in PAH. PMID:26418020

  13. Evaluating ego defense mechanisms using clinical interviews: an empirical study of adolescent diabetic and psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A M; Beardslee, W; Hauser, S T; Noam, G G; Powers, S I; Houlihan, J; Rider, E

    1986-12-01

    Ego defense mechanisms were studied in three groups of early adolescents: diabetic patients, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, and healthy high school students. Defenses were assessed from ratings of open-ended, in-depth interviews. High levels of denial and low levels of asceticism were found in all three groups. Comparisons between groups indicated that psychiatric patients had a distinctive profile of defense usage, in comparison to adolescents from the other two groups. An independent measure of ego development was positively correlated with the defenses of altruism, intellectualization, and suppression, while it was negatively correlated with acting out, avoidance, denial, displacement, projection, and repression. The findings of substantial differences in defense usage between the psychiatric and non-psychiatric samples, and the size and directions of the correlations with ego development level, lend support to the validity of the defense codes.

  14. Pulmonary hyperinflation. A form of barotrauma during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Baeza, O R; Wagner, R B; Lowery, B D

    1975-11-01

    Barotrauma has been used to describe several specific complications related to mechanical ventilation. These include tension lung cyst, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, and subcutaneous emphysema. Pulmonary hyperinflation, another such complication, occurred in 6 patients, being fatal in 3. Two pathophysiologic mechanisms are discussed. The simpler, and well-recognized, ball-valve airway obstruction allows inspiration of air delivered by the mechanical ventilator but prevents expiration. A more complex circumstance exists when pulmonary contusion or infiltration produces differential lung compliances. This allows extreme hyperinflation of areas of normal lung during attempts to ventilate abnormal lung of low compliance. This mechanism is particularly evident when positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in an attempt to open collapsed ventilatory units. Functional complications of lung hyperinflation include decreased alveolar ventilation and compression effects on adjacent structures. Interference with and shifts of regional lung perfusion may worsen gas exchange. Proper treatment includes airway clearance by bronchoscopy, the judicious use of bronchodilators, the discontinuance of PEEP, and adjustments of mechanical ventilators to prevent high airway pressures.

  15. Large Right Ventricular Clot in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum: In Defense of Biventricular Approach.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Awasthy, Neeraj; Iyer, Parvathi U; Girotra, Sumir; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-09-01

    Thrombus formation within the right ventricle (RV) in the setting of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) is not a very common occurrence and can be catastrophic. We present the case of a seven-month-old child with PAIVS and RV clot who successfully underwent biventricular repair. We discuss the interesting case and the rationale for management by means of biventricular repair over single ventricle repair when feasible in such a setting.

  16. Exposure to Electronic Cigarettes Impairs Pulmonary Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Viral Defenses in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Sussan, Thomas E.; Gajghate, Sachin; Thimmulappa, Rajesh K.; Ma, Jinfang; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Sudini, Kuladeep; Consolini, Nicola; Cormier, Stephania A.; Lomnicki, Slawo; Hasan, Farhana; Pekosz, Andrew; Biswal, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) have experienced sharp increases in popularity over the past five years due to many factors, including aggressive marketing, increased restrictions on conventional cigarettes, and a perception that E-cigs are healthy alternatives to cigarettes. Despite this perception, studies on health effects in humans are extremely limited and in vivo animal models have not been generated. Presently, we determined that E-cig vapor contains 7x1011 free radicals per puff. To determine whether E-cig exposure impacts pulmonary responses in mice, we developed an inhalation chamber for E-cig exposure. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor contained serum cotinine concentrations that are comparable to human E-cig users. E-cig exposure for 2 weeks produced a significant increase in oxidative stress and moderate macrophage-mediated inflammation. Since, COPD patients are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, we tested effects of E-cigs on immune response. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor showed significantly impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, compared to air-exposed mice, following an intranasal infection with Streptococcus pneumonia. This defective bacterial clearance was partially due to reduced phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages from E-cig exposed mice. In response to Influenza A virus infection, E-cig exposed mice displayed increased lung viral titers and enhanced virus-induced illness and mortality. In summary, this study reports a murine model of E-cig exposure and demonstrates that E-cig exposure elicits impaired pulmonary anti-microbial defenses. Hence, E-cig exposure as an alternative to cigarette smoking must be rigorously tested in users for their effects on immune response and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25651083

  17. Altered artery mechanics and structure in monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Langleben, D; Szarek, J L; Coflesky, J T; Jones, R C; Reid, L M; Evans, J N

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in rats, induced by an injection of monocrotaline, is associated with changes in the wall structure of the pulmonary arterial bed. We have studied the effects of this remodeling on mechanical properties of cylindrical pulmonary artery segments from rats 21 days after monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Resting and active (KCl induced) circumference-tension relationships were established for segments of extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary arteries isolated from the hilum and the fifth lateral branch from the axial pathway (all preacinar). The thicknesses of the vessel wall, the media, and adventitia were measured at several positions around the circumference of the artery by computerized analysis of histological cross sections of the segments fixed at a standard circumference. Resting and active stress were also calculated. The study shows that active circumferential tension and active stress are reduced in vessels from MCT-treated rats. Based on our findings, it is unlikely that altered contractile function of preacinar arteries contributes significantly to the increased vascular resistance seen in this model. PMID:3145283

  18. The Child's Demystification of Psychological Defense Mechanisms: A Structural and Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Michael J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Explored the relationships between the cognitive developmental level of preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational children (N=10) and their success in interpreting and explaining each of eight commonly described mechanisms of psychological defense. (JMB)

  19. Study of Defensive Methods and Mechanisms in Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive Behavior (Externalization) Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, H. R.; Zamani, N.; Darvishi, M.; Khansari, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question’s questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family(25.2± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ±1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ±1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6±2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation(9.2±1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention. PMID:25363187

  20. Heterogeneous mechanics of the mouse pulmonary arterial network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pilhwa; Carlson, Brian E; Chesler, Naomi; Olufsen, Mette S; Qureshi, M Umar; Smith, Nicolas P; Sochi, Taha; Beard, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Individualized modeling and simulation of blood flow mechanics find applications in both animal research and patient care. Individual animal or patient models for blood vessel mechanics are based on combining measured vascular geometry with a fluid structure model coupling formulations describing dynamics of the fluid and mechanics of the wall. For example, one-dimensional fluid flow modeling requires a constitutive law relating vessel cross-sectional deformation to pressure in the lumen. To investigate means of identifying appropriate constitutive relationships, an automated segmentation algorithm was applied to micro-computerized tomography images from a mouse lung obtained at four different static pressures to identify the static pressure-radius relationship for four generations of vessels in the pulmonary arterial network. A shape-fitting function was parameterized for each vessel in the network to characterize the nonlinear and heterogeneous nature of vessel distensibility in the pulmonary arteries. These data on morphometric and mechanical properties were used to simulate pressure and flow velocity propagation in the network using one-dimensional representations of fluid and vessel wall mechanics. Moreover, wave intensity analysis was used to study effects of wall mechanics on generation and propagation of pressure wave reflections. Simulations were conducted to investigate the role of linear versus nonlinear formulations of wall elasticity and homogeneous versus heterogeneous treatments of vessel wall properties. Accounting for heterogeneity, by parameterizing the pressure/distention equation of state individually for each vessel segment, was found to have little effect on the predicted pressure profiles and wave propagation compared to a homogeneous parameterization based on average behavior. However, substantially different results were obtained using a linear elastic thin-shell model than were obtained using a nonlinear model that has a more

  1. Heterogeneous mechanics of the mouse pulmonary arterial network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pilhwa; Carlson, Brian E; Chesler, Naomi; Olufsen, Mette S; Qureshi, M Umar; Smith, Nicolas P; Sochi, Taha; Beard, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Individualized modeling and simulation of blood flow mechanics find applications in both animal research and patient care. Individual animal or patient models for blood vessel mechanics are based on combining measured vascular geometry with a fluid structure model coupling formulations describing dynamics of the fluid and mechanics of the wall. For example, one-dimensional fluid flow modeling requires a constitutive law relating vessel cross-sectional deformation to pressure in the lumen. To investigate means of identifying appropriate constitutive relationships, an automated segmentation algorithm was applied to micro-computerized tomography images from a mouse lung obtained at four different static pressures to identify the static pressure-radius relationship for four generations of vessels in the pulmonary arterial network. A shape-fitting function was parameterized for each vessel in the network to characterize the nonlinear and heterogeneous nature of vessel distensibility in the pulmonary arteries. These data on morphometric and mechanical properties were used to simulate pressure and flow velocity propagation in the network using one-dimensional representations of fluid and vessel wall mechanics. Moreover, wave intensity analysis was used to study effects of wall mechanics on generation and propagation of pressure wave reflections. Simulations were conducted to investigate the role of linear versus nonlinear formulations of wall elasticity and homogeneous versus heterogeneous treatments of vessel wall properties. Accounting for heterogeneity, by parameterizing the pressure/distention equation of state individually for each vessel segment, was found to have little effect on the predicted pressure profiles and wave propagation compared to a homogeneous parameterization based on average behavior. However, substantially different results were obtained using a linear elastic thin-shell model than were obtained using a nonlinear model that has a more

  2. Change in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: the role of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the relation of defense mechanism to children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, as assessed from mothers' report at age 9 and 12 years, based on archival data. The defense mechanisms of denial, projection, and identification were assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories told by the children at age 9 years, using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, The development of defense mechanisms: Theory, research and assessment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991a; Protecting the self: Defense mechanisms in action. New York: Guilford Press, 2006). The results showed that the use of identification predicted a decrease in externalizing behaviors between age 9 and 12 years. In contrast, change in internalizing behaviors was not predicted by defense use, but the use of projection was related to fewer internalizing behaviors at both ages. These findings are consistent with the idea that behavioral intervention stressing self-regulation can be effective in reducing externalizing problems, but internalizing problems require an intervention that is sensitive to the underlying behavioral inhibition in these children.

  3. Change in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: the role of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the relation of defense mechanism to children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, as assessed from mothers' report at age 9 and 12 years, based on archival data. The defense mechanisms of denial, projection, and identification were assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories told by the children at age 9 years, using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, The development of defense mechanisms: Theory, research and assessment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991a; Protecting the self: Defense mechanisms in action. New York: Guilford Press, 2006). The results showed that the use of identification predicted a decrease in externalizing behaviors between age 9 and 12 years. In contrast, change in internalizing behaviors was not predicted by defense use, but the use of projection was related to fewer internalizing behaviors at both ages. These findings are consistent with the idea that behavioral intervention stressing self-regulation can be effective in reducing externalizing problems, but internalizing problems require an intervention that is sensitive to the underlying behavioral inhibition in these children. PMID:25668653

  4. [Psychometric assessment of defense mechanisms: correlation between questionnaire and expert rating. Initial study of validity].

    PubMed

    Reister, G; Fellhauer, R F; Franz, M; Wirth, T; Schellberg, D; Schepank, H; Tress, W

    1993-01-01

    Within the limits of an epidemiological longitudinal field survey on prevalence and course of psychogenic disorders a high-risk-population suffering from medical psychogenic impairment was investigated. The study was conducted in order to verify an etiological multi-level-model of psychogenic disorders in relation to the socialempiric variables "critical life events" and "social support" as well as the depth psychological oriented construct "personality". Besides other instruments a self rating scale based on Vallant's hierarchical model of defense, i.e. the german adaptation of the DSQ (Defense Style Questionnaire) of Bond and coworkers, was used for the accurate measurement of relevant personality parameters. Although defense processes predominantly work unconscious, manifestations of defense mechanisms could be measured indirectly by means of the rating scale. Its essential dimensions separated clinical patients from a group of healthy controls. Furthermore an immature organisation of defense was found to be related to psychogenic impairment. Concerning self- and expert-rating a significant correlation between "immature defense" and the defense mechanisms "schizoid phantasy", "projection" and "acting out" was proved.

  5. 17β-estradiol attenuates conduit pulmonary artery mechanical property changes with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aiping; Tian, Lian; Golob, Mark; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Boston, Madison; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a rapidly fatal vascular disease, strikes women more often than men. Paradoxically, female PAH patients have better prognosis and survival rates than males. The female sex hormone 17β-estradiol has been linked to the better outcome of PAH in females; however, the mechanisms by which 17β-estradiol alters PAH progression and outcomes remain unclear. Since proximal PA stiffness, one hallmark of PAH, is a powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, we hypothesized that 17β-estradiol attenuates PAH-induced changes in mechanical properties in conduit proximal PAs, which imparts hemodynamic and energetic benefits to RV function. To test this hypothesis, female mice were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol or placebo. PAH was induced in mice using SU5416 and chronic hypoxia (SuHx). Extra-lobar left PAs were isolated and mechanically tested ex vivo to study both static and frequency-dependent mechanical behaviors in the presence or absence of SMC activation. Our static mechanical test showed significant stiffening of large PAs with PAH (P < 0.05). 17β-estradiol restored PA compliance to control levels. The dynamic mechanical test demonstrated that 17β-estradiol protected the arterial wall from the PAH-induced frequency-dependent decline in dynamic stiffness and loss of viscosity with PAH (P<0.05). As demonstrated by the in vivo measurement of PA hemodynamics via RV catheterization, modulation by 17β-estradiol of mechanical proximal PAs reduced pulsatile loading, which contributed to improved ventricular-vascular coupling. This study provides a mechanical mechanism for delayed disease progression and better outcome in female PAH patients and underscores the therapeutic potential of 17β-estradiol in PAH. PMID:26418020

  6. Common and distinct mechanisms of induced pulmonary fibrosis by particulate and soluble chemical fibrogenic agents

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Yu, Xiaoqing; Porter, Dale W.; Battelli, Lori A.; Kashon, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis results from the excessive deposition of collagen fibers and scarring in the lungs with or without an identifiable cause. The mechanism(s) underlying lung fibrosis development is poorly understood, and effective treatment is lacking. Here we compared mouse lung fibrosis induced by pulmonary exposure to prototypical particulate (crystalline silica) or soluble chemical (bleomycin or paraquat) fibrogenic agents to identify the underlying mechanisms. Young male C57BL/6J mice were given silica (2 mg), bleomycin (0.07 mg), or paraquat (0.02 mg) by pharyngeal aspiration. All treatments induced significant inflammatory infiltration and collagen deposition, manifesting fibrotic foci in silica-exposed lungs or diffuse fibrosis in bleomycin or paraquat-exposed lungs on day 7 post-exposure, at which time the lesions reached their peaks and represented a junction of transition from an acute response to chronic fibrosis. Lung genomewide gene expression was analyzed, and differential gene expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting for representative genes to demonstrate their induced expression and localization in fibrotic lungs. Canonical signaling pathways, gene ontology, and upstream transcription networks modified by each agent were identified. In particular, these inducers elicited marked proliferative responses; at the same time, silica preferentially activated innate immune functions and the defense against foreign bodies, whereas bleomycin and paraquat boosted responses related to cell adhesion, platelet activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and wound healing. This study identified, for the first time, the shared and unique genes, signaling pathways, and biological functions regulated by particulate and soluble chemical fibrogenic agents during lung fibrosis, providing insights into the mechanisms underlying human lung fibrotic diseases. PMID:26345256

  7. Developmental patterns of antioxidant defense mechanisms in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ripalda, M J; Rudolph, N; Wong, S L

    1989-10-01

    To obtain a profile of erythrocyte antioxidant defense potential during late fetal development, we studied selected antioxidant parameters in blood samples from 65 neonates with birth wt between 520 and 4210 g and from 12 healthy adults. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity did not change significantly with maturation and no significant differences were observed among preterm infants grouped in increasing birth wt categories, term neonates, and adults. Erythrocyte catalase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as plasma vitamin E levels, showed highly significant positive correlations (p less than 0.001) with increasing fetal wt and gestational age; by term, CAT activity reached a level similar to the adult control group, but glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as plasma vitamin E levels, were markedly lower in all the preterm and in the term groups than in adults (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity showed a negative correlation with increasing gestational age (p less than 0.01) and the adult values were considerably lower than any of the neonatal levels (p less than 0.001). The role of glutathione S-transferase in erythrocyte metabolism remains obscure. Maturational changes in the activity of the red cell enzymes that were studied and in the plasma vitamin E level were apparent from about 31-36 wk of gestation, suggesting that the stimulation for these changes may have commenced from about 28-31 wk.

  8. In Defense of a Heuristic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eamonn F.

    2010-01-01

    Although the presentation of quantum mechanics found in traditional textbooks is intellectually well founded, it suffers from a number of deficiencies. Specifically introducing quantum mechanics as a solution to the arcane dilemma, the ultraviolet catastrophe, does little to impress a nonscientific audience of the tremendous paradigmatic shift…

  9. An empirical look at the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT): reliability and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Ekehammar, Bo; Zuber, Irena; Konstenius, Marja-Liisa

    2005-07-01

    Although the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) has been in use for almost half a century, there are still quite contradictory views about whether it is a reliable instrument, and if so, what it really measures. Thus, based on data from 39 female students, we first examined DMT inter-coder reliability by analyzing the agreement among trained judges in their coding of the same DMT protocols. Second, we constructed a "parallel" photographic picture that retained all structural characteristic of the original and analyzed DMT parallel-test reliability. Third, we examined the construct validity of the DMT by (a) employing three self-report defense-mechanism inventories and analyzing the intercorrelations between DMT defense scores and corresponding defenses in these instruments, (b) studying the relationships between DMT responses and scores on trait and state anxiety, and (c) relating DMT-defense scores to measures of self-esteem. The main results showed that the DMT can be coded with high reliability by trained coders, that the parallel-test reliability is unsatisfactory compared to traditional psychometric standards, that there is a certain generalizability in the number of perceptual distortions that people display from one picture to another, and that the construct validation provided meager empirical evidence for the conclusion that the DMT measures what it purports to measure, that is, psychological defense mechanisms.

  10. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Tao, Shasha; Lian, Fangru; Chau, Binh T.; Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan; Fang, Deyu; Lantz, R. Clark; Zhang, Donna D.

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  11. Inflammatory mechanisms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with chronic inflammation affecting predominantly the lung parenchyma and peripheral airways that results in largely irreversible and progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation is characterized by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes (predominantly TC1, TH1, and TH17 cells), and innate lymphoid cells recruited from the circulation. These cells and structural cells, including epithelial and endothelial cells and fibroblasts, secrete a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and lipid mediators. Although most patients with COPD have a predominantly neutrophilic inflammation, some have an increase in eosinophil counts, which might be orchestrated by TH2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells though release of IL-33 from epithelial cells. These patients might be more responsive to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Oxidative stress plays a key role in driving COPD-related inflammation, even in ex-smokers, and might result in activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), impaired antiprotease defenses, DNA damage, cellular senescence, autoantibody generation, and corticosteroid resistance though inactivation of histone deacetylase 2. Systemic inflammation is also found in patients with COPD and can worsen comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Accelerated aging in the lungs of patients with COPD can also generate inflammatory protein release from senescent cells in the lung. In the future, it will be important to recognize phenotypes of patients with optimal responses to more specific therapies, and development of biomarkers that identify the therapeutic phenotypes will be important. PMID:27373322

  12. Serine/threonine protein phosphatases: multi-purpose enzymes in control of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bajsa, Joanna; Pan, Zhiqiang; Duke, Stephen O

    2011-12-01

    Depending on the threat to a plant, different pattern recognition receptors, such as receptor-like kinases, identify the stress and trigger action by appropriate defense response development. The plant immunity system primary response to these challenges is rapid accumulation of phytohormones, such as ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives. These phytohormones induce further signal transduction and appropriate defenses against biotic threats. Phytohormones play crucial roles not only in the initiation of diverse downstream signaling events in plant defense but also in the activation of effective defenses through an essential process called signaling pathway crosstalk, a mechanism involved in transduction signals between two or more distinct, "linear signal transduction pathways simultaneously activated in the same cell."

  13. Pulmonary Hypertension in the Era of Mechanical Circulatory Support.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Yamini; Cooper, Lauren B; Parikh, Kishan S; Felker, G Michael; Milano, Carmelo A; Rogers, Joseph G; Hernandez, Adrian F; Patel, Chetan B

    2016-01-01

    Left heart disease (LHD) represents the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and is associated with worse prognosis compared with LHD without PH. In addition, PH due to LHD may prevent patients from receiving heart transplantation, because of risk of perioperative right ventricular failure. Current literature lacks comprehensive descriptions and management strategies of PH due to LHD. In this review, we summarize the literature that is available to highlight the definition, pathogenesis, and prognosis of PH due to LHD. Furthermore, we discuss the use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in this population. Finally, we provide recommendations regarding the management and reassessment of PH due to LHD in the specific context of MCS. PMID:27442856

  14. Academic cheating as a function of defense mechanisms and object relations.

    PubMed

    Juni, Samuel; Gross, Julie; Sokolowska, Joanna

    2006-06-01

    This study examined relationships between academic cheating behaviors by using self-reports of past cheating behavior, providing a situational experiment with the opportunity to cheat, and evaluating defense mechanisms and object relations as measured by the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Subjects included 75 female and 8 male university students ranging in age from 18 to 51 years (M=25.5, SD=6.9). Analysis showed variations in students' self-reported cheating history relative to their measured object relations status and type of defense mechanisms. Actual cheating in the experimental setting was not significantly related to any of these variables. Findings are discussed based on a critique of heterogeneity of the cheating construct.

  15. Coping and Defense Mechanisms of Mothers of Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faerstein, Leslie Morrison

    1986-01-01

    Mothers (N=24) generally evidenced coping mechanisms when involved with medical, social, and educational agencies, and were able to obtain services. However, coping functions broke down in direct confrontation with the child. Mothers, contrary to traditional attitudes, experienced relief at receiving a diagnosis, confirming their suspicions rather…

  16. Mechanisms of Defense against Intracellular Pathogens Mediated by Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Barry R; Modlin, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    The key question our work has sought to address has been, "What are the necessary and sufficient conditions that engender protection from intracellular pathogens in the human host?" The origins of this work derive from a long-standing interest in the mechanisms of protection against two such paradigmatic intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, that have brilliantly adapted to the human host. It was obvious that these pathogens, which cause chronic diseases and persist in macrophages, must have acquired subtle strategies to resist host microbicidal mechanisms, yet since the vast majority of individuals infected with M. tuberculosis do not develop disease, there must be some potent human antimicrobial mechanisms. What follows is not a comprehensive review of the vast literature on the role of human macrophages in protection against infectious disease, but a summary of the research in our two laboratories with collaborators that we hope has contributed to some understanding of mechanisms of resistance and pathogenesis. While mouse models revealed some necessary conditions for protection, e.g., innate immunity, Th1 cells and their cytokines, and major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells, here we emphasize multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that exist in human macrophages that differ from those of most experimental animals. Prominent here is the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway common to human macrophages activated by innate and acquired immune responses, mediated by antimicrobial peptides, e.g., cathelicidin, through an interleukin-15- and interleukin-32-dependent common pathway that is necessary for macrophage killing of M. tuberculosis in vitro. PMID:27337485

  17. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. PMID:26350733

  18. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  19. Lung region and racing affect mechanical properties of equine pulmonary microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Stack, Alice; Derksen, Frederik J; Williams, Kurt J; Robinson, N Edward; Jackson, William F

    2014-08-15

    Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage is a performance-limiting condition of racehorses associated with severe pathology, including small pulmonary vein remodeling. Pathology is limited to caudodorsal (CD) lung. Mechanical properties of equine pulmonary microvasculature have not been studied. We hypothesized that regional differences in pulmonary artery and vein mechanical characteristics do not exist in control animals, and that racing and venous remodeling impact pulmonary vein mechanical properties in CD lung. Pulmonary arteries and veins [range of internal diameters 207-386 ± 67 μm (mean ± SD)] were harvested from eight control and seven raced horses. With the use of wire myography, CD and cranioventral (CV) vessels were stretched in 10-μm increments. Peak wall tension was plotted against changes in diameter (length). Length-tension data were compared between vessel type, lung region, and horse status (control and raced). Pulmonary veins are stiffer walled than arteries. CD pulmonary arteries are stiffer than CV arteries, whereas CV veins are stiffer than CD veins. Racing is associated with increased stiffness of CD pulmonary veins and, to a lesser extent, CV arteries. For example, at 305 μm, tension in raced and control CD veins is 27.74 ± 2.91 and 19.67 ± 2.63 mN/mm (means ± SE; P < 0.05, Bonferroni's multiple-comparisons test after two-way ANOVA), and 16.12 ± 2.04 and 15.07 ± 2.47 mN/mm in raced and control CV arteries, respectively. This is the first report of an effect of region and/or exercise on mechanical characteristics of small pulmonary vessels. These findings may implicate pulmonary vein remodeling in exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage pathogenesis. PMID:24925981

  20. 6-Benzylaminopurine inhibits growth of Monilinia fructicola and induces defense-related mechanism in peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangyang; Zeng, Lizhen; Yang, Jiali; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2015-11-15

    This study demonstrated the inhibitory effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), the first generation synthetic cytokinin, on the invasion of Monilinia fructicola in peach fruit and the possible mechanism involved for the first time. Our results suggested that BAP treatment had a 63% lower disease incidence and approximately 10 times lower lesion diameter compared to the control throughout the incubation period. In vitro BAP showed a direct inhibitory effect on M. fructicola spore germination. BAP could prevent fruit texture deterioration and protect the cell membrane from oxidative stress, while no adverse effects were observed on fruit quality maintenance. Analysis of defense-related enzymes activities indicated that the use of BAP induced higher specific polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities which triggered stronger host defensive responses. Thus, our results verified the proposed mechanism of BAP in controlling M. fructicola by direct inhibitory effect, delay peach senescence and activation of defensive enzymes.

  1. Autophagy is an inflammation-related defensive mechanism against disease.

    PubMed

    Joven, Jorge; Guirro, Maria; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Menéndez, Javier A

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response is an energy-intensive process. Consequently, metabolism is closely associated with immune function. The autophagy machinery plays a role in metabolism by providing energy but may also be used to attack invading pathogens (xenophagy). The autophagy machinery may function to protect against not only the threats of infection but also the threats of the host's own response acting on the central immunological tolerance and the negative regulation of innate and inflammatory signaling. The balance between too little and too much autophagy is critical for the survival of immune cells because autophagy is linked to type 2-cell death programmed necrosis and apoptosis. Changes in inflammatory cells are driven by extracellular signals; however, the mechanisms by which cytokines mediate autophagy regulation and govern immune cell function remain unknown. Certain cytokines increase autophagy, whereas others inhibit autophagy. The relationship between autophagy and inflammation is also important in the pathogenesis of metabolic, non-communicable diseases. Inflammation per se is not the cause of obesity-associated diseases, but it is secondary to both the positive energy balance and the specific cellular responses. In metabolic tissues, the suppression of autophagy increases inflammation with the overexpression of cytokines, resulting in an activation of autophagy. The physiological role of these apparently contradictory findings remains uncertain but exemplifies future challenges in the therapeutic modulation of autophagy in the management of disease.

  2. Pulmonary blood flow distribution in sheep: effects of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and change in posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, S. M.; Domino, K. B.; Glenny, R. W.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies providing high-resolution images of pulmonary perfusion have questioned the classical zone model of pulmonary perfusion. Hence the present work was undertaken to provide detailed maps of regional pulmonary perfusion to examine the influence of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and posture. METHODS: Pulmonary perfusion was analyzed with intravenous fluorescent microspheres (15 microm) in six sheep studied in four conditions: prone and awake, prone with pentobarbital-anesthesia and breathing spontaneously, prone with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation, and supine with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Lungs were air dried at total lung capacity and sectioned into approximately 1,100 pieces (about 2 cm3) per animal. The pieces were weighed and assigned spatial coordinates. Fluorescence was read on a spectrophotometer, and signals were corrected for piece weight and normalized to mean flow. Pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity was assessed using the coefficient of variation of flow data. RESULTS: Pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation did not influence perfusion heterogeneity, but heterogeneity increased when the animals were in the supine posture (P < 0.01). Gravitational flow gradients were absent in the prone position but present in the supine (P < 0.001 compared with zero). Pulmonary perfusion was distributed with a hilar-to-peripheral gradient in animals breathing spontaneously (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The influence of pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation on pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity is small compared with the effect of changes in posture. Analysis of flow gradients indicate that gravity plays a small role in determining pulmonary blood flow distribution.

  3. Learning to Recognize Ego Defense Mechanisms: Results of a Structured Teaching Experience for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Ego defense mechanism (EDM) recognition can offer a powerful and practical tool in clinical psychiatry. However, recognition skill learning can be difficult to assess and may account for the lack of formal EDM recognition training in residency courses. Method: This study hypothesized that mean test scores would increase significantly…

  4. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  5. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: so-called psychiatric comorbidity and underlying defense mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Beghi, Massimiliano; Negrini, Paola Beffa; Perin, Cecilia; Peroni, Federica; Magaudda, Adriana; Cerri, Cesare; Cornaggia, Cesare Maria

    2015-01-01

    In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) do not have a unique classification as they can be found within different categories: conversion, dissociative, and somatization disorders. The ICD-10, instead, considers PNES within dissociative disorders, merging the dissociative disorders and conversion disorders, although the underlying defense mechanisms are different. The literature data show that PNES are associated with cluster B (mainly borderline) personality disorders and/or to people with depressive or anxiety disorders. Defense mechanisms in patients with PNES with a prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms are of “neurotic” type; their goal is to lead to a “split”, either vertical (dissociation) or horizontal (repression). The majority of patients with this type of PNES have alexithymia traits, meaning that they had difficulties in feeling or perceiving emotions. In subjects where PNES are associated with a borderline personality, in which the symbolic function is lost, the defense mechanisms are of a more archaic nature (denial). PNES with different underlying defense mechanisms have different prognoses (despite similar severity of PNES) and need usually a different treatment (pharmacological or psychological). Thus, it appears superfluous to talk about psychiatric comorbidity, since PNES are a different symptomatic expression of specific psychiatric disorders. PMID:26491330

  6. DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A NATURAL BIO-DEFENSE MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A natural bio-defense mechanism
    Anuradha Mudipalli.

    Maintenance of genetic information, including the correct sequence of nucleotides in DNA, is essential for replication, gene expression, and protein synthesis. DNA lesions onto...

  7. Brief Report: The Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males--A Descriptive Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…

  8. Pulmonary epithelial barrier function: some new players and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Kieran; Frank, James; Schwingshackl, Andreas; Finigan, James

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary epithelium serves as a barrier to prevent access of the inspired luminal contents to the subepithelium. In addition, the epithelium dictates the initial responses of the lung to both infectious and noninfectious stimuli. One mechanism by which the epithelium does this is by coordinating transport of diffusible molecules across the epithelial barrier, both through the cell and between cells. In this review, we will discuss a few emerging paradigms of permeability changes through altered ion transport and paracellular regulation by which the epithelium gates its response to potentially detrimental luminal stimuli. This review is a summary of talks presented during a symposium in Experimental Biology geared toward novel and less recognized methods of epithelial barrier regulation. First, we will discuss mechanisms of dynamic regulation of cell-cell contacts in the context of repetitive exposure to inhaled infectious and noninfectious insults. In the second section, we will briefly discuss mechanisms of transcellular ion homeostasis specifically focused on the role of claudins and paracellular ion-channel regulation in chronic barrier dysfunction. In the next section, we will address transcellular ion transport and highlight the role of Trek-1 in epithelial responses to lung injury. In the final section, we will outline the role of epithelial growth receptor in barrier regulation in baseline, acute lung injury, and airway disease. We will then end with a summary of mechanisms of epithelial control as well as discuss emerging paradigms of the epithelium role in shifting between a structural element that maintains tight cell-cell adhesion to a cell that initiates and participates in immune responses. PMID:25637609

  9. Mechanisms of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and their roles in pulmonary hypertension: new findings for an old problem

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jeremy P.T.; McMurtry, Ivan F.

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) normally optimises ventilation-perfusion matching in the lung, but leads to pulmonary hypertension under conditions of global hypoxia. The past few years have provided some major advances in our understanding of this complex phenomenon, but significant controversy remains concerning many of the key underlying mechanisms. On balance, recent evidence is most consistent with an elevation in mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species as a key event for initiation of HPV, with consequent Ca2+ release from intracellular ryanodine-sensitive stores, although the activation pathways and molecular identity of the associated Ca2+ entry pathways remain unclear. Recent studies have also raised our perception of the critical role played by Rho kinase in both sustained HPV and the development of pulmonary hypertension, further promoting Rho kinase and the pathways regulating its activity and expression as important therapeutic targets. PMID:19297247

  10. Differences between matched heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Biernbaum, Mark A; Ruscio, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Differences between heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on measures of defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms were examined. Fifty-six (28 heterosexual, 28 non-heterosexual) subjects were drawn from a larger study of college student adjustment. Non-heterosexual subjects were matched to a heterosexual peer on several demographic variables as well as on attachment security/insecurity. Differences between the two groups on the Defense Mechanism Inventory and the Brief Symptom Inventory were tested. Contrary to traditional psychoanalytic conceptions of homosexuality, no differences were found between the two groups on any subscale of the Defense Mechanism Inventory, thereby repudiating one important aspect of traditional psychoanalytic theories on the development of homosexuality. Non-heterosexual students reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, somaticization, paranoid ideation, general symptom severity, and suicidal ideation. These students appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology and suicidal ideation, despite similar defense profiles, when compared to matched heterosexual peers. Additional research is needed to determine the origins of this increased risk, and comprehensive and targeted prevention and intervention programs must be established to ameliorate such risks.

  11. Attachment style and defense mechanisms in parents who abuse their children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2010-09-01

    Adult attachment style, defense mechanisms, and personal history of abuse was studied in a group of abusive parents. As a group, these parents made unusually high use of the defense of denial; this was especially true of those with a Fearful attachment style. However, the use of Identification was characteristic of those with a Preoccupied attachment style. Further, personal abuse history was related to adult attachment style. Those who reported having been abused as a child were less likely to have a Secure attachment style, and a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with a Preoccupied style. In general, these findings support the deactivating/hyperactivating defensive theory of Mikulincer et al (Emotion Regulation in Couples and Families: Pathways to Dysfunction and Health. 2006; pp 77-99. Washington (WA): American Psychological Association).

  12. Convergent evolution of defense mechanisms in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) shows no "ghosts of predation past".

    PubMed

    Pachl, Patrick; Domes, Katja; Schulz, Garvin; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Oribatid mites are diverse and abundant terrestrial soil arthropods that are involved in decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling. As indicated by fossils starting from the Devonian, they evolved varied mechanisms and structures for defense from predators. We investigated four of these defensive structures (ptychoid body, hologastry, mineralization and opisthonotal glands) and used ancestral character state reconstruction to determine whether they evolved convergently and how many times this may have happened. Phylogenetic trees based on 18S rDNA were constructed for 42 oribatid mite species and two outgroup taxa using likelihood and Bayesian algorithms. The results suggest that at least three of the four defensive structures evolved convergently several times; for opisthonotal glands convergent evolution remains equivocal. This high level of convergence indicates that predation has been an important factor throughout the evolution of oribatid mites, contributing to morphological diversity and potentially also to species richness, as there are indications that some taxa radiated after the evolution of defense structures. Despite the ancientness of oribatid mites, defense structures seems to have been rarely lost, suggesting that they still are functional and necessary to reduce predation, rather than being 'ghosts of predation past'.

  13. Assessment of Defense Styles and Mechanisms in Iranian Patients Suffering from Obsessive Compulsive or Panic Disorders versus Normal Controls using Persian Version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40

    PubMed Central

    Shabanpour, Ruhollah; Zahiroddin, Ali Reza; Janbozorgi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare defense styles and mechanisms in adult patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD) with normal subjects in Iran. Methods Defensive patterns of 22 patients with OCD, 28 patients with PD and those of 116 normal individuals (as a control group) were assessed using the Farsi version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The content validity of this questionnaire was done prior to the initiation of the present study. Results Both groups of patients with OCD or PD used more immature and less mature styles compared to the control group. No significant difference was observed in the use of neurotic style between the two groups. Conclusion It is suggested that immature defenses may have an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD and PD. PMID:23056115

  14. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms.

  15. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms. PMID:27504797

  16. General beliefs about the world as defensive mechanisms against death anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Bond, Michael Harris; Ng, Timmy Sze Wing

    Death ideation and death anxiety represent the cognitive and affective dimensions of death attitudes, respectively. General beliefs about the world are proposed to be useful defensive mechanisms protecting persons against the death anxiety provoked by death ideation. SEM is employed to test the proposed mediation model, using a sample of 133 Hong Kong Chinese university students. Results showed that death ideation was significantly and inversely linked to belief in social cynicism, reward for application, and fate control. Moreover, higher levels of belief in fate control and lower levels of religiosity predicted greater death anxiety. Only belief in fate control partially mediated the relationship between death ideation and death anxiety. Discussion focused on how social axioms serve as useful defensive mechanisms against death anxiety.

  17. Immune and Inflammatory Mechanisms in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    El Chami, Hala; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Altered immunity and inflammation are increasingly recognized features of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This is suggested by infiltration of various inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages, T and B lymphocytes), increased cytokine and growth factor (e.g., VEGF and PDGF) expression in remodeled pulmonary vessels, and the presence of circulating chemokines and cytokines. In certain diseases associated with PAH, increased expression of growth and transcriptional (e.g., Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells or NFAT) factors, and viral protein components (e.g., HIV-1 Nef), appear to contribute directly to recruitment of inflammatory cells in remodeled vessels, and may potentially serve as specific therapeutic targets. This section provides an overview of inflammatory pathways highlighting their potential role in pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH and the possibility of future targeted therapy. PMID:23009917

  18. Low-dose AgNPs reduce lung mechanical function and innate immune defense in the absence of cellular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Danielle J.; Leo, Bey Fen; Massa, Christopher B.; Sarkar, Srijata; Tetley, Terry D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Chen, Shu; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Zhang, Junfeng; Schwander, Stephan K.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have examined the direct cellular toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the lung is a complex biological system with multiple cell types and a lipid-rich surface fluid; therefore, organ level responses may not depend on direct cellular toxicity. We hypothesized that interaction with the lung lining is a critical determinant of organ level responses. Here, we have examined the effects of low dose intratracheal instillation of AgNPs (0.05 µg/g body weight) 20 and 110nm diameter in size, and functionalized with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Both size and functionalization were significant factors in particle aggregation and lipid interaction in vitro. One day post-intratracheal instillation lung function was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue collected. There were no signs of overt inflammation. There was no change in surfactant protein-B content in the BAL but there was loss of surfactant protein-D with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized particles. Mechanical impedance data demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary elastance as compared to control, greatest with 110nm PVP-stabilized particles. Seven days post-instillation of PVP-stabilized particles increased BAL cell counts, and reduced lung function was observed. These changes resolved by 21 days. Hence, AgNP-mediated alterations in the lung lining and mechanical function resolve by 21 days. Larger particles and PVP stabilization produce the largest disruptions. These studies demonstrate that low dose AgNPs elicit deficits in both mechanical and innate immune defense function, suggesting that organ level toxicity should be considered. PMID:26152688

  19. Low-dose AgNPs reduce lung mechanical function and innate immune defense in the absence of cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Danielle J; Leo, Bey Fen; Massa, Christopher B; Sarkar, Srijata; Tetley, Terry D; Chung, Kian Fan; Chen, Shu; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Zhang, Junfeng; Schwander, Stephan K; Gow, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have examined the direct cellular toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the lung is a complex biological system with multiple cell types and a lipid-rich surface fluid; therefore, organ level responses may not depend on direct cellular toxicity. We hypothesized that interaction with the lung lining is a critical determinant of organ level responses. Here, we have examined the effects of low dose intratracheal instillation of AgNPs (0.05 μg/g body weight) 20 and 110 nm diameter in size, and functionalized with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Both size and functionalization were significant factors in particle aggregation and lipid interaction in vitro. One day post-intratracheal instillation lung function was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue collected. There were no signs of overt inflammation. There was no change in surfactant protein-B content in the BAL but there was loss of surfactant protein-D with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized particles. Mechanical impedance data demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary elastance as compared to control, greatest with 110 nm PVP-stabilized particles. Seven days post-instillation of PVP-stabilized particles increased BAL cell counts, and reduced lung function was observed. These changes resolved by 21 days. Hence, AgNP-mediated alterations in the lung lining and mechanical function resolve by 21 days. Larger particles and PVP stabilization produce the largest disruptions. These studies demonstrate that low dose AgNPs elicit deficits in both mechanical and innate immune defense function, suggesting that organ level toxicity should be considered.

  20. Mechanisms of reduced pulmonary function after a saturation dive.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Kambestad, B K

    1994-01-01

    Deep saturation diving has been shown to have prolonged effects on pulmonary function. We wanted to assess the relative contribution of various factors that could contribute to these effects. Pulmonary function was, therefore, measured before and after 17 different saturation diving operations to depths of 5-450 m of sea water, corresponding to absolute pressures of 0.15-4.6 MPa. Four to fifteen divers participated in each operation. The measurements included static and dynamic lung volumes and flows, transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TLCO), and closing volume. The dives were characterized by the cumulative hyperoxic and hyperbaric exposures, and the load of venous gas microemboli encountered during decompression was measured in 41 divers in three dives to 0.25, 1.2 and 3.7 MPa. TLCO was reduced by 8.3 +/- 7.0% mean +/- SD after the dives, this correlated with cumulative hyperoxic exposure and load of venous gas microembolism, independently of each other. Closing volume was increased and forced mid-expiratory flow rate reduced, in correlation with cumulative hyperoxic exposure. An increase in total lung capacity correlated with cumulative hyperbaric exposure. We conclude that hyperoxia, hyperbaria, and venous gas microembolism all contribute to the changes in pulmonary function after a single saturation dive, and all may explain some of the long-term effects of diving on pulmonary function.

  1. Investigating Aggressive Styles and Defense Mechanisms in Bipolar Patients and in their Parents.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pezzoni, Franca; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education) and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment). All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions.

  2. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  3. Investigating Aggressive Styles and Defense Mechanisms in Bipolar Patients and in their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pezzoni, Franca; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education) and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment). All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions. PMID:26973942

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Statistics Analysis Reveals the Defense Response Mechanism in Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhichao; Zhao, Yunjie; Zeng, Chen; Computational Biophysics Lab Team

    As the main protein of the bacterial flagella, flagellin plays an important role in perception and defense response. The newly discovered locus, FLS2, is ubiquitously expressed. FLS2 encodes a putative receptor kinase and shares many homologies with some plant resistance genes and even with some components of immune system of mammals and insects. In Arabidopsis, FLS2 perception is achieved by the recognition of epitope flg22, which induces FLS2 heteromerization with BAK1 and finally the plant immunity. Here we use both analytical methods such as Direct Coupling Analysis (DCA) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations to get a better understanding of the defense mechanism of FLS2. This may facilitate a redesign of flg22 or de-novo design for desired specificity and potency to extend the immune properties of FLS2 to other important crops and vegetables.

  5. Mechanism of bystander-blaming: defensive attribution, counterfactual thinking, and gender.

    PubMed

    Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary victimology recognizes that an understanding of the mechanism of blaming requires a comprehensive approach that includes the victim, the offender, and the bystander. However, most of the existing research on blaming focuses on the victim and the offender, ignoring the issue of bystander-blaming. This study highlights the bystander and investigates bystander-blaming by exploring some theoretical explanations, including counterfactual thinking, defensive attribution, and gender differences. The study included 363 young male and female participants, who read vignettes describing the behavior of the victim and the bystander in a rape scenario and answered questions regarding bystander-blaming. The results show that both counterfactual thinking and defensive attribution play a role in bystander-blaming. This article addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  6. Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship. PMID:23487595

  7. Essential Functional Modules for Pathogenic and Defensive Mechanisms in Candida albicans Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, I-Chun; Lin, Che; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The clinical and biological significance of the study of fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) has markedly increased. However, the explicit pathogenic and invasive mechanisms of such host-pathogen interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the essential functional modules involved in C. albicans-zebrafish interactions were investigated in this study. Adopting a systems biology approach, the early-stage and late-stage protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for both C. albicans and zebrafish were constructed. By comparing PPI networks at the early and late stages of the infection process, several critical functional modules were identified in both pathogenic and defensive mechanisms. Functional modules in C. albicans, like those involved in hyphal morphogenesis, ion and small molecule transport, protein secretion, and shifts in carbon utilization, were seen to play important roles in pathogen invasion and damage caused to host cells. Moreover, the functional modules in zebrafish, such as those involved in immune response, apoptosis mechanisms, ion transport, protein secretion, and hemostasis-related processes, were found to be significant as defensive mechanisms during C. albicans infection. The essential functional modules thus determined could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions during the infection process and thereby devise potential therapeutic strategies to treat C. albicans infection. PMID:24757665

  8. Changes in the structure and mechanical properties of pulmonary arteries of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q; Fung, Y C

    1993-09-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke on the structure and mechanical properties of pulmonary arteries was studied in 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats. The animals were exposed to cigarette smoke in a smoke-generating system 10 times per day with one cigarette each time. The smoke density and the puffing duration and frequency of the system were regulated in accordance with reference values measured from human smokers. The volume fractions of the cells, including smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix components, including collagen, elastin, and remainder (components not specified in this study), of the pulmonary arteries of approximately 450 microns in external diameter (at zero pressure) were determined in smoke-exposed and control rats by using an electron microscopic method. It was found that the volume fractions of the fibroblasts, the collagenous bundles, and the elastic laminae of the pulmonary arteries were increased significantly, whereas those of the smooth muscle cells and the remainder were decreased significantly in both the 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats in comparison with those of the corresponding control rats. The mechanical properties of the pulmonary arteries were determined based on the in vitro dimensional measurement of the vessels at various inflation pressures and zero-stress state. An increase in the stiffness of the pulmonary arteries was found in both the 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats. We conclude that cigarette smoke can induce structural and mechanical remodeling in the pulmonary arteries of rats. PMID:8368648

  9. Of Amoebae and Men: Extracellular DNA Traps as an Ancient Cell-Intrinsic Defense Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the formation of DNA-based extracellular traps (ETs) by neutrophils as an innate immune defense mechanism (1), hundreds of articles describe the involvement of ETs in physiological and pathological human and animal conditions [reviewed in Ref. (2), and the previous Frontiers Research Topic on NETosis: http://www.frontiersin.org/books/NETosis_At_the_Intersection_of_Cell_Biology_Microbiology_and_Immunology/195]. Interestingly, a few reports reveal that ETs can be formed by immune cells of more ancient organisms, as far back as the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates (3). Recently, we reported that the Sentinel cells of the multicellular slug of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum also produce ETs to trap and kill slug-invading bacteria [see Box 1; and Figure 1 Ref. (4)]. This is a strong evidence that DNA-based cell-intrinsic defense mechanisms emerged much earlier than thought, about 1.3 billion years ago. Amazingly, using extrusion of DNA as a weapon to capture and kill uningestable microbes has its rationale. During the emergence of multicellularity, a primitive innate immune system developed in the form of a dedicated set of specialized phagocytic cells. This professionalization of immunity allowed the evolution of sophisticated defense mechanisms including the sacrifice of a small set of cells by a mechanism related to NETosis. This altruistic behavior likely emerged in steps, starting from the release of “dispensable” mitochondrial DNA by D. discoideum Sentinel cells. Grounded in this realization, one can anticipate that in the near future, many more examples of the invention and fine-tuning of ETs by early metazoan ancestors will be identified. Consequently, it can be expected that this more complete picture of the evolution of ETs will impact our views of the involvement and pathologies linked to ETs in human and animals. PMID:27458458

  10. Of Amoebae and Men: Extracellular DNA Traps as an Ancient Cell-Intrinsic Defense Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the formation of DNA-based extracellular traps (ETs) by neutrophils as an innate immune defense mechanism (1), hundreds of articles describe the involvement of ETs in physiological and pathological human and animal conditions [reviewed in Ref. (2), and the previous Frontiers Research Topic on NETosis: http://www.frontiersin.org/books/NETosis_At_the_Intersection_of_Cell_Biology_Microbiology_and_Immunology/195]. Interestingly, a few reports reveal that ETs can be formed by immune cells of more ancient organisms, as far back as the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates (3). Recently, we reported that the Sentinel cells of the multicellular slug of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum also produce ETs to trap and kill slug-invading bacteria [see Box 1; and Figure 1 Ref. (4)]. This is a strong evidence that DNA-based cell-intrinsic defense mechanisms emerged much earlier than thought, about 1.3 billion years ago. Amazingly, using extrusion of DNA as a weapon to capture and kill uningestable microbes has its rationale. During the emergence of multicellularity, a primitive innate immune system developed in the form of a dedicated set of specialized phagocytic cells. This professionalization of immunity allowed the evolution of sophisticated defense mechanisms including the sacrifice of a small set of cells by a mechanism related to NETosis. This altruistic behavior likely emerged in steps, starting from the release of "dispensable" mitochondrial DNA by D. discoideum Sentinel cells. Grounded in this realization, one can anticipate that in the near future, many more examples of the invention and fine-tuning of ETs by early metazoan ancestors will be identified. Consequently, it can be expected that this more complete picture of the evolution of ETs will impact our views of the involvement and pathologies linked to ETs in human and animals. PMID:27458458

  11. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Poiatti, Vera A D; Dalmas, Fernando R; Astarita, Leandro V

    2009-01-01

    The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in defense mechanisms

  12. Changes in pulmonary arterial wall mechanical properties and lumenal architecture with induced vascular remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert C.; Heinrich, Amy E.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2004-04-01

    To explore and quantify pulmonary arterial remodeling we used various methods including micro-CT, high-resolution 3-dimensional x-ray imaging, to examine the structure and function of intact pulmonary vessels in isolated rat lungs. The rat is commonly used as an animal model for studies of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the accompanying vascular remodeling, where vascular remodeling has been defined primarily by changes in the vessel wall composition in response to hypertension inducing stimuli such as chronic hypoxic exposure (CHE) or monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Little information has been provided as to how such changes affect the vessel wall mechanical properties or the lumenal architecture of the pulmonary arterial system that actually account for the hemodynamic consequences of the remodeling. In addition, although the link between primary forms of pulmonary hypertension and inherited genetics is well established, the role that genetic coding plays in hemodynamics and vascular remodeling is not. Therefore, we are utilizing Fawn-Hooded (FH), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Brown Norway (BN)rat strains along with unique imaging methods to parameterize both vessel distensibility and lumenal morphometry using a principal pulmonary arterial pathway analysis based on self-consistency. We have found for the hypoxia model, in addition to decreased body weight, increased hematocrit, increased right ventricular hypertrophy, the distensibility of the pulmonary arteries is shown to decrease significantly in the presence of remodeling.

