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Sample records for pulmonary neuroendocrine cells

  1. Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanis...

  2. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    García-Fontán, Eva; Blanco Ramos, Montserrat; García, Jose Soro; Carrasco, Rommel; Cañizares, Miguel Ángel; González Piñeiro, Ana

    2018-05-19

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare disorder characterized by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is classically described as a disease with persistent cough, dyspnea and wheezing in non-smoker middle aged females. CT of the chest reveals diffuse air trapping with mosaic pattern. We present two cases of DIPNECH that were sent to our department to perform a lung biopsy with the diagnostic suspicion of diffuse interstitial disease. Both cases were women with a history of chronic cough and moderate effort dyspnea. The aim of this paper is that physicians take into account this diagnostic entity before treating as an asthmatic a patient with these characteristics, not forgetting that they are prenoplastic lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. High expression of neutral endopeptidase in idiopathic diffuse hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A J; King, T E; Gilman, L B; Magill-Solc, C; Miller, Y E

    1998-11-01

    Idiopathic diffuse hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (IDHPNC) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by a diffuse hyperplasia of neuroendocrine cells involving distal bronchi and bronchioles. The pathogenesis of this syndrome remains unknown. The hyperplastic neuroendocrine (NE) cells contain multiple neuropeptides, including the bombesinlike peptides (BLP), which are likely important in the pathogenesis of the disorder by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts in a paracrine fashion and the NE cells themselves in an autocrine manner. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a cell-surface enzyme that hydrolyzes BLP and other bioactive peptides. Low or undetectable NEP is present in many primary lung cancers and cell lines. Low NEP expression could increase neuropeptide-induced autocrine effects by increasing local levels of neuropeptides. We hypothesized that IDHPNC was associated with low or absent NEP expression. NEP expression was assayed in patients with IDHPNC (n = 3) and was compared with expression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 5), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 5), and normal lung (n = 4) using immunohistochemistry, ELISA, activity assay, and Western blot analysis. By these assays, NEP expression was highest in lungs affected by IDHPNC. NEP mRNA, as assessed in IDHPNC lung tissue by RT-PCR, was the expected size and free of mutation between bp 238-2437. Therefore, IDHPNC is unlikely to be the result of a defect in NEP expression. The apparent increase in NEP expression in lung tissue from patients with IDHPNC may reflect a compensatory increase that partly counteracts abundant neuropeptides, including BLP, present in this disorder.

  4. [Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (dipnech) - an overview of the cases diagnosed at the department of thoracic surgery in the years 2010-2014].

    PubMed

    Stefański, Mariusz; Bruliński, Krzysztof; Stefańska, Marianna

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are present in the normal lungs with the incidence of 1 in 2500 epithelial cells. They usually proliferate in the presence of reactive processes related to inflammation and fibrosis of the lung parenchyma. The division of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia proposed by Travis et al. additionally distinguished diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) or proliferation that occurs in people without reactive hyperplasia risk factors. The confirmation of the DIPNECH diagnosis requires staining of biopsy specimens using the immunohistochemical technique for neuroendocrine markers. The aim of this study is to overview the cases of 5 patients in whom the histopathological DIPNECH diagnosis was made in the process of invasive diagnostics performed at the Department of Thoracic Surgery. The aim of the study is to evaluate typical clinical, functional, radiological and histopathological features of this rare disease syndrome. In the period from April 2010 to June 2014, five patients with lesions in the lungs were subjected to invasive diagnostics. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the collected specimens were used to make the DIPNECH diagnosis in these patients. The natural history of the disease was traced based on a 5-year follow-up in one of the patients. In addition, we analyzed the literature with regard to the described cases. Thanks to the early diagnosis of non-specific lesions in the lungs, typical carcinoid which develops on the basis of discussed DIPNECH, was found in the resected material in two out of five operated patients. The accurate diagnosis of DIPNECH allows for the implementation of appropriate treatment and channels further management of the patient into the right direction.