  13. [The structure and mechanical properties of the human pulmonary trunk and its valves].

    PubMed

    Antipas, D B; Milovanova, Z P; Zavalishin, N N

    1993-01-01

    The histological structure and mechanical properties of the pulmonary trunk and its valves were studied in 35 complexes of the pulmonary artery of man. The valvular apparatus of the pulmonary trunk is formed by anatomical elements with different morphological structures. In it there are elements which might be considered from standpoints of biomechanics as membranous (pulmonary trunk, sinuses, cusps) and shaft (fibrous ring, commissural shafts, arcuate crests) elements, the commissural shafts representing a combination of structures forming a closed spatial inter-related construction--a natural elastic framework of the pulmonary trunk root and the sheath elements are morphologically interrelated and fixed on this framework. The mechanical properties of these shaft elements are formed not only at the expense of inclusion of other formations in their structure but also at the expense of changes in the density of distribution and spatial orientation of main carrier structures of sheath elements attached to them. So, the strength and rigidity of the fibrous ring were associated not only with the presence of collagenous fibers and chondroid tissue n it, but also with the regular arrangement of collagenous fibers coming to it from the sinus. Similarly, the strength of arcuate crests was in many respects dependent on dense arrangement of longitudinally oriented smooth muscles. The amount of smooth muscles in the pulmonary trunk was 1.3 and 2 times higher than that of collagenous and elastic structures which allows the pulmonary trunk of man to be referred to arteries of muscular or mixed type. It points to the necessity to take into account the influence of muscle tone on mechanical behavior of the pulmonary trunk under physiological exercise. PMID:7889164

  14. Noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping for prediction of tachycardia mechanism and origin of atrial tachycardia following bilateral pulmonary transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roten, Laurent; Pedersen, Michala; Pascale, Patrizio; Shah, Ashok; Eliautou, Sandra; Scherr, Daniel; Sacher, Frederic; Haïssaguerre, Michel

    2012-05-01

    This is a case of atrial tachycardia 2 years after pulmonary transplantation. After excluding right atrial involvement, tachycardia origin was located in a scar region medial to the anastomosis of the left inferior pulmonary donor vein. Tachycardia mechanism was microreentry. Noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping performed before the ablation procedure matched with results of invasive Carto mapping and predicted both tachycardia mechanism and origin. We discuss arrhythmia mechanism found after pulmonary transplantation and benefit of noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping for procedure planning.

  15. Endurance Training and Glutathione-Dependent Antioxidant Defense Mechanism in Heart of the Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Mustafa; Atalay, Mustafa; Hänninen, Osmo

    2003-01-01

    Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:24616611

  16. [Defense mechanism to prevent ectopic activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes under physiological conditions and its breakdown in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaku, Midori; Otsuko, Makoto

    2004-11-01

    Independent of the etiology, acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and the potential for mortality. In most patients, acute pancreatitis follows an uncomplicated or mild course. Recent studies in hereditary pancreatitis have clearly revealed that trypsin is the key enzyme at the onset of pancreatitis. However, there are several defense mechanisms to prevent ectopic activation of trypsin under physiological conditions. If the defense mechanisms failed or activation of trypsin occurred over defense ability, trypsin would activate other digestive enzymes and self-digestion of the pancreas would occur.

  17. Mechanisms of oxygen sensing: a key to therapy of pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E K; Obreztchikova, M; Vargese, A; Cabrera, J A; Peterson, D A; Hong, Z

    2008-01-01

    Specialized tissues that sense acute changes in the local oxygen tension include type 1 cells of the carotid body, neuroepithelial bodies in the lungs, and smooth muscle cells of the resistance pulmonary arteries and the ductus arteriosus (DA). Hypoxia inhibits outward potassium current in carotid body type 1 cells, leading to depolarization and calcium entry through L-type calcium channels. Increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca++]i) leads to exocytosis of neurotransmitters, thus stimulating the carotid sinus nerve and respiration. The same K+ channel inhibition occurs with hypoxia in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), causing contraction and providing part of the mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In the SMCs of the DA, the mechanism works in reverse. It is the shift from hypoxia to normoxia that inhibits K+ channels and causes normoxic ductal contraction. In both PA and DA, the contraction is augmented by release of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, entry of Ca++ through store-operated channels (SOC) and by Ca++ sensitization. The same three ‘executive' mechanisms are partly responsible for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). While vasoconstrictor mediators constrict both PA and DA and vasodilators dilate both vessels, only redox changes mimic oxygen by having directly opposite effects on the K+ channels, membrane potential, [Ca++]i and tone in the PA and DA. There are several different hypotheses as to how redox might alter tone, which remain to be resolved. However, understanding the mechanism will facilitate drug development for pulmonary hypertension and patent DA. PMID:18641675

  18. Effects of collagen deposition on passive and active mechanical properties of large pulmonary arteries in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijie; Lakes, Roderic S; Eickhoff, Jens C; Chesler, Naomi C

    2013-11-01

    Proximal pulmonary artery (PA) stiffening is a strong predictor of mortality in pulmonary hypertension. Collagen accumulation is mainly responsible for PA stiffening in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) in mouse models. We hypothesized that collagen cross-linking and the type I isoform are the main determinants of large PA mechanical changes during HPH, which we tested by exposing mice that resist type I collagen degradation (Col1a1[Formula: see text] and littermate controls (Col1a1[Formula: see text] to hypoxia for 10 days with or without [Formula: see text]-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) treatment to prevent cross-link formation. Static and dynamic mechanical tests were performed on isolated PAs with smooth muscle cells (SMC) in passive and active states. Percentages of type I and III collagen were quantified by histology; total collagen content and cross-linking were measured biochemically. In the SMC passive state, for both genotypes, hypoxia tended to increase PA stiffness and damping capacity, and BAPN treatment limited these increases. These changes were correlated with collagen cross-linking ([Formula: see text]). In the SMC active state, hypoxia increased PA dynamic stiffness and BAPN had no effect in Col1a1[Formula: see text] mice ([Formula: see text]). PA stiffness did not change in Col1a1[Formula: see text] mice. Similarly, damping capacity did not change for either genotype. Type I collagen accumulated more in Col1a1[Formula: see text] mice, whereas type III collagen increased more in Col1a1[Formula: see text] mice during HPH. In summary, PA passive mechanical properties (both static and dynamic) are related to collagen cross-linking. Type I collagen turnover is critical to large PA remodeling during HPH when collagen metabolism is not mutated and type III collagen may serve as a reserve. PMID:23377784

  19. The large spectrum of pulmonary complications following illicit drug use: features and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Chevillard, Lucie

    2013-12-01

    Damage to lungs may occur from systemic as well as inhalational exposure to various illegal drugs of abuse. Aspiration pneumonia probably represents the most common pulmonary complication in relation to consciousness impairment. Some pulmonary consequences may be specifically related to one given drug. Prolonged smoking of marijuana may result in respiratory symptoms suggestive of obstructive lung disease. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema has been attributed to heroin, despite debated mechanisms including attempted inspiration against a closed glottis, hypoxic damage to alveolar integrity, neurogenic vasoactive response to stress, and opiate-induced anaphylactoid reaction. Naloxone-related precipitated withdrawal resulting in massive sympathetic response with heart stunning has been mistakenly implicated. In crack users, acute respiratory syndromes called "crack-lung" with fever, hemoptysis, dyspnea, and pulmonary infiltration on chest X-rays have been reported up-to 48h after free-base cocaine inhalation, with features of pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and eosinophil infiltration. The high-temperature of volatilized cocaine and the presence of impurities, as well as cocaine-induced local vasoconstriction have been suggested to explain alveolar damage. Some other drug-related pulmonary insults result from the route of drug self-administration. In intravenous drug users, granulomatous pneumonia with multinodular patterns on thoracic imaging is due to drug contaminants like talcum. Septic embolism from right-sided endocarditis represents an alternative diagnosis in case of sepsis from pulmonary origin. Following inhalation, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum have been attributed to increased intrathoracic pressure in relation to vigorous coughing or repeated Valsalva maneuvers, in an attempt to absorb the maximal possible drug amount. In conclusion, pulmonary consequences of illicit drugs are various, resulting in both acute

  20. Inflammatory mechanisms of pulmonary injury induced by mustards.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R; Venosa, Alessandro; Vayas, Kinal N; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2016-02-26

    Exposure of humans and animals to vesicants, including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), causes severe and debilitating damage to the respiratory tract. Both acute and long term pathological consequences are observed in the lung following a single exposure to these vesicants. Evidence from our laboratories and others suggest that macrophages and the inflammatory mediators they release play an important role in mustard-induced lung injury. In this paper, the pathogenic effects of SM and NM on the lung are reviewed, along with the potential role of inflammatory macrophages and mediators they release in mustard-induced pulmonary toxicity. PMID:26478570

  1. Guardian of the Human Genome: Host Defense Mechanisms against LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Ariumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Long interspersed element type 1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element comprising about 17% of the human genome, encoding a newly identified ORF0 with unknown function, ORF1p with RNA-binding activity and ORF2p with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities required for L1 retrotransposition. L1 utilizes an endonuclease (EN) to insert L1 cDNA into target DNA, which induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is activated by DSBs and subsequently the ATM-signaling pathway plays a role in regulating L1 retrotransposition. In addition, the host DNA repair machinery such as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway is also involved in L1 retrotransposition. On the other hand, L1 is an insertional mutagenic agent, which contributes to genetic change, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Indeed, high-throughput sequencing-based approaches identified numerous tumor-specific somatic L1 insertions in variety of cancers, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In fact, L1 retrotransposition seems to be a potential factor to reduce the tumor suppressive property in HCC. Furthermore, recent study demonstrated that a specific viral-human chimeric transcript, HBx-L1, contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC. In contrast, host cells have evolved several defense mechanisms protecting cells against retrotransposition including epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation and host defense factors, such as APOBEC3, MOV10, and SAMHD1, which restrict L1 mobility as a guardian of the human genome. In this review, I focus on somatic L1 insertions into the human genome in cancers and host defense mechanisms against deleterious L1 insertions. PMID:27446907

  2. Guardian of the Human Genome: Host Defense Mechanisms against LINE-1 Retrotransposition.

    PubMed

    Ariumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Long interspersed element type 1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element comprising about 17% of the human genome, encoding a newly identified ORF0 with unknown function, ORF1p with RNA-binding activity and ORF2p with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities required for L1 retrotransposition. L1 utilizes an endonuclease (EN) to insert L1 cDNA into target DNA, which induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is activated by DSBs and subsequently the ATM-signaling pathway plays a role in regulating L1 retrotransposition. In addition, the host DNA repair machinery such as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway is also involved in L1 retrotransposition. On the other hand, L1 is an insertional mutagenic agent, which contributes to genetic change, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Indeed, high-throughput sequencing-based approaches identified numerous tumor-specific somatic L1 insertions in variety of cancers, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In fact, L1 retrotransposition seems to be a potential factor to reduce the tumor suppressive property in HCC. Furthermore, recent study demonstrated that a specific viral-human chimeric transcript, HBx-L1, contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC. In contrast, host cells have evolved several defense mechanisms protecting cells against retrotransposition including epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation and host defense factors, such as APOBEC3, MOV10, and SAMHD1, which restrict L1 mobility as a guardian of the human genome. In this review, I focus on somatic L1 insertions into the human genome in cancers and host defense mechanisms against deleterious L1 insertions. PMID:27446907

  3. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Bradeen, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed ‘Russet Burbank’ (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic ‘Russet Burbank’ line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins) contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific. PMID:27441721

  4. Hepatocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and host defense mechanisms in the alcohol-injured liver.

    PubMed

    McVicker, Benita L; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Tuma, Dean J; Casey, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    The consumption of alcohol is associated with many health issues including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The natural history of ALD involves the development of steatosis, inflammation (steatohepatitis), fibrosis and cirrhosis. During the stage of steatohepatitis, the combination of inflammation and cellular damage can progress to a severe condition termed alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of AH remains uncharacterized. Some modulations have been identified in host defense and liver immunity mechanisms during AH that highlight the role of intrahepatic lymphocyte accumulation and associated inflammatory cytokine responses. Also, it is hypothesized that alcohol-induced injury to liver cells may significantly contribute to the aberrant lymphocytic distribution that is seen in AH. In particular, the regulation of lymphocytes by hepatocytes may be disrupted in the alcoholic liver resulting in altered immunologic homeostasis and perpetuation of disease. In recent studies, it was demonstrated that the direct killing of activated T lymphocytes by hepatocytes is facilitated by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). The ASGPR is a well-characterized glycoprotein receptor that is exclusively expressed by hepatocytes. This hepatic receptor is known for its role in the clearance of desialylated glycoproteins or cells, yet neither its physiological function nor its role in disease states has been determined. Interestingly, alcohol markedly impairs ASGPR function; however, the effect alcohol has on ASGPR-mediated cytotoxicity of lymphocytes remains to be elucidated. This review discusses the contribution of hepatocytes in immunological regulation and, importantly, how pathological effects of ethanol disrupt hepatocellular-mediated defense mechanisms.

  5. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liangliang; Bradeen, James M

    2016-01-01

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins) contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific. PMID:27441721

  6. Trichoderma viride Laccase Plays a Crucial Role in Defense Mechanism against Antagonistic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Divya, Lakshmanan; Sadasivan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal laccases are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as delignification, morphogenesis, and parasitism. In addition to these functions, we suggest that fungal laccases are involved in defense mechanisms. When the laccase secreting Trichoderma viride was grown in the presence of a range of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi, laccase secretion was enhanced in response to antagonistic organisms alone. In addition, growth of antagonistic microbes was restricted by the secreting fungi. Besides, our study for the first time shows the inability of the secreting fungi (T. viride) to compete with antagonistic organism when laccase activity is inhibited, further emphasizing its involvement in rendering a survival advantage to the secreting organism. When laccase inhibitor was added to the media, the zone of inhibition exerted by the antagonist organism was more pronounced and consequently growth of T. viride was significantly restricted. Based on these observations we accentuate that, laccase plays an important role in defense mechanism and provides endurance to the organism when encountered with an antagonistic organism in its surrounding. PMID:27242756

  7. Trichoderma viride Laccase Plays a Crucial Role in Defense Mechanism against Antagonistic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Divya, Lakshmanan; Sadasivan, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungal laccases are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as delignification, morphogenesis, and parasitism. In addition to these functions, we suggest that fungal laccases are involved in defense mechanisms. When the laccase secreting Trichoderma viride was grown in the presence of a range of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi, laccase secretion was enhanced in response to antagonistic organisms alone. In addition, growth of antagonistic microbes was restricted by the secreting fungi. Besides, our study for the first time shows the inability of the secreting fungi (T. viride) to compete with antagonistic organism when laccase activity is inhibited, further emphasizing its involvement in rendering a survival advantage to the secreting organism. When laccase inhibitor was added to the media, the zone of inhibition exerted by the antagonist organism was more pronounced and consequently growth of T. viride was significantly restricted. Based on these observations we accentuate that, laccase plays an important role in defense mechanism and provides endurance to the organism when encountered with an antagonistic organism in its surrounding. PMID:27242756

  8. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance. Conclusion: There was a

  9. Biomembrane interactions reveal the mechanism of action of surface-immobilized host defense IDR-1010 peptide.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangzheng; Cheng, John T J; Kindrachuk, Jason; Hancock, Robert E W; Straus, Suzana K; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-02-24

    Dissecting the mechanism of action of surface-tethered antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides is critical to the design of optimized anti-infection coatings on biomedical devices. To address this, we compared the biomembrane interactions of host defense peptide IDR-1010cys (1) in free form, (2) as a soluble polymer conjugate, and (3) with one end tethered to a solid support with model bacterial and mammalian lipid membranes. Our results show that IDR-1010cys in all three distinct forms interacted with bacterial and mammalian lipid vesicles, but the extent of the interactions as monitored by the induction of secondary structure varied. The enhanced interaction of surface-tethered peptides is well correlated with their very good antimicrobial activities. Our results demonstrate that there may be a difference in the mechanism of action of surface-tethered versus free IDR-1010cys.

  10. Systemic Acquired Resistance in Moss: Further Evidence for Conserved Defense Mechanisms in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Peter S.; Bowman, Collin E.; Villani, Philip J.; Dolan, Thomas E.; Hauck, Nathanael R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species; however, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting SAR may also exist in non-vascular plants6–8, its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the lack of an appropriate culture system. Here, we describe and use a novel culture system to demonstrate that the moss species Amblystegium serpens does initiate a SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Infection of A. serpens gametophores by P. irregulare is characterized by localized cytoplasmic shrinkage within 34 h and chlorosis and necrosis within 7 d of inoculation. Within 24 h of a primary inoculation (induction), moss gametophores grown in culture became highly resistant to infection following subsequent inoculation (challenge) by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself and not to physical wounding. Treatment with β-1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous studies, suggest that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants. In addition, this novel moss – pathogen culture system will be valuable for future characterization of the mechanism of SAR in moss, which is necessary for a better understanding of the evolutionary history of SAR

  11. PULMONARY PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND LUNG MECHANICS IN ANESTHESIOLOGY: A CASE-BASED OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Vidal Melo, Marcos F.; Musch, Guido; Kaczka, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The induction and maintenance of anesthesia, surgical requirements, and patients’ unique pathophysiology all combine to create a setting in which our accumulated knowledge of respiratory physiology and lung mechanics take on immediate and central importance in patient management. In this review we will take a case-based approach to illustrate how the complex interactions between anesthesia, surgery, and patient disease impact patient care with respect to pulmonary pathophysiology and clinical decision-making. We will examine two disparate scenarios: a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing a lung resection, and a patient with coronary artery disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. In each example we will illustrate how important concepts in pulmonary physiology and respiratory mechanics impact clinical management decisions. PMID:23089508

  12. [Pneumomediastinum: an aspect of pulmonary barotrauma during mechanical ventilation of acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Y; En-Nafaa, I; Chkoura, K; Boughalem, M; Kamili, N Drissi

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a fundamental treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite compliance with the recommendations of protective mechanical ventilation, it can results in serious complications including the pulmonary barotrauma. This is often manifested by a pneumothorax. This observation describes an unusual aspect of barotrauma which is pneumomediastinum. The authors also point out the role of chest imaging in the management of mechanical ventilation during ARDS.

  13. The nature of antioxidant defense mechanisms: a lesson from transgenic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Y S; Magnenat, J L; Gargano, M; Cao, J

    1998-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many clinical disorders such as adult respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Genetically engineered animal models have been used as a tool for understanding the function of various antioxidant enzymes in cellular defense mechanisms against various types of oxidant tissue injury. Transgenic mice overexpressing three isoforms of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and the cellular glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx-1) in various tissues show an increased tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion heart and brain injury, hyperoxia, cold-induced brain edema, adriamycin, and paraquat toxicity. These results have provided for the first time direct evidence demonstrating the importance of each of these antioxidant enzymes in protecting the animals against the injury resulting from these insults, as well as the effect of an enhanced level of antioxidant in ameliorating the oxidant tissue injury. To evaluate further the nature of these enzymes in antioxidant defense, gene knockout mice deficient in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and GSHPx-1 have also been generated in our laboratory. These mice developed normally and showed no marked pathologic changes under normal physiologic conditions. In addition, a deficiency in these genes had no effects on animal survival under hyperoxida. However, these knockout mice exhibited a pronounced susceptibility to paraquat toxicity and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, female mice lacking CuZnSOD also displayed a marked increase in postimplantation embryonic lethality. These animals should provide a useful model for uncovering the identity of ROS that participate in the pathogenesis of various clinical disorders and for defining the role of each antioxidant enzyme in cellular defense against oxidant-mediated tissue injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9788901

  14. The evolution of advanced mechanical defenses and potential technological applications of diatom shells.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christian E

    2005-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae with silicified cell walls, which exhibit a high degree of symmetry and complexity. Their diversity is extraordinarily high; estimates suggest that about 10(5) marine and limnic species may exist. Recently, it was shown that diatom frustules are mechanically resilient, statically sophisticated structures made of a tough glass-like composite. Consequently, to break the frustules, predators have to generate large forces and invest large amounts of energy. In addition, they need feeding tools (e.g., mandibles or gastric mills) which are hard, tough, and resilient enough to resist high stress and wear, which are bound to occur when they feed on biomineralized objects such as diatoms or other biomineralized protists. Indeed, many copepods feeding on diatoms possess, in analogy to the enamelcoated teeth of mammals, amazingly complex, silica-laced mandibles. The highly developed adaptations both to protect and to break diatoms indicate that selection pressure is high to optimize material properties and the geometry of the shells to achieve mechanical strength of the overall structure. This paper discusses the mechanical challenges which force the development of mechanical defenses, and the structural components of the diatom frustules which indicate that evolutionary optimization has led to mechanically sophisticated structures. Understanding the diatom frustule from the nanometer scale up to the whole shell will provide new insights to advanced combinations of nanostructured composite ceramic materials and lightweight architecture for technological applications.

  15. Monuments of memory: defensive mechanisms of the collective psyche and their manifestation in the memorialization process.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Malgorzata

    2012-09-01

    The paper searches for insight in the area of collective memory as a part of collective consciousness, a phenomenon understood as a stabilizing factor for a society's self-image and identity. Collective memories are seen as originating from shared communications transmitting and creating the meaning of the past in the form of narrative, symbols and signs. As such, they contain the individual, embodied and lived side of our relations to the past. As well as the identity-building and meaning-making functions of collective memories, their defensive function is discussed with a focus on commemorative practices taking place in a transitional space between psychic and social life. Fears of a lack of collective identity and coherence have contributed to the way Polish commemorative practices have been shaped. This is considered in relation to the Smolensk catastrophe in 2010, viewed in the context of the Jungian concept of the collective psyche and the psychoanalytical understanding of defensive group mechanisms against trauma, especially those relating to loss and mourning. It leads to a consideration of how historical experiences and the experience of history can be accessed, as well as their meaning for individual and group development. PMID:22954041

  16. Preventive role of lens antioxidant defense mechanism against riboflavin-mediated sunlight damaging of lens crystallins.

    PubMed

    Anbaraki, Afrooz; Khoshaman, Kazem; Ghasemi, Younes; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The main components of sunlight reaching the eye lens are UVA and visible light exerting their photo-damaging effects indirectly by the aid of endogenous photosensitizer molecules such as riboflavin (RF). In this study, lens proteins solutions were incubated with RF and exposed to the sunlight. Then, gel mobility shift analysis and different spectroscopic assessments were applied to examine the structural damaging effects of solar radiation on these proteins. Exposure of lens proteins to direct sunlight, in the presence of RF, leads to marked structural crosslinking, oligomerization and proteolytic instability. These structural damages were also accompanied with reduction in the emission fluorescence of Trp and Tyr and appearance of a new absorption peak between 300 and 400nm which can be related to formation of new chromophores. Also, photo-oxidation of lens crystallins increases their oligomeric size distribution as examined by dynamic light scattering analysis. The above mentioned structural insults, as potential sources of sunlight-induced senile cataract and blindness, were significantly attenuated in the presence of ascorbic acid and glutathione which are two important components of lens antioxidant defense system. Therefore, the powerful antioxidant defense mechanism of eye lens is an important barrier against molecular photo-damaging effects of solar radiations during the life span. PMID:27316765

  17. Luminal l-glutamate enhances duodenal mucosal defense mechanisms via multiple glutamate receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Chikako; Mizumori, Misa; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Presence of taste receptor families in the gastrointestinal mucosa suggests a physiological basis for local and early detection of a meal. We hypothesized that luminal l-glutamate, which is the primary nutrient conferring fundamental umami or proteinaceous taste, influences mucosal defense mechanisms in rat duodenum. We perfused the duodenal mucosa of anesthetized rats with l-glutamate (0.1–10 mM). Intracellular pH (pHi) of the epithelial cells, blood flow, and mucus gel thickness (MGT) were simultaneously and continuously measured in vivo. Some rats were pretreated with indomethacin or capsaicin. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) was measured with flow-through pH and CO2 electrodes. We tested the effects of agonists or antagonists for metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 or 4 or calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on defense factors. Luminal l-glutamate dose dependently increased pHi and MGT but had no effect on blood flow in the duodenum. l-glutamate (10 mM)-induced cellular alkalinization and mucus secretion were inhibited by pretreatment with indomethacin or capsaicin. l-glutamate effects on pHi and MGT were mimicked by mGluR4 agonists and inhibited by an mGluR4 antagonist. CaSR agonists acidified cells with increased MGT and DBS, unlike l-glutamate. Perfusion of l-glutamate with inosinate (inosine 5′-monophosphate, 0.1 mM) enhanced DBS only in combination, suggesting synergistic activation of the l-glutamate receptor, typical of taste receptor type 1. l-leucine or l-aspartate had similar effects on DBS without any effect on pHi and MGT. Preperfusion of l-glutamate prevented acid-induced cellular injury, suggesting that l-glutamate protects the mucosa by enhancing mucosal defenses. Luminal l-glutamate may activate multiple receptors and afferent nerves and locally enhance mucosal defenses to prevent subsequent injury attributable to acid exposure in the duodenum. PMID:19643955

  18. Effect of position on pulmonary mechanics in healthy preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Fox, R E; Viscardi, R M; Taciak, V L; Niknafs, H; Cinoman, M I

    1993-01-01

    Preterm infants are often placed in the supine position to facilitate care and observation. Prone positioning may positively affect later neurodevelopmental outcome, but it may also affect pulmonary function. Using a computerized system, we examined the effect of positioning on pulmonary mechanics in spontaneously breathing healthy preterm infants. Eleven infants with a mean birth weight (+/- SD) of 1523 +/- 171 gm and a mean gestational age (+/- SD) of 31.7 +/- 1.5 weeks were studied during the first 2 weeks of life. Pulmonary mechanic measurements were obtained in both supine and prone positions by mask pneumotachography and esophageal balloon technique. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were unaffected by positioning. There was a statistically, but not clinically, significant increase in heart rate in the prone position. However, there were no significant differences in tidal volume, minute ventilation, pulmonary resistance, or dynamic compliance between positions. The contribution of intrasubject variability of serial measurements was assessed in a separate group of four infants studied three times in the same position. There was no significant difference in respiratory rate, tidal volume, dynamic compliance per kilogram, or total pulmonary resistance in the same infant when studied in the same position over time (p > or = 0.24). The maximum variability (95% confidence limit) was 25.5% for tidal volume, 21% for dynamic compliance, and 44.3% for resistance. Because prone positioning did not adversely affect pulmonary mechanics or oxygen saturation in these healthy preterm infants, we suggest that prone position be used to facilitate the developmental needs of these infants.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Sialic Foamed Ceramic and Applications in Defense Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu-Yang; Li, Yong-Chi; Zhao, Kai; Gao, Guang-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Mechanical properties of a closed-cellular sialic foamed ceramic are investigated by compressive tests. The sialic foamed ceramic under uniaxial stress compression shows brittleness and the flow stress increases with the strain rate. The engineering stress-engineering strain curve under uniaxial strain compression could be divided into three stages: linear elasticity, collapsed plateau and densification. The unloading elastic modulus, Poisson ratio and energy absorption ability are discussed. Shelly cellular material made by sialic foamed ceramic is applied into the stress distribution layer in the defense structure. Field explosion experiments are performed for the sand based stress distribution layer and shelly cellular material based layer. Compared with sand, the shelly cellular material reduces the peak stress of the blast wave.

  20. Roles of small RNAs in the immune defense mechanisms of crustaceans.

    PubMed

    He, Yaodong; Ju, Chenyu; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    Small RNAs, 21-24 nucleotides in length, are non-coding RNAs found in most multicellular organisms, as well as in some viruses. There are three main types of small RNAs including microRNA (miRNA), small-interfering RNA (siRNA), and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA). Small RNAs play key roles in the genetic regulation of eukaryotes; at least 50% of all eukaryote genes are the targets of small RNAs. In recent years, studies have shown that some unique small RNAs are involved in the immune response of crustaceans, leading to lower or higher immune responses to infections and diseases. SiRNAs could be used as therapy for virus infection. In this review, we provide an overview of the diverse roles of small RNAs in the immune defense mechanisms of crustaceans. PMID:26210184

  1. [The defense and regulatory mechanisms during development of legume-Rhizobium symbiosis].

    PubMed

    Glian'ko, A K; Akimova, G P; Sokolova, M G; Makarova, L E; Vasil'eva, G G

    2007-01-01

    The roles of indolylacetic acid, the peroxidase system, catalase, active oxygen species, and phenolic compounds in the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in the autoregulation of nodulation in the developing legume-Rhizobium symbiosis were studied. It was inferred that the concentration of indolylacetic acid in the roots of inoculated plants, controlled by the enzymes of the peroxidase complex, is the signal permitting or limiting nodulation at the initial stages of symbiotic interaction. Presumably, the change in the level of active oxygen species is determined by an antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. During the development of symbiosis, phytohormones, antioxidant enzymes, and active oxygen species may be involved in the regulation of infection via both a direct antibacterial action and regulation of functional activity of the host plant defense systems. PMID:17619575

  2. Stress defense mechanisms of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Barman, Dhirendra Nath; Kim, Min Gab; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Plants establish highly and systemically organized stress defense mechanisms against unfavorable living conditions. To interpret these environmental stimuli, plants possess communication tools, referred as secondary messengers, such as Ca(2+) signature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) wave. Maintenance of ROS is an important event for whole lifespan of plants, however, in special cases, toxic ROS molecules are largely accumulated under excess stresses and diverse enzymes played as ROS scavengers. Arabidopsis and rice contain 3 NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) which transfer reducing power to Thioredoxin/Peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx) system for scavenging ROS. However, due to functional redundancy between cytosolic and mitochondrial NTRs (NTRA and NTRB, respectively), their functional involvements under stress conditions have not been well characterized. Recently, we reported that cytosolic NTRA confers the stress tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses via regulation of ROS amounts using NTRA-overexpressing plants. With these findings, mitochondrial NTRB needs to be further elucidated.

  3. Attenuation of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in kidney of rats intoxicated with carbofuran.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Bhupindervir; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat

    2012-10-01

    Carbofuran, an anticholinestrase carbamate, is commonly used as an insecticide. Its toxic effect on kidney is less established. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbofuran on kidneys and to understand the mechanism involved in its nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups of eight animals each; control animals received sunflower oil (vehicle) and carbofuran exposed animals were treated with carbofuran (1 mg/kg body weight) orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, significant increase was observed in urea and creatinine levels in serum along with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant defense system of animals treated with carbofuran was altered in terms of increased lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and total thiols and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results indicate that carbofuran is nephrotoxic and increased oxidative stress appears to be involved in its nephrotoxic effects.

  4. Mechanical properties and structure of isolated pulmonary arteries remodeled by chronic hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Coflesky, J T; Jones, R C; Reid, L M; Evans, J N

    1987-08-01

    Normobaric hyperoxia is known to cause pulmonary hypertension with major restructuring of the walls of large and small pulmonary arteries. This study reports the effects of 21 days of exposure to 87% oxygen on the resting and active mechanical properties and structure of pulmonary arterial segments. Segments from the hilar region, extrapulmonary and proximal preacinar, and selected distal preacinar regions were studied. Resting and active (KCl-induced) tension:circumference curves were determined for each vessel. Morphometric measures were made of vessels fixed at a standard circumference using computerized planimetry. The areas of the media and adventitia as well as vessel wall thickness were increased in hyperoxic vessels. The walls of segments from the hypertensive rats demonstrated an increased stiffness based upon analysis of vessel resting tension:circumference relationships while the tangent modulus (a measure of stiffness normalized to tissue dimensions) was unchanged. Paradoxically, despite medial hypertrophy in the pulmonary vessels remodeled by hyperoxia, active tension was reduced. This study reveals that the resulting hypertensive state is not readily explained by an inherent increase in the maximal contractile capabilities of the remodeled vessel. Rather, obliteration of vessels in combination with increased resting stiffness appear to be the basis for pulmonary hypertension induced in hyperoxia. PMID:3619198

  5. Strong down-regulation of glycophorin genes: A host defense mechanism against rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Marco-Puche, Guillermo; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Cebey-López, Miriam; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Vilanova-Trillo, Lucía; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gómez-Rial, José; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms of rotavirus (RV) infection have been analyzed from different angles but the way in which RV modifies the transcriptome of the host is still unknown. Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of peripheral blood samples was used to reveal patterns of expression from the genome of RV-infected patients. RV provokes global changes in the transcriptome of infected cells, involving an over-expression of genes involved in cell cycle and chromatin condensation. While interferon IFI27 was hyper-activated, interferon type II was not suggesting that RV has developed mechanisms to evade the innate response by host cells after virus infection. Most interesting was the inhibition of genes of the glycophorins A and B (GYPA/B) family, which are the major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane and receptor of several viruses for host invasion. RV infection induces a complex and global response in the host. The strong inhibition of glycophorins suggests a novel defense mechanism of the host to prevent viral infection, inhibiting the expression of receptors used by the virus for infection. The present results add further support to the systemic nature of RV infection.

  6. In Vivo NMR Metabolic Profiling of Fabrea salina Reveals Sequential Defense Mechanisms against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Roberto; Paris, Debora; Melck, Dominique; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Colombetti, Giuliano; Motta, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Fabrea salina is a hypersaline ciliate that is known to be among the strongest ultraviolet (UV)-resistant microorganisms; however, the molecular mechanisms of this resistance are almost unknown. By means of in vivo NMR spectroscopy, we determined the metabolic profile of living F. salina cells exposed to visible light and to polychromatic UV-B + UV-A + Vis radiation for several different exposure times. We used unsupervised pattern-recognition analysis to compare these profiles and discovered some metabolites whose concentration changed specifically upon UV exposure and in a dose-dependent manner. This variation was interpreted in terms of a two-phase cell reaction involving at least two different pathways: an early response consisting of degradation processes, followed by a late response activating osmoprotection mechanisms. The first step alters the concentration of formate, acetate, and saturated fatty-acid metabolites, whereas the osmoprotection modifies the activity of betaine moieties and other functionally related metabolites. In the latter pathway, alanine, proline, and sugars suggest a possible incipient protein synthesis as defense and/or degeneration mechanisms. We conclude that NMR spectroscopy on in vivo cells is an optimal approach for investigating the effect of UV-induced stress on the whole metabolome of F. salina because it minimizes the invasiveness of the measurement. PMID:21190674

  7. Strong down-regulation of glycophorin genes: A host defense mechanism against rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Marco-Puche, Guillermo; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Cebey-López, Miriam; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Vilanova-Trillo, Lucía; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gómez-Rial, José; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms of rotavirus (RV) infection have been analyzed from different angles but the way in which RV modifies the transcriptome of the host is still unknown. Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of peripheral blood samples was used to reveal patterns of expression from the genome of RV-infected patients. RV provokes global changes in the transcriptome of infected cells, involving an over-expression of genes involved in cell cycle and chromatin condensation. While interferon IFI27 was hyper-activated, interferon type II was not suggesting that RV has developed mechanisms to evade the innate response by host cells after virus infection. Most interesting was the inhibition of genes of the glycophorins A and B (GYPA/B) family, which are the major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane and receptor of several viruses for host invasion. RV infection induces a complex and global response in the host. The strong inhibition of glycophorins suggests a novel defense mechanism of the host to prevent viral infection, inhibiting the expression of receptors used by the virus for infection. The present results add further support to the systemic nature of RV infection. PMID:27491455

  8. Mechanisms of intracellular defense and activity of free radical oxidation in rat myocardium in the dynamics of chronic fluorine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, A G; Alekhina, D A; Sazontova, T G; Prokop'ev, Yu A; Gorokhova, L G; Stryapko, N V; Mikhailova, N N

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of intracellular defense and activity of free radical oxidation in the myocardium were studied in the dynamics of chronic fluorine intoxication. At the early stages of fluorine intoxication (day 3-week 3), the concentrations of defense proteins HIF-1α, HSC73, and HOx-2 and activity of the main metabolic enzymes increased, which promoted maintenance of cardiomyocyte structure and function at the normal physiological level. At late stages of fluorine intoxication (weeks 6 and 9), metabolic changes in the myocardium attest to high strain of the adaptive mechanisms.

  9. Defense mechanisms of sargassacean species against the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Noboru; Ohki, Kaori; Kamiya, Mitsunobu

    2015-08-01

    Flora diversity and abundance of epiphytes are specific to their basiphyte species and may relate to variations in the defensive abilities of basiphytes. Thus, investigating the interactions between epiphytes and basiphytes is useful for a better understanding of the biological impact of epiphytism and the survival strategies of basiphytes. We examined the epiphyte density on five sargassacean species at six locations between two study sites, which showed that the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi was remarkably less abundant on Sargassum siliquastrum at all locations. To assess its defense mechanism against N. harveyi, we performed bioassays of phlorotannins, which are considered effective in deterring fouling, by culturing sargassacean blades with N. harveyi carpospores and observed the process by which sargassacean blades remove epiphytes. When the carpospores were incubated with various concentrations of dissolved phlorotannins, settlement and germination were inhibited only at the highest concentrations (>0.1 g · L(-1) ), and this effect did not significantly differ among the five sargassacean species. When the carpospores were combined with blades from the five species, many of the spores attached and germinated on every blade. Because N. harveyi penetrated rhizoids into basiphyte tissues, cuticle peeling observed in all five sargassacean species could not remove this epiphyte after germination. However, in S. siliquastrum, the blade tissues around the germlings became swollen and disintegrative, and were removed together with the germlings. The spores normally grew on the dead blades, suggesting that the tissue degradation of S. siliquastrum is triggered by the infection of N. harveyi. PMID:26986791

  10. Numerical investigation of pulmonary drug delivery under mechanical ventilation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arindam; van Rhein, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    The effects of mechanical ventilation waveform on fluid flow and particle deposition were studied in a computer model of the human airways. The frequency with which aerosolized drugs are delivered to mechanically ventilated patients demonstrates the importance of understanding the effects of ventilation parameters. This study focuses specifically on the effects of mechanical ventilation waveforms using a computer model of the airways of patient undergoing mechanical ventilation treatment from the endotracheal tube to generation G7. Waveforms were modeled as those commonly used by commercial mechanical ventilators. Turbulence was modeled with LES. User defined particle force models were used to model the drag force with the Cunningham correction factor, the Saffman lift force, and Brownian motion force. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was found to be an important geometric feature, causing a fluid jet towards the right main bronchus, increased turbulence, and a recirculation zone in the right main bronchus. In addition to the enhanced deposition seen at the carinas of the airway bifurcations, enhanced deposition was also seen in the right main bronchus due to impaction and turbulent dispersion resulting from the fluid structures created by the ETT. Authors acknowledge financial support through University of Missouri Research Board Award.

  11. Plant storage proteins with antimicrobial activity: novel insights into plant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Pinto, Michelle Flaviane Soares; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Lima, Thais Bergamin; Silva, Osmar Nascimento; Pogue, Robert; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2011-10-01

    Storage proteins perform essential roles in plant survival, acting as molecular reserves important for plant growth and maintenance, as well as being involved in defense mechanisms by virtue of their properties as insecticidal and antimicrobial proteins. These proteins accumulate in storage vacuoles inside plant cells, and, in response to determined signals, they may be used by the different plant tissues in response to pathogen attack. To shed some light on these remarkable proteins with dual functions, storage proteins found in germinative tissues, such as seeds and kernels, and in vegetative tissues, such as tubercles and leaves, are extensively discussed here, along with the related mechanisms of protein expression. Among these proteins, we focus on 2S albumins, Kunitz proteinase inhibitors, plant lectins, glycine-rich proteins, vicilins, patatins, tarins, and ocatins. Finally, the potential use of these molecules in development of drugs to combat human and plant pathogens, contributing to the development of new biotechnology-based medications and products for agribusiness, is also presented.

  12. Overlapping and complementary oxidative stress defense mechanisms in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Baker, Beth D; Munson, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative commensal bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) can cause respiratory tract diseases that include otitis media, sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis. During colonization and infection, NTHI withstands oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by the host, and by other copathogens and flora. These reactive oxygen species include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals, whose killing is amplified by iron via the Fenton reaction. We previously identified genes that encode proteins with putative roles in protection of the NTHI isolate strain 86-028NP against oxidative stress. These include catalase (HktE), peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin (PgdX), and a ferritin-like protein (Dps). Strains were generated with mutations in hktE, pgdX, and dps. The hktE mutant and a pgdX hktE double mutant were more sensitive than the parent to killing by H2O2. Conversely, the pgdX mutant was more resistant to H2O2 due to increased catalase activity. Supporting the role of killing via the Fenton reaction, binding of iron by Dps significantly mitigated the effect of H2O2-mediated killing. NTHI thus utilizes several effectors to resist oxidative stress, and regulation of free iron is critical to this protection. These mechanisms will be important for successful colonization and infection by this opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:25368297

  13. Overlapping and complementary oxidative stress defense mechanisms in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Baker, Beth D; Munson, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative commensal bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) can cause respiratory tract diseases that include otitis media, sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis. During colonization and infection, NTHI withstands oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by the host, and by other copathogens and flora. These reactive oxygen species include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals, whose killing is amplified by iron via the Fenton reaction. We previously identified genes that encode proteins with putative roles in protection of the NTHI isolate strain 86-028NP against oxidative stress. These include catalase (HktE), peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin (PgdX), and a ferritin-like protein (Dps). Strains were generated with mutations in hktE, pgdX, and dps. The hktE mutant and a pgdX hktE double mutant were more sensitive than the parent to killing by H2O2. Conversely, the pgdX mutant was more resistant to H2O2 due to increased catalase activity. Supporting the role of killing via the Fenton reaction, binding of iron by Dps significantly mitigated the effect of H2O2-mediated killing. NTHI thus utilizes several effectors to resist oxidative stress, and regulation of free iron is critical to this protection. These mechanisms will be important for successful colonization and infection by this opportunistic human pathogen.

  14. Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Shiguo; Xu, Haibin; Nelson, David R.; Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Luo, Hongmei; Xiang, Li; Li, Ying; Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Wang, Lizhi; Lu, Shanfa; Hayward, Alice; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiwen; Schwartz, David C.; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. Here the complete genome sequence, as well as DNA methylation patterns and small RNA transcriptomes, was analyzed to provide a holistic overview of secondary metabolism and defense processes in the model medicinal fungus, Ganoderma sinense. We reported the 48.96 Mb genome sequence of G. sinense, consisting of 12 chromosomes and encoding 15,688 genes. More than thirty gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as a large array of genes responsible for their transport and regulation were highlighted. In addition, components of genome defense mechanisms, namely repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated gene silencing, were revealed in G. sinense. Systematic bioinformatic investigation of the genome and methylome suggested that RIP and DNA methylation combinatorially maintain G. sinense genome stability by inactivating invasive genetic material and transposable elements. The elucidation of the G. sinense genome and epigenome provides an unparalleled opportunity to advance our understanding of secondary metabolism and fungal defense mechanisms. PMID:26046933

  15. Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Shiguo; Xu, Haibin; Nelson, David R; Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Luo, Hongmei; Xiang, Li; Li, Ying; Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Wang, Lizhi; Lu, Shanfa; Hayward, Alice; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiwen; Schwartz, David C; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Shilin

    2015-06-05

    Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. Here the complete genome sequence, as well as DNA methylation patterns and small RNA transcriptomes, was analyzed to provide a holistic overview of secondary metabolism and defense processes in the model medicinal fungus, Ganoderma sinense. We reported the 48.96 Mb genome sequence of G. sinense, consisting of 12 chromosomes and encoding 15,688 genes. More than thirty gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as a large array of genes responsible for their transport and regulation were highlighted. In addition, components of genome defense mechanisms, namely repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated gene silencing, were revealed in G. sinense. Systematic bioinformatic investigation of the genome and methylome suggested that RIP and DNA methylation combinatorially maintain G. sinense genome stability by inactivating invasive genetic material and transposable elements. The elucidation of the G. sinense genome and epigenome provides an unparalleled opportunity to advance our understanding of secondary metabolism and fungal defense mechanisms.

  16. Interrelation between Alterations in Pulmonary Mechanics and hemodynamics in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Interiano, Benjamin; Hyde, Richard W.; Hodges, Morrison; Yu, Paul N.

    1973-01-01

    Pulmonary mechanics were evaluated in 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction by measuring forced expiratory flow rates and total pulmonary resistance (RT) with the oscillometric method at the resonant frequency of the chest (6-8) cycle/s). During the first 3 days after infarction, forced expiratory volume (FEV) and forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) were 69% and 60% of predicted values, respectively. 10 or more wk later these values were 95% and 91%. Initially, RT was 52% greater than predicted, but was only 4% greater 10 or more wk later. In 11 patients RT was measured at both resonant frequency and at 3 cycle/s. Five of these patients had no clinical signs of heart failure, but nine had abnormally high values of pulmonary artery pressure, “wedge” pressure and pulmonary extravascular water volume. All of these patients recovered. Initially, RT at resonance was 50% and RT at 3 cycle/s was 130% greater than predicted values. 2-3 wk later these figures were -3% and +6% of those predicted, respectively. At 10 wk or more, significant frequency dependence of RT had disappeared (RT at 3 cycle/s was 7% greater than RT at resonance). Isoproterenol inhalation in six patients caused no change in flow rates, RT at resonance, or RT at 3 cycle/s. RT at resonance and at 3 cycle/s, FEV, and FEF25-75% correlated significantly with the pulmonary vascular pressures. Patients with more marked arterial hypoxia and larger values for extravascular water volume had greater elevations of RT and depression of FEF25-75%, but linear correlations were not significant. Clinical signs of congestive heart failure significantly correlated with a fall in FEV and FEF25-75%, the development of frequency dependence of RT, and elevation of the pulmonary wedge pressure. The initial elevation of RT and low flow rates indicate a modest degree of airway obstruction in acute myocardial infarction. Lack of response to isoproterenol suggests that bronchial muscular constriction is not a

  17. Evolution and development of gastropod larval shell morphology: experimental evidence for mechanical defense and repair.

    PubMed

    Hickman, C S

    2001-01-01

    The structural diversity of gastropod veliger larvae offers an instructive counterpoint to the view of larval forms as conservative archetypes. Larval structure, function, and development are fine-tuned for survival in the plankton. Accordingly, the study of larval adaptation provides an important perspective for evolutionary-developmental biology as an integrated science. Patterns of breakage and repair in the field, as well as patterns of breakage in arranged encounters with zooplankton under laboratory conditions, are two powerful sources of data on the adaptive significance of morphological and microsculptural features of the gastropod larval shell. Shells of the planktonic veliger larvae of the caenogastropod Nassarius paupertus [GOULD] preserve multiple repaired breaks, attributed to unsuccessful zooplankton predators. In culture, larvae isolated from concentrated zooplankton samples rapidly repaired broken apertural margins and restored the "ideal" apertural form, in which an elaborate projection or "beak" covers the head of the swimming veliger. When individuals with repaired apertures were reintroduced to a concentrated mixture of potential zooplankton predators, the repaired margins were rapidly chipped and broken back. The projecting beak of the larval shell is the first line of mechanical defense, covering the larval head and mouth and potentially the most vulnerable part of the shell to breakage. Patterns of mechanical failure show that spiral ridges do reinforce the beak and retard breakage. The capacity for rapid shell repair and regeneration, and the evolution of features that resist or retard mechanical damage, may play a more prominent role than previously thought in enhancing the ability of larvae to survive in the plankton.

  18. Intrapulmonary haematoma complicating mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bonmarchand, G; Lefebvre, E; Lerebours-Pigeonnière, G; Genevois, A; Massari, P; Leroy, J

    1988-01-01

    Intrapulmonary haematomas occurred during mechanical ventilation of two patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bullous dystrophy. In both cases, the haematomas were revealed by blood-stained aspirates, a fall in haemoglobin level, and the appearance of radiological opacities. Haematoma occurrence in the area of a bulla which recently has rapidly increased in size, suggests that the haematoma is due to the rupture of stretched vessels embedded in the wall of the bulla. PMID:3379188

  19. Defense Mechanisms Reported by Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis II Comparison Subjects Over 16 Years of Prospective Follow-up: Description and Prediction of Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the defensive functioning of 290 borderline patients and compared it to that of 72 patients with other forms of axis II psychopathology over 16 years of prospective follow-up. It also assessed the relationship between time-varying defenses and recovery from borderline personality disorder. Method The Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure with demonstrated criterion validity and internal consistency, was initially administered at study entry. It was readministered at eight contiguous two-year long follow-up periods. Results Borderline patients had significantly lower scores than axis II comparison subjects on one mature defense mechanism (suppression) and significantly higher scores on seven of the other 18 defenses studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image-distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In terms of change, borderline patients were found to have had significant improvement on 13 of the 19 defenses studied. More specifically, they had significantly higher scores over time on one mature defense (anticipation) and significantly lower scores on two neurotic defenses (isolation and undoing), all immature defenses, and all image-distorting/borderline defenses except primitive idealization. In addition, four time-varying defense mechanisms were found to predict time-to-recovery: humor, acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and projection. Conclusions Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the longitudinal defensive functioning of borderline patients is both distinct and improves substantially over time. They also suggest that immature defenses are the best predictors of time-to-recovery. PMID:23223866

  20. Cisplatin resistance: a cellular self-defense mechanism resulting from multiple epigenetic and genetic changes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ding-Wu; Pouliot, Lynn M; Hall, Matthew D; Gottesman, Michael M

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs. Its effectiveness seems to be due to the unique properties of cisplatin, which enters cells via multiple pathways and forms multiple different DNA-platinum adducts while initiating a cellular self-defense system by activating or silencing a variety of different genes, resulting in dramatic epigenetic and/or genetic alternations. As a result, the development of cisplatin resistance in human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro by necessity stems from bewilderingly complex genetic and epigenetic changes in gene expression and alterations in protein localization. Extensive published evidence has demonstrated that pleiotropic alterations are frequently detected during development of resistance to this toxic metal compound. Changes occur in almost every mechanism supporting cell survival, including cell growth-promoting pathways, apoptosis, developmental pathways, DNA damage repair, and endocytosis. In general, dozens of genes are affected in cisplatin-resistant cells, including pathways involved in copper metabolism as well as transcription pathways that alter the cytoskeleton, change cell surface presentation of proteins, and regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Decreased accumulation is one of the most common features resulting in cisplatin resistance. This seems to be a consequence of numerous epigenetic and genetic changes leading to the loss of cell-surface binding sites and/or transporters for cisplatin, and decreased fluid phase endocytosis. PMID:22659329

  1. A proteomics perspective on viral DNA sensors in host defense and viral immune evasion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Crow, Marni S; Javitt, Aaron; Cristea, Ileana M

    2015-06-01

    The sensing of viral DNA is an essential step of cellular immune response to infections with DNA viruses. These human pathogens are spread worldwide, triggering a wide range of virus-induced diseases, and are associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Despite similarities between DNA molecules, mammalian cells have the remarkable ability to distinguish viral DNA from their own DNA. This detection is carried out by specialized antiviral proteins, called DNA sensors. These sensors bind to foreign DNA to activate downstream immune signaling pathways and alert neighboring cells by eliciting the expression of antiviral cytokines. The sensing of viral DNA was shown to occur both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of infected cells, disproving the notion that sensing occurred by simple spatial separation of viral and host DNA. A number of omic approaches, in particular, mass-spectrometry-based proteomic methods, have significantly contributed to the constantly evolving field of viral DNA sensing. Here, we review the impact of omic methods on the identification of viral DNA sensors, as well as on the characterization of mechanisms involved in host defense or viral immune evasion.

  2. Cisplatin Resistance: A Cellular Self-Defense Mechanism Resulting from Multiple Epigenetic and Genetic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ding-Wu; Pouliot, Lynn M.; Hall, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs. Its effectiveness seems to be due to the unique properties of cisplatin, which enters cells via multiple pathways and forms multiple different DNA-platinum adducts while initiating a cellular self-defense system by activating or silencing a variety of different genes, resulting in dramatic epigenetic and/or genetic alternations. As a result, the development of cisplatin resistance in human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro by necessity stems from bewilderingly complex genetic and epigenetic changes in gene expression and alterations in protein localization. Extensive published evidence has demonstrated that pleiotropic alterations are frequently detected during development of resistance to this toxic metal compound. Changes occur in almost every mechanism supporting cell survival, including cell growth-promoting pathways, apoptosis, developmental pathways, DNA damage repair, and endocytosis. In general, dozens of genes are affected in cisplatin-resistant cells, including pathways involved in copper metabolism as well as transcription pathways that alter the cytoskeleton, change cell surface presentation of proteins, and regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Decreased accumulation is one of the most common features resulting in cisplatin resistance. This seems to be a consequence of numerous epigenetic and genetic changes leading to the loss of cell-surface binding sites and/or transporters for cisplatin, and decreased fluid phase endocytosis. PMID:22659329

  3. UVR defense mechanisms in eurytopic and invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Nyberg, Cecilia D; Wulff, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The invasive success of Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been attributed to its wide tolerance range to different abiotic factors, but its response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is yet to be investigated. In the laboratory, carpospores and vegetative thalli of an Atlantic population were exposed to different radiation treatments consisting of high PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) only (P), PAR+UV-A (PA) and PAR+UV-A+UV-B (PAB). Photosynthesis of carpospores was photoinhibited under different radiation treatments but photosystem II (PSII) function was restored after 12 h under dim white light. Growth of vegetative thalli was significantly higher under radiation supplemented with UVR. Decrease in chlorophyll a (Chl a) under daily continuous 16-h exposure to 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) of PAR suggests preventive accumulation of excited chlorophyll molecules within the antennae to minimize the generation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. Moreover, an increase in total carotenoids and xanthophyll cycle pigments (i.e. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin) further suggests effective photoprotection under UVR. The presence of the ketocarotenoid β-cryptoxanthin also indicates protection against UVR and oxidative stress. The initial concentration of total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in freshly-released spores increased approximately four times after 8-h laboratory radiation treatments. On the other hand, initial specific MAAs in vegetative thalli changed in composition after 7-day exposure to laboratory radiation conditions without affecting the total concentration. The above responses suggest that G. vermiculophylla have multiple UVR defense mechanisms to cope with the dynamic variation in light quantity and quality encountered in its habitat. Beside being eurytopic, the UVR photoprotective mechanisms likely contribute to the current invasive success of the species in shallow lagoons and estuaries exposed to high solar radiation. PMID:22420775

  4. UVR defense mechanisms in eurytopic and invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Nyberg, Cecilia D; Wulff, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The invasive success of Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been attributed to its wide tolerance range to different abiotic factors, but its response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is yet to be investigated. In the laboratory, carpospores and vegetative thalli of an Atlantic population were exposed to different radiation treatments consisting of high PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) only (P), PAR+UV-A (PA) and PAR+UV-A+UV-B (PAB). Photosynthesis of carpospores was photoinhibited under different radiation treatments but photosystem II (PSII) function was restored after 12 h under dim white light. Growth of vegetative thalli was significantly higher under radiation supplemented with UVR. Decrease in chlorophyll a (Chl a) under daily continuous 16-h exposure to 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) of PAR suggests preventive accumulation of excited chlorophyll molecules within the antennae to minimize the generation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. Moreover, an increase in total carotenoids and xanthophyll cycle pigments (i.e. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin) further suggests effective photoprotection under UVR. The presence of the ketocarotenoid β-cryptoxanthin also indicates protection against UVR and oxidative stress. The initial concentration of total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in freshly-released spores increased approximately four times after 8-h laboratory radiation treatments. On the other hand, initial specific MAAs in vegetative thalli changed in composition after 7-day exposure to laboratory radiation conditions without affecting the total concentration. The above responses suggest that G. vermiculophylla have multiple UVR defense mechanisms to cope with the dynamic variation in light quantity and quality encountered in its habitat. Beside being eurytopic, the UVR photoprotective mechanisms likely contribute to the current invasive success of the species in shallow lagoons and estuaries exposed to high solar radiation.

  5. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer. Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ), the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18. Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001). R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001). Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence), high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief. PMID:26884783

  6. [Effect of tocopherol acetate, indomethacin and dexamethasone on some indices of local lung defense in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Musaev, M U; Mavlianov, I R

    2001-01-01

    Marked disorders in the system of local lung defence are noted in experimental rheumatoid arthritis. In such a setting non-unidirectional shifts occur in the quantitative and qualitative indicators of cellular factors for the local pulmonary defensive system, characterized by discordant changes in the indicators of alveolar macrophages and segmented neutrophiles. There occur apparent disturbances in the functional activity of alveolar macrophages manifested by changes both in their phagocytary and metabolic activity and by depression of humoral mechanisms in the local pulmonary defensive system. The use of indomethacin, dexamethasone and vitamin E in an experimental rheumatoid arthritis setting favors positive shifts in indices for humoral and cellular links of the local pulmonary defensive system. Effects of vitamin E on indices for cellular and humoral links of the local pulmonary defensive system are more manifest as compared to those of indomethacin and dexamethasone.

  7. Review of ventilatory techniques to optimize mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Raghu M; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global healthcare problem. Studies vary widely in the reported frequency of mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbations of COPD. Invasive intubation and mechanical ventilation may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A good understanding of the airway pathophysiology and lung mechanics in COPD is necessary to appropriately manage acute exacerbations and respiratory failure. The basic pathophysiology in COPD exacerbation is the critical expiratory airflow limitation with consequent dynamic hyperinflation. These changes lead to further derangement in ventilatory mechanics, muscle function and gas exchange which may result in respiratory failure. This review discusses the altered respiratory mechanics in COPD, ways to detect these changes in a ventilated patient and formulating ventilatory techniques to optimize management of respiratory failure due to exacerbation of COPD. PMID:18268918

  8. Bacterial meningitis in the patient at risk: intrinsic risk factors and host defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Scheld, W M

    1984-05-15

    Bacterial meningitis remains a relatively common disease worldwide (40,000 cases per year in the United States) and the mortality rate has not improved in over 30 years. Certain host factors increase the risk of acquiring meningitis and include: age (increased at extremes of life), male sex, low socioeconomic status (crowding), black race, recent nasopharyngeal carriage of a virulent strain, absence of specific bactericidal antibody, maternal factors at birth (neonatal disease), various immunologic defects (neonates, antibody or terminal complement component deficiency, splenectomy, and immunosuppression including the acquired immune deficiency syndrome), and certain chronic diseases (such as alcoholism, cirrhosis, and diabetes mellitus). Bacterial meningitis represents an infection in an area of impaired host resistance. The blood-brain barrier is a major protective mechanism for the central nervous system against circulating bacteria. However, once bacteria gain entry into the subarachnoid space, host defenses are inadequate. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are at a disadvantage in the fluid medium of the cerebrospinal fluid and surface phagocytosis is inefficient. In addition, antibody and complement concentrations are low (or absent) in purulent cerebrospinal fluid early in the disease course. Functional opsonic and bactericidal activity is lacking; therefore, efficient phagocytosis of encapsulated meningeal pathogens is limited. The result is huge population densities (often 10(7) to 10(8) cfu per milliliter) of bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid. This finding suggests that bactericidal antibiotics with cerebrospinal fluid concentrations much greater than the minimal bacterial concentration of the pathogen are optimal for therapy of meningitis; this principle has been shown in experimental animal models and supported by therapeutic studies in human subjects.

  9. Composition, structure and mechanical properties define performance of pulmonary surfactant membranes and films.

    PubMed

    Parra, Elisa; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory surface in the mammalian lung is stabilized by pulmonary surfactant, a membrane-based system composed of multiple lipids and specific proteins, the primary function of which is to minimize the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface, optimizing the mechanics of breathing and avoiding alveolar collapse, especially at the end of expiration. The goal of the present review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the structure, lipid-protein interactions and mechanical features of surfactant membranes and films and how these properties correlate with surfactant biological function inside the lungs. Surfactant mechanical properties can be severely compromised by different agents, which lead to surfactant inhibition and ultimately contributes to the development of pulmonary disorders and pathologies in newborns, children and adults. A detailed comprehension of the unique mechanical and rheological properties of surfactant layers is crucial for the diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases, either by analyzing the contribution of surfactant impairment to the pathophysiology or by improving the formulations in surfactant replacement therapies. Finally, a short review is also included on the most relevant experimental techniques currently employed to evaluate lung surfactant mechanics, rheology, and inhibition and reactivation processes.

  10. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868

  11. Mechanisms of gas exchange abnormality in patients with chronic obliterative pulmonary vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dantzker, D R; Bower, J S

    1979-01-01

    We have examined the mechanisms of abnormal gas exchange in seven patients with chronic obliteration of the pulmonary vascular bed secondary to recurrent pulmonary emboli or idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. All of the patients had a widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient and four were significantly hypoxemic with arterial partial presssures of oxygen less than 80 torr. Using the technique of multiple inert gas elimination, we found that ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) relationships were only minimally abnormal with a mean of 10% (range, 2--19%) of cardiac output perfusing abnormal units. These units consisted of shunt and units with VA/Q ratios less than 0.1. In addition, the dead space was found to be normal in each patient. There was no evidence for diffusion impairment, and the widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was completely explained by VA/ inequality. Significant hypoxemia occurred only when VA/Q inequality was combined with a low mixed venous oxygen content. PMID:479367

  12. From emotional abuse in childhood to psychopathology in adulthood: a path mediated by immature defense mechanisms and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Karu, Toby

    2006-08-01

    The present study examined the course traveled from childhood emotional abuse to adulthood psychopathology. One hundred ninety-six undergraduate students age 20 to 45 (M = 27; SD = 8.17), answered self-report questionnaires assessing emotional abuse in childhood (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), parental attitudes (Parental Bonding Instrument), psychopathological symptomatology (Brief Symptom Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and defense mechanism organization (Defense Style Questionnaire). Results indicated that reported psychopathological symptomatology highly exceeded the Israeli norm. Structure Equation Modeling provided a statistically significant explanation (52%) of the target variable of psychopathological symptomatology. According to the path model, emotional abuse in childhood and perceptions of controlling and noncaring parents had an indirect effect on the psychopathology. This was mediated by immature defenses and low self-esteem. We conclude that the manifest psychopathology among adults who suffered emotional abuse in childhood is produced by the detrimental effect of abuse on personality, and takes the form of immature defense organization and damaged self-representation.

  13. Zinc triggers signaling mechanisms and defense responses promoting resistance to Alternaria brassicicola in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Cabot, Catalina; Llugany, Mercè; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    According to the elemental defense hypothesis the accumulation of trace elements by plants may substitute for organic defenses, while the joint effects hypothesis proposes that trace elements and organic defenses can have additive or synergistic effects against pathogens or herbivores. To evaluate these hypotheses the response of the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola-Arabidopsis thaliana to control (2μM) and surplus (12μM) Zn was evaluated using the camalexin deficient mutant pad3-1 and mtp1-1, a mutant with impaired Zn vacuolar storage, along with the corresponding wildtypes. In vitro, a 50% inhibition of fungal growth was achieved by 440μM Zn. A. thaliana leaves could accumulate equivalent concentrations without harm. In fact, surplus Zn enhanced the resistance of A. thaliana to fungal attack in Columbia (Col-0), Wassilewskija (WS), and mtp1-1. However, surplus Zn was unable to protect pad3-1 demonstrating that Zn cannot substitute for camalexin, the main organic defense in A. thaliana. High, non phytotoxic leaf Zn concentrations enhanced the resistance to A. brassicicola of A. thaliana genotypes able to produce camalexin. This was mainly due to Zn-induced enhancement of the JA/ETH signaling pathway leading to enhanced PAD3 expression. These results support the joint effects hypothesis and highlight the importance of adequate Zn supply for reinforced pathogen resistance. PMID:27297986

  14. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  15. Diminished pulmonary function in pectus excavatum: from denying the problem to finding the mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Robert J.; Nuss, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, technical improvement in the ability to measure lung function and the severity of chest deformity have enabled progress in understanding the mechanism of limitations of lung function in pectus excavatum. Methods After establishing that most patients with pectus excavatum do have symptoms of exercise intolerance, easy fatigability, and shortness of breath with exertion, lung function has been evaluated by a variety of methods in different centers. Spirometry, plethysmography, exercise testing, oculo electronic plethysmography, and imaging methods have been used to assess lung function in pectus excavatum and its response to surgery. Results Not all patients with pectus excavatum have subnormal static pulmonary function testing; some have above-average values. However, in more than 1500 adult and pediatric surgical patients with anatomically severe pectus excavatum at a single center, the bell curve of FVC, FEV1, and FEF 25-75 is shifted to significantly lower values in pectus excavatum. The curve is shifted to higher values after operation by approximately one standard deviation. Previous work has demonstrated that patients with more anatomically severe pectus excavatum are more likely to have diminished PFT’s. A mechanism for this effect is seen by oculo electronic plethysmography, which demonstrates that the depressed portion of the chest does not move on respiration. After Nuss procedure, the chest wall motion used to create suction to draw air into the lungs is indistinguishable from that of persons with a normal chest, and the intrathoracic volume is markedly increased. Conclusions Pectus excavatum is accompanied in most patients by diminished static pulmonary function. Correction by Nuss procedure results in improvement in chest wall motion; this improvement in the thoracic bellows action is accompanied by improvement in pulmonary function testing. PMID:27747180

  16. Tissue-specific defense and thermo-adaptive mechanisms of soybean seedlings under heat stress revealed by proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Nagib; Donnart, Tifenn; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2010-08-01

    A comparative proteomic approach was employed to explore tissue-specific protein expression patterns in soybean seedlings under heat stress. The changes in the protein expression profiles of soybean seedling leaves, stems, and roots were analyzed after exposure to high temperatures. A total of 54, 35, and 61 differentially expressed proteins were identified from heat-treated leaves, stems, and roots, respectively. Differentially expressed heat shock proteins (HSPs) and proteins involved in antioxidant defense were mostly up-regulated, whereas proteins associated with photosynthesis, secondary metabolism, and amino acid and protein biosynthesis were down-regulated in response to heat stress. A group of proteins, specifically low molecular weight HSPs and HSP70, were up-regulated and expressed in a similar manner in all tissues. Proteomic analysis indicated that the responses of HSP70, CPN-60 beta, and ChsHSP were tissue specific, and this observation was validated by immunoblot analysis. The heat-responsive sHSPs were not induced by other stresses such as cold and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results suggest that to cope with heat stress soybean seedlings operate tissue-specific defenses and adaptive mechanisms, whereas a common defense mechanism associated with the induction of several HSPs was employed in all three tissues. In addition, tissue-specific proteins may play a crucial role in defending each type of tissues against thermal stress.

  17. A shared mechanism of defense against predators and parasites: chitin regulation and its implications for life-history theory

    PubMed Central

    Beckerman, Andrew P; de Roij, Job; Dennis, Stuart R; Little, Tom J

    2013-01-01

    Defenses against predators and parasites offer excellent illustrations of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Despite vast knowledge about such induced defenses, they have been studied largely in isolation, which is surprising, given that predation and parasitism are ubiquitous and act simultaneously in the wild. This raises the possibility that victims must trade-off responses to predation versus parasitism. Here, we propose that arthropod responses to predators and parasites will commonly be based on the endocrine regulation of chitin synthesis and degradation. The proposal is compelling because many inducible defenses are centered on temporal or spatial modifications of chitin-rich structures. Moreover, we show how the chitin synthesis pathway ends in a split to carapace or gut chitin, and how this form of molecular regulation can be incorporated into theory on life-history trade-offs, specifically the Y-model. Our hypothesis thus spans several biological scales to address advice from Stearns that “Endocrine mechanisms may prove to be only the tip of an iceberg of physiological mechanisms that modulate the expression of genetic covariance”. PMID:24455141

  18. A shared mechanism of defense against predators and parasites: chitin regulation and its implications for life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Andrew P; de Roij, Job; Dennis, Stuart R; Little, Tom J

    2013-12-01

    Defenses against predators and parasites offer excellent illustrations of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Despite vast knowledge about such induced defenses, they have been studied largely in isolation, which is surprising, given that predation and parasitism are ubiquitous and act simultaneously in the wild. This raises the possibility that victims must trade-off responses to predation versus parasitism. Here, we propose that arthropod responses to predators and parasites will commonly be based on the endocrine regulation of chitin synthesis and degradation. The proposal is compelling because many inducible defenses are centered on temporal or spatial modifications of chitin-rich structures. Moreover, we show how the chitin synthesis pathway ends in a split to carapace or gut chitin, and how this form of molecular regulation can be incorporated into theory on life-history trade-offs, specifically the Y-model. Our hypothesis thus spans several biological scales to address advice from Stearns that "Endocrine mechanisms may prove to be only the tip of an iceberg of physiological mechanisms that modulate the expression of genetic covariance".

  19. Defense use and defense understanding in children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Brilliant, M A

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relation between children's use of defense mechanisms and their understanding of those defenses. We hypothesized that, once a child understands how a particular defense functions, the use of that defense will no longer be successful and will be replaced by another defense mechanism that is not yet understood. Defense use was assessed from the Thematic Appreception Test (TAT) stories told by 122 children; defense understanding was determined from the children's understanding of stories portraying defenses. The results indicated that younger children (mean age = 7-8) used the defense of denial more than the older children (mean age = 9-11). Older children understood the functioning of denial and projection better than the younger children. A comparison of children who did and did not understand a defense showed that younger children who understood the functioning of denial were less likely to themselves use denial. Likewise, older children who understood the functioning of projection were less likely to use this defense.

  20. The Integrity of the Esophageal Mucosa. Balance Between Offensive and Defensive Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    Heartburn is the most common and characteristic symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease. It ultimately results from contact of refluxed gastric acid with nociceptors within the esophageal mucosa and transmission of this peripheral signal to the central nervous system for cognition. Healthy esophageal epithelium provides an effective barrier between refluxed gastric acid and esophageal nociceptors; but this barrier is vulnerable to attack and damage, particularly by acidic gastric contents. How gastric acid is countered by defensive elements within the esophageal mucosa is a major focus of this discussion. When the defense is successful, the subject is asymptomatic and when unsuccessful, the subject experiences heartburn. Those with heartburn commonly fall into one of three endoscopic types: nonerosive reflux disease, erosive esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Although what determines endoscopic type remains unknown; it is proposed herein that inflammation plays a key, modulating role. PMID:21126700

  1. Molecular insights into mechanisms of lepidopteran serine proteinase resistance to natural plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Terra, Walter R

    2015-11-27

    Plants have a wide range of chemical defenses against predation, including substances that target digestive serine proteinases of herbivorous. Previous works demonstrated that lepidopteran insects have digestive serine proteinases resistant to plant proteinase inhibitors (PPIs) and ketone modifications, while coleopteran ones are sensitive to those plant defenses. This paper focuses on molecular aspects that lead lepidopteran serine proteinases to PPI and ketone modification resistance. Using biochemical experiments and computer 3D modeling we demonstrated that lepidopteran trypsins are more hydrophobic than coleopteran ones, a feature associated to trypsin oligomerization and decreased inhibition by PPI. Moreover, the determination of pKa values of chymotrypsin catalytic residues obtained by TPCK modification indicates that the environment around the active site of ketone-resistant and -sensitive chymotrypsins are different. Structural analysis using resistant and sensitive chymotrypsins data allowed us to point 2 hotspot regions around the active site that could explain the observed differences. Our set of results highlights features of serine proteinases important for understanding the resistance of insects to plant chemical defenses.

  2. Pathogenic mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to biomass smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael; Oyarzún, Manuel; Olloquequi, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality and morbidity have increased significantly worldwide in recent decades. Although cigarette smoke is still considered the main risk factor for the development of the disease, estimates suggest that between 25% and 33% of COPD patients are non-smokers. Among the factors that may increase the risk of developing COPD, biomass smoke has been proposed as one of the most important, affecting especially women and children in developing countries. Despite the epidemiological evidence linking exposure to biomass smoke with adverse health effects, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this pollutant can be harmful for the respiratory and cardiovascular systems remain unclear. In this article we review the main pathogenic mechanisms proposed to date that make biomass smoke one of the major risk factors for COPD. PMID:25614376

  3. Pathogenic mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to biomass smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael; Oyarzún, Manuel; Olloquequi, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality and morbidity have increased significantly worldwide in recent decades. Although cigarette smoke is still considered the main risk factor for the development of the disease, estimates suggest that between 25% and 33% of COPD patients are non-smokers. Among the factors that may increase the risk of developing COPD, biomass smoke has been proposed as one of the most important, affecting especially women and children in developing countries. Despite the epidemiological evidence linking exposure to biomass smoke with adverse health effects, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this pollutant can be harmful for the respiratory and cardiovascular systems remain unclear. In this article we review the main pathogenic mechanisms proposed to date that make biomass smoke one of the major risk factors for COPD.

  4. A comparison of the pulmonary defenses against streptococcal infection in rats and mice following O3 exposure: Differences in disease susceptibility and neutrophil recruitment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Selgrade, M.K. )

    1993-12-01

    Ozone (O3) exposure reduces alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis in mice and increases their susceptibility to Streptococcus zooepidemicus. O3 exposure also decreases AM phagocytosis in rats but does not result in mortality to infection. To investigate the mechanism of disease protection in rats, antibacterial defenses of two strains of mice and F344 rats were compared. O3 exposure (3 hr, 0.4 or 0.8 ppm) and infection with S. zooepidemicus resulted in a dose-dependent proliferation of bacteria in the lungs of mice and high mortality. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were observed in severely affected individuals 2 or more days postinfection and did not alter the fatal infection. In contrast, microbial inactivation was only impaired in O3-exposed rat lungs during the first 48 hr after infection. In these animals PMNs could be isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between 6 and 48 hr postinfection with the peak response occurring at 24 hr. Pretreatment with anti-PMN serum eliminated the neutrophil influx and impaired further the bactericidal activity in ozone-exposed rats. The results suggest that inhaled streptococci are cleared normally from the mouse lung by AMs. Following exposure to O3, AM phagocytosis is reduced and the mice develop a fatal infection. The persistence of bacteria in the lungs of O3-exposed rats triggers a transient influx of PMNs whose appearance corresponds with elimination of the bacteria. Differences in antimicrobial defenses between various experimental species and humans need to be better understood in order to predict effects of air pollutants on susceptibility to infection in man.

  5. Linked opening angle and histological and mechanical aspects of the proximal pulmonary arteries of healthy and pulmonary hypertensive rats and calves.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Lammers, Steven R; Kao, Philip H; Reusser, Mark; Stenmark, Kurt R; Hunter, Kendall S; Qi, H Jerry; Shandas, Robin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding how arterial remodeling changes the mechanical behavior of pulmonary arteries (PAs) is important to the evaluation of pulmonary vascular function. Early and current efforts have focused on the arteries' histological changes, their mechanical properties under in vitro mechanical testing, and their zero-stress and no-load states. However, the linkage between the histology and mechanical behavior is still not well understood. To explore this linkage, we investigated the geometry, residual stretch, and histology of proximal PAs in both adult rat and neonatal calf hypoxic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH), compared their changes due to chronic hypoxia across species, and proposed a two-layer mechanical model of artery to relate the opening angle to the stiffness ratio of the PA outer to inner layer. We found that the proximal PA remodeling in calves was quite different from that in rats. In rats, the arterial wall thickness, inner diameter, and outer layer thickness fraction all increased dramatically in PH and the opening angle decreased significantly, whereas in calves, only the arterial wall thickness increased in PH. The proposed model predicted that the stiffness ratio of the calf proximal PAs changed very little from control to hypertensive group, while the decrease of opening angle in rat proximal PAs in response to chronic hypoxia was approximately linear to the increase of the stiffness ratio. We conclude that the arterial remodeling in rat and calf proximal PAs is different and the change of opening angle can be linked to the change of the arterial histological structure and mechanics. PMID:21856906

  6. Plant Defense Mechanisms Are Activated during Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Development of Colletotricum graminicola in Maize1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Walter A.; Martín, José M. Sanz; Rech, Gabriel E.; Rivera, Lina P.; Benito, Ernesto P.; Díaz-Mínguez, José M.; Thon, Michael R.; Sukno, Serenella A.

    2012-01-01

    Hemibiotrophic plant pathogens first establish a biotrophic interaction with the host plant and later switch to a destructive necrotrophic lifestyle. Studies of biotrophic pathogens have shown that they actively suppress plant defenses after an initial microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered activation. In contrast, studies of the hemibiotrophs suggest that they do not suppress plant defenses during the biotrophic phase, indicating that while there are similarities between the biotrophic phase of hemibiotrophs and biotrophic pathogens, the two lifestyles are not analogous. We performed transcriptomic, histological, and biochemical studies of the early events during the infection of maize (Zea mays) with Colletotrichum graminicola, a model pathosystem for the study of hemibiotrophy. Time-course experiments revealed that mRNAs of several defense-related genes, reactive oxygen species, and antimicrobial compounds all begin to accumulate early in the infection process and continue to accumulate during the biotrophic stage. We also discovered the production of maize-derived vesicular bodies containing hydrogen peroxide targeting the fungal hyphae. We describe the fungal respiratory burst during host infection, paralleled by superoxide ion production in specific fungal cells during the transition from biotrophy to a necrotrophic lifestyle. We also identified several novel putative fungal effectors and studied their expression during anthracnose development in maize. Our results demonstrate a strong induction of defense mechanisms occurring in maize cells during C. graminicola infection, even during the biotrophic development of the pathogen. We hypothesize that the switch to necrotrophic growth enables the fungus to evade the effects of the plant immune system and allows for full fungal pathogenicity. PMID:22247271

  7. Caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Ileana; Droguett, Daniel; Castillo, Christian; Liempi, Ana; Muñoz, Lorena; Maya, Juan Diego; Galanti, Norbel; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Congenital Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that must cross the placental barrier during transmission. The trophoblast constitutes the first tissue in contact with the maternal-blood circulating parasite. Importantly, the congenital transmission rates are low, suggesting the presence of local placental defense mechanisms. Cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as apoptotic cell death are induced by the parasite and constitute part of the epithelial turnover of the trophoblast, which has been suggested to be part of those placental defenses. On the other hand, caspase-8 is an essential molecule in the modulation of trophoblast turnover by apoptosis and by epithelial differentiation. As an approach to study whether T. cruzi induced trophoblast turnover and infection is mediated by caspase-8, we infected BeWo cells (a trophoblastic cell line) with the parasite and determined in the infected cells the expression and enzymatic activity of caspase-8, DNA synthesis (as proliferation marker), β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) (as differentiation marker) and activity of Caspase-3 (as apoptotic death marker). Parasite load in BeWo cells was measured by DNA quantification using qPCR and cell counting. Our results show that T. cruzi induces caspase-8 activity and that its inhibition increases trophoblast cells infection while decreases parasite induced cellular differentiation and apoptotic cell death, but not cellular proliferation. Thus, caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against T. cruzi infection. Together with our previous results, we suggest that the trophoblast turnover is part of local placental anti-parasite mechanisms.

  8. A novel preterm respiratory mechanics active simulator to test the performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Paolo; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea; Silvestri, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A patient active simulator is proposed which is capable of reproducing values of the parameters of pulmonary mechanics of healthy newborns and preterm pathological infants. The implemented prototype is able to: (a) let the operator choose the respiratory pattern, times of apnea, episodes of cough, sobs, etc., (b) continuously regulate and control the parameters characterizing the pulmonary system; and, finally, (c) reproduce the attempt of breathing of a preterm infant. Taking into account both the limitation due to the chosen application field and the preliminary autocalibration phase automatically carried out by the proposed device, accuracy and reliability on the order of 1% is estimated. The previously indicated value has to be considered satisfactory in light of the field of application and the small values of the simulated parameters. Finally, the achieved metrological characteristics allow the described neonatal simulator to be adopted as a reference device to test performances of neonatal ventilators and, more specifically, to measure the time elapsed between the occurrence of a potentially dangerous condition to the patient and the activation of the corresponding alarm of the tested ventilator.

  9. Mechanisms of hydralazine induced vasodilation in rabbit aorta and pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Ellershaw, D C; Gurney, A M

    2001-01-01

    The directly acting vasodilator hydralazine has been proposed to act at an intracellular site in vascular smooth muscle to inhibit Ca2+ release. This study investigated the mechanism of action of hydralazine on rabbit aorta and pulmonary artery by comparing its effects on the tension generated by intact and β-escin permeabilized vessels and on the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, membrane potential and K+ currents of isolated vascular smooth muscle cells. Hydralazine relaxed pulmonary artery and aorta with similar potency. It was equally effective at inhibiting phasic and tonic contractions evoked by phenylephrine in intact vessels and contractions evoked by inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) in permeabilized vessels. Hydralazine inhibited the contraction of permeabilized vessels and the increase in smooth muscle cell Ca2+ concentration evoked by caffeine with similar concentration dependence, but with lower potency than its effect on IP3 contractions. Hydralazine had no effect on the relationship between Ca2+ concentration and force generation in permeabilized vessels, but it slowed the rate at which maximal force was developed before, but not after, destroying sarcoplasmic reticulum function with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Hydralazine had no effect on membrane potential or the amplitudes of K+ currents recorded from isolated smooth muscle cells over the concentration range causing relaxation of intact vessels. The results suggest that the main action of hydralazine is to inhibit the IP3-induced release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:11588117

  10. Cardiac arrhythmia mechanisms in rats with heart failure induced by pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, David; Stones, Rachel; Drinkhill, Mark J.; Benson, Alan P.; Yang, Zhaokang; Cassan, Cecile; Gilbert, Stephen H.; Saint, David A.; Cazorla, Olivier; Steele, Derek S.; Bernus, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension provokes right heart failure and arrhythmias. Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these arrhythmias is needed to facilitate new therapeutic approaches for the hypertensive, failing right ventricle (RV). The aim of our study was to identify the mechanisms generating arrhythmias in a model of RV failure induced by pulmonary hypertension. Rats were injected with monocrotaline to induce either RV hypertrophy or failure or with saline (control). ECGs were measured in conscious, unrestrained animals by telemetry. In isolated hearts, electrical activity was measured by optical mapping and myofiber orientation by diffusion tensor-MRI. Sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ handling was studied in single myocytes. Compared with control animals, the T-wave of the ECG was prolonged and in three of seven heart failure animals, prominent T-wave alternans occurred. Discordant action potential (AP) alternans occurred in isolated failing hearts and Ca2+ transient alternans in failing myocytes. In failing hearts, AP duration and dispersion were increased; conduction velocity and AP restitution were steeper. The latter was intrinsic to failing single myocytes. Failing hearts had greater fiber angle disarray; this correlated with AP duration. Failing myocytes had reduced sarco(endo)plasmic reticular Ca2+-ATPase activity, increased sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+-release fraction, and increased Ca2+ spark leak. In hypertrophied hearts and myocytes, dysfunctional adaptation had begun, but alternans did not develop. We conclude that increased electrical and structural heterogeneity and dysfunctional sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ handling increased the probability of alternans, a proarrhythmic predictor of sudden cardiac death. These mechanisms are potential therapeutic targets for the correction of arrhythmias in hypertensive, failing RVs. PMID:22427523

  11. The use of the insanity defense as a jail diversion mechanism for mentally ill persons charged with misdemeanors.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michele N; Bloom, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    Heightened awareness and concern regarding the large number of mentally ill misdemeanants in jails has led to a search for alternatives to jail and to the development nationwide of jail diversion programs for offenders with mental illness. Two such mechanisms-diversion to civil commitment and the use of mental health courts-are briefly reviewed. In Oregon, however, a rather unique mechanism is used to defer mentally ill misdemeanants (in addition to felons) from the criminal justice system: the insanity defense, with subsequent placement of the individual under Psychiatric Security Review Board jurisdiction. Statistics regarding such use from 1978 to 2001 are provided. The authors compare and contrast this jail alternative with both mental health courts and diversion to civil commitment, and discuss questions related to the feasibility of larger-scale use of this mechanism.

  12. Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

    2010-02-24

    The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

  13. Increased proliferation and decreased membrane permeability as defense mechanisms of Fusobacterium nucleatum against human neutrophilic peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Mutlu; Könönen, Eija; Söderling, Eva; Isik, Gülden; Firatli, Erhan; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2014-12-01

    Human neutrophilic peptides (HNPs) constitute a class of host defense molecules, which contribute to the non-oxidative killing of bacteria and other microorganisms. Since the adaptability is crucial to bacterial survival in changing environments, it is of interest to know how Fusobacterium nucleatum, the major bridge organism connecting early and late colonizers in dental biofilms, defends itself against HNPs. This study aimed to examine the planktonic growth, membrane permeability, and biofilm formation characteristics as defense mechanisms of F. nucleatum against HNP-1. In all experiments, the type strain of F. nucleatum (ssp. nucleatum ATCC 25586) and two clinical strains (ssp. nucleatum AHN 9508 and ssp. polymorphum AHN 9910) were used. Planktonic growth (measured in colony forming units), capsular polysaccharide production (visualized by Ziehl-Neelsen stain), membrane permeability (demonstrated as N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake), biofilm formation, and established biofilm development (measured as total mass and polysaccharide levels) were analyzed in the presence of 0 μg/ml (control), 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, and 10 μg/ml of HNP-1. Planktonic growth of the strains AHN 9508 and ATCC 25586 were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the presence of HNP-1, while their membrane permeability decreased (p<0.005) in the planktonic form. HNP-1 decreased the biofilm formation of the strains ATCC 25586 and AHN 9910, whereas it increased the growth of the strain AHN 9508 in established biofilms. Capsule formation and polysaccharide production were not observed in any strain. We conclude that the inhibition of the membrane permeability and the increase in planktonic and established biofilm growth could act as bacterial defense mechanisms against neutrophilic defensins. In addition, this strain-dependent survival ability against HNP-1 may explain the variation in the virulence of different F. nucleatum strains.

  14. Pterostilbene Decreases the Antioxidant Defenses of Aggressive Cancer Cells In Vivo: A Physiological Glucocorticoids- and Nrf2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Benlloch, María; Obrador, Elena; Valles, Soraya L.; Rodriguez, María L.; Sirerol, J. Antoni; Alcácer, Javier; Pellicer, José A.; Salvador, Rosario; Cerdá, Concha; Sáez, Guillermo T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Polyphenolic phytochemicals have anticancer properties. However, in mechanistic studies, lack of correlation with the bioavailable concentrations is a critical issue. Some reports had suggested that these molecules downregulate the stress response, which may affect growth and the antioxidant protection of malignant cells. Initially, we studied this potential underlying mechanism using different human melanomas (with genetic backgrounds correlating with most melanomas), growing in nude mice as xenografts, and pterostilbene (Pter, a natural dimethoxylated analog of resveratrol). Results: Intravenous administration of Pter decreased human melanoma growth in vivo. However, Pter, at levels measured within the tumors, did not affect melanoma growth in vitro. Pter inhibited pituitary production of the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), decreased plasma levels of corticosterone, and thereby downregulated the glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant defense system in growing melanomas. Exogenous corticosterone or genetically induced Nrf2 overexpression in melanoma cells prevented the inhibition of tumor growth and decreased antioxidant defenses in these malignant cells. These effects and mechanisms were also found in mice bearing different human pancreatic cancers. Glutathione depletion (selected as an antimelanoma strategy) facilitated the complete elimination by chemotherapy of melanoma cells isolated from mice treated with Pter. Innovation: Although bioavailability-related limitations may preclude direct anticancer effects in vivo, natural polyphenols may also interfere with the growth and defense of cancer cells by downregulating the pituitary gland-dependent ACTH synthesis. Conclusions: Pter downregulates glucocorticoid production, thus decreasing the glucocorticoid receptor and Nrf2-dependent signaling/transcription and the antioxidant protection of melanoma and pancreatic cancer cells

  15. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao )

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  16. Model Wheat Genotypes as Tools to Uncover Effective Defense Mechanisms Against the Hemibiotrophic Fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Ibeagha, Aloysius Ebelechukwu; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Schäfer, Patrick; Singh, Devendra Pal; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the interaction of several differentially resistant wheatwith the hemibiotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus). Wheat genotypes Yangmai, M 3 (W7976), Shanghai 4, and Chirya 7 showed higher levels of resistancewith cv. Sonalika, used as a susceptible control. In amicroscopic inspection, we found that fungal penetration intoepidermal layer failed mostly through a cell wall-associated defense. In cases where the fungus successfully overcame epidermal, its spread within the mesophyll tissue (necrotrophic phase) wasin the more resistant genotypes. Epidermal cell wall-associated, spreading as well as the extent of electrolyte leakage of infected, correlated well with field resistance. We propose that cellular hostsuch as formation of cell wall appositions as well as the degreeearly mesophyll spreading of fungal hyphae are indicative of thepotential of the respective host genotype and, therefore, could befor the characterization of new spot blotch resistance traits in cereals.

  17. Effects of provinol and its combinations with clinically used antiasthmatics on airway defense mechanisms in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Kazimierová, I; Jošková, M; Pecháňová, O; Šutovská, M; Fraňová, S

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies show that provinol, a polyphenolic compound, has anti-inflammatory activity during allergic inflammation. In the present study we investigated the effects of provinol and its combinations with clinically used antiasthmatics: budesonide or theophylline on airway defense mechanisms during experimental allergic asthma. Separate groups of guinea pigs were treated during the course of 21-day ovalbumin sensitization with provinol (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or budesonide (1 mM by inhalation), or theophylline (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.), and with a half-dose combination of provinol+budesonide or provinol+theophylline. Airways defense mechanisms: cough reflex and specific airway resistance (sRaw) were evaluated in vivo. Tracheal smooth muscle reactivity and mucociliary clearance were examined in vitro. The findings were that provinol caused significant decreases in sRaw and in tracheal smooth muscle contractility, a suppression of cough reflex, and positively modulated ciliary beat frequency. The bronchodilatory and antitussive effects of provinol were comparable with those of budesonide and theophylline. Provinol given as add-on treatment significantly potentiated the effects of budesonide or theophylline, although the doses of each were halved. We conclude that provinol not only has bronchodilatory and antitussive effects, but also potentiates similar effects exerted by budesonide and theophylline.

  18. Evidence that ferritin is UV inducible in human skin: part of a putative defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Applegate, L A; Scaletta, C; Panizzon, R; Frenk, E

    1998-07-01

    As ferritin has been identified as an important factor in antioxidant defense in cultured human skin cells we evaluated the presence of ferritin in human skin in vivo and the modifications following irradiation with UVA I, UVA I + II, and solar simulating light by immunohistochemical analysis. We report that the putative protective protein ferritin is regularly present in the basal layer of unirradiated epidermis in vivo and that the induction of ferritin was dependent on wavelength and cell type. Following UVA I radiation, ferritin increased both in epidermal and in dermal tissue. The same response occurred, although to a lesser extent, with UVA I + II but did not occur following solar simulating radiation. Quantitative analysis for ferritin in cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts from seven individuals following each UV spectra were also assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The induction of ferritin by UV was highly dependent on the waveband and cell type. UVA I and UVA I + II radiations induced ferritin expression in dermal fibroblasts up to 260% and 200% over basal levels, respectively. Solar simulating radiation produced only a small induction of approximately 130% over basal ferritin levels in dermal fibroblasts. Ferritin increased in cultured fibroblasts as early as 3 h post-UVA with a peak at 6 h that remained until 48 h; there was no observable qualitative or quantitative increase seen in the undifferentiated cultured epidermal keratinocytes. Our findings indicate that the putative defense system of ferritin exists in human skin in vivo and its induction is dependent on UV spectra and cell type. The increased concentrations of this antioxidant in human skin following acute UV radiation could afford increased protection against subsequent oxidative stress.

  19. Force control of endothelium permeability in mechanically stressed pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Caluch, Adam; Fodil, Redouane; Féréol, Sophie; Zadigue, Patricia; Pelle, Gabriel; Louis, Bruno; Isabey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) as contributing to alveolo-capillary barrier dysfunction. This study aims at elucidating the role of the cytoskeleton (CSK) and cell-matrix adhesion system in the stressed endothelium and more precisely in the loss of integrity of the endothelial barrier. We purposely develop a cellular model made of a monolayer of confluent Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HPMVECs) whose cytoskeleton (CSK) is directly exposed to sustained cyclic mechanical stress for 1 and 2 h. We used RGD-coated ferromagnetic beads and measured permeability before and after stress application. We find that endothelial permeability increases in the stressed endothelium, hence reflecting a loss of integrity. Structural and mechanical results suggest that this endothelial barrier alteration would be due to physically-founded discrepancies in latero-basal reinforcement of adhesion sites in response to the global increase in CSK stiffness or centripetal intracellular forces. Basal reinforcement of adhesion is presently evidenced by the marked redistribution of αvβ3 integrin with cluster formation in the stressed endothelium. PMID:22766716

  20. Ultrasonic Estimation of Mechanical Properties of Pulmonary Arterial Wall Under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kendall R.; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2005-04-01

    Secondary pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a disease that could benefit from improved ultrasonic diagnostic techniques. We perform high-frequency in vitro ultrasound measurements (25 MHz to 100 MHz) on fresh and fixed pulmonary arterial walls excised from normoxic and hypoxic Long-Evans rat models. Estimates of the elastic stiffness coefficients are determined from measurements of the speed of sound. Preliminary results indicate that hypoxia leads to up to increase of 20 % in stiffening of the pulmonary arterial wall.