  5. Evaluation of somatostatin receptors in large cell pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Nocuń, Anna; Chrapko, Beata; Gołębiewska, Renata; Stefaniak, Bogusław; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta

    2011-06-01

    Large cell pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a poorly differentiated and high-grade neoplasm. It is positioned between an atypical carcinoid and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung in a distinct family of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of our study was to detect somatostatin receptors in this uncommon malignancy and to evaluate the sensitivity of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in LCNEC staging. We analyzed data of 26 patients (mean age: 61.5±7.9 years) with histologically confirmed diagnosis of LCNEC, including 18 cases not treated surgically and eight patients after the resection of the primary tumor. SRS was carried out with technetium-99m ethylene diamine-diacetic acid/hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (Tc-TOC). A visual analysis of scintigraphic images was done with reference to conventional imaging modalities (computed tomography and bone sicintigraphy). SRS sensitivity for the detection of primary lesions, supradiaphragmatic metastases, and infradiaphragmatic metastases was 100, 83.3%, and 0%, respectively. Five out of 13 metastases to the liver appeared on SRS as photopenic foci, visible on the background of physiological hepatic activity. Only one of the nine metastases to the skeletal system was found by SRS with sensitivity as low as 11.1%. The overall SRS sensitivity for the detection of secondary lesions and of all lesions was 54.8 and 62.2%, respectively. Within a rather large series of LCNEC, the primary tumor showed an uptake of Tc-TOC in all cases, whereas some metastases did show Tc-TOC uptake and some others did not.

  6. Integrative genomic profiling of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas reveals distinct subtypes of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.

    PubMed

    George, Julie; Walter, Vonn; Peifer, Martin; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Seidel, Danila; Leenders, Frauke; Maas, Lukas; Müller, Christian; Dahmen, Ilona; Delhomme, Tiffany M; Ardin, Maude; Leblay, Noemie; Byrnes, Graham; Sun, Ruping; De Reynies, Aurélien; McLeer-Florin, Anne; Bosco, Graziella; Malchers, Florian; Menon, Roopika; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Nürnberg, Peter; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Schneider, Peter M; Bogus, Magdalena; Soloway, Matthew G; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Cun, Yupeng; McKay, James D; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Brambilla, Christian G; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Lemaitre, Nicolas; Soltermann, Alex; Weder, Walter; Tischler, Verena; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Lund-Iversen, Marius; Helland, Åslaug; Solberg, Steinar; Ansén, Sascha; Wright, Gavin; Solomon, Benjamin; Roz, Luca; Pastorino, Ugo; Petersen, Iver; Clement, Joachim H; Sänger, Jörg; Wolf, Jürgen; Vingron, Martin; Zander, Thomas; Perner, Sven; Travis, William D; Haas, Stefan A; Olivier, Magali; Foll, Matthieu; Büttner, Reinhard; Hayes, David Neil; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Thomas, Roman K

    2018-03-13

    Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs) have similarities with other lung cancers, but their precise relationship has remained unclear. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic (n = 60) and transcriptomic (n = 69) analysis of 75 LCNECs and identify two molecular subgroups: "type I LCNECs" with bi-allelic TP53 and STK11/KEAP1 alterations (37%), and "type II LCNECs" enriched for bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1 (42%). Despite sharing genomic alterations with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, no transcriptional relationship was found; instead LCNECs form distinct transcriptional subgroups with closest similarity to SCLC. While type I LCNECs and SCLCs exhibit a neuroendocrine profile with ASCL1 high /DLL3 high /NOTCH low , type II LCNECs bear TP53 and RB1 alterations and differ from most SCLC tumors with reduced neuroendocrine markers, a pattern of ASCL1 low /DLL3 low /NOTCH high , and an upregulation of immune-related pathways. In conclusion, LCNECs comprise two molecularly defined subgroups, and distinguishing them from SCLC may allow stratified targeted treatment of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.