  1. Key Molecular Mechanisms of Chaiqinchengqi Decoction in Alleviating the Pulmonary Albumin Leakage Caused by Endotoxemia in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Luo, Ruijie; Lin, Ziqi; Xia, Qing

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the key molecular mechanisms of Chaiqinchengqi decoction (CQCQD) in alleviating the pulmonary albumin leakage caused by endotoxemia in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats. Rats models of SAP endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury were established, the studies in vivo provided the important evidences that the therapy of CQCQD significantly ameliorated the increases in plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCd14, and Lbp, the elevation of serum amylase level, the enhancements of systemic and pulmonary albumin leakage, and the depravation of airways indicators, thus improving respiratory dysfunction and also pancreatic and pulmonary histopathological changes. According to the analyses of rats pulmonary tissue microarray and protein-protein interaction network, c-Fos, c-Src, and p85α were predicted as the target proteins for CQCQD in alleviating pulmonary albumin leakage. To confirm these predictions, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were employed in in vitro studies, which provide the evidences that (1) LPS-induced paracellular leakage and proinflammatory cytokines release were suppressed by pretreatment with inhibitors of c-Src (PP1) or PI3K (LY294002) or by transfection with siRNAs of c-Fos; (2) fortunately, CQCQD imitated the actions of these selective inhibitions agents to inhibit LPS-induced high expressions of p-Src, p-p85α, and c-Fos, therefore attenuating paracellular leakage and proinflammatory cytokines release. PMID:27413385

  2. Key Molecular Mechanisms of Chaiqinchengqi Decoction in Alleviating the Pulmonary Albumin Leakage Caused by Endotoxemia in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Luo, Ruijie; Lin, Ziqi; Xia, Qing; Xue, Ping

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the key molecular mechanisms of Chaiqinchengqi decoction (CQCQD) in alleviating the pulmonary albumin leakage caused by endotoxemia in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats. Rats models of SAP endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury were established, the studies in vivo provided the important evidences that the therapy of CQCQD significantly ameliorated the increases in plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCd14, and Lbp, the elevation of serum amylase level, the enhancements of systemic and pulmonary albumin leakage, and the depravation of airways indicators, thus improving respiratory dysfunction and also pancreatic and pulmonary histopathological changes. According to the analyses of rats pulmonary tissue microarray and protein-protein interaction network, c-Fos, c-Src, and p85α were predicted as the target proteins for CQCQD in alleviating pulmonary albumin leakage. To confirm these predictions, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were employed in in vitro studies, which provide the evidences that (1) LPS-induced paracellular leakage and proinflammatory cytokines release were suppressed by pretreatment with inhibitors of c-Src (PP1) or PI3K (LY294002) or by transfection with siRNAs of c-Fos; (2) fortunately, CQCQD imitated the actions of these selective inhibitions agents to inhibit LPS-induced high expressions of p-Src, p-p85α, and c-Fos, therefore attenuating paracellular leakage and proinflammatory cytokines release. PMID:27413385

  3. Lifestyle and Host Defense Mechanisms of the Dung Beetle, Euoniticellus intermedius: The Toll Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Rodney; Alaouna, Mohamed; Khanyile, Lucky; Byrne, Marcus; Ntwasa, Monde

    2013-01-01

    The dung beetle, Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is an important ecological and agricultural agent. Their main activity, the burying of dung, improves quality of the soil and reduces pests that could cause illness in animals. E. intermedius are therefore important for agriculture and for good maintenance of the environment, and are regarded as effective biological control agents for parasites of the gastrointestinal tract in livestock. The ability of E. intermedius to co-exist comfortably with many microorganisms, some of which are important human pathogens, stimulated our interest in its host defense strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the Toll signaling pathway, which is strongly activated by fungi. Gene expression associated with fungal infection was analyzed by using 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the partial adult transcriptome was investigated for the presence of known immune response genes by using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics. The results presented here suggest that E. intermedius responds to fungal challenge via the Toll signaling pathway. PMID:24735102

  4. Sulfur volatiles in guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Russell L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Smoot, John M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2008-10-01

    Volatiles from crushed and intact guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) were collected using static headspace SPME and determined using GC-PFPD, pulsed flame photometric detection, and GC-MS. Leaf volatiles from four common citrus culitvars were examined similarly to determine the potential component(s) responsible for guava's protective effect against the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), which is the insect vector of Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. Seven sulfur volatiles were detected: hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methional, and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Identifications were based on matching linear retention index values on ZB-5, DB-Wax, and PLOT columns and MS spectra in the case of DMDS and DMS. DMDS is an insect toxic, defensive volatile produced only by wounded guava but not citrus leaves and, thus, may be the component responsible for the protective effect of guava against the HLB vector. DMDS is formed immediately after crushing, becoming the major headspace volatile within 10 min. Forty-seven additional leaf volatiles were identified from LRI and MS data in the crushed guava leaf headspace.

  5. Pulmonary arterioplasty using video-assisted thoracic surgery mechanical suture technique

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Huang, Jun; Yin, Weiqiang; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hanzhang; Mo, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer invading pulmonary trunk is a locally advanced condition, which may indicate poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the lesion can significantly improve survival for some patients. Lobectomy/Pneumonectomy with pulmonary arterioplasty via thoracotomy were generally accepted and used in the past. As the rapid development of minimally invasive techniques and devices, pulmonary arterioplasty is feasible via video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). However, few studies have reported the VATS surgical techniques. In this study, we reported the techniques of pulmonary arterioplasty via VATS. PMID:27076961

  6. De novo Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Defense Mechanisms by Young and Mature Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis (Para Rubber Tree).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjun; Mei, Hailiang; Zhou, Binhui; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Meng; Huang, Yacheng; Long, Xiangyu; Hu, Songnian; Tang, Chaorong

    2016-01-01

    Along with changes in morphology in the course of maturation, leaves of Hevea brasiliensis become more resistant to leaf diseases, including the South American Leaf Blight (SALB), a devastating fungal disease of this economically important tree species. To understand the underlying mechanisms of this defense, and to identify the candidate genes involved, we sequenced the Hevea leaf transcriptome at four developmental stages (I to IV) by Illumina sequencing. A total of 62.6 million high-quality reads were generated, and assembled into 98,796 unique transcripts. We identified 3,905 differentially expressed genes implicated in leaf development, 67.8% (2,651) of which were during the transition to leaf maturation. The genes involved in cyanogenic metabolism, lignin and anthocyanin biosynthesis were noteworthy for their distinct patterns of expression between developing leaves (stages I to III) and mature leaves (stage IV), and the correlation with the change in resistance to SALB and the Oidium/Colletotrichum leaf fall. The results provide a first profile of the molecular events that relate to the dynamics of leaf morphology and defense strategies during Hevea leaf development. This dataset is beneficial to devising strategies to engineer resistance to leaf diseases as well as other in-depth studies in Hevea tree. PMID:27619402

  7. De novo Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Defense Mechanisms by Young and Mature Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis (Para Rubber Tree)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yongjun; Mei, Hailiang; Zhou, Binhui; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Meng; Huang, Yacheng; Long, Xiangyu; Hu, Songnian; Tang, Chaorong

    2016-01-01

    Along with changes in morphology in the course of maturation, leaves of Hevea brasiliensis become more resistant to leaf diseases, including the South American Leaf Blight (SALB), a devastating fungal disease of this economically important tree species. To understand the underlying mechanisms of this defense, and to identify the candidate genes involved, we sequenced the Hevea leaf transcriptome at four developmental stages (I to IV) by Illumina sequencing. A total of 62.6 million high-quality reads were generated, and assembled into 98,796 unique transcripts. We identified 3,905 differentially expressed genes implicated in leaf development, 67.8% (2,651) of which were during the transition to leaf maturation. The genes involved in cyanogenic metabolism, lignin and anthocyanin biosynthesis were noteworthy for their distinct patterns of expression between developing leaves (stages I to III) and mature leaves (stage IV), and the correlation with the change in resistance to SALB and the Oidium/Colletotrichum leaf fall. The results provide a first profile of the molecular events that relate to the dynamics of leaf morphology and defense strategies during Hevea leaf development. This dataset is beneficial to devising strategies to engineer resistance to leaf diseases as well as other in-depth studies in Hevea tree. PMID:27619402

  8. De novo Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Defense Mechanisms by Young and Mature Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis (Para Rubber Tree).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjun; Mei, Hailiang; Zhou, Binhui; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Meng; Huang, Yacheng; Long, Xiangyu; Hu, Songnian; Tang, Chaorong

    2016-09-13

    Along with changes in morphology in the course of maturation, leaves of Hevea brasiliensis become more resistant to leaf diseases, including the South American Leaf Blight (SALB), a devastating fungal disease of this economically important tree species. To understand the underlying mechanisms of this defense, and to identify the candidate genes involved, we sequenced the Hevea leaf transcriptome at four developmental stages (I to IV) by Illumina sequencing. A total of 62.6 million high-quality reads were generated, and assembled into 98,796 unique transcripts. We identified 3,905 differentially expressed genes implicated in leaf development, 67.8% (2,651) of which were during the transition to leaf maturation. The genes involved in cyanogenic metabolism, lignin and anthocyanin biosynthesis were noteworthy for their distinct patterns of expression between developing leaves (stages I to III) and mature leaves (stage IV), and the correlation with the change in resistance to SALB and the Oidium/Colletotrichum leaf fall. The results provide a first profile of the molecular events that relate to the dynamics of leaf morphology and defense strategies during Hevea leaf development. This dataset is beneficial to devising strategies to engineer resistance to leaf diseases as well as other in-depth studies in Hevea tree.

  9. Proteomic investigation of the effect of salicylic acid on Arabidopsis seed germination and establishment of early defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Belghazi, Maya; Huguet, Romain; Robin, Caroline; Moreau, Adrien; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on elicitation of defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds and seedlings was assessed by physiological measurements combined with global expression profiling (proteomics). Parallel experiments were carried out using the NahG transgenic plants expressing the bacterial gene encoding SA hydroxylase, which cannot accumulate the active form of this plant defense elicitor. SA markedly improved germination under salt stress. Proteomic analyses disclosed a specific accumulation of protein spots regulated by SA as inferred by silver-nitrate staining of two-dimensional gels, detection of carbonylated (oxidized) proteins, and neosynthesized proteins with [35S]-methionine. The combined results revealed several processes potentially affected by SA. This molecule enhanced the reinduction of the late maturation program during early stages of germination, thereby allowing the germinating seeds to reinforce their capacity to mount adaptive responses in environmental water stress. Other processes affected by SA concerned the quality of protein translation, the priming of seed metabolism, the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, and the mobilization of seed storage proteins. All the observed effects are likely to improve seed vigor. Another aspect revealed by this study concerned the oxidative stress entailed by SA in germinating seeds, as inferred from a characterization of the carbonylated (oxidized) proteome. Finally, the proteomic data revealed a close interplay between abscisic signaling and SA elicitation of seed vigor.

  10. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Infected zebrafish coordinates defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms in response to Candida albicans infections, and invasive C. albicans coordinates corresponding molecular mechanisms to interact with the host. However, knowledge of the ensuing infection-activated signaling networks in both host and pathogen and their interspecific crosstalk during the innate and adaptive phases of the infection processes remains incomplete. In the present study, dynamic network modeling, protein interaction databases, and dual transcriptome data from zebrafish and C. albicans during infection were used to infer infection-activated host-pathogen dynamic interaction networks. The consideration of host-pathogen dynamic interaction systems as innate and adaptive loops and subsequent comparisons of inferred innate and adaptive networks indicated previously unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways and suggested roles of immunological memory in the coordination of host defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms to achieve specific and powerful defense against pathogens. Moreover, pathogens enhance intraspecific crosstalk and abrogate host apoptosis to accommodate enhanced host defense mechanisms during the adaptive phase. Accordingly, links between physiological phenomena and changes in the coordination of defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms highlight the importance of host-pathogen molecular interaction networks, and consequent inferences of the host-pathogen relationship could be translated into biomedical applications.

  11. The evolution of defense mechanisms correlate with the explosive diversification of autodigesting Coprinellus mushrooms (Agaricales, Fungi).

    PubMed

    Nagy, László G; Házi, Judit; Szappanos, Balázs; Kocsubé, Sándor; Bálint, Balázs; Rákhely, Gábor; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás

    2012-07-01

    Bursts of diversification are known to have contributed significantly to the extant morphological and species diversity, but evidence for many of the theoretical predictions about adaptive radiations have remained contentious. Despite their tremendous diversity, patterns of evolutionary diversification and the contribution of explosive episodes in fungi are largely unknown. Here, using the genus Coprinellus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales) as a model, we report the first explosive fungal radiation and infer that the onset of the radiation correlates with a change from a multilayered to a much simpler defense structure on the fruiting bodies. We hypothesize that this change constitutes a key innovation, probably relaxing constraints on diversification imposed by nutritional investment into the development of protective tissues of fruiting bodies. Fossil calibration suggests that Coprinellus mushrooms radiated during the Miocene coinciding with global radiation of large grazing mammals following expansion of dry open grasslands. In addition to diversification rate-based methods, we test the hard polytomy hypothesis, by analyzing the resolvability of internal nodes of the backbone of the putative radiation using Reversible-Jump MCMC. We discuss potential applications and pitfalls of this approach as well as how biologically meaningful polytomies can be distinguished from alignment shortcomings. Our data provide insights into the nature of adaptive radiations in general by revealing a deceleration of morphological diversification through time. The dynamics of morphological diversification was approximated by obtaining the temporal distribution of state changes in discrete traits along the trees and comparing it with the tempo of lineage accumulation. We found that the number of state changes correlate with the number of lineages, even in parts of the tree with short internal branches, and peaks around the onset of the explosive radiation followed by a slowdown, most

  12. Neonatal host defense mechanisms against Listeria monocytogenes infection: the role of lipopolysaccharides and interferons.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, R; Issekutz, T; Burbridge, S; Schellekens, H

    1989-03-01

    The human newborn infant is susceptible to lethal infection caused by a number of bacterial species including Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive rod which is pathogenic by virtue of its ability to survive intracellularly. In adult animals interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma or agents that induce or augment IFN production confer protection against lethal L. monocytogenes infection. Regulation and production of IFN is poorly understood during the neonatal period. We therefore evaluated the role of IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, IFN-inducers (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, amino-bromo-phenyl-pyrimidinone, amino-iodophenyl pyrimidinone) and lipopolysaccharide in modifying neonatal L. monocytogenes infection. Pretreatment of juvenile rats with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or lipopolysaccharide protected them against a lethal challenge with L. monocytogenes. Among newborn rats, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, amino-iodo-phenyl pyrimidinone and amino-bromophenyl-pyrimidinone gave significant protection, however, lipopolysaccharide did not influence survival. The role of IFN was further examined. Pretreatment of 3-d-old rats with purified IFN-alpha/beta, native rat IFN-gamma or rDNA rat IFN-gamma protected them against the lethality of subsequent L. monocytogenes injection. At 3 d after bacterial challenge, bacterial content in the spleens of 3-d-old rats pretreated with rIFN-gamma were significantly decreased compared to controls: IFN-alpha/beta-pretreated animals had less of a decrease, which become significant only 5 d after challenge. Our experiments indicate a role for IFN in neonatal host defense against L. monocytogenes infection.

  13. Flagellum-Mediated Biofilm Defense Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Host-Derived Lactoferrin ▿

    PubMed Central

    Leid, Jeff G.; Kerr, Mathias; Selgado, Candice; Johnson, Chelsa; Moreno, Gabriel; Smith, Alyssa; Shirtliff, Mark E.; O'Toole, George A.; Cope, Emily K.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic infection with the gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human patients, despite high doses of antibiotics used to treat the various diseases this organism causes. These infections are chronic because P. aeruginosa readily forms biofilms, which are inherently resistant to antibiotics as well as the host's immune system. Our laboratory has been investigating specific mutations in P. aeruginosa that regulate biofilm bacterial susceptibility to the host. To continue our investigation of the role of genetics in bacterial biofilm host resistance, we examined P. aeruginosa biofilms that lack the flgK gene. This mutant lacks flagella, which results in defects in early biofilm development (up to 36 h). For these experiments, the flgK-disrupted strain and the parental strain (PA14) were used in a modified version of the 96-well plate microtiter assay. Biofilms were challenged with freshly isolated human leukocytes for 4 to 6 h and viable bacteria enumerated by CFU. Subsequent to the challenge, both mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) and neutrophils, along with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were required for optimal killing of the flgK biofilm bacteria. We identified a cytokine cross talk network between mononuclear cells and neutrophils that was essential to the production of lactoferrin and bacterial killing. Our data suggest that TNF-α is secreted from mononuclear cells, causing neutrophil activation, resulting in the secretion of bactericidal concentrations of lactoferrin. These results extend previous studies of the importance of lactoferrin in the innate immune defense against bacterial biofilms. PMID:19651866

  14. Pulmonary Drug Delivery System for inhalation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Rajiv; Sohal, Harjyot

    2008-01-01

    The Pulmonary Drug Delivery System (PDDS) Clinical represents a newer generation of electronic nebulizers that employ a vibrating mesh or aperture plate to generate an aerosol. The PDDS Clinical is designed for aerosol therapy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The components of the device include a control module that is connected to the nebulizer/reservoir unit by a cable. The nebulizer contains Aerogen's OnQ aerosol generator. A pressure sensor monitors the pressure in the inspiratory limb of the ventilator circuit and provides feedback to the control module. Based on the feedback from the pressure sensor, aerosol generation occurs only during a specific part of the respiratory cycle. In bench models, the PDDS Clinical has high efficiency for aerosol delivery both on and off the ventilator, with a lower respiratory tract delivery of 50-70% of the nominal dose. Currently, the PDDS Clinical is being evaluated for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia with aerosolized amikacin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Preliminary studies in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia found that the administration of amikacin via PDDS reduced the need for concomitant intravenous antibiotics; however, more definitive clinical studies are needed. The PDDS Clinical delivers a high percentage of the nominal dose to the lower respiratory tract, and is well suited for inhalation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:18095891

  15. Host defense mechanisms of human milk and their relations to enteric infections and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Buescher, E S

    1994-06-01

    Human milk contains components that can mediate protection against symptomatic infection by means of classical and novel mechanisms. It has been demonstrated to protect infants against symptomatic infection by a variety of enteric pathogens. To date, mechanisms involving pathogen-specific sIgA are the best documented; however, roles for nonimmunoglobulin glycoconjugate and anti-inflammatory components may also exist. Based on both laboratory and clinical studies, human milk feeding appears to have protective effects against development of necrotizing enterocolitis.

  16. Chemical and Mechanical Defenses Vary among Maternal Lines and Leaf Ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and Reduce Palatability to a Generalist Insect

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Christina; Bowers, M. Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

  17. Defense mechanisms and implicit emotion regulation: a comparison of a psychodynamic construct with one from contemporary neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2014-08-01

    A growing interest in the neuroscience of emotion regulation, particularly the subfield of implicit emotion regulation, brings new opportunity for the psychodynamic treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. At the same time, psychodynamic theorists have become more aware of the centrality of affects in mental life. This paper introduces a manualized psychodynamic approach called Regulation-Focused Dynamic Psychotherapy (RFP-C). Theoretically based on the domain construct of implicit emotion regulation (ER), this approach posits that contemporary affect-oriented conceptualizations of defense mechanisms are theoretically similar to the neuroscience construct of implicit emotion regulation. To illustrate this theoretical similarity, the literature connected with both concepts is reviewed. The implications of this idea, which could promote an interface between psychodynamics and contemporary academic psychiatry and psychology, are discussed.

  18. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  19. Study the mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by impulse oscillometry

    PubMed Central

    Nourizadeh, Mohammad; Ghelich, Yunose; Amin, Ahmad; Eidani, Esmaeel; Gholampoor, Yousef; Asadmoghadam, Mahsa; Asadinia, Najme

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart failure is one of the most leading cause of death worldwide, but the mechanical characteristics of the pulmonary system in these patients have not been studied enough. The aim of this study was to measure mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by using impulse oscillometry (IOS), which can obtain data by simpler means and independently from respiratory muscle strength. Materials and methods We assessed 24 CHF patients and 24 controls by spirometry and IOS using the Jaeger IOS system. IOS measures central and peripheral airway resistances (R20, R5) and central and peripheral reactances (X20, X5) using sound waves with different frequencies, which superimposed on the patients respiratory tidal volume and then records reflects. P value < 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results The mean age of patients and controls was 61 ± 10 and 57 ± 7 years, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) was 37 ± 17% for patients and 55 ± 7% for controls. Patients had a lower X5 (−0.20 ± 0.13 vs −0.13 ± 0.07; P < 0.05), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; 2.26 ± 0.68 vs 3.09 ± 0.82: P < 0.01 L/min), and forced vital capacity (FVC; 2.55 ± 0.86 vs 3.32 ± 0.87; P < 0.05) compared to the controls. They also had elevated R5: 0.37 ± 0.21 vs 0.27 ± 0.09; P < 0.06). X5 was correlated with spirometric abnormalities (P < 0.05) and was lower in patients than in controls. Conclusion X5 was lower and R5 was higher in patients than in controls. CHF patients can be assessed by IOS more comfortable than by spirometry. IOS can reliably measure peripheral airway resistance in this group of patients. PMID:24027371

  20. First evidence for toxic defense based on the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Altenburger, Rolf; Gómez, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia; Piña, Benjamin; Barata, Carlos; Luckenbach, Till

    2014-03-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna is widely used as test species in ecotoxicological bioassays. So far, there is no information available to which extent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter based multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) counteracts adverse chemical effects in this species. This, however, would be important for assessing to which extent the bio-active potential of a compound determined with this species depends on this cellular defense. We here present molecular, functional and toxicological studies that provide first evidence for ABC transporter-based MXR in D. magna. We cloned putatively MXR-related partial abcb1, abcc1/3, abcc4 and abcc5 coding sequences; respective transcripts were constitutively expressed in different D. magna life stages. MXR associated efflux activity was monitored in D. magna using the fluorescent substrate dyes rhodamine 123, rhodamine B and calcein-AM combined with inhibitors of human ABCB1 and/or ABCC transporter activities reversin 205, MK571 and cyclosporin A. With inhibitors present, efflux of dye substrates was reduced in D. magna in a concentration-dependent mode, as indicated by elevated accumulation of the dyes in D. magna tissues. In animals pre-exposed to mercury, pentachlorophenol or dacthal applied as inducers of ABC transporter expression, levels of some ABC transporter transcripts were increased in some cases showing that these genes can be chemically induced. Likewise, pre-exposure of animals to these chemicals decreased dye accumulation in tissue, indicating enhanced MXR transporter activity, likely associated with higher transporter protein levels. Toxicity assays with toxic transporter substrates mitoxantrone and chlorambucil that were applied singly and in combination with inhibitors were performed to study the tolerance role of Abcb1 and Abcc efflux transporters in D. magna. Joint toxicities of about half of the binary combinations of test compounds applied (substrate/inhibitor, substrate/substrate, inhibitor

  1. Study design for a randomised controlled trial to explore the modality and mechanism of Tai Chi in the pulmonary rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juan-Juan; Min, Jie; Yu, Peng-Ming; McDonald, Vanessa M; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is associated with significant clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been recommended by guidelines, PR with conventional exercise training has not been widely applied in the clinic because of its inherent limitations. Alternative exercise such as Tai Chi has been investigated and the results are promising. However, the strengths and weaknesses of the exercise modality of Tai Chi, conventional PR and a combination of Tai Chi and conventional PR and the possible mechanisms underlying Tai Chi exercise remain unclear. This study aims to address the above research gaps in a well-designed clinical trial. Methods and analysis This study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Participants with stable COPD will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of four groups receiving Tai Chi exercise, conventional PR using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS), combined Tai Chi and TBRS, or usual care (control) in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants will perform 30 min of supervised exercise three times a week for 8 weeks; they will receive sequential follow-ups until 12 months after recruitment. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include 6 min walking distance, pulmonary function, the modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, the COPD Assessment Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, exacerbation frequency during the study period, and systemic inflammatory and immune markers. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Clinical Trial and Biomedical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No TCM-2015-82). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant before any procedures are performed. The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national

  2. Hepatitis C virus, mitochondria and auto/mitophagy: exploiting a host defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Vitalba; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Pazienza, Valerio; Andriulli, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2014-03-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major reason for liver transplantation and the main cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in a great number of countries. As for the other viruses, this pathogen interferes in more than one process and in more than one way with host cell biology. A mounting body of evidence points, in particular, toward the drastic alterations of mitochondrial physiology and functions that virus is able to induce, albeit the mechanisms have partly remained elusive. Role of the mitochondria in immunity and in quality control systems, as autophagy, as well as the strategies that HCV has evolved to evade and even to manipulate mitochondrial surveillance for its benefit, highlights the importance of deepening the mechanisms that modulate this virus-mitochondrion interaction, not only to intensify our knowledge of the HCV infection pathogenesis but also to design efficient antiviral strategies.

  3. [Four cases of pulmonary tuberculosis resembling pulmonary abscess with a so-called niveau-like shadow in a medical school hospital: discussion concerning the formation mechanism of niveau-like shadows].

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Y; Niki, Y; Kawane, H; Matsushima, T

    1996-04-01

    Four cases of pulmonary tuberculosis resembling pulmonary abscess radiographically were reviewed from their clinical features, chest X-ray and chest CT, and the mechanism of formation of so-called niveau-like shadows was discussed. Only one case showed a newly formed tuberculous cavity with air fluid level on chest X-ray, however, even in this case, the possibility of the infection with tubercle bacilli of an emphysematous bulla of the lung could not be completely excluded as several bulla were found on chest CT. The remaining three cases showed a slightly different mechanism of the formation of niveau-like shadows. Namely, mycobacterium tuberculosis spread into an existed bulla and a tubercle bacilli infected bulla was formed. Regarding the clinical features, no remarkable findings were detected and we could find no differences with common tuberculosis. Based on these experiences, the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis resembling the shadow of pulmonary abscess should be emphasized. PMID:8683908

  4. Mechanisms of worsening gas exchange during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barberà, J A; Roca, J; Ferrer, A; Félez, M A; Díaz, O; Roger, N; Rodriguez-Roisin, R

    1997-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms that determine abnormal gas exchange during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirteen COPD patients, hospitalized because of an exacerbation, were studied after admission and 38+/-10 (+/-SD) days after discharge, once they were clinically stable. Measurements included forced spirometry, arterial blood gas values, minute ventilation (V'E), cardiac output (Q'), oxygen consumption (V'O2), and ventilation/perfusion (V'A/Q') relationships, assessed by the inert gas technique. Exacerbations were characterized by very severe airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 0.74+/-0.17 vs 0.91+/-0.19 L, during exacerbation and stable conditions, respectively; p=0.01), severe hypoxaemia (ratio between arterial oxygen tension and inspired oxygen fraction (Pa,O2/FI,O2) 32.7+/-7.7 vs 37.6+/-6.9 kPa (245+/-58 vs 282+/-52 mmHg); p=0.01) and hypercapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) 6.8+/-1.6 vs 5.9+/-0.8 kPa (51+/-12 vs 44+/-6 mmHg); p=0.04). V'A/Q' inequality increased during exacerbation (log SD Q', 1.10+/-0.29 vs 0.96+/-0.27; normal < or = 0.6; p=0.04) as a result of greater perfusion in poorly-ventilated alveoli. Shunt was almost negligible on both measurements. V'E remained essentially unchanged during exacerbation (10.5+/-2.2 vs 9.2+/-1.8 L x min(-1); p=0.1), whereas both Q' (6.1+/-2.4 vs 5.1+/-1.7 L x min(-1); p=0.05) and V'O2 (300+/-49 vs 248+/-59 mL x min(-1); p=0.03) increased significantly. Worsening of hypoxaemia was explained mainly by the increase both in V'A/Q' inequality and V'O2, whereas the increase in Q' partially counterbalanced the effect of greater V'O2 on mixed venous oxygen tension (PV,O2). We conclude that worsening of gas exchange during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is primarily produced by increased ventilation/perfusion inequality, and that this effect is amplified by the decrease of mixed venous oxygen

  5. Crosstalk of Signaling Mechanisms Involved in Host Defense and Symbiosis Against Microorganisms in Rice.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Akira; Shimamoto, Ko; Kawano, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops, feeding about half population in the world. Rice pathogens cause enormous damage to rice production worldwide. In plant immunity research, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity. Using genome sequencing and molecular techniques, a number of new MAMPs and their receptors have been identified in the past two decades. Notably, the mechanisms for chitin perception via the lysine motif (LysM) domain-containing receptor OsCERK1, as well as the mechanisms for bacterial MAMP (e.g. flg22, elf18) perception via the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain-containing receptors FLS2 and EFR, have been clarified in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. In chitin signaling in rice, two direct substrates of OsCERK1, Rac/ROP GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor OsRacGEF1 and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase OsRLCK185, have been identified as components of the OsCERK1 complex and are rapidly phosphorylated by OsCERK1 in response to chitin. Interestingly, OsCERK1 also participates in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in rice and plays a role in the recognition of short-chitin molecules (CO4/5), which are symbiotic signatures included in AMF germinated spore exudates and induced by synthetic strigolactone. Thus, OsCERK1 contributes to both immunity and symbiotic responses. In this review, we describe recent studies on pathways involved in rice immunity and symbiotic signaling triggered by interactions with microorganisms. In addition, we describe recent advances in genetic engineering by using plant immune receptors and symbiotic microorganisms to enhance disease resistance of rice. PMID:27499679

  6. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Induces a Unique Pulmonary Inflammatory Response: Role of Bacterial Gene Expression in Temporal Regulation of Host Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Kathie-Anne; Olsufka, Rachael; Kuestner, Rolf E.; Cho, Ji Hoon; Li, Hong; Zornetzer, Gregory A.; Wang, Kai; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Ozinsky, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to Francisella tularensis is associated with severe lung pathology and a high mortality rate. The lack of induction of classical inflammatory mediators, including IL1-β and TNF-α, during early infection has led to the suggestion that F. tularensis evades detection by host innate immune surveillance and/or actively suppresses inflammation. To gain more insight into the host response to Francisella infection during the acute stage, transcriptomic analysis was performed on lung tissue from mice exposed to virulent (Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis SchuS4). Despite an extensive transcriptional response in the lungs of animals as early as 4 hrs post-exposure, Francisella tularensis was associated with an almost complete lack of induction of immune-related genes during the initial 24 hrs post-exposure. This broad subversion of innate immune responses was particularly evident when compared to the pulmonary inflammatory response induced by other lethal (Yersinia pestis) and non-lethal (Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) pulmonary infections. However, the unique induction of a subset of inflammation-related genes suggests a role for dysregulation of lymphocyte function and anti-inflammatory pathways in the extreme virulence of Francisella. Subsequent activation of a classical inflammatory response 48 hrs post-exposure was associated with altered abundance of Francisella-specific transcripts, including those associated with bacterial surface components. In summary, virulent Francisella induces a unique pulmonary inflammatory response characterized by temporal regulation of innate immune pathways correlating with altered bacterial gene expression patterns. This study represents the first simultaneous measurement of both host and Francisella transcriptome changes that occur during in vivo infection and identifies potential bacterial virulence factors responsible for regulation of host inflammatory pathways. PMID:23690939

  7. New host defense mechanisms against Candida species clarify the basis of clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Suheir; Etzioni, Amos; Etzoni, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Chronic Candida species infection of the skin and mucosal membranes is viewed as a group of disorders all sharing a similar clinical condition, the susceptibility to localized fungal infections, which can be isolated or as a feature associated with various other entities. Although the pathogenesis underlying such a tendency had previously been poorly understood, the last decade has witnessed significant progress in revealing the molecular and immunologic mechanisms involved in antifungal immunity. T(H)17 cells and their specific cytokines (IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines and IL-22) are the main players in conferring antifungal protection. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and ectodermal dystrophy and hyper-IgE syndrome are 2 entities caused by different genetic mutations affecting distinct immune pathways but eventually share a similar clinical phenotype of Candida species infection. Impaired T(H)17 responses, although mediated by different mechanisms, seem to underlie this common feature: neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A and 1L-22 are involved in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and ectodermal dystrophy syndrome, whereas abnormal T(H)17 proliferation and IL-17 production are observed in the latter. Although various degrees of T(H)17 dysfunction were also observed in most cases of isolated chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, only in very few families was a distinct mutation detected (caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 [CARD9]), thus indicating certain forms of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis as monogenic with a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Hopefully, these data will open the way for further searches for other genes and for introducing new treatment modalities. PMID:21497889

  8. New host defense mechanisms against Candida species clarify the basis of clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Suheir; Etzioni, Amos; Etzoni, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Chronic Candida species infection of the skin and mucosal membranes is viewed as a group of disorders all sharing a similar clinical condition, the susceptibility to localized fungal infections, which can be isolated or as a feature associated with various other entities. Although the pathogenesis underlying such a tendency had previously been poorly understood, the last decade has witnessed significant progress in revealing the molecular and immunologic mechanisms involved in antifungal immunity. T(H)17 cells and their specific cytokines (IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines and IL-22) are the main players in conferring antifungal protection. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and ectodermal dystrophy and hyper-IgE syndrome are 2 entities caused by different genetic mutations affecting distinct immune pathways but eventually share a similar clinical phenotype of Candida species infection. Impaired T(H)17 responses, although mediated by different mechanisms, seem to underlie this common feature: neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A and 1L-22 are involved in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and ectodermal dystrophy syndrome, whereas abnormal T(H)17 proliferation and IL-17 production are observed in the latter. Although various degrees of T(H)17 dysfunction were also observed in most cases of isolated chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, only in very few families was a distinct mutation detected (caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 [CARD9]), thus indicating certain forms of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis as monogenic with a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Hopefully, these data will open the way for further searches for other genes and for introducing new treatment modalities.

  9. Oxidative Damage and Cellular Defense Mechanisms in Sea Urchin Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Du, Colin; Anderson, Arielle; Lortie, Mae; Parsons, Rachel; Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of species longevity. This study investigates the oxidative stress theory in a novel model for aging research, the sea urchin. Sea urchins present a unique model for the study of aging due to the existence of species with tremendously different natural life spans including some species with extraordinary longevity and negligible senescence. Cellular oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities were measured in the tissues of three sea urchin species: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate lifespan. Levels of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) measured in tissues (muscle, nerve, esophagus, gonad, coelomocytes, ampullae) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) measured in cell-free coelomic fluid showed no general increase with age. The fluorescent age-pigment lipofuscin measured in muscle, nerve and esophagus, increased with age however it appeared to be predominantly extracellular. Antioxidant mechanisms (total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase) and proteasome enzyme activities were maintained with age. In some instances, levels of oxidative damage were lower and antioxidant activity higher in cells or tissues of the long-lived species compared to the short-lived species, however further studies are required to determine the relationship between oxidative damage and longevity in these animals. Consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging, the results suggest that negligible senescence is accompanied by a lack of accumulation of cellular oxidative damage with age and maintenance of antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities may be important mechanisms to mitigate damage. PMID:23707327

  10. Application of an Improved Proteomics Method for Abundant Protein Cleanup: Molecular and Genomic Mechanisms Study in Plant Defense*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2013-01-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery. PMID:23943779

  11. Coordinated Activation of Programmed Cell Death and Defense Mechanisms in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing a Bacterial Proton Pump.

    PubMed Central

    Mittler, R.; Shulaev, V.; Lam, E.

    1995-01-01

    In plants, programmed cell death is thought to be activated during the hypersensitive response to certain avirulent pathogens and in the course of several differentiation processes. We describe a transgenic model system that mimics the activation of programmed cell death in higher plants. In this system, expression of a bacterial proton pump in transgenic tobacco plants activates a cell death pathway that may be similar to that triggered by recognition of an incompatible pathogen. Thus, spontaneous lesions that resemble hypersensitive response lesions are formed, multiple defense mechanisms are apparently activated, and systemic resistance is induced in the absence of a pathogen. Interestingly, mutation of a single amino acid in the putative channel of this proton pump renders it inactive with respect to lesion formation and induction of resistance to pathogen challenge. This transgenic model system may provide insights into the mechanisms involved in mediating cell death in higher plants. In addition, it may also be used as a general agronomic tool to enhance disease protection. PMID:12242350

  12. Application of an improved proteomics method for abundant protein cleanup: molecular and genomic mechanisms study in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S; Dai, Susie Y

    2013-11-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery.

  13. Drought resistance in rice seedlings conferred by seed priming : role of the anti-oxidant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Alakananda; Banerjee, Rahul; Raha, Sanghamitra

    2013-10-01

    Seed priming is a method by which seeds are subjected to different stress conditions to impart stress adaptation in seedlings germinating and growing under stressful situations. Drought stress is a major reason behind failure of crops. We studied the effects of hydropriming, dehydration priming (induced by PEG), and osmopriming (induced by NaCl and KH(2)PO(4)) on subsequent germination, growth and anti-oxidant defense mechanisms of 2-week-old rice seedlings under continuing dehydration stress. Unprimed seeds grown in PEG showed significantly lower germination and growth along with significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels. Among the priming methods, 5 % PEG priming was found to be the best in terms of germination and growth rate along with the lowest amount of ROS and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) values. MDA levels were reduced significantly by all of the priming methods. Hence, reduction of lipid peroxidation may be a key factor underlying the drought tolerance produced by the priming treatments. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity seemed to bear an excellent correlation with oxidative stress resistance through seed priming. The PEG priming produced minimum peroxidative damage and superior germination and growth rate along with efficient GPX activity, overexpressed MnSOD and maintenance of HSP70 expression in normal as well as in drought condition. Therefore, in PEG-primed seeds the existence of robust protective mechanisms is definitely indicated.

  14. Effects of surfactant depletion on regional pulmonary metabolic activity during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    de Prost, Nicolas; Costa, Eduardo L; Wellman, Tyler; Musch, Guido; Winkler, Tilo; Tucci, Mauro R; Harris, R Scott; Venegas, Jose G; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2011-11-01

    Inflammation during mechanical ventilation is thought to depend on regional mechanical stress. This can be produced by concentration of stresses and cyclic recruitment in low-aeration dependent lung. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) allows for noninvasive assessment of regional metabolic activity, an index of neutrophilic inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that, during mechanical ventilation, surfactant-depleted low-aeration lung regions present increased regional (18)F-FDG uptake suggestive of in vivo increased regional metabolic activity and inflammation. Sheep underwent unilateral saline lung lavage and were ventilated supine for 4 h (positive end-expiratory pressure = 10 cmH(2)O, tidal volume adjusted to plateau pressure = 30 cmH(2)O). We used PET scans of injected (13)N-nitrogen to compute regional perfusion and ventilation and injected (18)F-FDG to calculate (18)F-FDG uptake rate. Regional aeration was quantified with transmission scans. Whole lung (18)F-FDG uptake was approximately two times higher in lavaged than in nonlavaged lungs (2.9 ± 0.6 vs. 1.5 ± 0.3 10(-3)/min; P < 0.05). The increased (18)F-FDG uptake was topographically heterogeneous and highest in dependent low-aeration regions (gas fraction 10-50%, P < 0.001), even after correction for lung density and wet-to-dry lung ratios. (18)F-FDG uptake in low-aeration regions of lavaged lungs was higher than that in low-aeration regions of nonlavaged lungs (P < 0.05). This occurred despite lower perfusion and ventilation to dependent regions in lavaged than nonlavaged lungs (P < 0.001). In contrast, (18)F-FDG uptake in normally aerated regions was low and similar between lungs. Surfactant depletion produces increased and heterogeneously distributed pulmonary (18)F-FDG uptake after 4 h of supine mechanical ventilation. Metabolic activity is highest in poorly aerated dependent regions, suggesting local increased inflammation.

  15. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties.

  16. The antiviral defense mechanisms in mandarin fish induced by DNA vaccination against a rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Lei, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2012-06-15

    Plasmid DNAs containing Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) glycoprotein gene (pcDNA-G) and nucleoprotein gene (pcDNA-N) were constructed, and used to determine the antiviral immune response elicited by DNA vaccination in mandarin fish. In vitro and in vivo expression of the plasmid constructs was confirmed in transfected cells and muscle tissues of vaccinated fish by Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence or RT-PCR analysis. Fish injected with pcDNA-G exhibited protective effect against SCRV challenge with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 77.5%, but no significant protection (RPS of 2.5%) was observed in fish vaccinated with pcDNA-N. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that vaccination with pcDNA-G decreased histological lesions and suppressed the virus replication in fish target organs, e.g. kidney, liver, spleen, gill and heart. Transcriptional analysis further revealed that the expression levels of type I IFN system genes including interferon regulation factor-7 (IRF-7) gene, myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene and virus inhibitory protein (Viperin) gene were strongly up-regulated after injection with pcDNA-G, whereas the level of transcription of immunoglobulin M (IgM) gene did not show a statistically significant change. These results reveal that type I IFN antiviral immune response is rapidly triggered by the plasmid DNA containing rhabdovirus glycoprotein gene in fish, which offers an explanation of molecular mechanisms for DNA vaccination inducing mandarin fish resist to SCRV disease.

  17. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties. PMID:23284692

  18. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Luo, Jiewen; Hou, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-03-01

    We used hydroponic experiments to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the performance of the Pb-tolerable plant Conyza canadensis. In these experiments, most of the Pb was accumulated in the roots; there was very little Pb accumulated in stems and leaves. C. canadensis is able to take up significant amounts of Pb whilst greatly restricting its transportation to specific parts of the aboveground biomass. High Pb concentrations inhibited plant growth, increased membrane permeability, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in roots, and caused a significant increase in root H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Analysis of Pb content at the subcellular level showed that most Pb was associated with the cell wall fraction, followed by the nucleus-rich fraction, and with a minority present in the mitochondrial and soluble fractions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of root cells revealed that the cell wall and intercellular space in C. canadensis roots are the main locations of Pb accumulation. Additionally, high Pb concentrations adversely affected the cellular structure of C. canadensis roots. The increased enzyme activity suggests that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating Pb toxicity in C. canadensis roots. However, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin did not significantly change in either the roots or leaves under Pb-contaminated treatments. Our results provide strong evidence that cell walls restrict Pb uptake into the root and act as an important barrier protecting root cells, while demonstrating that antioxidant enzyme levels are correlated with Pb exposure. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis. PMID:26733305

  19. Immune-related transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki workers: the defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Li, Yi-Feng; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chuan-Cheng; Wen, Shuo-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, live socially in microbial-rich habitats. To understand the molecular mechanism by which termites combat pathogenic microbes, a full-length normalized cDNA library and four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from termite workers infected with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana), Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and the libraries were analyzed. From the high quality normalized cDNA library, 439 immune-related sequences were identified. These sequences were categorized as pattern recognition receptors (47 sequences), signal modulators (52 sequences), signal transducers (137 sequences), effectors (39 sequences) and others (164 sequences). From the SSH libraries, 27, 17, 22 and 15 immune-related genes were identified from each SSH library treated with M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and E. coli, respectively. When the normalized cDNA library was compared with the SSH libraries, 37 immune-related clusters were found in common; 56 clusters were identified in the SSH libraries, and 259 were identified in the normalized cDNA library. The immune-related gene expression pattern was further investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Important immune-related genes were characterized, and their potential functions were discussed based on the integrated analysis of the results. We suggest that normalized cDNA and SSH libraries enable us to discover functional genes transcriptome. The results remarkably expand our knowledge about immune-inducible genes in C. formosanus Shiraki and enable the future development of novel control strategies for the management of Formosan subterranean termites.

  20. Immune-Related Transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki Workers: The Defense Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abid; Li, Yi-Feng; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chuan-Cheng; Wen, Shuo-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, live socially in microbial-rich habitats. To understand the molecular mechanism by which termites combat pathogenic microbes, a full-length normalized cDNA library and four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from termite workers infected with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana), Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and the libraries were analyzed. From the high quality normalized cDNA library, 439 immune-related sequences were identified. These sequences were categorized as pattern recognition receptors (47 sequences), signal modulators (52 sequences), signal transducers (137 sequences), effectors (39 sequences) and others (164 sequences). From the SSH libraries, 27, 17, 22 and 15 immune-related genes were identified from each SSH library treated with M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and E. coli, respectively. When the normalized cDNA library was compared with the SSH libraries, 37 immune-related clusters were found in common; 56 clusters were identified in the SSH libraries, and 259 were identified in the normalized cDNA library. The immune-related gene expression pattern was further investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Important immune-related genes were characterized, and their potential functions were discussed based on the integrated analysis of the results. We suggest that normalized cDNA and SSH libraries enable us to discover functional genes transcriptome. The results remarkably expand our knowledge about immune-inducible genes in C. formosanus Shiraki and enable the future development of novel control strategies for the management of Formosan subterranean termites. PMID:23874972

  1. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Luo, Jiewen; Hou, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-03-01

    We used hydroponic experiments to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the performance of the Pb-tolerable plant Conyza canadensis. In these experiments, most of the Pb was accumulated in the roots; there was very little Pb accumulated in stems and leaves. C. canadensis is able to take up significant amounts of Pb whilst greatly restricting its transportation to specific parts of the aboveground biomass. High Pb concentrations inhibited plant growth, increased membrane permeability, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in roots, and caused a significant increase in root H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Analysis of Pb content at the subcellular level showed that most Pb was associated with the cell wall fraction, followed by the nucleus-rich fraction, and with a minority present in the mitochondrial and soluble fractions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of root cells revealed that the cell wall and intercellular space in C. canadensis roots are the main locations of Pb accumulation. Additionally, high Pb concentrations adversely affected the cellular structure of C. canadensis roots. The increased enzyme activity suggests that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating Pb toxicity in C. canadensis roots. However, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin did not significantly change in either the roots or leaves under Pb-contaminated treatments. Our results provide strong evidence that cell walls restrict Pb uptake into the root and act as an important barrier protecting root cells, while demonstrating that antioxidant enzyme levels are correlated with Pb exposure. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis.

  2. The Effects and Mechanism of Atorvastatin on Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Guo, Yi-Zhan; Zhang, Yi-Tao; Xue, Jiao-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Chong; Cheng, Shi-Yao; Ou, Mao-De; Cheng, Kang-Lin; Zeng, Wei-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) is one of the most common forms of PH, termed group 2 PH. Atorvastatin exerts beneficial effects on the structural remodeling of the lung in ischemic heart failure. However, few studies have investigated the effects of atorvastatin on PH due to left heart failure induced by overload. Methods Group 2 PH was induced in animals by aortic banding. Rats (n = 20) were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (C), an aortic banding group (AOB63), an atorvastatin prevention group (AOB63/ATOR63) and an atorvastatin reversal group (AOB63/ATOR50-63). Atorvastatin was administered for 63 days after banding to the rats in the AOB63/ATOR63 group and from days 50 to 63 to the rats in the AOB63/ATOR50-63 group. Results Compared with the controls, significant increases in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickening, biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, wet and dry weights of the right middle lung, percentage of PCNA-positive vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory infiltration and expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase II were observed in the AOB63 group, and these changes concomitant with significant decreases in the percentage of TUNEL-positive vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment of the rats in the AOB63/ATOR63 group with atorvastatin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness, inflammatory infiltration, percentage of PCNA-positive cells and pulmonary expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase II and significantly augmented the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells compared with the AOB63 group. However, only a trend of improvement in pulmonary vascular remodeling was detected in the AOB63/ATOR50-63 group. Conclusions Atorvastatin prevents pulmonary vascular remodeling in the PH-LHD model by down-regulating the expression of RhoA/Rho kinase, by inhibiting the

  3. How Lower- and Working-Class Youth Become Middle-Class Adults: The Association between Ego Defense Mechanisms and Upward Social Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John R.; Vaillant, George E.

    1985-01-01

    Among 278 inner-city men studied for four decades and over three generations, eight variables captured 28 percent of the explained variance in upward social mobility: IQ, mother's education, mother's occupation, boyhood ego strength, and four ego defense mechanisms--intellectualization, dissociation, sublimation, and anticipation.…

  4. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis. PMID:24715273

  5. Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Preethi K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-09-01

    Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins-haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury.

  6. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

  7. Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury. PMID:18818737

  8. The mechanical properties of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of Python regius correlate with blood pressures.

    PubMed

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Wang, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Pythons are unique amongst snakes in having different pressures in the aortas and pulmonary arteries because of intraventricular pressure separation. In this study, we investigate whether this correlates with different blood vessel strength in the ball python Python regius. We excised segments from the left, right, and dorsal aortas, and from the two pulmonary arteries. These were subjected to tensile testing. We show that the aortic vessel wall is significantly stronger than the pulmonary artery wall in P. regius. Gross morphological characteristics (vessel wall thickness and correlated absolute amount of collagen content) are likely the most influential factors. Collagen fiber thickness and orientation are likely to have an effect, though the effect of collagen fiber type and cross-links between fibers will need further study. PMID:26780263

  9. The mechanical properties of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of Python regius correlate with blood pressures.

    PubMed

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Wang, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Pythons are unique amongst snakes in having different pressures in the aortas and pulmonary arteries because of intraventricular pressure separation. In this study, we investigate whether this correlates with different blood vessel strength in the ball python Python regius. We excised segments from the left, right, and dorsal aortas, and from the two pulmonary arteries. These were subjected to tensile testing. We show that the aortic vessel wall is significantly stronger than the pulmonary artery wall in P. regius. Gross morphological characteristics (vessel wall thickness and correlated absolute amount of collagen content) are likely the most influential factors. Collagen fiber thickness and orientation are likely to have an effect, though the effect of collagen fiber type and cross-links between fibers will need further study.

  10. The role of inflammation in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: from cellular mechanisms to clinical phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Poth, Jens M.; Fini, Mehdi A.; Olschewski, Andrea; El Kasmi, Karim C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases sharing the common feature of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. The disease is usually characterized by mild to moderate pulmonary vascular remodeling that is largely thought to be reversible compared with the progressive irreversible disease seen in World Health Organization (WHO) group I disease. However, in these patients, the presence of PH significantly worsens morbidity and mortality. In addition, a small subset of patients with hypoxic PH develop “out-of-proportion” severe pulmonary hypertension characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling that is irreversible and similar to that in WHO group I disease. In all cases of hypoxia-related vascular remodeling and PH, inflammation, particularly persistent inflammation, is thought to play a role. This review focuses on the effects of hypoxia on pulmonary vascular cells and the signaling pathways involved in the initiation and perpetuation of vascular inflammation, especially as they relate to vascular remodeling and transition to chronic irreversible PH. We hypothesize that the combination of hypoxia and local tissue factors/cytokines (“second hit”) antagonizes tissue homeostatic cellular interactions between mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts and/or smooth muscle cells) and macrophages and arrests these cells in an epigenetically locked and permanently activated proremodeling and proinflammatory phenotype. This aberrant cellular cross-talk between mesenchymal cells and macrophages promotes transition to chronic nonresolving inflammation and vascular remodeling, perpetuating PH. A better understanding of these signaling pathways may lead to the development of specific therapeutic targets, as none are currently available for WHO group III disease. PMID:25416383

  11. Lung hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: mechanisms, clinical implications and treatment.

    PubMed

    Langer, Daniel; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Neder, J Alberto; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2014-12-01

    Lung hyperinflation is highly prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occurs across the continuum of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that lung hyperinflation contributes to dyspnea and activity limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is an important independent risk factor for mortality. In this review, we will summarize the recent literature on pathogenesis and clinical implications of lung hyperinflation. We will outline the contribution of lung hyperinflation to exercise limitation and discuss its impact on symptoms and physical activity. Finally, we will examine the physiological rationale and efficacy of selected pharmacological and non-pharmacological 'lung deflating' interventions aimed at improving symptoms and physical functioning.

  12. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  13. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  15. Mechanisms of pulmonary cyst pathogenesis in Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: The stretch hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, John C; Khabibullin, Damir; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2016-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the folliculin gene (FLCN) on chromosome 17p cause Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (BHD), which is associated with cystic lung disease. The risk of lung collapse (pneumothorax) in BHD patients is 50-fold higher than in the general population. The cystic lung disease in BHD is distinctive because the cysts tend to be basilar, subpleural and lentiform, differentiating BHD from most other cystic lung diseases. Recently, major advances in elucidating the primary functions of the folliculin protein have been made, including roles in mTOR and AMPK signaling via the interaction of FLCN with FNIP1/2, and cell-cell adhesion via the physical interaction of FLCN with plakophilin 4 (PKP4), an armadillo-repeat containing protein that interacts with E-cadherin and is a component of the adherens junctions. In addition, in just the last three years, the pulmonary impact of FLCN deficiency has been examined for the first time. In mouse models, evidence has emerged that AMPK signaling and cell-cell adhesion are involved in alveolar enlargement. In addition, the pathologic features of human BHD cysts have been recently comprehensively characterized. The "stretch hypothesis" proposes that cysts in BHD arise because of fundamental defects in cell-cell adhesion, leading to repeated respiration-induced physical stretch-induced stress and, over time, expansion of alveolar spaces particularly in regions of the lung with larger changes in alveolar volume and at weaker "anchor points" to the pleura. This hypothesis ties together many of the new data from cellular and mouse models of BHD and from the human pathologic studies. Critical questions remain. These include whether the consequences of stretch-induced cyst formation arise through a destructive/inflammatory program or a proliferative program (or both), whether cyst initiation involves a "second hit" genetic event inactivating the remaining wild-type copy of FLCN (as is known to occur in BHD-associated renal cell

  16. Mechanisms of pulmonary cyst pathogenesis in Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: The stretch hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, John C; Khabibullin, Damir; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2016-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the folliculin gene (FLCN) on chromosome 17p cause Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (BHD), which is associated with cystic lung disease. The risk of lung collapse (pneumothorax) in BHD patients is 50-fold higher than in the general population. The cystic lung disease in BHD is distinctive because the cysts tend to be basilar, subpleural and lentiform, differentiating BHD from most other cystic lung diseases. Recently, major advances in elucidating the primary functions of the folliculin protein have been made, including roles in mTOR and AMPK signaling via the interaction of FLCN with FNIP1/2, and cell-cell adhesion via the physical interaction of FLCN with plakophilin 4 (PKP4), an armadillo-repeat containing protein that interacts with E-cadherin and is a component of the adherens junctions. In addition, in just the last three years, the pulmonary impact of FLCN deficiency has been examined for the first time. In mouse models, evidence has emerged that AMPK signaling and cell-cell adhesion are involved in alveolar enlargement. In addition, the pathologic features of human BHD cysts have been recently comprehensively characterized. The "stretch hypothesis" proposes that cysts in BHD arise because of fundamental defects in cell-cell adhesion, leading to repeated respiration-induced physical stretch-induced stress and, over time, expansion of alveolar spaces particularly in regions of the lung with larger changes in alveolar volume and at weaker "anchor points" to the pleura. This hypothesis ties together many of the new data from cellular and mouse models of BHD and from the human pathologic studies. Critical questions remain. These include whether the consequences of stretch-induced cyst formation arise through a destructive/inflammatory program or a proliferative program (or both), whether cyst initiation involves a "second hit" genetic event inactivating the remaining wild-type copy of FLCN (as is known to occur in BHD-associated renal cell

  17. Increased Antioxidant Defense Mechanism in Human Adventitia-Derived Progenitor Cells Is Associated with Therapeutic Benefit in Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Iacobazzi, Dominga; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Gubernator, Miriam; Hofner, Manuela; Wielscher, Matthias; Vierlinger, Klemens; Reni, Carlotta; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Spinetti, Gaia; Vono, Rosa; Sangalli, Elena; Montagnani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Vascular wall-resident progenitor cells hold great promise for cardiovascular regenerative therapy. This study evaluates the impact of oxidative stress on the viability and functionality of adventitia-derived progenitor cells (APCs) from vein remnants of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We also investigated the antioxidant enzymes implicated in the resistance of APCs to oxidative stress-induced damage and the effect of interfering with one of them, the extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD/SOD3), on APC therapeutic action in a model of peripheral ischemia. Results: After exposure to hydrogen peroxide, APCs undergo apoptosis to a smaller extent than endothelial cells (ECs). This was attributed to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, especially SODs and catalase. Pharmacological inhibition of SODs increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in APCs and impairs their survival. Likewise, APC differentiation results in SOD down-regulation and ROS-induced apoptosis. Oxidative stress increases APC migratory activity, while being inhibitory for ECs. In addition, oxidative stress does not impair APC capacity to promote angiogenesis in vitro. In a mouse limb ischemia model, an injection of naïve APCs, but not SOD3-silenced APCs, helps perfusion recovery and neovascularization, thus underlining the importance of this soluble isoform in protection from ischemia. Innovation: This study newly demonstrates that APCs are endowed with enhanced detoxifier and antioxidant systems and that SOD3 plays an important role in their therapeutic activity in ischemia. Conclusions: APCs from vein remnants of CABG patients express antioxidant defense mechanisms, which enable them to resist stress. These properties highlight the potential of APCs in cardiovascular regenerative medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1591–1604. PMID:24512058

  18. Salicylic acid-mediated and RNA-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Alamillo, Josefa M; Saénz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. However, PPV produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor P1/HC-Pro from tobacco etch virus (TEV). In this work we show that PPV is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) that degrades salicylic acid (SA). Replication and accumulation of PPV is higher in the locally infected leaves of plants deficient in SA or expressing TEV P1/HC-Pro silencing suppressor. Accumulation of viral derived small RNAs was reduced in the NahG transgenic plants, suggesting that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco. Besides, expression of SA-mediated defense transcripts, such as those of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins PR-1 and PR-2 or alternative oxidase-1, as well as that of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NtRDR1, is induced in response to PPV infection, and the expression patterns of these defense transcripts are altered in the TEV P1/HC-Pro transgenic plants. Long-distance movement of PPV is highly enhanced in NahG x P1/HC-Pro double-transgenic plants and systemic symptoms in these plants reveal that the expression of an RNA-silencing suppressor and the lack of SA produce additive but distinct effects. Our results suggest that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco, and that silencing suppressors, such as P1/HC-Pro, also alter the SA-mediated defense. Both an RNA-silencing and an SA-mediated defense mechanism could act together to limit PPV infection.

  19. White Spot Syndrome Virus Protein Kinase 1 Defeats the Host Cell's Iron-Withholding Defense Mechanism by Interacting with Host Ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Lee, Der-Yen; Wang, Hao-Ching; Kang, Shih-Ting; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Huang, Ming-Fen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all living organisms, including both hosts and invaders. Proteins such as ferritin regulate the iron levels in a cell, and in the event of a pathogenic invasion, the host can use an iron-withholding mechanism to restrict the availability of this essential nutrient to the invading pathogens. However, pathogens use various strategies to overcome this host defense. In this study, we demonstrated that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) protein kinase 1 (PK1) interacted with shrimp ferritin in the yeast two-hybrid system. A pulldown assay and 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) analysis confirmed the interaction between PK1 and both ferritin and apoferritin. PK1 did not promote the release of iron ions from ferritin, but it prevented apoferritin from binding ferrous ions. When PK1 was overexpressed in Sf9 cells, the cellular labile iron pool (LIP) levels were elevated significantly. Immunoprecipitation and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) further showed that the number of iron ions bound by ferritin decreased significantly at 24 h post-WSSV infection. Taken together, these results suggest that PK1 prevents apoferritin from iron loading, and thus stabilizes the cellular LIP levels, and that WSSV uses this novel mechanism to counteract the host cell's iron-withholding defense mechanism. IMPORTANCE We show here that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) ensures the availability of iron by using a previously unreported mechanism to defeat the host cell's iron-withholding defense mechanism. This defense is often implemented by ferritin, which can bind up to 4,500 iron atoms and acts to sequester free iron within the cell. WSSV's novel counterstrategy is mediated by a direct protein-protein interaction between viral protein kinase 1 (PK1) and host ferritin. PK1 interacts with both ferritin and apoferritin, suppresses apoferritin's ability to sequester free iron ions, and maintains the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP

  20. Pulmonary Vascular Congestion: A Mechanism for Distal Lung Unit Dysfunction in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Beno W.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Ali, Saleem; Segal, Leopoldo N.; Donnino, Robert; Katz, Stuart; Parikh, Manish; Goldring, Roberta M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Obesity is characterized by increased systemic and pulmonary blood volumes (pulmonary vascular congestion). Concomitant abnormal alveolar membrane diffusion suggests subclinical interstitial edema. In this setting, functional abnormalities should encompass the entire distal lung including the airways. Objectives We hypothesize that in obesity: 1) pulmonary vascular congestion will affect the distal lung unit with concordant alveolar membrane and distal airway abnormalities; and 2) the degree of pulmonary congestion and membrane dysfunction will relate to the cardiac response. Methods 54 non-smoking obese subjects underwent spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), diffusion capacity (DLCO) with partition into membrane diffusion (DM) and capillary blood volume (VC), and cardiac MRI (n = 24). Alveolar-capillary membrane efficiency was assessed by calculation of DM/VC. Measurements and Main Results Mean age was 45±12 years; mean BMI was 44.8±7 kg/m2. Vital capacity was 88±13% predicted with reduction in functional residual capacity (58±12% predicted). Despite normal DLCO (98±18% predicted), VC was elevated (135±31% predicted) while DM averaged 94±22% predicted. DM/VC varied from 0.4 to 1.4 with high values reflecting recruitment of alveolar membrane and low values indicating alveolar membrane dysfunction. The most abnormal IOS (R5 and X5) occurred in subjects with lowest DM/VC (r2 = 0.31, p<0.001; r2 = 0.34, p<0.001). Cardiac output and index (cardiac output / body surface area) were directly related to DM/VC (r2 = 0.41, p<0.001; r2 = 0.19, p = 0.03). Subjects with lower DM/VC demonstrated a cardiac output that remained in the normal range despite presence of obesity. Conclusions Global dysfunction of the distal lung (alveolar membrane and distal airway) is associated with pulmonary vascular congestion and failure to achieve the high output state of obesity. Pulmonary vascular congestion and consequent fluid transudation and/or alterations in the

  1. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  2. Borderline personality organization in violent offenders: correlations of identity diffusion and primitive defense mechanisms with antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, Falk; Kunst, Heike; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Although theoretical assumptions and empirical evidence suggest an association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial behavior or even antisocial personality disorder (APD), there is no study relating the psychodynamic aspects of BPD to antisocial behavior. In this study, the authors tested the correlation between the structural criteria of borderline personality organization (BPO)--that is, identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, and reality testing--and antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems. A sample of imprisoned violent offenders (N = 91) was studied using the Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Neo-Five-Factor-Inventory (Neo-FFI), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). Significant correlations were predicted and found between the BPI scales of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, impaired reality testing, and fear of closeness and antisocial features, neuroticism, agreeableness, and interpersonal problems. The results are consistent with both object relations theory and attachment theory.

  3. Dysfunctionality of the xylem in Olea europaea L. Plants associated with the infection process by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Role of phenolic compounds in plant defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Báidez, Ana G; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río, José A; Ortuño, Ana

    2007-05-01

    Xylem ultrastructural modification and the possible participation of phenolic compounds in the natural defense or resistance mechanisms of olive plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. were studied. Microscopic study showed that the mycelium propagated and passed from one element to another through the pit. The formation of tyloses and aggregates contributed to obstruction of the xylem lumen. In vivo changes in the levels of these phenolic compounds in infected olive plants and their antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae Kleb., as revealed by in vitro study, strongly suggest that they are involved in natural defense or resistance mechanisms in this plant material, the most active being quercetin and luteolin aglycons, followed by rutin, oleuropein, luteolin-7-glucoside, tyrosol, p-coumaric acid, and catechin. . PMID:17394331

  4. Hypothesis: Neuroendocrine Mechanisms (Hypothalamus–Growth Hormone–STAT5 Axis) Contribute to Sex Bias in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Pravin B; Yang, Yang-Ming; Miller, Edmund J

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is approximately two- to four-fold higher in women than in men. Paradoxically, there is an opposite male bias in typical rodent models of PH (chronic hypoxia or monocrotaline); in these models, administration of estrogenic compounds (for example, estradiol-17β [E2]) is protective. Further complexities are observed in humans ingesting anorexigens (female bias) and in rodent models, such as after hypoxia plus SU5416/Sugen (little sex bias) or involving serotonin transporter overexpression or dexfenfluramine administration (female bias). These complexities in sex bias in PH remain incompletely understood. We recently discovered that conditional deletion of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a/b (STAT5a/b) in vascular smooth muscle cells abrogated the male bias in PH in hypoxic mice and that late-stage obliterative lesions in patients of both sexes with IPAH and HPAH showed reduced STAT5a/b, reduced Tyr-P-STAT5 and reduced B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (BCL6). In trying to understand the significance of these observations, we realized that there existed a well-characterized E2-sensitive central neuroendocrine mechanism of sex bias, studied over the last 40 years, that, at its peripheral end, culminated in species-specific male (“pulsatile”) versus female (“more continuous”) temporal patterns of circulating growth hormone (GH) levels leading to male versus female patterned activation of STAT5a/b in peripheral tissues and thus sex-biased expression of hundreds of genes. In this report, we consider the contribution of this neuroendocrine mechanism (hypothalamus-GH-STAT5) in the generation of sex bias in different PH situations. PMID:26252185

  5. Mechanical analysis of ovine and pediatric pulmonary artery for heart valve stent design.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M S; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Bogers, A J J C; Hoerstrup, S P; Baaijens, F P T

    2013-08-01

    Transcatheter heart valve replacement is an attractive and promising technique for congenital as well as acquired heart valve disease. In this procedure, the replacement valve is mounted in a stent that is expanded at the aimed valve position and fixated by clamping. However, for this technique to be appropriate for pediatric patients, the material properties of the host tissue need to be determined to design stents that can be optimized for this particular application. In this study we performed equibiaxial tensile tests on four adult ovine pulmonary artery walls and compared the outcomes with one pediatric pulmonary artery. Results show that the pediatric pulmonary artery was significantly thinner (1.06 ± 0.36 mm (mean ± SD)) than ovine tissue (2.85 ± 0.40 mm), considerably stiffer for strain values that exceed the physiological conditions (beyond 50% strain in the circumferential and 60% in the longitudinal direction), more anisotropic (with a significant difference in stiffness between the longitudinal and circumferential directions beyond 60% strain) and presented stronger non-linear stress-strain behavior at equivalent strains (beyond 26% strain) compared to ovine tissue. These discrepancies suggest that stents validated and optimized using the ovine pre-clinical model might not perform satisfactorily in pediatric patients. The material parameters derived from this study may be used to develop stent designs for both applications using computational models. PMID:23849135

  6. Triggers and mechanisms of skeletal muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Langen, R C J; Gosker, H R; Remels, A H V; Schols, A M W J

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting contributes to impaired exercise capacity, reduced health-related quality of life and is an independent determinant of mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An imbalance between protein synthesis and myogenesis on the one hand, and muscle proteolysis and apoptosis on the other hand, has been proposed to underlie muscle wasting in this disease. In this review, the current understanding of the state and regulation of these processes governing muscle mass in this condition is presented. In addition, a conceptual mode of action of disease-related determinants of muscle wasting including disuse, hypoxemia, malnutrition, inflammation and glucocorticoids is provided by overlaying the available associative clinical data with causal evidence, mostly derived from experimental models. Significant progression has been made in understanding and managing muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Further examination of the time course of muscle wasting and specific disease phenotypes, as well as the application of systems biology and omics approaches in future research will allow the development of tailored strategies to prevent or reverse muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting.

  7. Inhalation of particulate lead oxide disrupts pulmonary macrophage-mediated functions important for host defense and tumor surveillance in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikoff, J.T.; Parsons, E.; Schlesinger, R.B. )

    1993-08-01

    Lead, an immunomodulator and potential human carcinogen, is a major airborne pollutant in industrial environments which poses a serious threat to human health. Despite the wide-spread occurrence of respirable lead particles in the air, and the potential human health risks, effects associated with inhalation of particulate lead on the the lung have been poorly studied. This study was performed to determine whether inhalation of particulate lead oxide (PbO), at a concentration below the currently acceptable air lead standard for occupational exposure, disrupts macrophage (M phi) functions important for maintaining pulmonary immunocompetence. These functions include phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen intermediates, and the biological activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Rabbits exposed to PbO at 30 micrograms/m3 for 4 days (3 hr/day) were sacrificed and their lungs lavaged immediately, 24 hr, and 72 hr after the final exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (a marker of lung cell damage) and lysozyme activity (a marker of lysosome permeability), measured in the lavage fluid, were significantly increased 24 and 72 hr after exposure. PbO produced neutrophil infiltration nor effects on M phi viability or total numbers. Effects on M phi functions were as follows. Phagocytic uptake of latex particles was reduced with increasing post-exposure time reaching a maximum inhibition at 72 hr. Inhalation of PbO enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2-) production in a time-dependent manner; effects on H2O2 began at 24 hr and were persistent up to 72 hr. Effects on TNF-alpha release/activity appeared earliest and were persistent up to 72 hr. Immediately and 24 hr after exposure, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activity of TNF-alpha was depressed by 62 and 50%, respectively; after 72 hr, TNF-alpha release was significantly enhanced compared to control levels.

  8. Increased interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations in mechanically ventilated preterm infants with pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Baier, R John; Loggins, John; Kruger, Thomas E

    2002-08-01

    Pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) is a serious complication causing acute respiratory distress in the premature infant, and it is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The role of inflammatory mediators in this condition is largely undefined. Serial tracheal aspirates (TA) were obtained at intervals from 65 mechanically ventilated infants with birth weights less than 1,250 g during the first 21 days of life. Clinically significant PH developed in 15 infants. TA concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).PH was associated with an increased risk of death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and prolonged need for mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen. TA aspirate concentrations of IL-8 and MCP-1 (P = 0.001, ANOVA) were significantly increased in infants with PH compared to infants who did not develop this condition. TA cytokine concentrations were also significantly increased in infants who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Peak TA concentrations of IL-8 and MCP-1 were significantly higher in infants with poor outcome (BPD or death). TA MCP-1 but not IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in infants who were oxygen-dependent at 36 weeks postconceptional age. These data suggest a pathogenic role for IL-8 and MCP-1 in the development of adverse pulmonary outcome in preterm infants with clinically significant PH.

  9. A simulation tool to study high-frequency chest compression energy transfer mechanisms and waveforms for pulmonary disease applications.

    PubMed

    O'Clock, George D; Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwon; Warwick, Warren J

    2010-07-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC) can be used as a therapeutic intervention to assist in the transport and clearance of mucus and enhance water secretion for cystic fibrosis patients. An HFCC pump-vest and half chest-lung simulation, with 23 lung generations, has been developed using inertance, compliance, viscous friction relationships, and Newton's second law. The simulation has proven to be useful in studying the effects of parameter variations and nonlinear effects on HFCC system performance and pulmonary system response. The simulation also reveals HFCC waveform structure and intensity changes in various segments of the pulmonary system. The HFCC system simulation results agree with measurements, indicating that the HFCC energy transport mechanism involves a mechanically induced pulsation or vibration waveform with average velocities in the lung that are dependent upon small air displacements over large areas associated with the vest-chest interface. In combination with information from lung physiology, autopsies and a variety of other lung modeling efforts, the results of the simulation can reveal a number of therapeutic implications.

  10. The GraS Sensor in Staphylococcus aureus Mediates Resistance to Host Defense Peptides Differing in Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Chaili, Siyang; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Xiong, Yan Q.; Waring, Alan J.; Memmi, Guido; Donegan, Niles; Yang, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the two-component regulatory system GraRS to sense and respond to host defense peptides (HDPs). However, the mechanistic impact of GraS or its extracellular sensing loop (EL) on HDP resistance is essentially unexplored. Strains with null mutations in the GraS holoprotein (ΔgraS) or its EL (ΔEL) were compared for mechanisms of resistance to HDPs of relevant immune sources: neutrophil α-defensin (human neutrophil peptide 1 [hNP-1]), cutaneous β-defensin (human β-defensin 2 [hBD-2]), or the platelet kinocidin congener RP-1. Actions studied by flow cytometry included energetics (ENR); membrane permeabilization (PRM); annexin V binding (ANX), and cell death protease activation (CDP). Assay conditions simulated bloodstream (pH 7.5) or phagolysosomal (pH 5.5) pH contexts. S. aureus strains were more susceptible to HDPs at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5, and each HDP exerted a distinct effect signature. The impacts of ΔgraS and ΔΕL on HDP resistance were peptide and pH dependent. Both mutants exhibited defects in ANX response to hNP-1 or hBD-2 at pH 7.5, but only hNP-1 did so at pH 5.5. Both mutants exhibited hyper-PRM, -ANX, and -CDP responses to RP-1 at both pHs and hypo-ENR at pH 5.5. The actions correlated with ΔgraS or ΔΕL hypersusceptibility to hNP-1 or RP-1 (but not hBD-2) at pH 7.5 and to all study HDPs at pH 5.5. An exogenous EL mimic protected mutant strains from hNP-1 and hBD-2 but not RP-1, indicating that GraS and its EL play nonredundant roles in S. aureus survival responses to specific HDPs. These findings suggest that GraS mediates specific resistance countermeasures to HDPs in immune contexts that are highly relevant to S. aureus pathogenesis in humans. PMID:26597988

  11. [Biventricular-pulmonary interaction as the prime mechanism in the adaptation of the human heart to orthostatic posture].

    PubMed

    Guazzi, M; Maltagliati, A; Tamborini, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose was to identify the basic circulatory adjustments to the erect position in man and what the role may be of the heart-lung coupling. Requirements for this study are that: subjects be normal, changes in posture be gradual; pulmonary venous flow, ventricular filling and output be assessed; the methods be noninvasive. In 10 normal men (mean age 34 +/- 8 years) the flow pattern in the right upper pulmonary vein and through the atrioventricular mitral valve, and the right and left ventricular (RV and LV) end-diastolic dimensions were assessed with Doppler echocardiography, in the supine position, after 20, 40 and 60 degrees tilting for 10 min. At 20 degrees displacement: blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume and LV dimension did not change: RV dimension reduced: pulmonary venous forward flow velocity diminished during systole (X wave) and rose in diastole (Y wave); E wave velocity of the mitral flow and the E/A ratio reduced (consistent with a lower atrioventricular pressure gradient); difference between duration of the pulmonary venous flow reversal during atrial contraction (Z wave) and duration of the mitral A wave (the difference is an index of LV end-diastolic pressure) also diminished, suggesting an improvement of LV compliance. Tilting at 40 and 60 degrees were associated with increase in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure; decrease in systolic blood pressure and stroke volume; reduction of diastolic dimension of both ventricles; some enhancement of the flow changes already described. X was related to stroke volume while supine (r = 0.75; p < 0.01) and not during tilting; at any level of tilting, X/Y ratio was inversely related to the E/A ratio and directly related to the difference in duration between Z and A. During vertical displacement, blood shifts from lungs to systemic circulation resulting in: contribution to replenishment of the arterial side of the circuit; enhancement in LV compliance, due to reduction of RV diastolic volume

  12. Prevalence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism treated with mechanical compression device after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Kulkarni, Sourabh S; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2015-04-01

    Several reports have suggested that there is a strikingly low prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Asian patients. We determined the prevalence of DVT and PE after the use of a mechanical compression device only without pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in 459 patients (516 hips). The overall prevalence of DVT was 4.8% (27 of 561 hips). Nine of 27 hips had proximal thrombi. Three patients (0.7%) had asymptomatic PE. In our patients, combinations of absent thrombophilic polymorphisms with low clinical prothrombotic risk factors led to a low prevalence of DVT and virtually no symptomatic PE. Therefore, mechanical compression device only suffices to prevent DVT and PE in Asian patients.

  13. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2015-01-01

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive analysis of these changes will allow us to better understand the mechanism of pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (10-12 week) were exposed to air, or ozone (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm) for 4 h and pulmonary injury and inflammation were assessed at 0-h or 20-h (n = 8/group). Lung gene expression profiling was assessed at 0-h (air and 1.0 ppm ozone, n = 3-4/group). At 20-h bronchoalveolar lavage, fluid protein and neutrophils increased at 1 ppm ozone. Numerous genes involved in acute inflammatory response were up-regulated along with changes in genes involved in cell adhesion and migration, steroid metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle control and cell growth. A number of NRF2 target genes were also induced after ozone exposure. Based on expression changes, Rela, SP1 and TP3-mediated signaling were identified to be mediating downstream changes. Remarkable changes in the processes of endocytosis provide the insight that ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation are likely initiated by changes in cell membrane components and receptors likely from oxidatively modified lung lining lipids and proteins. In conclusion, ozone-induced injury and inflammation are preceded by changes in gene targets for cell adhesion/migration, apoptosis, cell cycle control and growth regulated by Rela, SP1 and TP53, likely mediated by the process of endocytosis and altered steroid receptor signaling.

  14. Effect of lung resection on pleuro-pulmonary mechanics and fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Salito, C; Bovio, D; Orsetti, G; Salati, M; Brunelli, A; Aliverti, A; Miserocchi, G

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the study was to determine in human patients the effect of lung resection on lung compliance and on pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Pre and post-operative values of compliance were measured in anesthetized patients undergoing resection for lung cancer (N=11) through double-lumen bronchial intubation. Lung compliance was measured for 10-12 cm H2O increase in alveolar pressure from 5 cm H2O PEEP in control and repeated after resection. No air leak was assessed and pleural fluid was collected during hospital stay. A significant negative correlation (r(2)=0.68) was found between compliance at 10 min and resected mass. Based on the pre-operative estimated lung weight, the decrease in compliance following lung resection exceeded by 10-15% that expected from resected mass. Significant negative relationships were found by relating pleural fluid drainage flow to the remaining lung mass and to post-operative lung compliance. Following lung re-expansion, data suggest a causative relationship between the decrease in compliance and the perturbation in pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance.

  15. Adolescent Suicide and Defensive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between ego defense mechanisms, diagnoses, and suicidality among 200 adolescent psychiatric patients classified as suicide attempters, suicidal ideators, and nonsuicidal patients. Using Defense Mechanisms Inventory, found the suicidal adolescents score higher on turning-against-self and lower on reversal, as compared to…

  16. Genistein activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase in broiler pulmonary arterial endothelial cells by an Akt-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Nie, Wei; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhang, Bingkun; Wang, Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Deregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in the development of multiple cardiovascular diseases. Our recent study demonstrated that genistein supplementation attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in broilers by restoration of endothelial function. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by using broiler pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs). Our results showed that genistein stimulated a rapid phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179 which was associated with activation of eNOS/NO axis. Further study indicated that the activation of eNOS was not mediated through estrogen receptors or tyrosine kinase inhibition, but via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent signaling pathway, as the eNOS activity and related NO release were largely abolished by pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K or Akt. Thus, our findings revealed a critical function of Akt in mediating genistein-stimulated eNOS activity in PAECs, partially accounting for the beneficial effects of genistein on the development of cardiovascular diseases observed in animal models. PMID:20926919

  17. The Pesticide Metabolites Paraoxon and Malaoxon Induce Cellular Death by Different Mechanisms in Cultured Human Pulmonary Cells.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniel J; Moyer, Robert A; Cole, Stephanie; Willis, Kristen L; Oyler, Jonathan; Dorsey, Russell M; Salem, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are known to induce pulmonary toxicity in both humans and experimental animals. To elucidate the mechanism of OP-induced cytotoxicity, we examined the effects of parathion and malathion and their respective metabolites, paraoxon and malaoxon, on primary cultured human large and small airway cells. Exposure to paraoxon and malaoxon produced a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity following a 24-hour exposure, while treatment with parathion or malathion produced no effects at clinically relevant concentrations. Exposure to paraoxon-induced caspase activation, but malaoxon failed to induce this response. Since caspases have a major role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell death, we evaluated OP-induced cell death in the presence of a caspase inhibitor. Pharmacological caspase inhibition protected against paraoxon-induced cell death but not malaoxon-induced cell death. These data suggest that caspase activation is a key signaling element in paraoxon-induced cell death, but not malaoxon-induced cellular death in the pulmonary epithelium. PMID:26173615

  18. Lysozyme- and chitinase activity in latex bearing plants of genus Euphorbia--A contribution to plant defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sytwala, Sonja; Günther, Florian; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of latices in plants is widespread, there are 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. Latices exhibit a constitutive part of plant defense due to the stickiness. The appearance of proteins incorporated in latices is well characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable. A lot of plants constitute so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, to overcome stressful conditions. In our investigation we are focused on latex bearing plants of Euphorbiaceae Juss., and investigated the appearance of chitinase- and lysozyme activity in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of lysozyme and chitinase activity of genus Euphorbia at the first time. 110 different species of genus Euphorbia L. were tested, and the appearance of chitinase and lysozyme were determined in different quantities. The appearance itself, and the physicochemical properties of latices indicate an efficient interaction for plant defense against pathogen attack.

  19. Structural and Mechanical Adaptations of Right Ventricular Free Wall Myocardium to Pulmonary-Hypertension Induced Pressure Overload

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michael R.; Simon, Marc A.; Valdez-Jasso, Daniela; Zhang, Will; Champion, Hunter C.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe disease that remains poorly understood. PH-induced pressure overload leads to changes in the RV free wall (RVFW) that eventually results in RV failure. While the development of computational models can benefit our understanding of the onset and progression of PH-induced pressure overload, detailed knowledge of the underlying structural and biomechanical events remains limited. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the structural and biomechanical adaptations of RV myocardium subjected to sustained pressure overload in a rat model. Hemodynamically confirmed severe chronic RV pressure overload was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via pulmonary artery banding. Extensive tissue-level biaxial mechanical and histomorphological analyses were conducted to assess the remodeling response in the RV free wall. Simultaneous myofiber hypertrophy and longitudinal re-orientation of myo- and collagen fibers was observed, with both fiber types becoming more highly aligned. Transmural myo- and collagen fiber orientations were co-aligned in both the normal and diseased state. The overall tissue stiffness increased, with larger increases in longitudinal versus circumferential stiffness. Interestingly, estimated myofiber stiffness increased while the collagen fiber stiffness remained unchanged. The latter was attributed to longitudinal fiber re-orientation, which increased the degree of anisotropy. Increased mechanical coupling between the two axes was attributed to the increased fiber alignment. The increased myofiber stiffness was consistent with clinical results showing titin-associated increased sarcomeric stiffening observed in PH patients. These results further our understanding of the underlying adaptive and maladaptive remodeling mechanisms and may lead to improved techniques for prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment for PH. PMID:25164124

  20. A transcriptional profile of metallophyte Viola baoshanensis involved in general and species-specific cadmium-defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Hu, Min; Li, Jin-Tian; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Bin; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Liao, Bin

    2009-05-15

    Viola baoshanensis Shu, Liu et Lan is a newly identified metallophyte, and its defensive strategies against heavy metals are still unclear. In the present study, we firstly constructed a root cDNA library of the plant subjected to 300muM Cd for 48h by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), and 43 unique cDNA fragments were further isolated from the library. Sequence homology analysis showed that half of the identified genes were involved in general stress defense, such as antioxidative enzymes, protein degradation and stress signal transduction. After RT-PCR and RACE analysis, a Cd-responsive gene Vb40 was identified, which could deduce a novel cysteine-rich mini-protein. Meanwhile, five cyclotide precursor genes (VbCP1-VbCP5) were also identified. The Vb40 and the VbCP1-VbCP5 were further investigated by yeast expression analysis, and they could improve copper (Cu) tolerance in hosted yeast, indicating that these species-specific genes possibly functioned in V. baoshanensis heavy metals tolerance. Our results suggested that heavy metal tolerance in V. baoshanensis relied on both general and species-specific defense.

  1. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process. PMID:26267356

  2. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process.

  3. [Pulmonary hypertension: current aspects].

    PubMed

    Tello de Meneses, R; Gómez Sánchez, M A; Delgado Jiménez, J; Gómez Pajuelo, C; Sáenz de la Calzada, C; Zarco Gutiérrez, P

    1996-08-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension, although less frequent than secondary forms, represents the true paradigm of this disease. The recent investigations on pulmonary vascular response mechanisms to different stimuli has increased our knowledge about the mechanism of high pulmonary pressure. Molecular biology of the endothelial cell has provided evidence that endothelial injury plus a genetic individual predisposition may be the pathogenic mainstream of this disease. The histologic findings of pulmonary hypertension are still a matter of controversy, although the clinical, epidemiological and prognostic features are better defined. Therapeutically, there has been important advances, specially with various vasodilators, like calciumantagonists, prostacyclin, adenosine and nitric oxide, as well as new routes of administration. In more advance stages of the disease, atrial septostomy (only paliative) and pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary transplantation, are other therapeutic options to consider, after an adequate selection of patients.

  4. Induction of DIMBOA accumulation and systemic defense responses as a mechanism of enhanced resistance of mycorrhizal corn (Zea mays L.) to sheath blight.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Cao, Man; Xie, Li Jun; Liang, Xiao Ting; Zeng, Ren Sen; Su, Yi Juan; Huang, Jing Hua; Wang, Rui Long; Luo, Shi Ming

    2011-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas are the most important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems and they enhance the plant defense against numerous soil-borne pathogenic fungi and nematodes. Two corn (Zea mays) varieties, Gaoyou-115 that is susceptible to sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Yuenong-9 that is resistant, were used for mycorrhizal inoculation in this study. Pre-inoculation of susceptible Gaoyou-115 with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae significantly reduced the disease incidence and disease severity of sheath blight of corn. HPLC analysis showed that AMF inoculation led to significant increase in 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2 H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4 H)-one (DIMBOA) accumulation in the roots of both corn varieties and in leaves of resistant Yuenong-9. R. solani inoculation alone did not result in accumulation of DIMBOA in both roots and leaves of the two corn varieties. Our previous study showed that DIMBOA strongly inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro. Real-time PCR analysis showed that mycorrhizal inoculation itself did not affect the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pre-inoculation with G. mosseae induced strong responses of three defense-related genes PR2a, PAL, and AOS, as well as BX9, one of the key genes in DIMBOA biosynthesis pathway, in the leaves of corn plants of both Yuenong-9 and Gaoyou-115 after the pathogen attack. Induction of defense responses in pre-inoculated plants was much higher and quicker than that in non-inoculated plants upon R. solani infection. These results indicate that induction of accumulation of DIMBOA, an important phytoalexin in corn, and systemic defense responses by AMF, plays a vital role in enhanced disease resistance of mycorrhizal plants of corn against sheath blight. This study also suggests that priming is an important mechanism in mycorrhiza-induced resistance.

  5. D2 dopamine receptor-mediated mechanisms in the medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamus regulate effective defense behavior in the cat.

    PubMed

    Sweidan, S; Edinger, H; Siegel, A

    1991-05-17

    The role of the dopaminergic innervation of the medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamus (mPO-AH) in regulating the expression of affective defense behavior in the cat has been investigated in the present study. Feline affective defense behavior, characterized mainly by autonomic arousal, ear retraction, growling, hissing and paw striking, was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). Following the establishment of a stable threshold current for eliciting the hissing response of the behavior, the effect of injecting various DAergic agonists and antagonists into the mPO-AH on the hissing threshold was determined. The microinjection of the non-selective DA agonist apomorphine (0.03, 0.16, 0.33, 0.66, 1.56 and 3.3 nmol) into the mPO-AH facilitated hissing in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This effect was mimicked by the D2-selective agonist LY 171555 (0.2 and 1.0 nmol) but not by the D1-selective agonist SKF 38393 (1.7 and 17 nmol), and was blocked by the non-selective and the D2-selective antagonists haloperidol (1.3 nmol) and sulpiride (14.5 nmol), respectively. The injection of the D1-selective antagonist SCH 23390 (0.3 nmol), however, did not inhibit apomorphine-induced facilitation of hissing. In addition, the injection of haloperidol (1.3 nmol) and sulpiride (14.5 nmol), but not SCH 23390 (0.3 nmol), alone inhibited the behavior. It was therefore concluded that dopaminergic stimulation of the mPO-AH may facilitate the expression of affective defense behavior in the cat via a D2 receptor-mediated mechanism. The physiological significance of this effect and the interaction between dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic innervation of the mPO-AH in modulating the expression of affective defense behavior in response to threatening stimuli are discussed. PMID:1680019

  6. Immune defense against pneumonic plague

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Yersinia pestis is one of the world's most virulent human pathogens. Inhalation of this Gram-negative bacterium causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant strains of Y. pestis exist and have significant potential for exploitation as agents of terrorism and biowarfare. Subunit vaccines comprised of the Y. pestis F1 and LcrV proteins are well-tolerated and immunogenic in humans but cannot be tested for efficacy, because pneumonic plague outbreaks are uncommon and intentional infection of humans is unethical. In animal models, F1/LcrV-based vaccines protect mice and cynomolgus macaques but have failed, thus far, to adequately protect African green monkeys. We lack an explanation for this inconsistent efficacy. We also lack reliable correlate assays for protective immunity. These deficiencies are hampering efforts to improve vaccine efficacy. Here, I review the immunology of pneumonic plague, focusing on evidence that humoral and cellular defense mechanisms collaborate to defend against pulmonary Y. pestis infection. PMID:18837787

  7. Selection on defensive traits in a sterile caste - caste evolution: a mechanism to overcome life-history trade-offs?

    PubMed

    Roux, Estelle A; Roux, Maurice; Korb, Judith

    2009-01-01

    During development and evolution individuals generally face a trade-off between the development of weapons and gonads. In termites, characterized by reproductive division of labor, a caste evolved-the soldiers-which is completely sterile and which might be released from developmental trade-offs between weapons and testes. These soldiers are exclusively dedicated to defense. First, we investigated whether defensive traits are under selection in sterile termite soldiers using allometric analyses. In soldiers of the genus Cryptotermes phragmotic traits such as a sculptured and foreshortened head evolve rapidly but were also lost twice. Second, we compared the scaling relationships of these weapons with those in solitary insects facing a trade-off between weapons and gonads. Defensive traits consistently had lower slopes than nondefensive traits which supports the existence of stabilizing selection on soldier phragmotic traits in order to plug galleries. Moreover, soldier head widths were colony specific and correlated with the minimum gallery diameter of a colony. This can proximately be explained by soldiers developing from different instars. The scaling relationships of these termite soldiers contrast strikingly with those of weapons of solitary insects, which are generally exaggerated (i.e., overscaling) male traits. These differences may provide important insights into trait evolution. Trade-offs constraining the development of individuals may have been uncoupled in termites by evolving different castes, each specialized for one function. When individuals in social insect are "released" from developmental constraints through the evolution of castes, this certainly contributed to the ecological and evolutionary success of social insects.

  8. Mechanism of action of ATP on canine pulmonary vagal C fibre nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Pelleg, A; Hurt, C M

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on pulmonary vagal afferent fibres (n = 46) was studied in a canine model in vivo (n = 38). 2. ATP (3-6 mumol kg-1), administered as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a transient burst of action potentials in cervical vagal fibres, which was not affected by either blockade of ganglionic transmission (hexamethonium) or a drop in arterial blood pressure (nitroglycerine). 3. The fibres with ATP-sensitive terminals were otherwise quiescent with no activity related to either cardiac or respiratory cycles and their conduction velocity was 0.85 +/- 0.13 m s-1 (n = 7). 4. Inflation of the lungs to 2-3 times the tidal volume triggered brief bursts of action potentials in these fibres. 5. Capsaicin (10 micrograms kg-1), given as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a burst of action potentials in these ATP-sensitive fibres. 6. Smaller amounts of ATP and capsaicin (0.5-3 mumol kg-1 and 1-5 micrograms kg-1, respectively) had similar effects when the two compounds were given into the right pulmonary artery. 7. Adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, or adenosine 5'-diphosphate did not excite these fibres (n = 30). 8. The non-degradable analogue of ATP alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP) was tenfold more potent than ATP while beta,gamma-methylene ATP (beta,gamma-mATP) was in active. 9. The selective P2x-purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid markedly attenuated the effect of ATP but not of capsaicin. The P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist Reactive Blue 2 was without effect. 10. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) did not affect this action of ATP. 11. In the canine lungs ATP activates vagal C fibre nerve terminals. This action is mediated by P2X-purinoceptors and is independent of a PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein). PMID:8745294

  9. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs): the hallmark of an ingenious antiviral defense mechanism in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Sinan; Westra, Edze R; van der Oost, John; Brouns, Stan J J

    2011-04-01

    Many prokaryotes contain the recently discovered defense system against mobile genetic elements. This defense system contains a unique type of repetitive DNA stretches, termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs). CRISPRs consist of identical repeated DNA sequences (repeats), interspaced by highly variable sequences referred to as spacers. The spacers originate from either phages or plasmids and comprise the prokaryotes' 'immunological memory'. CRISPR-associated (cas) genes encode conserved proteins that together with CRISPRs make-up the CRISPR/Cas system, responsible for defending the prokaryotic cell against invaders. CRISPR-mediated resistance has been proposed to involve three stages: (i) CRISPR-Adaptation, the invader DNA is encountered by the CRISPR/Cas machinery and an invader-derived short DNA fragment is incorporated in the CRISPR array. (ii) CRISPR-Expression, the CRISPR array is transcribed and the transcript is processed by Cas proteins. (iii) CRISPR-Interference, the invaders' nucleic acid is recognized by complementarity to the crRNA and neutralized. An application of the CRISPR/Cas system is the immunization of industry-relevant prokaryotes (or eukaryotes) against mobile-genetic invasion. In addition, the high variability of the CRISPR spacer content can be exploited for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Despite impressive progress during the last couple of years, the elucidation of several fundamental details will be a major challenge in future research.

  10. Mechanisms for reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity in haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Barisione, Giovanni; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Brusasco, Claudia; Scanarotti, Chiara; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Lamparelli, Teresa; Garlaschi, Alessandro; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Brusasco, Vito

    2014-04-01

    Lung diffusing capacity for CO (DLCO) is compromised in haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. We derived alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM,CO) and pulmonary capillary volume (VC) from DLCO and diffusing capacity for NO (DLNO). Forty patients were studied before and 6 weeks after HSCT. Before HSCT, DLNO and DLCO were significantly lower than in 30 healthy controls. DM,CO was ∼40% lower in patients than in controls (p<0.001), whereas VC did not differ significantly. After HSCT, DLNO and DM,CO further decreased, the latter by ∼22% from before HSCT (p<0.01) while VC did not change significantly. Lung density, serum CRP and reactive oxygen metabolites were significantly increased, with the latter being correlated (R2=0.71, p<0.001) with the decrement in DLNO. We conclude that DLNO and, to a lesser extent, DLCO are compromised before HSCT mainly due to a DM,CO reduction. A further reduction of DM,CO without VC loss occurs after HSCT, possibly related to development of oedema, or interstitial fibrosis, or both.

  11. New Biochemical Insights into the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Mateo, Jesús; Blanco, Isabel; Izquierdo-García, José Luis; Dudzik, Danuta; Markuszewski, Michał J; Peinado, Victor Ivo; Laclaustra, Martín; Barberá, Joan Albert; Barbas, Coral; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and biomarkers, especially at early stages. We compared plasma metabolic fingerprints of PAH patients (n = 20) with matched healthy volunteers (n = 20) using, for the first time, untargeted multiplatform metabolomics approach consisting of high-performance liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to select metabolites that contribute most to groups' classification (21 from liquid in both ionization modes and 9 from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). We found metabolites related to energy imbalance, such as glycolysis-derived metabolites, as well as metabolites involved in fatty acid, lipid and amino acid metabolism. We observed statistically significant changes in threitol and aminomalonic acid in PAH patients, which could provide new biochemical insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. The results were externally validated on independent case and control cohorts, confirming up to 16 metabolites as statistically significant in the validation study. Multiplatform metabolomics, followed by multivariate chemometric data analysis has a huge potential for explaining pathogenesis of PAH and for searching potential and new more specific and less invasive markers of the disease. PMID:27486806

  12. New Biochemical Insights into the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Mateo, Jesús; Blanco, Isabel; Izquierdo-García, José Luis; Dudzik, Danuta; Markuszewski, Michał J; Peinado, Victor Ivo; Laclaustra, Martín; Barberá, Joan Albert; Barbas, Coral; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and biomarkers, especially at early stages. We compared plasma metabolic fingerprints of PAH patients (n = 20) with matched healthy volunteers (n = 20) using, for the first time, untargeted multiplatform metabolomics approach consisting of high-performance liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to select metabolites that contribute most to groups' classification (21 from liquid in both ionization modes and 9 from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). We found metabolites related to energy imbalance, such as glycolysis-derived metabolites, as well as metabolites involved in fatty acid, lipid and amino acid metabolism. We observed statistically significant changes in threitol and aminomalonic acid in PAH patients, which could provide new biochemical insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. The results were externally validated on independent case and control cohorts, confirming up to 16 metabolites as statistically significant in the validation study. Multiplatform metabolomics, followed by multivariate chemometric data analysis has a huge potential for explaining pathogenesis of PAH and for searching potential and new more specific and less invasive markers of the disease.

  13. New Biochemical Insights into the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Isabel; Izquierdo-García, José Luis; Dudzik, Danuta; Markuszewski, Michał J.; Peinado, Victor Ivo; Laclaustra, Martín; Barberá, Joan Albert; Barbas, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and biomarkers, especially at early stages. We compared plasma metabolic fingerprints of PAH patients (n = 20) with matched healthy volunteers (n = 20) using, for the first time, untargeted multiplatform metabolomics approach consisting of high-performance liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to select metabolites that contribute most to groups’ classification (21 from liquid in both ionization modes and 9 from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). We found metabolites related to energy imbalance, such as glycolysis-derived metabolites, as well as metabolites involved in fatty acid, lipid and amino acid metabolism. We observed statistically significant changes in threitol and aminomalonic acid in PAH patients, which could provide new biochemical insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. The results were externally validated on independent case and control cohorts, confirming up to 16 metabolites as statistically significant in the validation study. Multiplatform metabolomics, followed by multivariate chemometric data analysis has a huge potential for explaining pathogenesis of PAH and for searching potential and new more specific and less invasive markers of the disease. PMID:27486806

  14. Murine pulmonary acinar mechanics during quasi-static inflation using synchrotron refraction-enhanced computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sera, Toshihiro; Yokota, Hideo; Tanaka, Gaku; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Schroter, Robert C

    2013-07-15

    We visualized pulmonary acini in the core regions of the mouse lung in situ using synchrotron refraction-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and evaluated their kinematics during quasi-static inflation. This CT system (with a cube voxel of 2.8 μm) allows excellent visualization of not just the conducting airways, but also the alveolar ducts and sacs, and tracking of the acinar shape and its deformation during inflation. The kinematics of individual alveoli and alveolar clusters with a group of terminal alveoli is influenced not only by the connecting alveolar duct and alveoli, but also by the neighboring structures. Acinar volume was not a linear function of lung volume. The alveolar duct diameter changed dramatically during inflation at low pressures and remained relatively constant above an airway pressure of ∼8 cmH2O during inflation. The ratio of acinar surface area to acinar volume indicates that acinar distension during low-pressure inflation differed from that during inflation over a higher pressure range; in particular, acinar deformation was accordion-like during low-pressure inflation. These results indicated that the alveoli and duct expand differently as total acinar volume increases and that the alveolar duct may expand predominantly during low-pressure inflation. Our findings suggest that acinar deformation in the core regions of the lung is complex and heterogeneous.

  15. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - pulmonary atresia; Cyanotic heart disease - pulmonary atresia; Valve - disorder pulmonary atresia ... septum may also have a poorly developed tricuspid valve. They may also have an underdeveloped right ventricle ...

  16. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  17. Duration of salmeterol-induced bronchodilation in mechanically ventilated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Malliotakis, Polychronis; Linardakis, Manolis; Gavriilidis, George; Georgopoulos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Delivery of bronchodilators with a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and a spacer device in mechanically ventilated patients has become a widespread practice. However, except for the short-acting β2-agonist salbutamol, the duration of action of other bronchodilators, including long-acting β2-agonists, delivered with this technique is not well established. The purpose of this study was to examine the duration of bronchodilation induced by the long-acting β2-agonist salmeterol administered with an MDI and a spacer in a group of mechanically ventilated patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Ten mechanically ventilated patients with acute exacerbation of COPD received four puffs of salmeterol (25 μg/puff). Salmeterol was administered with an MDI adapted to the inspiratory limb of the ventilator circuit using an aerosol cloud enhance spacer. Static and dynamic airway pressures, minimum (Rint) and maximum (Rrs) inspiratory resistance, and the difference between Rrs and Rint (ΔR) were measured before and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes as well as at 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after salmeterol administration. The overall effects of salmeterol on respiratory system mechanics and heart rate during the 12-hour study period were analyzed by nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Salmeterol caused a significant decrease in dynamic and static airway pressures, Rint, and Rrs. These changes were evident at 30 minutes and remained significant for 8 hours after salmeterol administration. The duration of bronchodilation varied significantly among patients, lasting in some patients more than 10 hours and wearing off in others in less than 6 hours. Conclusions It is concluded that four puffs of salmeterol delivered with an MDI and a spacer device induces significant bronchodilation in mechanically ventilated patients with COPD exacerbation, the duration of which is highly variable, precluding definite conclusions in

  18. Lights and shadows of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Muñoz, Xavier; Bustamante, Víctor; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence justifying the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for providing ventilatory support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, recent studies demonstrated that its application in real-life settings remains suboptimal. European clinical audits have shown that 1) NIV is not invariably available, 2) its availability depends on countries and hospital sizes, and 3) numerous centers declare their inability to provide NIV to all of the eligible patients presenting throughout the year. Even with an established indication, the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbations faces important challenges. First, the location and personnel using NIV should be carefully selected. Second, the use of NIV is not straightforward despite the availability of technologically advanced ventilators. Third, NIV therapy of critically ill patients requires a thorough knowledge of both respiratory physiology and existing ventilatory devices. Accordingly, an optimal team-training experience, the careful selection of patients, and special attention to the selection of devices are critical for optimizing NIV outcomes. Additionally, when applied, NIV should be closely monitored, and endotracheal intubation should be promptly available in the case of failure. Another topic that merits careful consideration is the use of NIV in the elderly. This patient population is particularly fragile, with several physiological and social characteristics requiring specific attention in relation to NIV. Several other novel indications should also be critically examined, including the use of NIV during fiberoptic bronchoscopy or transesophageal echocardiography, as well as in interventional cardiology and pulmonology. The present narrative review aims to provide updated information on the use of NIV in acute settings to improve the clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations. PMID:25829958

  19. A novel mechanism of capillary growth in the rat pulmonary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Burri, P H; Tarek, M R

    1990-09-01

    Postnatally, the rat lung parenchyma undergoes impressive growth. Within four months of birth, lung volume and alveolar and capillary surface areas increase over 20-fold and capillary volume 35-fold. Investigation of methacrylate casts of the pulmonary microvasculature revealed that, with age, lung capillaries were not only growing in surface and volume but also increasing their network density. We proposed that the capillary bed grows by formation of slender intravascular tissue pillars and termed this type of growth intussusceptive microvascular growth (Caduff et al., Anat. Rec., 216:154-164, 1986). The aim of this investigation was to detect the presence and to analyze the ultrastructure of slender tissue posts (diameter 1-2.5 microns) extending across the capillary lumina in serial electron microscopic sections of rat lung parenchyma (age 44 days). Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of the capillary lumen confirmed that tissue posts were matching the holes previously observed in casts. Post ultrastructure varied with size from a simple area of interendothelial contact to tissue pillars with a core of interstitial tissue. Based on the changing morphology of the pillars, a hypothesis for their development can be proposed: phase I, creation of a zone of contact between opposite capillary walls (formation of an interendothelial bridge); phase II, reorganization of the intercellular junctions of the endothelium, with central perforation of the capillary layer; phase III, formation of an interstitial post core, with successive invasion by cytoplasmic extensions of myofibroblasts, pericytes, and finally interstitial fibers; and phase IV, growth of the slender pillar to a normal full size capillary mesh. These findings support the new concept of intussusceptive growth of the lung capillary system. PMID:2240600

  20. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  1. Disentangling Detoxification: Gene Expression Analysis of Feeding Mountain Pine Beetle Illuminates Molecular-Level Host Chemical Defense Detoxification Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jeanne A.; Pitt, Caitlin; Bonnett, Tiffany R.; Yuen, Macaire M. S.; Keeling, Christopher I.; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle. PMID:24223726

  2. Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.

    PubMed

    Gang, D R; Kasahara, H; Xia, Z Q; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Bauw, G; Boerjan, W; Van Montagu, M; Davin, L B; Lewis, N G

    1999-03-12

    Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.

  3. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jeanne A; Pitt, Caitlin; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Yuen, Macaire M S; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  4. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  5. Protective effect of butyrate against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice by promoting the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and mucosal defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Fangyan; Luo, Haihua; Liu, Aihua; Li, Kangxin; Li, Cui; Jiang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers (GUs) are a common type of peptic ulcer. Alcohol overdose is one of the main causes of GU, which is difficult to prevent. Although the protective effect of butyrate on inflammation-related diseases is well understood, its effect on GUs has not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of butyrate against ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice and the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were orally pretreated with butyrate for 30min prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas butyrate pretreatment reduced the gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate pretreatment also significantly ameliorated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins, and decreased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. The Western blot results consistently demonstrated that butyrate pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and ERKs in the gastric tissues. Additionally, gastric wall mucus (GWM), a parameter reflecting mucosal defense, was clearly increased by butyrate pretreatment. Butyrate pretreatment protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced lesions by strengthening the mucosal defense and anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. As a necessary substance for the body, butyrate may be applied to the prevention and treatment of GUs.

  6. Ornithine and Homocitrulline Impair Mitochondrial Function, Decrease Antioxidant Defenses and Induce Cell Death in Menadione-Stressed Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Potential Mechanisms of Neurological Dysfunction in HHH Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Ângela; Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Souza, Débora Guerini; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is caused by deficiency of ornithine translocase leading to predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ornithine (Orn), homocitrulline (Hcit) and ammonia. Although affected patients commonly present neurological dysfunction manifested by cognitive deficit, spastic paraplegia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, stroke-like episodes, hypotonia and ataxia, its pathogenesis is still poorly known. Although astrocytes are necessary for neuronal protection. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of Orn and Hcit on cell viability (propidium iodide incorporation), mitochondrial function (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide-MTT-reduction and mitochondrial membrane potential-ΔΨm), antioxidant defenses (GSH) and pro-inflammatory response (NFkB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in unstimulated and menadione-stressed cortical astrocytes that were previously shown to be susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. We first observed that Orn decreased MTT reduction, whereas both amino acids decreased GSH levels, without altering cell viability and the pro-inflammatory factors in unstimulated astrocytes. Furthermore, Orn and Hcit decreased cell viability and ΔΨm in menadione-treated astrocytes. The present data indicate that the major compounds accumulating in HHH syndrome impair mitochondrial function and reduce cell viability and the antioxidant defenses in cultured astrocytes especially when stressed by menadione. It is presumed that these mechanisms may be involved in the neuropathology of this disease. PMID:27161368

  7. Ornithine and Homocitrulline Impair Mitochondrial Function, Decrease Antioxidant Defenses and Induce Cell Death in Menadione-Stressed Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Potential Mechanisms of Neurological Dysfunction in HHH Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Ângela; Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Souza, Débora Guerini; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is caused by deficiency of ornithine translocase leading to predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ornithine (Orn), homocitrulline (Hcit) and ammonia. Although affected patients commonly present neurological dysfunction manifested by cognitive deficit, spastic paraplegia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, stroke-like episodes, hypotonia and ataxia, its pathogenesis is still poorly known. Although astrocytes are necessary for neuronal protection. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of Orn and Hcit on cell viability (propidium iodide incorporation), mitochondrial function (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide-MTT-reduction and mitochondrial membrane potential-ΔΨm), antioxidant defenses (GSH) and pro-inflammatory response (NFkB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in unstimulated and menadione-stressed cortical astrocytes that were previously shown to be susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. We first observed that Orn decreased MTT reduction, whereas both amino acids decreased GSH levels, without altering cell viability and the pro-inflammatory factors in unstimulated astrocytes. Furthermore, Orn and Hcit decreased cell viability and ΔΨm in menadione-treated astrocytes. The present data indicate that the major compounds accumulating in HHH syndrome impair mitochondrial function and reduce cell viability and the antioxidant defenses in cultured astrocytes especially when stressed by menadione. It is presumed that these mechanisms may be involved in the neuropathology of this disease.

  8. Molecular cloning of the tomato Hairless gene implicates actin dynamics in trichome-mediated defense and mechanical properties of stem tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Campos, Marcelo L.; Zemelis-Durfee, Starla; Al-Haddad, Jameel M.; Jones, A. Daniel; Telewski, Frank W.; Brandizzi, Federica; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are epidermal structures that provide a first line of defense against arthropod herbivores. The recessive hairless (hl) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) causes severe distortion of trichomes on all aerial tissues, impairs the accumulation of sesquiterpene and polyphenolic compounds in glandular trichomes, and compromises resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Here, we demonstrate that the tomato Hl gene encodes a subunit (SRA1) of the highly conserved WAVE regulatory complex that controls nucleation of actin filaments in a wide range of eukaryotic cells. The tomato SRA1 gene spans a 42-kb region containing both Solyc11g013280 and Solyc11g013290. The hl mutation corresponds to a complex 3-kb deletion that removes the last exon of the gene. Expression of a wild-type SRA1 cDNA in the hl mutant background restored normal trichome development, accumulation of glandular trichome-derived metabolites, and resistance to insect herbivory. These findings establish a role for SRA1 in the development of tomato trichomes and also implicate the actin-cytoskeleton network in cytosolic control of specialized metabolism for plant defense. We also show that the brittleness of hl mutant stems is associated with altered mechanical and cell morphological properties of stem tissue, and demonstrate that this defect is directly linked to the mutation in SRA1. PMID:27481446

  9. Intracellular levels and extracellular release of lysosomal enzymes from peripheral blood monocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, S; Dhand, R; Sethi, A K; Kohli, K K; Ganguly, N K

    1993-01-01

    The intracellular activity and extracellular release (basal and latex-stimulated) of B-glucuronidase (BG) and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), measured fluorimetrically, were observed to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in blood monocytes (BM) of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients compared to those of age- and sex-matched controls and Mantoux-positive subjects without any evidence of active disease. After completion of antituberculous therapy, BG and NAG activities declined appreciably (P < 0.05) and their levels became comparable to those in control subjects. The present results suggest the potentiation of the oxygen-independent defense mechanism of BM in pulmonary TB. PMID:8457326

  10. Pulmonary and Systemic Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Following a Single Dose of Nebulized Colistimethate in Mechanically Ventilated Neonates.

    PubMed

    Nakwan, Narongsak; Lertpichaluk, Pichaya; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Villani, Paola; Regazzi, Mario; Imberti, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary and systemic pharmacokinetics of colistin following a single dose of nebulized colistimethate sodium (CMS) in mechanically ventilated neonates. We administered a single dose of nebulized CMS (approximately 120,000 IU/kg of CMS, equivalent to 4 mg/kg colistin base activity) to 6 ventilated neonates with ventilator-associated pneumonia. The median gestational age was 39 weeks (range, 32-39 weeks). Mean (± SD) tracheal aspirate colistin maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24) and t1/2 were 24.0 ± 8.2 μg/mL, 147.6 ± 53.5 μg · hours/mL and 9.8 ± 5.5 hours, respectively. The plasma concentrations of colistin were low. In neonates, a single nebulized dose of CMS (120,000 IU) resulted in high local concentrations for at least 12 hours and low systemic concentrations of colistin. Twice daily nebulization might be more appropriate. PMID:26065861

  11. Pulmonary and Systemic Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Following a Single Dose of Nebulized Colistimethate in Mechanically Ventilated Neonates.

    PubMed

    Nakwan, Narongsak; Lertpichaluk, Pichaya; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Villani, Paola; Regazzi, Mario; Imberti, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary and systemic pharmacokinetics of colistin following a single dose of nebulized colistimethate sodium (CMS) in mechanically ventilated neonates. We administered a single dose of nebulized CMS (approximately 120,000 IU/kg of CMS, equivalent to 4 mg/kg colistin base activity) to 6 ventilated neonates with ventilator-associated pneumonia. The median gestational age was 39 weeks (range, 32-39 weeks). Mean (± SD) tracheal aspirate colistin maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24) and t1/2 were 24.0 ± 8.2 μg/mL, 147.6 ± 53.5 μg · hours/mL and 9.8 ± 5.5 hours, respectively. The plasma concentrations of colistin were low. In neonates, a single nebulized dose of CMS (120,000 IU) resulted in high local concentrations for at least 12 hours and low systemic concentrations of colistin. Twice daily nebulization might be more appropriate.

  12. Pulmonary function in mechanically-ventilated patients during 24-hour use of a hygroscopic condensor humidifier.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Anderson, H R; Silver, R M; Schuler, F R; Coleman, R E

    1983-11-01

    Hygroscopic condensor humidifiers (HCH) are reportedly capable of humidifying even the driest of ventilator source gases with at least 30 mg H2O/liter of ventilation. To assess the adequacy of the HCH during mechanical ventilation, we studied 26 patients over a 72-hour period (alternating 24-hour periods of humidification by a conventional cascade and the HCH). In these patients, we found no significant difference in static lung compliance, airway resistance, PaO2, and PaCO2 on either system. Additionally, estimates of sputum volume (over a four-hour collection period) and clearance of aerosolized 99mTc labelled DTPA (in five of these patients) also showed no significant differences between the two systems. We conclude that the HCH is capable of supplying necessary heat and moisture to most mechanically-ventilated patients for at least a period of 24 hours.

  13. Omentin protects against LPS-induced ARDS through suppressing pulmonary inflammation and promoting endothelial barrier via an Akt/eNOS-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Di; Tang, Xumao; He, Jing; Wang, Daoxin; Zhao, Yan; Deng, Wang; Deng, Xinyu; Zhou, Guoqi; Xia, Jing; Zhong, Xi; Pu, Shenglan

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by increased pulmonary inflammation and endothelial barrier permeability. Omentin has been shown to benefit obesity-related systemic vascular diseases; however, its effects on ARDS are unknown. In the present study, the level of circulating omentin in patients with ARDS was assessed to appraise its clinical significance in ARDS. Mice were subjected to systemic administration of adenoviral vector expressing omentin (Ad-omentin) and one-shot treatment of recombinant human omentin (rh-omentin) to examine omentin's effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS. Pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs) were treated with rh-omentin to further investigate its underlying mechanism. We found that a decreased level of circulating omentin negatively correlated with white blood cells and procalcitonin in patients with ARDS. Ad-omentin protected against LPS-induced ARDS by alleviating the pulmonary inflammatory response and endothelial barrier injury in mice, accompanied by Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Treatment of pulmonary ECs with rh-omentin attenuated inflammatory response and restored adherens junctions (AJs), and cytoskeleton organization promoted endothelial barrier after LPS insult. Moreover, the omentin-mediated enhancement of EC survival and differentiation was blocked by the Akt/eNOS pathway inactivation. Therapeutic rh-omentin treatment also effectively protected against LPS-induced ARDS via the Akt/eNOS pathway. Collectively, these data indicated that omentin protects against LPS-induced ARDS by suppressing inflammation and promoting the pulmonary endothelial barrier, at least partially, through an Akt/eNOS-dependent mechanism. Therapeutic strategies aiming to restore omentin levels may be valuable for the prevention or treatment of ARDS. PMID:27607575

  14. Omentin protects against LPS-induced ARDS through suppressing pulmonary inflammation and promoting endothelial barrier via an Akt/eNOS-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qi, Di; Tang, Xumao; He, Jing; Wang, Daoxin; Zhao, Yan; Deng, Wang; Deng, Xinyu; Zhou, Guoqi; Xia, Jing; Zhong, Xi; Pu, Shenglan

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by increased pulmonary inflammation and endothelial barrier permeability. Omentin has been shown to benefit obesity-related systemic vascular diseases; however, its effects on ARDS are unknown. In the present study, the level of circulating omentin in patients with ARDS was assessed to appraise its clinical significance in ARDS. Mice were subjected to systemic administration of adenoviral vector expressing omentin (Ad-omentin) and one-shot treatment of recombinant human omentin (rh-omentin) to examine omentin's effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS. Pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs) were treated with rh-omentin to further investigate its underlying mechanism. We found that a decreased level of circulating omentin negatively correlated with white blood cells and procalcitonin in patients with ARDS. Ad-omentin protected against LPS-induced ARDS by alleviating the pulmonary inflammatory response and endothelial barrier injury in mice, accompanied by Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Treatment of pulmonary ECs with rh-omentin attenuated inflammatory response and restored adherens junctions (AJs), and cytoskeleton organization promoted endothelial barrier after LPS insult. Moreover, the omentin-mediated enhancement of EC survival and differentiation was blocked by the Akt/eNOS pathway inactivation. Therapeutic rh-omentin treatment also effectively protected against LPS-induced ARDS via the Akt/eNOS pathway. Collectively, these data indicated that omentin protects against LPS-induced ARDS by suppressing inflammation and promoting the pulmonary endothelial barrier, at least partially, through an Akt/eNOS-dependent mechanism. Therapeutic strategies aiming to restore omentin levels may be valuable for the prevention or treatment of ARDS. PMID:27607575

  15. Magnetite nanoparticles induced adaptive mechanisms counteract cell death in human pulmonary fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Radu, Mihaela; Dinu, Diana; Sima, Cornelia; Burlacu, Radu; Hermenean, Anca; Ardelean, Aurel; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-10-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) have attracted great interest for biomedical applications due to their unique chemical and physical properties, but the MNP impact on human health is not fully known. Consequently, our study proposes to highlight the biochemical mechanisms that underline the toxic effects of MNP on a human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). The cytotoxicity generated by MNP in MRC-5 cells was dose and time-dependent. MNP-treated MRC-5 cells accumulated large amount of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibited elevated antioxidant scavenger enzymes. Reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion and enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes were also observed. The cellular capacity to counteract the oxidative damage was sustained by high levels of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a protein that confers resistance against ROS attack and inhibition of cell death. While significant augmentations in nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) levels were detected after 72 h of MNP-exposure only, caspase-1 was activated earlier starting with 24h post-treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that MRC-5 cells have the capacity to develop cell protection mechanisms against MNP. Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms induced by MNP in cell culture could be essential for their prospective use in various in vivo biochemical applications. PMID:26065626

  16. The Effect of Pressure-Controlled Ventilation and Volume-Controlled Ventilation in Prone Position on Pulmonary Mechanics and Inflammatory Markers.

    PubMed

    Şenay, Hasan; Sıvacı, Remziye; Kokulu, Serdar; Koca, Buğra; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Ela, Yüksel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this present study is to compare the effect of pressure-controlled ventilation and volume-controlled ventilation on pulmonary mechanics and inflammatory markers in prone position. The study included 41 patients undergoing to vertebrae surgery. The patients were randomized into two groups: Group 1 received volume-controlled ventilation, while group 2 received pressure-controlled ventilation. The demographic data, pulmonary mechanics, the inflammatory marker levels just after the induction of anesthetics, at the 6th and 12th hours, and gas analysis from arterial blood samples taken at the beginning and the 30th minute were recorded. The inflammatory marker levels increased in both groups, without any significant difference among groups. Peak inspiratory pressure level was higher in the volume-controlled ventilation group. This study revealed that there is no difference regarding inflammatory marker levels between volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation.

  17. Cardiovascular modeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension: focus on mechanisms and treatment of right heart failure using the CircAdapt model.

    PubMed

    Lumens, Joost; Delhaas, Tammo

    2012-09-15

    In recent years, increased understanding of cardiovascular system dynamics has led to the development of mathematical models of the heart and circulation. Models that enable realistic simulation of ventricular mechanics and interactions under a range of conditions have the potential to provide an ideal method with which to investigate the effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension and its treatment on cardiac mechanics and hemodynamics. Such mathematical models have the potential to contribute to a personalized, patient-specific treatment approach and allow more objective diagnostic decision-making, patient monitoring, and assessment of treatment outcome. This review discusses the development of mathematical models of the heart and circulation, with particular reference to the closed-loop CircAdapt model, and how the model performs under both normal and pathophysiological (pulmonary hypertensive) conditions.

  18. Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe; Neuville, John R.

    2012-07-01

    One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

  19. Engineering tissue constructs to mimic native aortic and pulmonary valve leaflets' structures and mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Nafiseh

    There are several disadvantages correlated with current heart valve replacement, including anticoagulation therapy for patients with mechanical valves and the low durability of bioprosthetic valves. The non-viable nature of such devices is a critical drawback especially for pediatric cases due to the inability of the graft to grow in vivo with the patients. A tissue engineered heart valve (TEHV) with remodeling and growth ability, is conceptually appealing to use in the surgical repair and could serve as a permanent replacements when operating for pediatric valvular lesions. It is critical that scaffolds for functional heart valve tissue engineering, be capable of mimicking the native leaflet's structure and mechanical properties at the time of implantation. Meanwhile, the scaffolds should be able to support cellular proliferation and native-like tissue formation as the TEHV remodels toward a scaffold-free state. Our overall hypothesis is that an "ideal" engineered construct, designed based on native leaflet's structure and mechanics, will complement a native heart valve leaflet in providing benchmarks for use in the design of clinically-applicable TEHV. This hypothesis was addressed through several experiments conducted in the present study. To establish a functional biomimetic TEHV, we developed scaffolds capable of matching the anisotropic stiffness of native leaflet while promoting native-like cell and collagen content and supporting the ECM generation. Scaffolds with various polymer contents (e.g., poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)) and structural designs (e.g., microfabricated and microfibrous scaffolds), were fabricated based on native leaflet's structure and mechanics. It was found that the tri-layered scaffold, designed with assembly of microfabricated PGS and microfibrous PGS/PCL was a functional leaflet capable of promoting tissue formation. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of cyclic stress and flexure

  20. Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver.

    PubMed

    Cavin, C; Marin-Kuan, M; Langouët, S; Bezençon, C; Guignard, G; Verguet, C; Piguet, D; Holzhäuser, D; Cornaz, R; Schilter, B

    2008-04-01

    Coffee consumption has been associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing chronic diseases such as Parkinson disease, diabetes type-2 and several types of cancers (e.g. colon, liver). In the present study, a coffee-dependent induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes was observed in rat liver and primary hepatocytes. In addition, coffee was found to induce the mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in cellular antioxidant defenses. These inductions were correlated with the activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor as shown using an ARE-reporter luciferase assay. The induction of detoxifying enzymes GSTs and AKR is compatible with a protection against both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). This hypothesis was confirmed in in vitro and ex vivo test systems, where coffee reduced both AFB1-DNA and protein adducts. Interestingly, coffee was also found to inhibit cytochrome CYP1A1/2, indicating that other mechanisms different from a stimulation of detoxification may also play a significant role in the chemoprotective effects of coffee. Further investigations in either human liver cell line and primary hepatocytes indicated that the chemoprotective effects of coffee against AFB1 genotoxicity are likely to be of relevance for humans. These data strongly suggest that coffee may protect against the adverse effects of AFB1. In addition, the coffee-mediated stimulation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway resulting in increased endogenous defense mechanisms against electrophilic but also oxidative insults further support that coffee may be associated with a protection against various types of chemical stresses.

  1. Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver.

    PubMed

    Cavin, C; Marin-Kuan, M; Langouët, S; Bezençon, C; Guignard, G; Verguet, C; Piguet, D; Holzhäuser, D; Cornaz, R; Schilter, B

    2008-04-01

    Coffee consumption has been associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing chronic diseases such as Parkinson disease, diabetes type-2 and several types of cancers (e.g. colon, liver). In the present study, a coffee-dependent induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes was observed in rat liver and primary hepatocytes. In addition, coffee was found to induce the mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in cellular antioxidant defenses. These inductions were correlated with the activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor as shown using an ARE-reporter luciferase assay. The induction of detoxifying enzymes GSTs and AKR is compatible with a protection against both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). This hypothesis was confirmed in in vitro and ex vivo test systems, where coffee reduced both AFB1-DNA and protein adducts. Interestingly, coffee was also found to inhibit cytochrome CYP1A1/2, indicating that other mechanisms different from a stimulation of detoxification may also play a significant role in the chemoprotective effects of coffee. Further investigations in either human liver cell line and primary hepatocytes indicated that the chemoprotective effects of coffee against AFB1 genotoxicity are likely to be of relevance for humans. These data strongly suggest that coffee may protect against the adverse effects of AFB1. In addition, the coffee-mediated stimulation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway resulting in increased endogenous defense mechanisms against electrophilic but also oxidative insults further support that coffee may be associated with a protection against various types of chemical stresses. PMID:17976884

  2. Static lung load and posture effects on pulmonary mechanics and comfort in underwater exercise.

    PubMed

    Derion, T; Reddan, W G; Lanphier, E H

    1992-03-01

    Static lung load (SLL), or transrespiratory pressure gradient, imposed by underwater breathing apparatus can affect breathing comfort and mechanics, especially during exertion. We examined the effects of body position and SLL on two factors known to affect or limit exertion: a) tidal flow-volume limitation, i.e., the percentage of the tidal volume that meets the boundary of the maximum expiratory flow-volume curve; and b) breathing discomfort. Eight healthy male scuba divers (28 +/- 4 yr) performed cycle ergometry to exhaustion during immersion in each of four combinations of body position and SLL: upright, prone, +10 cmH2O, -10 cmH2O. SLL was referenced to the sternal notch. Tidal flow-volume limitation was significantly greater with the negative SLL (P less than 0.05). In the prone position, higher expiratory flows were achieved (P less than 0.01) and flow limitation was not significantly increased. Respiratory discomfort was quantified with a psychophysical rating scale and increased significantly as exercise intensity increased (P less than 0.01). No effect of posture or SLL on discomfort was found. We conclude that, although respiratory comfort is unaffected, positive static lung loading and the prone body position minimize adverse changes in respiratory mechanics during exercise in immersion.

  3. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive ana...

  4. Changes in the structure-function relationship of elastin and its impact on the proximal pulmonary arterial mechanics of hypertensive calves.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Steven R; Kao, Phil H; Qi, H Jerry; Hunter, Kendall; Lanning, Craig; Albietz, Joseph; Hofmeister, Stephen; Mecham, Robert; Stenmark, Kurt R; Shandas, Robin

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling has been proposed as one mechanism by which proximal pulmonary arteries stiffen during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although some attention has been paid to the role of collagen and metallomatrix proteins in affecting vascular stiffness, much less work has been performed on changes in elastin structure-function relationships in PAH. Such work is warranted, given the importance of elastin as the structural protein primarily responsible for the passive elastic behavior of these conduit arteries. Here, we study structure-function relationships of fresh arterial tissue and purified arterial elastin from the main, left, and right pulmonary artery branches of normotensive and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertensive neonatal calves. PAH resulted in an average 81 and 72% increase in stiffness of fresh and digested tissue, respectively. Increase in stiffness appears most attributable to elevated elastic modulus, which increased 46 and 65%, respectively, for fresh and digested tissue. Comparison between fresh and digested tissues shows that, at 35% strain, a minimum of 48% of the arterial load is carried by elastin, and a minimum of 43% of the change in stiffness of arterial tissue is due to the change in elastin stiffness. Analysis of the stress-strain behavior revealed that PAH causes an increase in the strains associated with the physiological pressure range but had no effect on the strain of transition from elastin-dominant to collagen-dominant behavior. These results indicate that mechanobiological adaptations of the continuum and geometric properties of elastin, in response to PAH, significantly elevate the circumferential stiffness of proximal pulmonary arterial tissue. PMID:18660454

  5. Update on the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Imbalance Induced by Exercise.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Carbonell, T; Tuesta, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the generation of oxidative damage and lung inflammation induced by physical exercise are described. Changes in lung function induced by exercise involve cooling of the airways, fluid evaporation of the epithelial surface, increased contact with polluting substances, and activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. The present work includes evidence obtained from the different types of exercise in terms of duration and intensity, the effect of both acute performance and chronic performance, and the influence of special conditions such as cold weather, high altitude, and polluted environments. Levels of prooxidants, antioxidants, oxidative damage to biomolecules, and cellularity, as well as levels of soluble mediators of the inflammatory response and its effects on tissues, are described in samples of lung origin. These samples include tissue homogenates, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, biopsies, and exhaled breath condensate obtained in experimental protocols conducted on animal and human models. Finally, the need to simultaneously explore the oxidative/inflammatory parameters to establish the interrelation between them is highlighted. PMID:26881028

  6. Evidence for Negative Effects of Elevated Intra-Abdominal Pressure on Pulmonary Mechanics and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Davarcı, I.; Karcıoğlu, M.; Tuzcu, K.; İnanoğlu, K.; Yetim, T. D.; Motor, S.; Ulutaş, K. T.; Yüksel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of pneumoperitoneum on lung mechanics, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), and oxidative stress markers in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) by using lung-protective ventilation strategy. Materials and Methods. Forty-six patients undergoing LC and abdominal wall hernia (AWH) surgery were assigned into 2 groups. Measurements and blood samples were obtained before, during pneumoperitoneum, and at the end of surgery. BALF samples were obtained after anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery. Results. Peak inspiratory pressure, ETCO2, and pCO2 values at the 30th minute were significantly increased, while there was a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance, pH, and pO2 values in LC group. In BALF samples, total oxidant status (TOS), arylesterase, paraoxonase, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased; the glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly decreased in LC group. The serum levels of TOS and paraoxonase were significantly higher at the end of surgery in LC group. In addition, arylesterase level in the 30th minute was increased compared to baseline. Serum paraoxonase level at the end of surgery was significantly increased when compared to AWH group. Conclusions. Our study showed negative effects of pneumoperitoneum in both lung and systemic levels despite lung-protective ventilation strategy. PMID:25685845

  7. Update on the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Imbalance Induced by Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, O. F.; Carbonell, T.; Tuesta, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the generation of oxidative damage and lung inflammation induced by physical exercise are described. Changes in lung function induced by exercise involve cooling of the airways, fluid evaporation of the epithelial surface, increased contact with polluting substances, and activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. The present work includes evidence obtained from the different types of exercise in terms of duration and intensity, the effect of both acute performance and chronic performance, and the influence of special conditions such as cold weather, high altitude, and polluted environments. Levels of prooxidants, antioxidants, oxidative damage to biomolecules, and cellularity, as well as levels of soluble mediators of the inflammatory response and its effects on tissues, are described in samples of lung origin. These samples include tissue homogenates, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, biopsies, and exhaled breath condensate obtained in experimental protocols conducted on animal and human models. Finally, the need to simultaneously explore the oxidative/inflammatory parameters to establish the interrelation between them is highlighted. PMID:26881028

  8. Update on the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Imbalance Induced by Exercise.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Carbonell, T; Tuesta, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the generation of oxidative damage and lung inflammation induced by physical exercise are described. Changes in lung function induced by exercise involve cooling of the airways, fluid evaporation of the epithelial surface, increased contact with polluting substances, and activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. The present work includes evidence obtained from the different types of exercise in terms of duration and intensity, the effect of both acute performance and chronic performance, and the influence of special conditions such as cold weather, high altitude, and polluted environments. Levels of prooxidants, antioxidants, oxidative damage to biomolecules, and cellularity, as well as levels of soluble mediators of the inflammatory response and its effects on tissues, are described in samples of lung origin. These samples include tissue homogenates, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, biopsies, and exhaled breath condensate obtained in experimental protocols conducted on animal and human models. Finally, the need to simultaneously explore the oxidative/inflammatory parameters to establish the interrelation between them is highlighted.

  9. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  10. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles regulate translocation across pulmonary surfactant monolayer and formation of lipoprotein corona.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Jiao, Bao; Shi, Xinghua; Valle, Russell P; Fan, Qihui; Zuo, Yi Y

    2013-12-23

    Interaction with the pulmonary surfactant film, being the first line of host defense, represents the initial bio-nano interaction in the lungs. Such interaction determines the fate of the inhaled nanoparticles and their potential therapeutic or toxicological effect. Despite considerable progress in optimizing physicochemical properties of nanoparticles for improved delivery and targeting, the mechanisms by which inhaled nanoparticles interact with the pulmonary surfactant film are still largely unknown. Here, using combined in vitro and in silico methods, we show how hydrophobicity and surface charge of nanoparticles differentially regulate the translocation and interaction with the pulmonary surfactant film. While hydrophilic nanoparticles generally translocate quickly across the pulmonary surfactant film, a significant portion of hydrophobic nanoparticles are trapped by the surfactant film and encapsulated in lipid protrusions upon film compression. Our results support a novel model of pulmonary surfactant lipoprotein corona associated with inhaled nanoparticles of different physicochemical properties. Our data suggest that the study of pulmonary nanotoxicology and nanoparticle-based pulmonary drug delivery should consider this lipoprotein corona.

  11. Pulmonary hypertension and hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Téllez Villajos, L; Martínez González, J; Moreira Vicente, V; Albillos Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common phenomenon in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can appear through various mechanisms. The most characteristic scenario that binds portal and pulmonary hypertension is portopulmonary syndrome. However, hyperdynamic circulation, TIPS placement and heart failure can raise the mean pulmonary artery pressure without increasing the resistances. These conditions are not candidates for treatment with pulmonary vasodilators and require a specific therapy. A correct assessment of hemodynamic, ultrasound and clinical variables enables the differential diagnosis of each situation that produces pulmonary hypertension in patients with cirrhosis.

  12. Response and Defense Mechanisms of Taxus chinensis Leaves Under UV-A Radiation are Revealed Using Comparative Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Cui, Lei; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-09-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is a species endemic to south-eastern China and one of the natural sources for the anticancer medicine paclitaxel. To investigate the molecular response and defense mechanisms of T. chinensis leaves to enhanced ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, gel-free/label-free and gel-based proteomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. The transmission electron microscopy results indicated damage to the chloroplast under UV-A radiation. Proteomics analyses in leaves and chloroplasts showed that photosynthesis-, glycolysis-, secondary metabolism-, stress-, and protein synthesis-, degradation- and activation-related systems were mainly changed under UV-A radiation. Forty-seven PSII proteins and six PSI proteins were identified as being changed in leaves and chloroplasts under UV-A treatment. This indicated that PSII was more sensitive to UV-A than PSI as the target of UV-A light. Enhanced glycolysis, with four glycolysis-related key enzymes increased, provided precursors for secondary metabolism. The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase were identified as being significantly increased during UV-A radiation, which resulted in paclitaxel enhancement. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway indicated a down-regulation under UV-A irradiation and up-regulation in dark incubation. These results reveal that a short-term high dose of UV-A radiation could stimulate the plant stress defense system and paclitaxel production. PMID:27318281

  13. Single Exposure to near Roadway Particulate Matter Leads to Confined Inflammatory and Defense Responses: Possible Role of Metals.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Michal; Shafer, Martin M; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2015-07-21

    Inhalation of traffic-associated atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) is recognized as a significant health risk. In this study, we focused on a single ("subclinical response") exposure to water-soluble extracts from PM collected at a roadside site in a major European city to elucidate potential components that drive pulmonary inflammatory, oxidative, and defense mechanisms and their systemic impacts. Intratracheal instillation (IT) of the aqueous extracts induced a 24 h inflammatory response characterized by increased broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), increased reactive oxygen species production, but insignificant lipids and proteins oxidation adducts in mouse lungs. This local response was largely self-resolved by 48 h, suggesting that it could represent a subclinical response to everyday-level exposure. Removal of soluble metals by chelation markedly diminished the pulmonary PM-mediated response. An artificial metal solution (MS) recapitulated the PM extract response. The self-resolving nature of the response is associated with activating defense mechanisms (increased levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase expression), observed with both PM extract and MS. In conclusion, metals present in PM collected near roadways are largely responsible for the observed transient local pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress. Simultaneous activation of the antioxidant defense response may protect against oxidative damage.

  14. Single Exposure to near Roadway Particulate Matter Leads to Confined Inflammatory and Defense Responses: Possible Role of Metals.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Michal; Shafer, Martin M; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2015-07-21

    Inhalation of traffic-associated atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) is recognized as a significant health risk. In this study, we focused on a single ("subclinical response") exposure to water-soluble extracts from PM collected at a roadside site in a major European city to elucidate potential components that drive pulmonary inflammatory, oxidative, and defense mechanisms and their systemic impacts. Intratracheal instillation (IT) of the aqueous extracts induced a 24 h inflammatory response characterized by increased broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), increased reactive oxygen species production, but insignificant lipids and proteins oxidation adducts in mouse lungs. This local response was largely self-resolved by 48 h, suggesting that it could represent a subclinical response to everyday-level exposure. Removal of soluble metals by chelation markedly diminished the pulmonary PM-mediated response. An artificial metal solution (MS) recapitulated the PM extract response. The self-resolving nature of the response is associated with activating defense mechanisms (increased levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase expression), observed with both PM extract and MS. In conclusion, metals present in PM collected near roadways are largely responsible for the observed transient local pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress. Simultaneous activation of the antioxidant defense response may protect against oxidative damage. PMID:26121492

  15. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action.

  16. Insights into the mechanisms of protective immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans infection using a mouse model of pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Karen L; Ravi, Sailatha; Macias, Sandra; Young, Mattie L; Olszewski, Michal A; Steele, Chad; Wormley, Floyd L

    2009-09-03

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in immune compromised individuals. Previous studies have shown that immunization of BALB/c mice with an IFN-gamma-producing C. neoformans strain, H99gamma, results in complete protection against a second pulmonary challenge with an otherwise lethal cryptococcal strain. The current study evaluated local anamnestic cell-mediated immune responses against pulmonary cryptococcosis in mice immunized with C. neoformans strain H99gamma compared to mice immunized with heat-killed C. neoformans (HKC.n.). Mice immunized with C. neoformans strain H99gamma had significantly reduced pulmonary fungal burden post-secondary challenge compared to mice immunized with HKC.n. Protection against pulmonary cryptococcosis was associated with increased pulmonary granulomatous formation and leukocyte infiltration followed by a rapid resolution of pulmonary inflammation, which protected the lungs from severe allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)-pathology that developed in the lungs of mice immunized with HKC.n. Pulmonary challenge of interleukin (IL)-4 receptor, IL-12p40, IL-12p35, IFN-gamma, T cell and B cell deficient mice with C. neoformans strain H99gamma demonstrated a requirement for Th1-type T cell-mediated immunity, but not B cell-mediated immunity, for the induction of H99gamma-mediated protective immune responses against pulmonary C. neoformans infection. CD4(+) T cells, CD11c(+) cells, and Gr-1(+) cells were increased in both proportion and absolute number in protected mice. In addition, significantly increased production of Th1-type/pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and conversely, reduced Th2-type cytokine production was observed in the lungs of protected mice. Interestingly, protection was not associated with increased production of cytokines IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha in lungs of protected mice. In conclusion, immunization with C. neoformans

  17. (1)H NMR and GC-MS Based Metabolomics Reveal Defense and Detoxification Mechanism of Cucumber Plant under Nano-Cu Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Huang, Yuxiong; Hu, Jerry; Zhou, Hongjun; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-02-16

    Because copper nanoparticles are being increasingly used in agriculture as pesticides, it is important to assess their potential implications for agriculture. Concerns have been raised about the bioaccumulation of nano-Cu and their toxicity to crop plants. Here, the response of cucumber plants in hydroponic culture at early development stages to two concentrations of nano-Cu (10 and 20 mg/L) was evaluated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics. Changes in mineral nutrient metabolism induced by nano-Cu were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that nano-Cu at both concentrations interferes with the uptake of a number of micro- and macro-nutrients, such as Na, P, S, Mo, Zn, and Fe. Metabolomics data revealed that nano-Cu at both levels triggered significant metabolic changes in cucumber leaves and root exudates. The root exudate metabolic changes revealed an active defense mechanism against nano-Cu stress: up-regulation of amino acids to sequester/exclude Cu/nano-Cu; down-regulation of citric acid to reduce the mobilization of Cu ions; ascorbic acid up-regulation to combat reactive oxygen species; and up-regulation of phenolic compounds to improve antioxidant system. Thus, we demonstrate that nontargeted (1)H NMR and GC-MS based metabolomics can successfully identify physiological responses induced by nanoparticles. Root exudates metabolomics revealed important detoxification mechanisms.

  18. (1)H NMR and GC-MS Based Metabolomics Reveal Defense and Detoxification Mechanism of Cucumber Plant under Nano-Cu Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Huang, Yuxiong; Hu, Jerry; Zhou, Hongjun; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-02-16

    Because copper nanoparticles are being increasingly used in agriculture as pesticides, it is important to assess their potential implications for agriculture. Concerns have been raised about the bioaccumulation of nano-Cu and their toxicity to crop plants. Here, the response of cucumber plants in hydroponic culture at early development stages to two concentrations of nano-Cu (10 and 20 mg/L) was evaluated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics. Changes in mineral nutrient metabolism induced by nano-Cu were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that nano-Cu at both concentrations interferes with the uptake of a number of micro- and macro-nutrients, such as Na, P, S, Mo, Zn, and Fe. Metabolomics data revealed that nano-Cu at both levels triggered significant metabolic changes in cucumber leaves and root exudates. The root exudate metabolic changes revealed an active defense mechanism against nano-Cu stress: up-regulation of amino acids to sequester/exclude Cu/nano-Cu; down-regulation of citric acid to reduce the mobilization of Cu ions; ascorbic acid up-regulation to combat reactive oxygen species; and up-regulation of phenolic compounds to improve antioxidant system. Thus, we demonstrate that nontargeted (1)H NMR and GC-MS based metabolomics can successfully identify physiological responses induced by nanoparticles. Root exudates metabolomics revealed important detoxification mechanisms. PMID:26751164

  19. DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PIG SYMPOSIUM: Involvement of gut chemosensing in the regulation of mucosal barrier function and defense mechanisms1,2

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, I.; Akiba, Y.; Kaunitz, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Meal ingestion is followed by release of numerous hormones from enteroendocrine cells interspersed among the epithelial cells lining the intestine. Recently, the de-orphanization of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type nutrient receptors, expressed on the apical membranes of enteroendocrine cells, has suggested a plausible mechanism whereby luminal nutrients trigger the release of gut hormones. Activation of nutrient receptors triggers intracellular signaling mechanisms that promote exocytosis of hormone-containing granules into the submucosal space. Hormones released by foregut enteroendocrine cells include the glucagon-like peptides (GLP) affecting glycemic control (GLP-1) and releasing pro-proliferative, hypertrophy-inducing growth factors (GLP-2). The foregut mucosa, being exposed to pulses of concentrated HCl, is protected by a system of defense mechanisms, which includes epithelial bicarbonate and mucus secretion and augmentation of mucosal blood flow. We have reported that luminal co-perfusion of AA with nucleotides in anesthetized rats releases GLP-2 into the portal vein, associated with increased bicarbonate and mucus secretion and mucosal blood flow. The GLP-2 increases bicarbonate secretion via release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from myenteric nerves. Luminal bile acids also release gut hormones due to activation of the bile-acid receptor known as G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPR) 131, G Protein Bile Acid Receptor (GPBAR) 1, or Takeda G Protein-Coupled Receptor (TGR) 5, also expressed on enteroendocrine cells. The GLP are metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme of particular interest to pharmaceutical, because its inhibition increases plasma concentrations of GLP-1 to treat diabetes. We have also reported that DPPIV inhibition enhances the secretory effects of nutrient-evoked GLP-2. Understanding the release mechanism and the metabolic pathways of gut hormones is of potential utility to the formulation of feedstuff

  20. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  1. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  2. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  3. A Role for the Anti-Viral Host Defense Mechanism in the Phylogenetic Divergence in Baculovirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Toshihiro; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Although phylogenic analysis often suggests co-evolutionary relationships between viruses and host organisms, few examples have been reported at the microevolutionary level. Here, we show a possible example in which a species-specific anti-viral response may drive phylogenic divergence in insect virus evolution. Two baculoviruses, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), have a high degree of DNA sequence similarity, but exhibit non-overlapping host specificity. In our study of their host-range determination, we found that BmNPV replication in B. mori cells was prevented by AcMNPV-P143 (AcP143), but not BmNPV-P143 (BmP143) or a hybrid P143 protein from a host-range expanded phenotype. This suggests that AcMNPV resistance in B. mori cells depends on AcP143 recognition and that BmNPV uses BmP143 to escapes this recognition. Based on these data, we propose an insect-baculovirus co-evolution scenario in which an ancestor of silkworms exploited an AcMNPV-resistant mechanism; AcMNPV counteracted this resistance via P143 mutations, resulting in the birth of BmNPV. PMID:27244571

  4. A Role for the Anti-Viral Host Defense Mechanism in the Phylogenetic Divergence in Baculovirus Evolution.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Toshihiro; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Although phylogenic analysis often suggests co-evolutionary relationships between viruses and host organisms, few examples have been reported at the microevolutionary level. Here, we show a possible example in which a species-specific anti-viral response may drive phylogenic divergence in insect virus evolution. Two baculoviruses, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), have a high degree of DNA sequence similarity, but exhibit non-overlapping host specificity. In our study of their host-range determination, we found that BmNPV replication in B. mori cells was prevented by AcMNPV-P143 (AcP143), but not BmNPV-P143 (BmP143) or a hybrid P143 protein from a host-range expanded phenotype. This suggests that AcMNPV resistance in B. mori cells depends on AcP143 recognition and that BmNPV uses BmP143 to escapes this recognition. Based on these data, we propose an insect-baculovirus co-evolution scenario in which an ancestor of silkworms exploited an AcMNPV-resistant mechanism; AcMNPV counteracted this resistance via P143 mutations, resulting in the birth of BmNPV. PMID:27244571

  5. Reorganization of extracellular matrix in placentas from women with asymptomatic chagas disease: mechanism of parasite invasion or local placental defense?

    PubMed

    Duaso, Juan; Yanez, Erika; Castillo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Corral, Gabriela; Maya, Juan Diego; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease, produced by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is one of the most frequent endemic diseases in Latin America. In spite the fact that in the past few years T. cruzi congenital transmission has become of epidemiological importance, studies about this mechanism of infection are scarce. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we analyzed placentas from T. cruzi-infected mothers by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection in mothers, newborns, and placentas was confirmed by PCR and by immunofluorescence in the placenta. T. cruzi-infected placentas present destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma, selective disorganization of the basal lamina, and disorganization of collagen I in villous stroma. Our results suggest that the parasite induces reorganization of this tissue component and in this way may regulate both inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Changes in the ECM of placental tissues, together with the immunological status of mother and fetus, and parasite load may determine the probability of congenital transmission of T. cruzi.

  6. Reorganization of Extracellular Matrix in Placentas from Women with Asymptomatic Chagas Disease: Mechanism of Parasite Invasion or Local Placental Defense?

    PubMed Central

    Duaso, Juan; Yanez, Erika; Castillo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Corral, Gabriela; Maya, Juan Diego; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease, produced by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is one of the most frequent endemic diseases in Latin America. In spite the fact that in the past few years T. cruzi congenital transmission has become of epidemiological importance, studies about this mechanism of infection are scarce. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we analyzed placentas from T. cruzi-infected mothers by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection in mothers, newborns, and placentas was confirmed by PCR and by immunofluorescence in the placenta. T. cruzi-infected placentas present destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma, selective disorganization of the basal lamina, and disorganization of collagen I in villous stroma. Our results suggest that the parasite induces reorganization of this tissue component and in this way may regulate both inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Changes in the ECM of placental tissues, together with the immunological status of mother and fetus, and parasite load may determine the probability of congenital transmission of T. cruzi. PMID:22007243

  7. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwon; Felton, Gary W

    2013-06-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction. A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic, and upon the following stimulus, induce defenses more quickly and strongly. For instance, some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding. Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently, but significant advances were made in the past three years, including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming, epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming, and others. It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plant-insect interactions.

  8. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management. PMID:26949600

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  10. Proteome changes in tomato fruits prior to visible symptoms of chilling injury are linked to defensive mechanisms, uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and protein degradation machinery.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sanchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Sevillano, Laura; Del Carmen Bolarin, Maria; Flores, Francisco B

    2012-02-01

    A comparative proteomic analysis between tomato fruits stored at chilling and non-chilling temperatures was carried out just before the appearance of visible symptoms of chilling injury. At this stage of the stress period it was possible to discriminate between proteins involved in symptoms and proteins implicated in response. To investigate the changes in the tomato fruit proteome under this specific stressful condition, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with spot identification by mass spectrometry was applied. This proteomic approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed proteins which are involved in two main biological functions: (i) defensive mechanisms represented by small heat shock and late embryogenesis proteins; and (ii) reaction to the uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and the protein degradation machinery. One of the first changes observed in chilled fruits is the down-regulation of ATP synthase, 26S proteasome subunit RPN11 and aspartic proteinase, whereas the first responses in order to deal with the stress are mainly multifunctional proteins involved not only in metabolism but also in stress regulation such as glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and invertase. In addition, our data seem to indicate a possible candidate to be used as a protein marker for further studies on cold stress: aldose-1-epimerase, which seems to have an important role in low temperature tolerance. PMID:22227396

  11. Identification of soybean MYC2-like transcription factors and overexpression of GmMYC1 could stimulate defense mechanism against common cutworm in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ding, Changwen; Du, Haiping; Liu, Hailun; Wang, Yongli; Yu, Deyue

    2014-09-01

    MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix Leu zipper transcription factor (TF). Here, 22 putative soybean MYC-like TFs were identified bioinformatically. Of these TFs, seven MYC2-like genes without introns were isolated and characterized. All seven GmMYCs displayed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Six genes (excepting GmMYC3) were expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seed wall but not in the developing seeds and up-regulated after insect feeding. The GmMYC1 transgenic tobacco rejected common cutworm (CCW, Spodoptera litura Fabricius) more strongly and lost less leaf area than the control (2.94 ± 2.36 vs 7.84 ± 4.63 cm(2)). The average relative growth rate of CCW feeding on transgenic tobacco leaves was lower than on control tobacco leaves (136 ± 60 vs 271 ± 76 %). These results indicated that GmMYC could stimulate the defense mechanism against insects in plants.

  12. Secured network sensor-based defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Shen, Dan; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Network sensor-based defense (NSD) systems have been widely used to defend against cyber threats. Nonetheless, if the adversary finds ways to identify the location of monitor sensors, the effectiveness of NSD systems can be reduced. In this paper, we propose both temporal and spatial perturbation based defense mechanisms to secure NSD systems and make the monitor sensor invisible to the adversary. The temporal-perturbation based defense manipulates the timing information of published data so that the probability of successfully recognizing monitor sensors can be reduced. The spatial-perturbation based defense dynamically redeploys monitor sensors in the network so that the adversary cannot obtain the complete information to recognize all of the monitor sensors. We carried out experiments using real-world traffic traces to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed defense mechanisms. Our data shows that our proposed defense mechanisms can reduce the attack accuracy of recognizing detection sensors.

  13. Defense Mechanisms of Conifers 1

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Gijzen, Mark; Savage, Thomas J.; Croteau, Rodney

    1991-01-01

    Cell-free extracts from Pinus ponderosa Lawson (ponderosa pine) and Pinus sylvestris L. (Scotch pine) wood exhibited high levels of monoterpene synthase (cyclase) activity, whereas bark extracts of these species contained no detectable activity, and they inhibited cyclase activity when added to extracts from wood, unless polyvinylpyrrolidone was included in the preparation. The molecular mass of the polyvinylpyrrolidone added was of little consequence; however, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (a cross-linked insoluble form of the polymer) was ineffective in protecting enzyme activity. Based on these observations, methods were developed for the efficient extraction and assay of monoterpene cyclase activity from conifer stem (wood and bark) tissue. The level of monoterpene cyclase activity for a given conifer species was shown to correlate closely with the monoterpene content of the oleoresin and with the degree of anatomical complexity of the specialized resin-secreting structures. Cyclase activity and monoterpene content were lowest in the stems of species containing only isolated resin cells, such as western red cedar (Thuja plicata D. Don). Increasing levels of cyclase activity and oleoresin monoterpenes were observed in advancing from species with multicellular resin blisters (true firs [Abies]) to those with organized resin passages, such as western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.), Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). The highest levels of cyclase activity and oleoresin monoterpenes were noted in Pinus species that contain the most highly developed resin duct systems. The relationship between biosynthetic capacity, as measured by cyclase activity, monoterpene content, and the degree of organization of the secretory structures for a given species, may reflect the total number of specialized resin-producing cells per unit mass of stem tissue. PMID:16668182

  14. Imbalance of mitochondrial-nuclear cross talk in isocyanate mediated pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Hariom; Jain, Deepika; Khan, Saba; Pathak, Neelam; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Bhargava, Arpit; Banerjee, Smita; Mishra, Pradyumna K

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic investigations coupled with epidemiology, case-control, cohort and observational studies have increasingly linked isocyanate exposure (both chronic and acute) with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Though ascribed for impairment in endothelial cell function, molecular mechanisms of these significant adverse pulmonary outcomes remains poorly understood. As preliminary studies conducted in past have failed to demonstrate a cause-effect relationship between isocyanate toxicity and compromised pulmonary endothelial cell function, we hypothesized that direct exposure to isocyanate may disrupt endothelial structural lining, resulting in cellular damage. Based on this premise, we comprehensively evaluated the molecular repercussions of methyl isocyanate (MIC) exposure on human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAE-26). We examined MIC-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine response, oxidative DNA damage response and apoptotic index. Our results demonstrate that exposure to MIC, augment mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, depletion in antioxidant defense enzymes, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response and induced endothelial cell apoptosis via affecting the balance of mitochondrial-nuclear cross talk. We herein delineate the first and direct molecular cascade of isocyanate-induced pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. The results of our study might portray a connective link between associated respiratory morbidities with isocyanate exposure, and indeed facilitate to discern the exposure-phenotype relationship in observed deficits of pulmonary endothelial cell function. Further, understanding of inter- and intra-cellular signaling pathways involved in isocyanate-induced endothelial damage would not only aid in biomarker identification but also provide potential new avenues to target specific therapeutic interventions.

  15. Respiratory mechanics measured by forced oscillation technique in rheumatoid arthritis-related pulmonary abnormalities: frequency-dependence, heterogeneity and effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Sokai, Risa; Ito, Satoru; Iwano, Shingo; Uchida, Akemi; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related pulmonary disorders specifically airway abnormalities and interstitial pneumonia (IP) are important extra-articular manifestations. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a useful method to assess respiratory impedance, respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory mechanics of patients with RA and to relate them to parameters of the pulmonary function test and findings of chest CT images. Respiratory impedance of RA patients (n = 69) was measured as a function of frequency from 4 to 36 Hz using the FOT device and compared with that of healthy subjects (n = 10). Data were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were female-dominant (60.9 %) and 95.7 % had abnormal CT findings including airway and parenchymal abnormalities. Thirty-seven of 69 patients (53.6 %) were smokers. Rrs was significantly frequency-dependent in RA patients but not in the healthy subjects. Xrs were significantly frequency-dependent in both RA and healthy groups. Rrs was significantly higher during an expiratory phase in both RA and healthy groups. Xrs was significantly lower (more negative) during an expiratory phase than that during an inspiratory phase in RA patients but not in healthy subjects. Xrs of the RA group was significantly more negative than that of the normal control. There was no difference in impedance parameters between the airway lesion dominant (n = 27) and IP dominant groups (n = 23) in the RA group. The impedance parameters of the RA group significantly correlated with most parameters of the pulmonary function test. In pulmonary function test results, % of the predicted value for forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75 % of forced vital capacity was significantly lower and % of the predicted value for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was higher in the airway lesion dominant group than those in

  16. Peripheral mechanisms II: the pharmacology of peripherally active antitussive drugs.

    PubMed

    Spina, D; McFadzean, I; Bertram, F K R; Page, C P

    2009-01-01

    Cough is an indispensable defensive reflex. Although generally beneficial, it is also a common symptom of diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, upper respiratory tract infections, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. Cough remains a major unmet medical need and although the centrally acting opioids have remained the antitussive of choice for decades, they have many unwanted side effects. However, new research into the behaviour of airway sensory nerves has provided greater insight into the mechanisms of cough and new avenues for the discovery of novel non-opioid antitussive drugs. In this review, the pathophysiological mechanisms of cough and the development of novel antitussive drugs are reviewed.

  17. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  18. The reproductive toxicity on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis induced by BDE-47 and studies on the effective mechanism based on antioxidant defense system changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Tang, Xuexi; Sha, Jingjing; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Tianli; Wang, You

    2015-09-01

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a low-brominated Tetra-BDE that is widely distributed in the marine ecosystem, was selected to investigate the reproductive toxicity on the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, and the possible mechanism based on antioxidant defense system changes were studied. The results showed the following: (1) A low concentration of BDE-47 had a slight effect on the egg production of individual females and the egg production rate (EPR) of the population. In fact, BDE-47 exerted reproductive inhibition effects in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The obtained life tables indicated that BDE-47 at a high concentration prolonged the generation time, whereas low and moderate concentrations of BDE-47 had the opposite effects. BDE-47 at a medium concentration significantly decreased the life expectancy and net reproductive rate (P<0.05). Additionally, a high concentration of BDE-47 markedly decreased the net reproductive rate and intrinsic increase rate (P<0.05). The ultra-structure of the ovary showed that BDE-47 severely damaged the ovary. (2) BDE-47 stress elevated the ROS level in B. plicatilis. The GST activity was induced significantly by the low concentration of BDE-47 and inhibited by the highest concentration tested. The GPx activity and GSH content were significant decreased in all the tested groups, and GR activity was induced. GST and GSH appeared to be sensitive to oxidative stress, and all of the glutathione-related enzymes were found to play an important role in maintaining the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance based on Pearson's correlation analysis. The results indicated that BDE-47 causes reproductive toxicity in B. plicatilis and that the ROS-mediated pathway is responsible for the observed toxicity.

  19. Protective effect of AVS073, a polyherbal formula, against UVA-induced melanogenesis through a redox mechanism involving glutathione-related antioxidant defense

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ayurved Siriraj Brand Wattana formula (AVS073), a Thai herbal formula, has traditionally been used for health promotion and prevention of age-related problems. Ultraviolet A (UVA) is recognized to play a vital role in stimulation of melanin synthesis responsible for abnormal skin pigmentation possibly mediated by photooxidative stress. We thus aimed to study the inhibitory effect of AVS073 extracts on UVA-induced melanogenesis via a redox mechanism involving glutathione (GSH) synthesis and glutathione S-transferase (GST) using human melanoma (G361) cell culture. Methods The standardization of AVS073 extracts was carried out by TLC and UHPLC to obtain fingerprinting profiles of the formula, which identified several phenolic compounds including gallic acid (GA) in the formula. Antimelanogenic actions of AVS073 (up to 60 μg/ml) and GA (up to 10 μg/ml) were investigated by measuring tyrosinase activity and mRNA as well as melanin level in G361 cells irradiated with UVA. Moreover, antioxidant actions of the herbal formula and GA were determined by evaluating oxidant formation and modulation of GSH-related antioxidant defenses including GSH content, GST activity and mRNA level of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (γ-GCLC) and modifier (γ-GCLM) subunit and GST. Results AVS073 extracts and GA, used as a reference compound, suppressed UVA-augmented tyrosinase activity and mRNA and melanin formation. In addition, pretreatment with AVS073 and GA was able to inhibit cellular oxidative stress, GSH depletion, GST inactivation and downregulation of γ-GCLC, γ-GCLM and GST mRNA in G361 cells exposed to UVA radiation. Conclusions AVS073 formula exerted antimelanogenic effects possibly through improving the redox state by upregulation of GSH and GST. Moreover, pharmacological activity of the polyherbal formula would be attributed to combined action of different phenolic compounds present in the formula. PMID:23826868

  20. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  1. [Transsexual defense].

    PubMed

    Pfäfflin, F

    1994-01-01

    The prevalent approach to the treatment of patients displaying transsexual symptoms is one that favours somatic intervention of either a hormonal or surgical nature. Normally these patients refuse to avail themselves of the possibility of psychotherapy and are indeed regarded by many therapists as largely inaccessible to therapy of this kind. Pfäfflin looks into the factors involved in the disinclination displayed by both patients and therapists to embark upon such a process. He discusses the unconscious defence mechanisms operative in this disinclination with particular reference to the incipient stages of a course of treatment extending over a number of years and involving a patient initially determined to undergo a surgical "sex change". The patient's insistence on being acknowledged as a woman is regarded here as a creative defence against a major diffusion of identity from a genetically earlier phase, connected with incomplete separation and individuation. In the author's opinion the patient's ability to relinquish this defence will depend largely on the therapist's ability to acknowledge its creativity. PMID:7972887

  2. Incidences of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism after Total Knee Arthroplasty Using a Mechanical Compression Device with and without Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sin Hyung; Ahn, Joong Hyeon; Park, Yong Bok; Lee, Sun Geun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of thromboembolic events and complications related to bleeding after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a mechanical compression device alone or in combination with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Materials and Methods A total of 489 TKA patients (776 knees) were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of thromboembolic events and complications related to bleeding. While 233 patients (354 knees) were treated with a mechanical compressive device without LMWH, 256 patients (422 knees) were treated with the mechanical compressive device along with LMWH. Results The incidences of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were 15 of 375 knees (4.0%) and 5 of 375 knees (1.3%), respectively, in the group that used only a mechanical compressive device, and 14 of 401 knees (3.4%) and 5 of 401 knees (1.2%), respectively, in the group that used the mechanical compressive device with LMWH. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.125 and p=0.146, respectively). The postoperative hemovac drainage amount was 635±57 mL in the group with a mechanical compressive device only and 813±84 mL in the group with the device and LMWH; therefore, the amount of drainage was significantly greater in the latter group (p=0.013). Conclusions Mechanical compression alone for prophylaxis against DVT and PE after TKA can be an attractive option in Korean patients. PMID:27595075

  3. Incidences of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism after Total Knee Arthroplasty Using a Mechanical Compression Device with and without Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sin Hyung; Ahn, Joong Hyeon; Park, Yong Bok; Lee, Sun Geun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of thromboembolic events and complications related to bleeding after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a mechanical compression device alone or in combination with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Materials and Methods A total of 489 TKA patients (776 knees) were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of thromboembolic events and complications related to bleeding. While 233 patients (354 knees) were treated with a mechanical compressive device without LMWH, 256 patients (422 knees) were treated with the mechanical compressive device along with LMWH. Results The incidences of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were 15 of 375 knees (4.0%) and 5 of 375 knees (1.3%), respectively, in the group that used only a mechanical compressive device, and 14 of 401 knees (3.4%) and 5 of 401 knees (1.2%), respectively, in the group that used the mechanical compressive device with LMWH. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.125 and p=0.146, respectively). The postoperative hemovac drainage amount was 635±57 mL in the group with a mechanical compressive device only and 813±84 mL in the group with the device and LMWH; therefore, the amount of drainage was significantly greater in the latter group (p=0.013). Conclusions Mechanical compression alone for prophylaxis against DVT and PE after TKA can be an attractive option in Korean patients.

  4. The neuroecology of chemical defenses.

    PubMed

    Derby, Charles D; Aggio, Juan F

    2011-11-01

    Chemicals are a frequent means whereby organisms defend themselves against predators, competitors, parasites, microbes, and other potentially harmful organisms. Much progress has been made in understanding how a phylogenetic diversity of organisms living in a variety of environments uses chemical defenses. Chief among these advances is determining the molecular identity of defensive chemicals and the roles they play in shaping interactions between individuals. Some progress has been made in deciphering the molecular, cellular, and systems level mechanisms underlying these interactions, as well as how these interactions can lead to structuring of communities and even ecosystems. The neuroecological approach unifies practices and principles from these diverse disciplines and at all scales as it attempts to explain in a single conceptual framework the abundances of organisms and the distributions of species within natural habitats. This article explores the neuroecology of chemical defenses with a focus on aquatic organisms and environments. We review the concept of molecules of keystone significance, including examples of how saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin can shape the organization and dynamics of marine and riparian communities, respectively. We also describe the current status and future directions of a topic of interest to our research group-the use of ink by marine molluscs, especially sea hares, in their defense. We describe a diversity of molecules and mechanisms mediating the protective effects of sea hares' ink, including use as chemical defenses against predators and as alarm cues toward conspecifics, and postulate that some defensive molecules may function as molecules of keystone significance. Finally, we propose future directions for studying the neuroecology of the chemical defenses of sea hares and their molluscan relatives, the cephalopods.

  5. The Sweet Potato NAC-Domain Transcription Factor IbNAC1 Is Dynamically Coordinated by the Activator IbbHLH3 and the Repressor IbbHLH4 to Reprogram the Defense Mechanism against Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi-Peng; Kuo, Chih-Hsien; Lu, Hsueh-Han; Lo, Hui-Shan; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    IbNAC1 is known to activate the defense system by reprogramming a genetic network against herbivory in sweet potato. This regulatory activity elevates plant defense potential but relatively weakens plants by IbNAC1-mediated JA response. The mechanism controlling IbNAC1 expression to balance plant vitality and survival remains unclear. In this study, a wound-responsive G-box cis-element in the IbNAC1 promoter from -1484 to -1479 bp was identified. From a screen of wound-activated transcriptomic data, one transcriptional activator, IbbHLH3, and one repressor, IbbHLH4, were selected that bind to and activate or repress, respectively, the G-box motif in the IbNAC1 promoter to modulate the IbNAC1-mediated response. In the early wound response, the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH3 protein complex binds to the G-box motif to activate IbNAC1 expression. Thus, an elegant defense network is activated against wounding stress. Until the late stages of wounding, IbbHLH4 interacts with IbbHLH3, and the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH4 heterodimer competes with the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH3 complex to bind the G-box and suppress IbNAC1 expression and timely terminates the defense network. Moreover, the JAZs and IbEIL1 proteins interact with IbbHLH3 to repress the transactivation function of IbbHLH3 in non-wounded condition, but their transcription is immediately inhibited upon early wounding. Our work provides a genetic model that accurately switches the regulatory mechanism of IbNAC1 expression to adjust wounding physiology and represents a delicate defense regulatory network in plants. PMID:27780204

  6. Aging and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Selman, Moisés; Buendía-Roldán, Ivette; Pardo, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, and usually fatal lung disorder of unknown etiology. The disease likely results from the interaction of genetic susceptibility architecture, environmental factors such as smoking, and an abnormal epigenetic reprogramming that leads to a complex pathogenesis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis occurs in middle-aged and mainly elderly adults, and in this context age has emerged as its strongest risk factor. However, the mechanisms linking it to aging are uncertain. Recently, nine molecular and cellular hallmarks of aging have been proposed: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. In this review, we provide an overview of these molecular mechanisms and their involvement in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, while emphasizing that the studies on this disease are few and the findings are not definitive. PMID:27103043

  7. The Mechanisms of the Regulation of Immune Response in Patients with Comorbidity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kalinina, Elena P.; Lobanova, Elena G.; Novgorodtseva, Tatyana P.; Antonyuk, Marina V.; Gvozdenko, Tatyana A.; Knyshova, Vera V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (asthma COPD overlap syndrome, ACOS) is a significant problem in pulmonary practice, whose pathogenetic issues are not clarified yet. Objective. To study the features of the regulation of immune response in patients with comorbid COPD and asthma. Methods. We assessed the levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD19+, CD25+, HLA-DR, total IgE, TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, TXB2, and LTB4 in patients with comorbid COPD and asthma. Results. The study involved 44 people with COPD, 39 people with asthma, and 12 people with comorbid COPD and asthma. The specific features in comorbid COPD and asthma were lymphocytosis, increased absolute count of T-helper cells, increased cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in relative and absolute count, increased relative and absolute numbers of B-lymphocytes, and high levels of total IgE. The elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-4 and inhibition of IFN-γ production were detected. The content of LTB4 was maximal; TXB2 levels were higher than in control group but lower than in COPD and asthma. Conclusion. In comorbid COPD and asthma inflammation increased even during stable period. High levels of eicosanoids, low production of Th1-type cytokines, and active synthesis of opposition IL-4, along with increased IgE, indicate the activation of Th2-type immune response.

  8. The Mechanisms of the Regulation of Immune Response in Patients with Comorbidity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kalinina, Elena P.; Lobanova, Elena G.; Novgorodtseva, Tatyana P.; Antonyuk, Marina V.; Gvozdenko, Tatyana A.; Knyshova, Vera V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (asthma COPD overlap syndrome, ACOS) is a significant problem in pulmonary practice, whose pathogenetic issues are not clarified yet. Objective. To study the features of the regulation of immune response in patients with comorbid COPD and asthma. Methods. We assessed the levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD19+, CD25+, HLA-DR, total IgE, TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, TXB2, and LTB4 in patients with comorbid COPD and asthma. Results. The study involved 44 people with COPD, 39 people with asthma, and 12 people with comorbid COPD and asthma. The specific features in comorbid COPD and asthma were lymphocytosis, increased absolute count of T-helper cells, increased cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in relative and absolute count, increased relative and absolute numbers of B-lymphocytes, and high levels of total IgE. The elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-4 and inhibition of IFN-γ production were detected. The content of LTB4 was maximal; TXB2 levels were higher than in control group but lower than in COPD and asthma. Conclusion. In comorbid COPD and asthma inflammation increased even during stable period. High levels of eicosanoids, low production of Th1-type cytokines, and active synthesis of opposition IL-4, along with increased IgE, indicate the activation of Th2-type immune response. PMID:27660519

  9. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liang, Gui-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yun-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Six oxidized fish oil contained diets were formulated to investigate the effect of graded levels of vitamin E (V(E)) (α-tocopherol acetate: 160, 280, and 400 mg kg(-1)) associated with either 1.2 or 1.8 mg kg(-1) selenium (Se) on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism of juvenile largemouth bass. Another control diet containing fresh fish oil with 160 mg kg(-1) V(E) and 1.2 mg kg(-1) Se was also prepared. Over a 12-week feeding trial, about 5 % of Micropterus salmoide fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 showed inflammation and hemorrhage symptoms at the base of dorsal, pectoral, and tail fin. Fish in all treatments survived well (above 90 %). Feed intakes (88.42-89.58 g fish(-1)) of all treatments were comparable. Growth performances (weight gain and specific growth rate) and feed utilization (feed and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly impaired by dietary oil oxidation, and they did not benefit from neither V(E) nor Se supplementation. Regardless of dietary V(E) and Se supplementation, oxidized oil ingestion resulted in markedly decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio. Oxidized oil ingestion also induced markedly lower liver and muscle lipid contents, and these effects could be alleviated by dietary Se supplementation. Dietary oil oxidation stimulated hepatic catalase activities relative to the control, and supplementation of V(E) abrogated this effect. Hepatic reduced glutathione content in the control was markedly higher than that of treatment OxSe1.2/V(E)160, without any significant differences comparing with the other oxidized oil receiving groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and liver Se concentration reflected dietary Se profile, whereas liver V(E) level reflected dietary V(E) profile. Compared with the control, fish fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 obtained markedly higher serum, liver and muscle malondialdehyde contents, which droppe significantly with increasing either V(E) or Se supplementation. In conclusion

  11. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liang, Gui-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yun-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Six oxidized fish oil contained diets were formulated to investigate the effect of graded levels of vitamin E (V(E)) (α-tocopherol acetate: 160, 280, and 400 mg kg(-1)) associated with either 1.2 or 1.8 mg kg(-1) selenium (Se) on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism of juvenile largemouth bass. Another control diet containing fresh fish oil with 160 mg kg(-1) V(E) and 1.2 mg kg(-1) Se was also prepared. Over a 12-week feeding trial, about 5 % of Micropterus salmoide fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 showed inflammation and hemorrhage symptoms at the base of dorsal, pectoral, and tail fin. Fish in all treatments survived well (above 90 %). Feed intakes (88.42-89.58 g fish(-1)) of all treatments were comparable. Growth performances (weight gain and specific growth rate) and feed utilization (feed and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly impaired by dietary oil oxidation, and they did not benefit from neither V(E) nor Se supplementation. Regardless of dietary V(E) and Se supplementation, oxidized oil ingestion resulted in markedly decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio. Oxidized oil ingestion also induced markedly lower liver and muscle lipid contents, and these effects could be alleviated by dietary Se supplementation. Dietary oil oxidation stimulated hepatic catalase activities relative to the control, and supplementation of V(E) abrogated this effect. Hepatic reduced glutathione content in the control was markedly higher than that of treatment OxSe1.2/V(E)160, without any significant differences comparing with the other oxidized oil receiving groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and liver Se concentration reflected dietary Se profile, whereas liver V(E) level reflected dietary V(E) profile. Compared with the control, fish fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 obtained markedly higher serum, liver and muscle malondialdehyde contents, which droppe significantly with increasing either V(E) or Se supplementation. In conclusion

  12. Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and reduce palatability to a generalist insect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, because of this, can feed back to shape plant fitness. In particular, among- and within plant variation in defense shapes herbivore behavior, and if genetically based, may respond to natural selection by herbivo...

  13. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. PMID:27086223

  14. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups.

  15. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  16. [Effect of methylphenidatum on inspiratory muscles function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Chen, W; Yuan, Y; He, T; Zeng, J

    1997-03-01

    To have a better understanding of the effect of methylphenidatum on inspiratory muscles function, we studied the respiratory force parameters of 70 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by intravenous infusion methylphenidatum in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The indices of respiratory force parameter included maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP), maximal midinspiratory flow (MMIF), forced inspiratory capacity (FIC), maximal works of inspiration (Wimax) and airway occlusion pressure (P0.1), etc. Aminophylline and Nikethamidi were chosen as controls. The results showed that MIP, MMIF, FIC, Wimax, P0.1 and minute ventilation (Vr) were significantly increased after administration of methylphenidatum and aminophylline. There were no significant differences in MIP, MMIF, FIC and Wimax after administration of Nikethamidi, but P0.1 was significantly increased and the increase was higher than that after administration of methylphenidatum and aminophylline groups. We conclude that methylphenidatum can significantly improve the function of inspiratory muscles as aminophylline can do. PMID:10684069

  17. [Effect of methylphenidatum on inspiratory muscles function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Chen, W; Yuan, Y; He, T; Zeng, J

    1997-03-01

    To have a better understanding of the effect of methylphenidatum on inspiratory muscles function, we studied the respiratory force parameters of 70 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by intravenous infusion methylphenidatum in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The indices of respiratory force parameter included maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP), maximal midinspiratory flow (MMIF), forced inspiratory capacity (FIC), maximal works of inspiration (Wimax) and airway occlusion pressure (P0.1), etc. Aminophylline and Nikethamidi were chosen as controls. The results showed that MIP, MMIF, FIC, Wimax, P0.1 and minute ventilation (Vr) were significantly increased after administration of methylphenidatum and aminophylline. There were no significant differences in MIP, MMIF, FIC and Wimax after administration of Nikethamidi, but P0.1 was significantly increased and the increase was higher than that after administration of methylphenidatum and aminophylline groups. We conclude that methylphenidatum can significantly improve the function of inspiratory muscles as aminophylline can do.

  18. Severe Pulmonary Arteriopathy Is Associated with Persistent Hypoxemia after Pulmonary Endarterectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ishida, Keiichi; Naito, Akira; Kato, Fumiaki; Takeuchi, Takao; Sekine, Ayumi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Masuda, Masahisa; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by occlusion of pulmonary arteries by organized chronic thrombi. Persistent hypoxemia and residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) following successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) are clinically important problems; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously reported that residual PH is closely related to severe pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypothesize that this arteriopathy might also be involved in impaired gas exchange. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hypoxemia and pulmonary arteriopathy after PEA. Methods and Results Between December 2011 and November 2014, 23 CTEPH patients underwent PEA and lung biopsy. The extent of pulmonary arteriopathy was quantified pathologically in lung biopsy specimens. We then analyzed the relationship between the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy and gas exchange after PEA. We observed that the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was negatively correlated with postoperative and follow-up PaO2 (postoperative PaO2: r = -0.73, p = 0.0004; follow-up PaO2: r = -0.66, p = 0.001), but not with preoperative PaO2 (r = -0.373, p = 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed that the obstruction ratio and patient age were determinants of PaO2 one month after PEA (R2 = 0.651, p = 0.00009). Furthermore, the obstruction ratio and improvement of pulmonary vascular resistance were determinants of PaO2 at follow-up (R2 = 0.545, p = 0.0002). Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and impair diffusion capacity, resulting in hypoxemia following PEA. Conclusion The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was closely associated with postoperative and follow-up hypoxemia. PMID:27571267

  19. Premature lung aging and cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD/emphysema.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Marco; Carloni, Angelo; Rossi, Andrea; Poletti, Venerino

    2013-09-01

    Different anatomic and physiological changes occur in the lung of aging people that can affect pulmonary functions, and different pulmonary diseases, including deadly diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), can be related to an acceleration of the aging process. The individual genetic background, as well as exposure to a variety of toxic substances (cigarette smoke in primis) can contribute significantly to accelerating pulmonary senescence. Premature aging can impair lung function by different ways: by interfering specifically with tissue repair mechanisms after damage, thus perturbing the correct crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial components; by inducing systemic and/or local alteration of the immune system, thus impairing the complex mechanisms of lung defense against infections; and by stimulating a local and/or systemic inflammatory condition (inflammaging). According to recently proposed pathogenic models in COPD and IPF, premature cellular senescence likely affects distinct progenitors cells (mesenchymal stem cells in COPD, alveolar epithelial precursors in IPF), leading to stem cell exhaustion. In this review, the large amount of data supporting this pathogenic view are discussed, with emphasis on the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to the severe parenchymal remodeling that characterizes, in different ways, these deadly diseases.

  20. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  1. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... that damage the lungs, such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis Birth defects of the heart Blood clots in the lung ( pulmonary embolism ) Heart failure Heart valve disease HIV infection Low oxygen levels in the blood ...

  2. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis See also: Aspergillosis Symptoms You may not have ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Update Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  4. Modelling pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

  5. Pulmonary oedema of immersion.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Lepawsky, Michael; McKenzie, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema has been described in individuals participating in three aquatic activities: (i) scuba diving; (ii) breath-hold diving; and (iii) endurance swimming. In this review, 60 published cases have been compiled for comparison. Variables considered included: age; past medical history; activity; water depth, type (salt or fresh) and temperature; clinical presentation; investigations; management; and outcome. From these data, we conclude that a similar phenomenon is occurring among scuba, breath-hold divers and swimmers. The pathophysiology is likely a pulmonary overperfusion mechanism. High pulmonary capillary pressures lead to extravasation of fluid into the interstitium. This overperfusion is caused by the increase in ambient pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction from ambient cold, and increased pulmonary blood flow resulting from exercise. Affected individuals are typically healthy males and females. Older individuals may be at higher risk. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnoea, with haemoptysis also a frequent occurrence. Chest pain has never been reported. Radiography is the investigation of choice, demonstrating typical findings for pulmonary oedema. Management is supportive, with oxygen the mainstay of treatment. Cases usually resolve within 24 hours. In some cases, diuretics have been used, but there are no data as to their efficacy. Nifedipine has been used to prevent recurrence, but there is only anecdotal evidence to support its use.

  6. Particulate nature of inhaled zinc oxide nanoparticles determines systemic effects and mechanisms of pulmonary inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Kun; Ho, Chia-Chi; Chang, Han; Lin, Jing-Fang; Yang, Chung Shi; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Tsai, Hui-Ti; Lin, Pinpin

    2015-02-01

    Inhalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) has potential health impact. Because zinc ion may involve in the toxicity of ZnONP, we compared adverse effects of inhaled aerosolized ZnONP and zinc nitrate in mice. Aerosolized ZnONP and zinc nitrate were well-dispersed in the inhalation chamber. Inhalation of 0.86 mg/m(3) ZnONP or 1.98 mg/m(3) zinc nitrate for 5 h caused acute inflammation mainly at bronchioloalveolar junctions of lungs at 24-h post-exposure. Inhalation of ZnONP or zinc nitrate increased metallothionein expression in the epithelial cells of brochioloalveolar junction. While the effects on cytokines secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage were similar between ZnONP and zinc nitrate, only ZnONP increased lactate dehydrogenase activity. However, repeated exposure to 0.86 mg/m(3) ZnONP 5 h/day for 5 days failed to cause a similar adverse effect. Either single or repeated exposure to 0.86 mg/m(3) ZnONP increased activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and creatine phosphokinase in blood. In contrast, exposure to zinc nitrate had no similar systemic effects. In human bronchial epithelial cells, ZnONP-induced interleukin-8 secretion was partially prevented by co-treatment with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor. Furthermore, ZnONP-induced pulmonary inflammation was greater in wild-type mice than in TLR4-deficent mice. It appears that ZnONP-induced acute pulmonary inflammation partially depended on TLR4. In summary, we demonstrated the dose-responsive effects for inhalation of ZnONP and zinc nitrate in mice. The threshold of cytokines induction for inhalation of ZnONP for 5 h was 0.43 mg/m(3). The particulate characters of ZnONP might contribute to the systemic adverse effects and shall be evaluated for assessing its health impact in humans.

  7. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  8. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  9. Plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor does not prevent mechanical ventilation-induced pulmonary complement activation in a rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    de Beer, F M; Aslami, H; Hoeksma, J; van Mierlo, G; Wouters, D; Zeerleder, S; Roelofs, J J T H; Juffermans, N P; Schultz, M J; Lagrand, W K

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical ventilation has the potential to cause lung injury, and the role of complement activation herein is uncertain. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement cascade by administration of plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) prevents ventilation-induced pulmonary complement activation, and as such attenuates lung inflammation and lung injury in a rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Forty hours after intratracheal challenge with S. pneumoniae causing pneumonia rats were subjected to ventilation with lower tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high tidal volumes without PEEP, after an intravenous bolus of C1-INH (200 U/kg) or placebo (saline). After 4 h of ventilation blood, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected. Non-ventilated rats with S. pneumoniae pneumonia served as controls. While ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP slightly amplified pneumonia-induced complement activation in the lungs, ventilation with higher tidal volumes without PEEP augmented local complement activation more strongly. Systemic pre-treatment with C1-INH, however, failed to alter ventilation-induced complement activation with both ventilation strategies. In accordance, lung inflammation and lung injury were not affected by pre-treatment with C1-INH, neither in rats ventilated with lower tidal volumes and PEEP, nor rats ventilated with high tidal volumes without PEEP. Ventilation augments pulmonary complement activation in a rat model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Systemic administration of C1-INH, however, does not attenuate ventilation-induced complement activation, lung inflammation, and lung injury. PMID:24760631

  10. Mechanism by which nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kB) regulates ovine fetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ogbozor, Uchenna D; Opene, Michael; Renteria, Lissette S; McBride, Shaemion; Ibe, Basil O

    2015-09-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) modulates ovine fetal pulmonary hemodynamic. PAF acts through its receptors (PAFR) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC) to phosphorylate and induce nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 leading to PVSMC proliferation. However, the interaction of NF-kB p65 and PAF in the nuclear domain to effect PVSMC cell growth is not clearly defined. We used siRNA-dependent translation initiation arrest to study a mechanism by which NF-kB p65 regulates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. Our hypotheses are: (a) PAF induces NF-kB p65 DNA binding and (b) NF-kB p65 siRNA attenuates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. For DNA binding, cells were fed 10 nM PAF with and without PAFR antagonists WEB 2170, CV 3988 or BN 52021 and incubated for 12 h. DNA binding was measured by specific ELISA. For NF-kB p65 siRNA effect, starved cells transfected with the siRNA were incubated for 24 h with and without 10 nM PAF. Cell proliferation was measured by DNA synthesis while expression of NF-kB p65 and PAFR protein was measured by Western blotting. In both studies, the effect of 10% FBS alone was used as the positive control. In general, PAF stimulated DNA binding which was inhibited by PAFR antagonists. siRNAs to NF-kB p65 and PAFR significantly attenuated cell proliferation compared to 10% FBS and PAF effect. Inclusion of PAF in siRNA-treated cells did not reverse inhibitory effect of NF-kB p65 siRNA on DNA synthesis. PAFR expression was inhibited in siRNA-treated cells. These data show that PAF-stimulation of PVSMC proliferation occurs via a PAFR-NF-kB p65 linked pathway.

  11. The Child as Psychologist: Attributions and Evaluations of Defensive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied children's attributions and evaluations concerning defense mechanisms used by other children. Children negatively evaluated the blame-externalizing defense of projection and viewed it as a masculine characteristic. The internalizing defense of self-blame was evaluated more positively and viewed as a feminine characteristic. (Author/DB)

  12. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique.

  13. Jasmonate-dependent modifications of the pectin matrix during potato development function as a defense mechanism targeted by Dickeya dadantii virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Marco; Abelenda, Jose A; Río-Alvarez, Isabel; Navarro, Cristina; Vicedo, Begonya; Farmaki, Theodora; Jiménez, Pedro; García-Agustín, Pilar; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Prat, Salomé; Rojo, Enrique; Sánchez-Serrano, José J; Sanmartín, Maite

    2014-02-01

    The plant cell wall constitutes an essential protection barrier against pathogen attack. In addition, cell-wall disruption leads to accumulation of jasmonates (JAs), which are key signaling molecules for activation of plant inducible defense responses. However, whether JAs in return modulate the cell-wall composition to reinforce this defensive barrier remains unknown. The enzyme 13-allene oxide synthase (13-AOS) catalyzes the first committed step towards biosynthesis of JAs. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), there are two putative St13-AOS genes, which we show here to be differentially induced upon wounding. We also determine that both genes complement an Arabidopsis aos null mutant, indicating that they encode functional 13-AOS enzymes. Indeed, transgenic potato plants lacking both St13-AOS genes (CoAOS1/2 lines) exhibited a significant reduction of JAs, a concomitant decrease in wound-responsive gene activation, and an increased severity of soft rot disease symptoms caused by Dickeya dadantii. Intriguingly, a hypovirulent D. dadantii pel strain lacking the five major pectate lyases, which causes limited tissue maceration on wild-type plants, regained infectivity in CoAOS1/2 plants. In line with this, we found differences in pectin methyl esterase activity and cell-wall pectin composition between wild-type and CoAOS1/2 plants. Importantly, wild-type plants had pectins with a lower degree of methyl esterification, which are the substrates of the pectate lyases mutated in the pel strain. These results suggest that, during development of potato plants, JAs mediate modification of the pectin matrix to form a defensive barrier that is counteracted by pectinolytic virulence factors from D. dadantii.

  14. Antioxidant defense mechanisms of endothelial cells and renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro: role of the glutathione redox cycle and catalase.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, S P; Mallett, C; McAteer, J A; Williams, L V

    1992-09-01

    We recently demonstrated that endothelial cells are more susceptible than renal tubular epithelial cells to oxidant injury and that renal tubular epithelial cells with proximal tubular characteristics including porcine proximal tubular epithelial cells, opossum kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, and normal human kidney cortical epithelial cells are more susceptible to oxidant injury than the distal nephron-derived Madin Darby canine kidney cell line. To determine the basis of this differential response, we evaluated several antioxidant defenses in the five cell lines. Glutathione levels were not significantly different among the five cell lines, but catalase and glutathione reductase levels were significantly (p less than 0.01) lower in endothelial cells compared to all renal tubular epithelial cells. Among renal tubular epithelial cells, Madin Darby canine kidney cells had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher glutathione peroxidase activity. To further evaluate the role of antioxidant defenses in limiting oxidant injury, we determined two responses to oxidant injury (ATP depletion and 51Cr release) when glutathione was depleted with buthionine sulfoxamine and when catalase was inhibited with aminotriazole. Oxidant-induced ATP depletion was accentuated when catalase was inhibited as well as when glutathione was depleted with buthionine sulfoxamine. In contrast, inhibition of catalase had little or no effect on 51Cr release, whereas glutathione depletion resulted in accentuated 51Cr release. We conclude that the increased susceptibility of endothelial cells to oxidant injury as compared with epithelial cells is associated with lower antioxidant defenses. Disruption of the glutathione redox cycle results in accentuated ATP depletion and lytic injury, whereas inhibition of catalase results in accentuated ATP depletion with little effect on lytic injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Suppression of native defense mechanisms, SIRT1 and PPARγ, by dietary glycoxidants precedes disease in adult humans; relevance to lifestyle-engendered chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime; Cai, Weijing; Pyzik, Renata; Goodman, Susan; Chen, Xue; Zhu, Li; Ramdas, Maya; Striker, Gary E; Vlassara, Helen

    2014-02-01

    SIRT1 and PPARγ, host defenses regulating inflammation and metabolic functions, are suppressed under chronic high oxidant stress and inflammation (OS/Infl) conditions. In diabetes, dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) cause OS/Infl and suppress SIRT1. Herein, we ask whether dAGEs also suppress host defense in adults without diabetes. The relationships between dAGEs and basal SIRT1 mRNA, PPARγ protein levels in mononuclear cells (MNC) and circulating inflammatory/metabolic markers were examined in 67 healthy adults aged >60 years and in 18 subjects, before and after random assignment to either a standard diet (regular >15 AGE Eq/day) or an isocaloric AGE-restricted diet (<10 AGE Eq/day) for 4 months. Also, the interactions of AGEs and anti-AGE receptor-1 (AGER1) with SIRT1 and PPARγ were assessed in wild type (WT) and AGER1-transduced (AGER1(+)) MNC-like THP-1 cells. We found that dAGE, but not caloric intake, correlated negatively with MNC SIRT1 mRNA levels and positively with circulating AGEs (sAGEs), OS/infl, MNC TNFα and RAGE. Basal MNC PPARγ protein was also lower in consumers of regular vs. AGE-restricted diet. AGE restriction restored MNC SIRT1 and PPARγ, and significantly decreased sAGEs, 8-isoprostanes, VCAM-1, MNC TNFα and RAGE. Model AGEs suppressed SIRT1 protein and activity, and PPARγ protein in WT, but not in AGER1(+) cells in vitro. In conclusion, chronic consumption of high-AGE diets depletes defenses such as SIRT1 and PPARγ, independent of calories, predisposing to OS/Infl and chronic metabolic disease. Restricted entry of oral AGEs may offer a disease-prevention alternative for healthy adults.

  16. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense.

  17. Mechanism of intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiaofeng; Dai, Wei; Wu, Jie; Fang, Liping; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Pengpeng; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=40) were evenly randomized into control and COPD groups and the COPD model was established by regulated exposure to cigarette smoke for 6 months. Histopathological changes of the lung and intestinal tissues were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in the intestinal tissues were analyzed by western blotting, serum diamine oxidase (DAO) activity was detected by spectrophotometry, the urinary lactulose to mannitol ratio (L/M) was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography, and intestinal tissue secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-8 were detected by ELISA. Lung histopathology revealed thinned alveolar walls, ruptured alveolar septa, enlarged and deformed alveoli, and the formation of bullae and emphysema due to alveolar fusion in the COPD group, while intestinal histopathology indicated clearly swollen intestines with darkened and gray mucosa, neutrophil infiltration of the intestinal mucosal and regional epithelial shedding. The occludin and ZO-1 expression levels were significantly lower in the COPD group compared with those in the corresponding control group (P<0.05), while the urinary L/M ratio was significantly higher (P<0.05). Furthermore, the serum DAO activity and secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-8 in the intestinal tissues were significantly higher in the COPD group than in the control group (each P<0.05). Dysfunctional and structural changes were observed in the intestinal mucosal barrier in COPD model rats, which may be associated with the increased intestinal inflammatory responses. PMID:27588054

  18. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  19. The military insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the military insanity defense. The success of the litigated insanity defense is explored through the number of insanity acquittals over a 28-month period. A questionnaire distributed to all United States Army psychiatrists provided information on the number of forensic evaluations performed, the number of not criminally responsible (NCR) opinions made, and the disposition of noncontested NCR opinions. The questionnaire also tested the Army psychiatrists' knowledge about recent changes in the military insanity defense. This pilot study raises interesting questions about the military insanity defense that further research can address.

  20. Technologies for distributed defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  1. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  2. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  3. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process. PMID:7429737

  4. Cardiovascular function in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Visca, Dina; Aiello, Marina; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well. Skeletal mass depletion, which is a common feature in COPD especially in pulmonary emphysema patients, may have also a role in cardiovascular function of these patients, irrespective of lung damage. We reviewed the emerging evidence that highlights the role of lung mechanics and muscle mass impairment on ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and stroke work at rest and on exercise in the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Patients with emphysema may differ among COPD population even in terms of cardiovascular function.

  5. Systems pharmacology-based dissection of mechanisms of Chinese medicinal formula Bufei Yishen as an effective treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiansheng; Zhao, Peng; Li, Ya; Tian, Yange; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    The present work adopted a systems pharmacology-based approach to provide new insights into the active compounds and therapeutic targets of Bufei Yishen formula (BYF) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, we established a rat model of cigarette smoke- and bacterial infection-induced COPD to validate the mechanisms of BYF action that were predicted in systems pharmacology study. The systems pharmacology model derived 216 active compounds from BYF and 195 potential targets related to various diseases. The compound-target network showed that each herbal drug in the BYF formula acted on similar targets, suggesting potential synergistic effects among these herbal drugs. The ClueGo assay, a Cytoscape plugin, revealed that most targets were related to activation of MAP kinase and matrix metalloproteinases. By using target-diseases network analysis, we found that BYF had great potential to treatment of multiple diseases, such as respiratory tract diseases, immune system, and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we found that BYF had the ability to prevent COPD and its comorbidities, such as ventricular hypertrophy, in vivo. Moreover, BYF inhibited the inflammatory cytokine, and hypertrophic factors expression, protease-antiprotease imbalance and the collagen deposition, which may be the underlying mechanisms of action of BYF. PMID:26469778

  6. Probing Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Immune Response in the Progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Multiscale Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhichao; Yu, Haishan; Liao, Jie-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by progressive destruction of lung tissues and airway obstruction. COPD is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide and there is no curative treatment available so far. Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major risk factor for COPD. Yet, only a relatively small percentage of smokers develop the disease, showing that disease susceptibility varies significantly among smokers. As smoking cessation can prevent the disease in some smokers, quitting smoking cannot halt the progression of COPD in others. Despite extensive research efforts, cellular and molecular mechanisms of COPD remain elusive. In particular, the disease susceptibility and smoking cessation effects are poorly understood. To address these issues in this work, we develop a multiscale network model that consists of nodes, which represent molecular mediators, immune cells and lung tissues, and edges describing the interactions between the nodes. Our model study identifies several positive feedback loops and network elements playing a determinant role in the CS-induced immune response and COPD progression. The results are in agreement with clinic and laboratory measurements, offering novel insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of COPD. The study in this work also provides a rationale for targeted therapy and personalized medicine for the disease in future. PMID:27669518

  7. Managing comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Blair G; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Major risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include older age and a history of smoking, which predispose to several pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases. IPF can be associated with additional comorbidities through other mechanisms as either a cause or a consequence of these diseases. We review the literature regarding the management of common pulmonary and extra-pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, venous thromboembolism, sleep-disordered breathing, gastroesophageal reflux disease, coronary artery disease, depression and anxiety, and deconditioning. Recent studies have provided some guidance on the management of these diseases in IPF; however, most treatment recommendations are extrapolated from studies of non-IPF patients. Additional studies are required to more accurately determine the clinical features of these comorbidities in patients with IPF and to evaluate conventional treatments and management strategies that are beneficial in non-IPF populations. PMID:26451121

  8. Dynamic Immune Cell Recruitment After Murine Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus Infection under Different Immunosuppressive Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Kalleda, Natarajaswamy; Amich, Jorge; Arslan, Berkan; Poreddy, Spoorthi; Mattenheimer, Katharina; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Einsele, Hermann; Brock, Matthias; Heinze, Katrin Gertrud; Beilhack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to airborne spores of the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. However, in healthy individuals pulmonary host defense mechanisms efficiently eliminate the fungus. In contrast, A. fumigatus causes devastating infections in immunocompromised patients. Host immune responses against A. fumigatus lung infections in immunocompromised conditions have remained largely elusive. Given the dynamic changes in immune cell subsets within tissues upon immunosuppressive therapy, we dissected the spatiotemporal pulmonary immune response after A. fumigatus infection to reveal basic immunological events that fail to effectively control invasive fungal disease. In different immunocompromised murine models, myeloid, notably neutrophils, and macrophages, but not lymphoid cells were strongly recruited to the lungs upon infection. Other myeloid cells, particularly dendritic cells and monocytes, were only recruited to lungs of corticosteroid treated mice, which developed a strong pulmonary inflammation after infection. Lymphoid cells, particularly CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells and NK cells were highly reduced upon immunosuppression and not recruited after A. fumigatus infection. Moreover, adoptive CD11b+ myeloid cell transfer rescued cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed mice from lethal A. fumigatus infection but not cortisone and cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed mice. Our findings illustrate that CD11b+ myeloid cells are critical for anti-A. fumigatus defense under cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed conditions. PMID:27468286

  9. Mechanisms of Attenuation of Pulmonary V’O2 Slow Component in Humans after Prolonged Endurance Training

    PubMed Central

    Zoladz, Jerzy A.; Majerczak, Joanna; Grassi, Bruno; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michał; Gołda, Sławomir; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Kilarski, Wincenty; Karasinski, Janusz; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V’O2) kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V’O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1) performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027) in V’O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W) and in shortening of τp of the V’O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007) during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001) and a decrease in the end-exercise V’O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005). An increase (P = 0.02) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06) to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11). No significant effect of training on the V’O2peak was found (P = 0.12). However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01). The power output obtained at the V’O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003) and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001). Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes after training and decrease in the ‘‘additional” ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise. PMID:27104346

  10. Mechanisms of Attenuation of Pulmonary V'O2 Slow Component in Humans after Prolonged Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Grassi, Bruno; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michał; Gołda, Sławomir; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Kilarski, Wincenty; Karasinski, Janusz; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V'O2) kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V'O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1) performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027) in V'O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W) and in shortening of τp of the V'O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007) during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001) and a decrease in the end-exercise V'O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005). An increase (P = 0.02) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06) to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11). No significant effect of training on the V'O2peak was found (P = 0.12). However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01). The power output obtained at the V'O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003) and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001). Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes after training and decrease in the ''additional" ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise. PMID:27104346

  11. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  12. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  13. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  14. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  15. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  16. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  17. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  18. Defense Workforce Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; And Others

    This report discusses the amount and kinds of Department of Defense (DoD) interactive courseware (ICW) programs that are candidates for transfer to the private sector. Candidates for transfer were identified through an analysis of the Defense Instructional Technology Information System (DITIS). Out of 4,644 ICW programs that have been reported to…

  19. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  20. Pulmonary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, C M; Thompson, J E

    1979-07-28

    A case of pulmonary ascariasis is reported for the first time in Australia. Because of increasing immigration from countries which have a high incidence of ascariasis (especially those of South-East Asia), and increasing travel to Asian countries, the awareness of this infestation as a cause of respiratory disease may be of great importance. PMID:40103

  1. Pulmonary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R; Turk, E P

    1980-09-01

    Two cases are reported of the incidental finding of pulmonary schistosomiasis in the victims of a fatal aircraft accident. The presence of this disease had no bearing on the causation of the accident, but it gives insight into the potential hazards of dissemination of diseases by travellers. The finding also emphasises the value of routine postmortems and histology in all aircraft accident victims.

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Beth; Weyer, George

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. Patients often initially present to family physicians; however, because the symptoms are typically nonspecific or easily attributable to comorbid conditions, diagnosis can be challenging and requires a stepwise evaluation. There is limited evidence to support screening of asymptomatic individuals. Echocardiography is recommended as the initial step in the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. A definitive diagnosis cannot be made on echocardiographic abnormalities alone, and some patients require invasive evaluation by right heart catheterization. For certain categories of pulmonary hypertension, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, treatment options are rapidly evolving, and early diagnosis and prompt referral to an expert center are critical to ensure the best prognosis. There are no directed therapies for many other categories of pulmonary hypertension; therefore, family physicians have a central role in managing contributing comorbidities. Other important considerations for patients with pulmonary hypertension include influenza and pneumonia immunizations, contraception counseling, preoperative assessment, and mental health. PMID:27637122

  3. The Mechanism of the Osteoprotective Action of a Polyphenol-Rich Aronia melanocarpa Extract during Chronic Exposure to Cadmium is Mediated by the Oxidative Defense System.

    PubMed

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Rogalska, Joanna; Roszczenko, Alicja; Galazyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in a rat model that consumption of a polyphenol-rich extract obtained from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa could protect from cadmium-induced disorders in bone turnover and changes in bone mineral status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the osteoprotective effect of this extract is mediated by the oxidative defense system. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, total antioxidative and oxidative status, hydrogen peroxide, and markers of oxidative protein, lipid, and DNA damage were determined in bone tissue at the distal femoral epiphysis of female Wistar rats receiving 0.1 % aqueous A. melanocarpa extract (prepared from the lyophilized commercial extract containing 65.74 % of polyphenols) as the only drinking fluid and/or cadmium in the diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months. The total oxidative and antioxidative status of the serum was also evaluated. The administration of A. melanocarpa extract provided significant protection from cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the bone and serum, and from lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to the protein and DNA in the bone tissue. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status and markers of bone metabolism previously assayed in the animals receiving A. melanocarpa extract. The results allow the conclusion that the ability of A. melanocarpa extract to mediate the oxidative defense system and prevent oxidative modifications of protein, lipid, and DNA in the bone tissue plays an important role in its osteoprotective action under exposure to cadmium. The findings provide further evidence supporting our suggestion that chokeberry may be a promising natural agent for protection against the toxic action of cadmium in women chronically exposed to this metal.

  4. [Irony and cynicism as forms of defense].

    PubMed

    Blaser, A

    1976-01-01

    Irony and Cynicism are understood to be defense mechanisms. The principle of opposites explains Irony best: it serves the purpose of avoiding the negative affect of a state by maintaining its dialectic opposite. Irony can thus be attributed to counter-cathexis. Cynicism has already been shown in its historical development to be a form of denial with the purpose to minimize the importance of the object. Sarcasm is not a defense but a form of aggressive discharge.

  5. Multi-scale computational models of the airways to unravel the pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AirPROM)

    PubMed Central

    Burrowes, K. S.; De Backer, J.; Smallwood, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Gut, I.; Wirix-Speetjens, R.; Siddiqui, S.; Owers-Bradley, J.; Wild, J.; Maier, D.; Brightling, C.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory system comprises several scales of biological complexity: the genes, cells and tissues that work in concert to generate resultant function. Malfunctions of the structure or function of components at any spatial scale can result in diseases, to the detriment of gas exchange, right heart function and patient quality of life. Vast amounts of data emerge from studies across each of the biological scales; however, the question remains: how can we integrate and interpret these data in a meaningful way? Respiratory disease presents a huge health and economic burden, with the diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affecting over 500 million people worldwide. Current therapies are inadequate owing to our incomplete understanding of the disease pathophysiology and our lack of recognition of the enormous disease heterogeneity: we need to characterize this heterogeneity on a patient-specific basis to advance healthcare. In an effort to achieve this goal, the AirPROM consortium (Airway disease Predicting Outcomes through patient-specific computational Modelling) brings together a multi-disciplinary team and a wealth of clinical data. Together we are developing an integrated multi-scale model of the airways in order to unravel the complex pathophysiological mechanisms occurring in the diseases asthma and COPD. PMID:24427517

  6. Prevalence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Treated with Mechanical Compression Device After Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Kulkarni, Sourabh S; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after the use of a mechanical compression device only, without pharmacological thromboprophylaxis; (2) to investigate the factors associated with DVT; and (3) to investigate the natural course of DVT and PE. We reviewed consecutive series of 874 patients (1434 knees) who received treatment with a mechanical compression device only for prevention of DVT after primary TKA. The prevalence of DVT was 6.6% (94 of 1434 knees). Proximal thrombi were found in 6 of 1434 knees (0.4%). No patient had PE on perfusion lung scans. Further sonograms and venograms for the patients with thrombi at 6 months after the operation revealed that all thrombi were resolved.

  7. Central and peripheral pulmonary vascular resistance: Implications for who should undergo pulmonary thromboendarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Poullis, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy remains a technically challenging procedure with variable outcomes with regard to improvement in pulmonary function. Reducing the resistance to flow between the pulmonary valve and the pulmonary capillary bed is the key aim of surgery. The resistance to flow is due to the combination of resistance due to the central clot and distal capillary resistance. We hypothesise that the use of fluid mechanics in combination with modern radiology and electronic circuit theory can potentially predict who should or should not undergo a thromboendarterectomy. Electronic circuit theory of two resistors in series was utilised to demonstrate the concept of a model of a central clot and the peripheral pulmonary capillary bed. A simplified 2D model of the lungs utilising finite element analysis and Poiseuille's law was constructed for proof of principle. Modelling predicts that cardiac output and anatomical obstruction interplay and can have profound effects on the outcomes after thromboendarterectomy. Identical pulmonary artery pressures, due to differing cardiac outputs and identical anatomical obstructions due to thrombus can have very different physiological outcomes with regard to changes in pulmonary artery pressure. Modelling the pulmonary vasculature to determine central and peripheral pulmonary vascular resistance may help in predicting who should undergo pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Mathematical modelling can potentially predict which patients have haemodynamically significant clots in their pulmonary arteries that thromboendarterectomy may potentially help in the setting of pulmonary capillary disease. PMID:25997984

  8. Pulmonary Hypertension: Types and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jones, Lisa J; Mclaughlin, Vallerie V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a panvasculopathy that affects the distal pulmonary arteries and leads to restricted blood flow. This increased afterload leads to adaptive mechanisms of the right ventricle, with eventual failure once it can no longer compensate. Pulmonary hypertension from associated conditions, most importantly left heart disease, i.e. heart failure, can also lead to the same sequela. Patients often experience early vague symptoms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance, and thus PH can elude clinicians until right heart failure symptoms predominate. Evidence-based treatment options with pulmo-nary vasodilators are available for those with PAH and should be employed early. It is essential that patients be accurately categorized by their etiology of PH, as treatment strategies differ, and can potentially be dangerous if employed in the wrong clinical scenario. PMID:24251459

  9. [Pulmonary hypertension: definition, classification and treatments].

    PubMed

    Jutant, Etienne-Marie; Humbert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a cardio-pulmonary disorder that may involve multiple clinical conditions and can complicate the majority of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Its definition is an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) \\hbox{$\\geqslant $} ⩾ 25 mmHg at rest, leading to right heart failure and ultimately death. The clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) categorizes PH into groups which share similar pathophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics and treatments. Five groups of disorders that cause PH are identified: pulmonary arterial hypertension (Group 1) which is a pre-capillary PH, defined by a normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) \\hbox{$\\leqslant $} ⩽ 15 mmH, due to remodelling of the small pulmonary arteries (<500 μm); pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (Group 2) which is a post-capillary PH, defined by an increased pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) >15 mmHg; pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung disease and/or hypoxia (Group 3); chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (Group 4); and pulmonary hypertension due to unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms (Group 5). PAH (PH group 1) can be treated with agents targeting three dysfunctional endothelial pathways of PAH: nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endothelin-1 pathway and prostacyclin pathway. Patients at low or intermediate risk can be treated with either initial monotherapy or initial oral combination therapy. In patients at high risk initial combination therapy including intravenous prostacyclin analogues should be considered. Patients with inadequate clinical response to maximum treatment (triple therapy with an intravenous prostacyclin) should be assessed for lung transplantation. Despite progresses, PAH remains a fatal disease with a 3-year survival rate of 58%. Treatment of group 2, group 3 and group 5 PH is the treatment of the causal disease and PAH therapeutics are not recommended. Treatment of group 4 PH is

  10. [Pulmonary hypertension: definition, classification and treatments].

    PubMed

    Jutant, Etienne-Marie; Humbert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a cardio-pulmonary disorder that may involve multiple clinical conditions and can complicate the majority of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Its definition is an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) \\hbox{$\\geqslant $} ⩾ 25 mmHg at rest, leading to right heart failure and ultimately death. The clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) categorizes PH into groups which share similar pathophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics and treatments. Five groups of disorders that cause PH are identified: pulmonary arterial hypertension (Group 1) which is a pre-capillary PH, defined by a normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) \\hbox{$\\leqslant $} ⩽ 15 mmH, due to remodelling of the small pulmonary arteries (<500 μm); pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (Group 2) which is a post-capillary PH, defined by an increased pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) >15 mmHg; pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung disease and/or hypoxia (Group 3); chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (Group 4); and pulmonary hypertension due to unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms (Group 5). PAH (PH group 1) can be treated with agents targeting three dysfunctional endothelial pathways of PAH: nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endothelin-1 pathway and prostacyclin pathway. Patients at low or intermediate risk can be treated with either initial monotherapy or initial oral combination therapy. In patients at high risk initial combination therapy including intravenous prostacyclin analogues should be considered. Patients with inadequate clinical response to maximum treatment (triple therapy with an intravenous prostacyclin) should be assessed for lung transplantation. Despite progresses, PAH remains a fatal disease with a 3-year survival rate of 58%. Treatment of group 2, group 3 and group 5 PH is the treatment of the causal disease and PAH therapeutics are not recommended. Treatment of group 4 PH is

  11. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  12. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique. PMID:23421665

  13. Genetic transformation of cotton with a harpin-encoding gene hpaXoo confers an enhanced defense response against different pathogens through a priming mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Results Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34) with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Cells of the transgenic T-34, when mixed with the conidia suspension of V. dahliae, had a higher tolerance to V. dahliae compared to cells of untransformed Z35. Cells of T-34 were more viable 12 h after mixing with V. dahliae conidia suspension. Immunocytological analysis showed that Hpa1Xoo, expressed in T-34, accumulated as clustered particles along the cell walls of T-34. In response to the infection caused by V. dahliae, the microscopic cell death and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates were observed in leaves of T-34 and these responses were absent in leaves of Z35 inoculated with V. dahliae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that five defense-related genes, ghAOX1, hin1, npr1, ghdhg-OMT, and hsr203J, were up-regulated in T-34 inoculated with V. dahliae. The up-regulations of these defense-relate genes were not observed or in a less extent in leaves of Z-35 after the inoculation. Conclusions Hpa1Xoo accumulates along the cell walls of the transgenic T-34, where it triggers the generation of H2O2 as an endogenous elicitor. T-34 is thus in a primed state, ready to protect the host from the pathogen. The results of this study suggest that the transformation of cotton with hpa1Xoo could be an effective approach for the development of cotton varieties with the improved resistance against soil

  14. Influence of crystalloid and colloid fluid infusion and blood withdrawal on pulmonary bioimpedance in an animal model of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodenstein, Marc; Wang, Hemei; Boehme, Stefan; Vogt, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert; David, Matthias; Markstaller, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is considered useful for monitoring regional ventilation and aeration in intensive-care patients during mechanical ventilation. Changes in their body fluid state modify the electrical properties of lung tissue and may interfere with the EIT measurements of lung aeration. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of crystalloid and colloid infusion and blood withdrawal on bioimpedance determined by EIT in a chest cross-section. Fourteen anaesthetized mechanically ventilated pigs were subjected to interventions affecting the volume state (crystalloid and colloid infusion, blood withdrawal). Six animals received additional crystalloid fluids (fluid group) whereas eight did not (no-fluid group). Global and regional relative impedance changes (RIC, dimensionless unit) were determined by backprojection at end-expiration. Regional ventilation distribution was analyzed by calculating the tidal RIC in the same regions. Colloid infusion led to a significant fall in the global end-expiratory RIC (mean differences: fluid: -91.2, p < 0.001, no-fluid: -38.9, p < 0.001), which was partially reversed after blood withdrawal (mean differences, fluid: +45.1, p = 0.047 and no-fluid: +26.2, p = 0.009). The RIC was significantly lower in the animals with additional crystalloids (mean group difference: 45.5, p < 0.001). Global and regional tidal volumes were not significantly affected by the fluid and volume states.

  15. Effects of buthionine sulfoximine on the development of ozone-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.D.; Pickrell, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; McLaughlin, S.I.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-10-01

    The capacity of reduced glutathione (GSH) to protect lung tissue against ozone-induced pulmonary fibrosis was investigated. Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm ozone for 23 hr/day for 14 days. During exposures and/or for a period of 90 days after exposures, subgroups of mice at each exposure level were given drinking water containing 30 mM L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) to lower in vivo levels of GSH. These BSO treatments reduced blood glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) activity (regulatory enzyme for GSH biosynthesis) and lung nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in nonexposed animals by approximately half. In contrast, ozone exposures increased blood GCS activity and lung NPSH levels in a concentration-dependent manner, with smaller increases in the BSO-treated mice. Immediately after exposures, an ozone-related inflammatory response was seen in lungs, but no histopathological signs of developing fibrosis were evident. Ninety days later, mice exposed to 1 ppm ozone and not treated with BSO had modest evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. Mice exposed to 1 ppm ozone and treated with BSO during this post-exposure period (regardless of BSO treatment during exposures) showed histopathological evidence of exacerbated pulmonary fibrosis, compared to similarly exposed mice not treated with BSO postexposure. These results indicated that interference with the body's normal defense mechanisms against oxidant damage, including suppression of GSH biosynthesis, exacerbates the subsequent development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. [Pulmonary melioidosis].

    PubMed

    Perret, J L; Vidal, D; Thibault, F

    1998-12-01

    Melioidosis is most frequently encountered in pulmonary localization. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei first described by Whitmore in 1912 in Burma. B. pseudomallei is a Gram negative rod belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. Soil and water are the natural reservoirs for the germ which is a specific pathogen for several mammal species. Long endemic in Southeast Asia and several tropical zones, B. pseudomallei has recently been found in temperate zones, including France. Human contamination occurs via the transcutaneous route and often leads to dormant inapparent infection. Many conditions, such as diabetes, renal lithiasis, various circumstances of immunodepression or stress, facilitate clinical manifestations which vary greatly. Pulmonary manifestations may be acute and extensive, producing a torpid pseudo-tuberculous condition or a variety of clinical and radiological features mimicking other diseases. Bacteriological and serological tests may be negative. Exposure in an endemic zone, the notion of a favorable context, weight loss, cavitary images on successive chest x-rays and the presence of extra-pulmonary localizations may be suggestive. Ceftazidime or the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination are indicated, but mortality in acute forms still reaches 40%. Relapse can be expected if the treatment duration is too short. PMID:10100350

  17. Understanding and treating pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Pierro, M; Thébaud, B

    2014-12-01

    Lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension are classical features of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and represent the main determinants of survival. The mechanisms leading to pulmonary hypertension in this malformation are still poorly understood, but may combine altered vasoreactivity, pulmonary artery remodeling, and a hypoplastic pulmonary vascular bed. Efforts have been directed at correcting the "reversible" component of pulmonary hypertension of CDH. However, pulmonary hypertension in CDH is often refractory to pulmonary vasodilators. A new emerging pattern of late (months after birth) and chronic (months to years after birth) pulmonary hypertension are described in CDH survivors. The true incidence and implications for outcome and management need to be confirmed by follow-up studies from referral centers with high patient output. In order to develop more efficient strategies to treat pulmonary hypertension and improve survival in most severe cases, the ultimate therapeutic goal would be to promote lung and vascular growth. PMID:25456753

  18. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  19. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  20. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  2. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  3. Respiratory system part 1: pulmonary ventilation.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the respiratory system, describes the anatomy of the respiratory system and explains the mechanics of respiration. It provides a brief overview of three common respiratory disorders: pneumonia, pulmonary embolism and pulmonary tuberculosis. The second article discusses gaseous exchange and the control of ventilation in more detail.

  4. Presurgical Pulmonary Evaluation in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sonu; Molmenti, Ernesto; Bhaskaran, Madhu C.; Ali, Nicole; Basu, Amit; Talwar, Arunabh

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) due to various mechanisms are prone to significant pulmonary comorbidities. With the improvements in renal replacement therapy (RRT), patients with CRF are now expected to live longer, and thus may develop complications in the lung from these processes. The preferred treatment of CRF is kidney transplantation and patients who are selected to undergo transplant must have a thorough preoperative pulmonary evaluation to assess pulmonary status and to determine risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. A MEDLINE®/PubMed® search was performed to identify all articles outlining the course of pre-surgical pulmonary evaluation with an emphasis on patients with CRF who have been selected for renal transplant. Literature review concluded that in addition to generic pre-surgical evaluation, renal transplant patients must also undergo a full cardiopulmonary and sleep evaluation to investigate possible existing pulmonary pathologies. Presence of any risk factor should then be aggressively managed or treated prior to surgery. PMID:25599047

  5. Non-infectious Pulmonary Diseases and HIV.

    PubMed

    Triplette, M; Crothers, K; Attia, E F

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary complications remain among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with HIV despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and improvement in its efficacy and availability. The prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary diseases is rising in this population, reflecting both an increase in smoking and the independent risk associated with HIV. The unique mechanisms of pulmonary disease in these patients remain poorly understood, and direct effects of HIV, genetic predisposition, inflammatory pathways, and co-infections have all been implicated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension are the most prevalent non-infectious pulmonary diseases in persons with HIV, and the risk of each of these diseases is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) persons than in the general population. This review discusses the latest advances in the literature on these important complications of HIV infection. PMID:27121734

  6. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  7. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and ‘instruct’ the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  8. A common Shox2-Nkx2-5 antagonistic mechanism primes the pacemaker cell fate in the pulmonary vein myocardium and sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenduo; Wang, Jun; Song, Yingnan; Yu, Diankun; Sun, Cheng; Liu, Chao; Chen, Fading; Zhang, Yanding; Wang, Fen; Harvey, Richard P; Schrader, Laura; Martin, James F; Chen, YiPing

    2015-07-15

    In humans, atrial fibrillation is often triggered by ectopic pacemaking activity in the myocardium sleeves of the pulmonary vein (PV) and systemic venous return. The genetic programs that abnormally reinforce pacemaker properties at these sites and how this relates to normal sinoatrial node (SAN) development remain uncharacterized. It was noted previously that Nkx2-5, which is expressed in the PV myocardium and reinforces a chamber-like myocardial identity in the PV, is lacking in the SAN. Here we present evidence that in mice Shox2 antagonizes the transcriptional output of Nkx2-5 in the PV myocardium and in a functional Nkx2-5(+) domain within the SAN to determine cell fate. Shox2 deletion in the Nkx2-5(+) domain of the SAN caused sick sinus syndrome, associated with the loss of the pacemaker program. Explanted Shox2(+) cells from the embryonic PV myocardium exhibited pacemaker characteristics including node-like electrophysiological properties and the capability to pace surrounding Shox2(-) cells. Shox2 deletion led to Hcn4 ablation in the developing PV myocardium. Nkx2-5 hypomorphism rescued the requirement for Shox2 for the expression of genes essential for SAN development in Shox2 mutants. Similarly, the pacemaker-like phenotype induced in the PV myocardium in Nkx2-5 hypomorphs reverted back to a working myocardial phenotype when Shox2 was simultaneously deleted. A similar mechanism is also adopted in differentiated embryoid bodies. We found that Shox2 interacts with Nkx2-5 directly, and discovered a substantial genome-wide co-occupancy of Shox2, Nkx2-5 and Tbx5, further supporting a pivotal role for Shox2 in the core myogenic program orchestrating venous pole and pacemaker development.

  9. A common Shox2–Nkx2-5 antagonistic mechanism primes the pacemaker cell fate in the pulmonary vein myocardium and sinoatrial node

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenduo; Wang, Jun; Song, Yingnan; Yu, Diankun; Sun, Cheng; Liu, Chao; Chen, Fading; Zhang, Yanding; Wang, Fen; Harvey, Richard P.; Schrader, Laura; Martin, James F.; Chen, YiPing

    2015-01-01

    In humans, atrial fibrillation is often triggered by ectopic pacemaking activity in the myocardium sleeves of the pulmonary vein (PV) and systemic venous return. The genetic programs that abnormally reinforce pacemaker properties at these sites and how this relates to normal sinoatrial node (SAN) development remain uncharacterized. It was noted previously that Nkx2-5, which is expressed in the PV myocardium and reinforces a chamber-like myocardial identity in the PV, is lacking in the SAN. Here we present evidence that in mice Shox2 antagonizes the transcriptional output of Nkx2-5 in the PV myocardium and in a functional Nkx2-5+ domain within the SAN to determine cell fate. Shox2 deletion in the Nkx2-5+ domain of the SAN caused sick sinus syndrome, associated with the loss of the pacemaker program. Explanted Shox2+ cells from the embryonic PV myocardium exhibited pacemaker characteristics including node-like electrophysiological properties and the capability to pace surrounding Shox2− cells. Shox2 deletion led to Hcn4 ablation in the developing PV myocardium. Nkx2-5 hypomorphism rescued the requirement for Shox2 for the expression of genes essential for SAN development in Shox2 mutants. Similarly, the pacemaker-like phenotype induced in the PV myocardium in Nkx2-5 hypomorphs reverted back to a working myocardial phenotype when Shox2 was simultaneously deleted. A similar mechanism is also adopted in differentiated embryoid bodies. We found that Shox2 interacts with Nkx2-5 directly, and discovered a substantial genome-wide co-occupancy of Shox2, Nkx2-5 and Tbx5, further supporting a pivotal role for Shox2 in the core myogenic program orchestrating venous pole and pacemaker development. PMID:26138475

  10. Pulmonary vascular stiffness: measurement, modeling, and implications in normal and hypertensive pulmonary circulations.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lammers, Steven R; Shandas, Robin

    2011-07-01

    This article introduces the concept of pulmonary vascular stiffness, discusses its increasingly recognized importance as a diagnostic marker in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease, and describes methods to measure and model it clinically, experimentally, and computationally. It begins with a description of systems-level methods to evaluate pulmonary vascular compliance and recent clinical efforts in applying such techniques to better predict patient outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension. It then progresses from the systems-level to the local level, discusses proposed methods by which upstream pulmonary vessels increase in stiffness, introduces concepts around vascular mechanics, and concludes by describing recent work incorporating advanced numerical methods to more thoroughly evaluate changes in local mechanical properties of pulmonary arteries. PMID:23733649

  11. Pulmonary Vascular Stiffness: Measurement, Modeling, and Implications in Normal and Hypertensive Pulmonary Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lammers, Steven R.; Shandas, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of pulmonary vascular stiffness, discusses its increasingly recognized importance as a diagnostic marker in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease, and describes methods to measure and model it clinically, experimentally, and computationally. It begins with a description of systems-level methods to evaluate pulmonary vascular compliance and recent clinical efforts in applying such techniques to better predict patient outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension. It then progresses from the systems-level to the local level, discusses proposed methods by which upstream pulmonary vessels increase in stiffness, introduces concepts around vascular mechanics, and concludes by describing recent work incorporating advanced numerical methods to more thoroughly evaluate changes in local mechanical properties of pulmonary arteries. PMID:23733649

  12. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. NK cell in pulmonary tuberculosis from basic and clinical point of view].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, T

    1996-11-01

    Although natural killer (NK) cells, which lyse certain tumors in vitro, have been shown to provide early defense mechanism against cancer growth and viral infection, possible role in the host defense against pulmonary tuberculosis remains undefined. A series of my studies have recently provided several evidence supporting the involvement of NK cells in the immunopathology of pulmonary tuberculosis. NK cell activity in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly augmented compared with that in age-, sex- matched healthy controls, which suggests NK cells are activated in vivo in pulmonary tuberculosis. Lung NK cells from BCG-infected mice also are shown to be activated. Asialo GM 1 was demonstrated to be a novel surface marker of mice NK cells, which inhibited activation of NK cells by interferon. Chronic intractable tuberculosis was classified with a combination of NK cell activity and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to 2, 4-dinitrochrolbenzene. Subgroup defined with high NK cell activity and normal delayed-type hypersensitivity was characterized with moderate radiographical lesions and stable clinical course, suggesting the immune-spectrum classification was associated with clinical manifestations. Malnutrition has been suggested to be a risk factor associated with the development and reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. NK cell activity was significantly correlated with visceral proteins. IL-2 producing capability was significantly decreased in patients with serum albumin less than 3.5 g/dl. More recently, I established an in vitro system evaluating quantitative capability for intracellular killing by human monocytes, in which monocyte phagocytize Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subsequently inhibit intracellular replication of the organisms by adding some cytokines or cells. Purified NK cells by using discontinuous gradient centrifugation and magnetic separation technique were added to M. tuberculosis-infected monocytes monolayer

  13. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. NK cell in pulmonary tuberculosis from basic and clinical point of view].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, T

    1996-11-01

    Although natural killer (NK) cells, which lyse certain tumors in vitro, have been shown to provide early defense mechanism against cancer growth and viral infection, possible role in the host defense against pulmonary tuberculosis remains undefined. A series of my studies have recently provided several evidence supporting the involvement of NK cells in the immunopathology of pulmonary tuberculosis. NK cell activity in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly augmented compared with that in age-, sex- matched healthy controls, which suggests NK cells are activated in vivo in pulmonary tuberculosis. Lung NK cells from BCG-infected mice also are shown to be activated. Asialo GM 1 was demonstrated to be a novel surface marker of mice NK cells, which inhibited activation of NK cells by interferon. Chronic intractable tuberculosis was classified with a combination of NK cell activity and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to 2, 4-dinitrochrolbenzene. Subgroup defined with high NK cell activity and normal delayed-type hypersensitivity was characterized with moderate radiographical lesions and stable clinical course, suggesting the immune-spectrum classification was associated with clinical manifestations. Malnutrition has been suggested to be a risk factor associated with the development and reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. NK cell activity was significantly correlated with visceral proteins. IL-2 producing capability was significantly decreased in patients with serum albumin less than 3.5 g/dl. More recently, I established an in vitro system evaluating quantitative capability for intracellular killing by human monocytes, in which monocyte phagocytize Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subsequently inhibit intracellular replication of the organisms by adding some cytokines or cells. Purified NK cells by using discontinuous gradient centrifugation and magnetic separation technique were added to M. tuberculosis-infected monocytes monolayer

  14. Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Ricardo de Amorim; Silva, Luciana Cristina dos Santos; Rezende, Cláudia Juliana; Bernardes, Rodrigo Castro; Prata, Tarciane Aline; Silva, Henrique Lima

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery dissection is a fatal complication of long-standing pulmonary hypertension, manifesting as acute, stabbing chest pain, progressive dyspnea, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death. Its incidence has been underestimated, and therapeutic options are still scarce. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, new chest pain, acute chest pain, or cardiogenic shock should raise the suspicion of pulmonary artery dissection, which can result in sudden death. PMID:23670510

  15. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Uçvet, Ahmet; Tözüm, Halil; Gürsoy, Soner; Gülle, Ali Alper; Yaldiz, Sadik; Aydoğdu Dinç, Zekiye

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is a rare fibrosing nodular disease of the lung characterized by solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules. They can occur after inflammatory or post-inflammatory changes. A 60 years old asymptomatic patient admitted to our clinic because of a solid mass of 6 cm in his routine chest radiography. A lobectomy was performed and the histological diagnosis was reported as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This case, mimicking pulmonary carcinoma, is rarely found in the literature. PMID:16615022

  16. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  17. Pulmonary but Not Subcutaneous Delivery of BCG Vaccine Confers Protection to Tuberculosis-Susceptible Mice by an Interleukin 17-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Aguilo, Nacho; Alvarez-Arguedas, Samuel; Uranga, Santiago; Marinova, Dessislava; Monzón, Marta; Badiola, Juan; Martin, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Some of the most promising novel tuberculosis vaccine strategies currently under development are based on respiratory vaccination, mimicking the natural route of infection. In this work, we have compared pulmonary and subcutaneous delivery of BCG vaccine in the tuberculosis-susceptible DBA/2 mouse strain, a model in which parenterally administered BCG vaccine does not protect against tuberculosis. Our data show that intranasally but not subcutaneously administered BCG confers robust protection against pulmonary tuberculosis challenge. In addition, our results indicate that pulmonary vaccination triggers a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific mucosal immune response orchestrated by interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Thus, IL-17A neutralization in vivo reduces protection and abrogates M. tuberculosis-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion to respiratory airways and lung expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor induced following intranasal vaccination. Together, our results demonstrate that pulmonary delivery of BCG can overcome the lack of protection observed when BCG is given parenterally, suggesting that respiratory tuberculosis vaccines could have an advantage in tuberculosis-endemic countries, where intradermally administered BCG has inefficient effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis.

  18. Pulmonary but Not Subcutaneous Delivery of BCG Vaccine Confers Protection to Tuberculosis-Susceptible Mice by an Interleukin 17-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Aguilo, Nacho; Alvarez-Arguedas, Samuel; Uranga, Santiago; Marinova, Dessislava; Monzón, Marta; Badiola, Juan; Martin, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Some of the most promising novel tuberculosis vaccine strategies currently under development are based on respiratory vaccination, mimicking the natural route of infection. In this work, we have compared pulmonary and subcutaneous delivery of BCG vaccine in the tuberculosis-susceptible DBA/2 mouse strain, a model in which parenterally administered BCG vaccine does not protect against tuberculosis. Our data show that intranasally but not subcutaneously administered BCG confers robust protection against pulmonary tuberculosis challenge. In addition, our results indicate that pulmonary vaccination triggers a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific mucosal immune response orchestrated by interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Thus, IL-17A neutralization in vivo reduces protection and abrogates M. tuberculosis-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion to respiratory airways and lung expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor induced following intranasal vaccination. Together, our results demonstrate that pulmonary delivery of BCG can overcome the lack of protection observed when BCG is given parenterally, suggesting that respiratory tuberculosis vaccines could have an advantage in tuberculosis-endemic countries, where intradermally administered BCG has inefficient effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26494773

  19. In vivo bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, A R; Levitz, S M; Diamond, R D

    1984-11-01

    The ability of bronchoalveolar macrophages from normal, diabetic, and cortisone-treated mice to inhibit spore germination and kill fungal spores in vivo was investigated. The data indicated that the normal host controls different fungal infections in the lungs by different mechanisms. Prevention of mucormycosis required inhibition of fungal spore germination by alveolar macrophages. In contrast, pulmonary defense against aspergillosis depended on early killing of conidia by alveolar macrophages and not on inhibition of germination by bronchoalveolar macrophages. Bronchoalveolar macrophages in diabetic and cortisone-treated animals allowed fungal spore germination, thereby permitting infection by Rhizopus oryzae. In the cortisone-treated mouse, bronchoalveolar macrophages did not kill fungal conidia and progressive infection by Aspergillus fumigatus occurred. Fungicidal activity of bronchoalveolar macrophages was measured with a new in vivo killing assay.

  20. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  1. Amphibian defenses against ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Andrew R; Belden, Lisa K

    2003-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, amphibian populations throughout the world are disappearing. There are a number of potential causes for these declines, including those related to environmental changes such as increasing ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion. UV-B radiation can kill amphibian embryos or can cause sublethal effects that can harm amphibians in later life stages. However, amphibians have defenses against UV-B damage that can limit damage or repair it after exposure to UV-B radiation. These include behavioral, physiological, and molecular defenses. These defenses differ interspecifically, with some species more able to cope with exposure to UV-B than others. Unfortunately, the defense mechanisms of many species may not be effective against increasing persistent levels of UV-B radiation that have only been present for the past several decades due to human-induced environmental damage. Moreover, we predict that persistent UV-B-induced mortality and sublethal damage in species without adequate defenses could lead to changes in community structure. In this article we review the effects of UV-B radiation on amphibians and the defenses they use to avoid solar radiation and make some predictions regarding community structure in light of interspecific differences in UV-B tolerance. PMID:12492415

  2. Pulmonary antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, E.J.; Grose, E.C.; Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.

    1987-05-01

    One of the most vital of the cellular defenses against pollution is an antioxidant armanentarium which consists of oxidant scavenging molecules such as vitamin E, glutathione, vitamin C, and uric acid as well as a number of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, semidehydroascorbate reductase, catalase, GSH synthetase, GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, and GSH transferase) and appears to function in keeping oxidant forces under control. Pollutants can upset the oxidant/antioxidant balance of cells by inhibiting vital enzymes, by reacting with oxidant scavengers, or by forming free radical intermediates which initiate uncontrolled tissue reactions with molecular oxygen. The book chapter reviews possible interactions between pollutants and the oxidant/antioxidant balance.

  3. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  4. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  5. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  6. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections

    PubMed Central

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  7. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    SciTech Connect

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  8. In Defense of Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandel, Vicki

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her views in defense of writing rubrics. She explains that when rubrics are thoughtfully crafted and used with discretion and understanding, they can be among the most useful instructional tools that teachers have. A rubric captures the essence of performance at various levels. Because rubric demands…

  9. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  10. Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, MS; Wynn, TA

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms of pulmonary wound-healing responses following lung injury, and highlights the pathogenesis of some of the most widespread pulmonary fibrotic diseases. A three phase model of wound repair is reviewed that includes; (1) injury; (2) inflammation; and (3) repair. In most pulmonary fibrotic conditions dysregulation at one or more of these phases has been reported. Chronic inflammation can lead to an imbalance in the production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and disrupt cellular recruitment. These changes coupled with excessive pro-fibrotic IL-13 and/or TGFβ1 production can turn a well-controlled healing response into a pathogenic fibrotic response. Endogenous regulatory mechanisms are discussed including novel areas of therapeutic intervention. Restoring homeostasis to these dysregulated healing responses, or simply neutralizing the key pro-fibrotic mediators may prevent or slow the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:19129758

  11. Iron chelation inhibits the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Ming; Preston, Ioana R; Hill, Nicholas S; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2012-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Because iron is an important regulator of ROS biology, this study examined the effects of iron chelation on the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling. The administration of an iron chelator, deferoxamine, to rats prevented chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Various iron chelators inhibited the growth of cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Protein carbonylation, an important iron-dependent biological event, was promoted in association with pulmonary vascular remodeling and cell growth. A proteomic approach identified that Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (a negative regulator of RhoA) is carbonylated. In human plasma, the protein carbonyl content was significantly higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension than in healthy controls. These results suggest that iron plays an important role in the ROS-dependent mechanism underlying the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Iron chelation inhibits the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi-Ming; Preston, Ioana R.; Hill, Nicholas S.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Since iron is an important regulator of ROS biology, the present study examined the effect of iron chelation on the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling. The administration of an iron chelator, deferoxamine, to rats prevented chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Various iron chelators inhibited growth of cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Protein carbonylation, an important iron-dependent biological event, was promoted in association with pulmonary vascular remodeling and cell growth. A proteomic approach identified that Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (a negative regulator of RhoA) is carbonylated. In human plasma, the protein carbonyl content was significantly higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension than in healthy controls. These results suggest that iron plays an important role in the ROS-dependent mechanism underlying the development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22974762

  13. Immunosuppression of pulmonary natural killer activity by exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, G.R.; Keyes, L.L.; Stutzman, J.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Ozone is an oxidant gas and an ubiquitous oxidant air pollutant with the potential to adversely affect pulmonary immune function with a consequent increase in disease susceptibility. Pulmonary natural killer (NK) activity was measured in order to assess the pulmonary immunotoxicity of continuous ozone exposure. Continuous ozone exposures at 1.0 ppm were performed for 23.5 hours per day for either 1, 5, 7, or 10 consecutive days. Pulmonary immune function was assessed by measuring natural killer (NK) activity from whole-lung homogenates of male Fischer-344 rats. Results of this study indicated that continuous ozone exposure for 1, 5, or 7 days resulted in a significant decrease in pulmonary NK activity. This suppressed pulmonary NK activity returned to control levels after continuous exposure to ozone for 10 days. The suppressed pulmonary NK response was thus attenuated and returned to normal values in the continued presence of ozone gas. This attenuation process is dynamic, complex, and doubtless involves several cell types and/or products of these cells. Pulmonary NK activity was also suppressed at 0.5 ppm ozone, but not at 0.1 ppm ozone, following 23.5 hours of exposure. NK activity is important for defense against viral, bacterial, and neoplastic disease. The depressed NK activity resulting from continuous ozone exposure could therefore result in a compromised ability to defend against pulmonary diseases.

  14. Pulmonary edema of scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Hampson, N B; Dunford, R G

    1997-01-01

    A syndrome of acute pulmonary edema has been previously reported among scuba divers in cold, European waters. Because of the temperatures involved, the name "cold-induced pulmonary edema" was coined in the original 1989 description. We report six individuals who developed the identical syndrome, five while diving in Puget Sound and one in the Gulf of Mexico. The four women and two men ranged in age from 24 to 60 yr. They experienced one to six episodes apiece, each with the development severe dyspnea at depth without excessive exertion. Associated symptoms included cough, weakness, expectoration of froth, chest discomfort, orthopnea, wheezing, hemoptysis, and dizziness. Emergency medical evaluation of four divers revealed rales on examination and pulmonary edema on chest radiograph. In one diver with pulmonary edema on chest radiograph, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was normal when measured acutely. Symptoms resolved either spontaneously over 1-2 days or with standard medial treatment for pulmonary edema. Prior history of cardiovascular disease was negative except for hypertension and mitral valve prolapse in one diver. Cardiac evaluations following recovery from the acute episodes were normal. Episodes in the cold waters of Puget Sound sometimes occurred despite the use of dry suits. Furthermore, one diver developed recurrent episodes in 27 degrees C water off Cozumel, Mexico. Development of