  7. Notch-1 regulates pulmonary neuroendocrine cell differentiation in cell lines and in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lin; Aster, Jon C; Sklar, Jeffrey; Sunday, Mary E

    2007-02-01

    The notch gene family encodes transmembrane receptors that regulate cell differentiation by interacting with surface ligands on adjacent cells. Previously, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell differentiation in H82, but not H526, undifferentiated small cell lung carcinoma lines. We now test the hypothesis that TNF mediates NE cell differentiation in part by altering Notch gene expression. First, using RT-PCR, we determined that TNF treatment of H82, but not H526, transiently decreases notch-1 mRNA in parallel with induction of gene expression for the NE-specific marker DOPA decarboxylase (DDC). Second, we treated H82 and H526 with notch-1 antisense vs. sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Using quantitative RT-PCR and Western analyses we demonstrate that DDC mRNA and protein are increased in H82 by notch-1 antisense, whereas notch-1 mRNA and activated Notch-1 protein are decreased. mRNA for Hes1, a transcription factor downstream from activated Notch, is also decreased by Notch-1 antisense in H82 but not H526. After 7 days of Notch-1 antisense treatment, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) immunoreactivity is induced in H82 but not H526. Third, we generated transgenic mice bearing notch-1 driven by the neural/NE-specific calcitonin promoter, which express activated Notch-1 in developing lung epithelium. Newborn NotchCal mouse lungs have high levels of hes1 mRNA, reflecting increased activated Notch, compared with wild-type. NotchCal lungs have decreased CGRP-positive NE cells, decreased protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)-positive NE cells, and decreased gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), CGRP, and DDC mRNA levels compared with normal littermates. Cumulatively, these observations provide further support for a role for Notch-1 signaling in regulating pulmonary NE cell differentiation.

  8. Mechanical stretch-induced serotonin release from pulmonary neuroendocrine cells: implications for lung development.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Copland, Ian; Post, Martin; Yeger, Herman; Cutz, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) produce amine (serotonin, 5-HT) and peptides (e.g., bombesin, calcitonin) with growth factor-like properties and are thought to play an important role in lung development. Because physical forces are essential for lung growth and development, we investigated the effects of mechanical strain on 5-HT release in PNEC freshly isolated from rabbit fetal lung and in the PNEC-related tumor H727 cell line. Cultures exposed to sinusoidal cyclic stretch showed a significant 5-HT release inhibitable with gadolinium chloride (10 nM), a blocker of mechanosensitive channels. In contrast to hypoxia (Po2 approximately 20 mmHg), stretch-induced 5-HT release was not affected by Ca2+-free medium or nifedipine (50 microM), excluding the exocytic pathway. In H727 cells, stretch failed to release calcitonin, a peptide stored within dense core vesicles (DCV), whereas hypoxia caused massive calcitonin release. 5-HT released by mechanical stretch is derived predominantly from the cytoplasmic pool, because it is rapid ( approximately 5 min) and is releasable from early (20 days of gestation) fetal PNEC containing few DCV. Both mechanical stretch and hypoxia upregulated expression of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT synthesis. We conclude that mechanical strain is an important physiological stimulus for the release of 5-HT from PNEC via mechanosensitive channels with potential effects on lung development and resorption of lung fluid at the time of birth.

  9. A Population-Based Analysis of Application of WHO Nomenclature in Pathology Reports of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Derks, Jules L; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Thunnissen, Erik; den Bakker, Michael A; Smit, Egbert F; Groen, Harry J M; Speel, Ernst J M; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are difficult to classify. We performed a population-based analysis to investigate the application of pNET nomenclature in daily pathology practice. Conclusions from pathology reports (2003-2012) describing carcinoids, (large cell) neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), and carcinomas with neuroendocrine features/differentiation were retrieved from the Dutch Pathology Registry by queries on location and diagnosis and screened for terminology. Cases with a nonpulmonary or unknown origin and small cell lung cancer were excluded. Diagnoses were clustered into subgroups and the retrieved terminology was compared with the 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnoses. By means of an online questionnaire, interpretation of the non-WHO nomenclature retrieved from pathology reports was evaluated (by 35 physicians and 19 pathologists). A total of 3216 unique pathology report conclusions with 55 different pNET diagnoses (n = 3052) and 20 uncertain diagnoses (n = 164) were analyzed. Non-WHO nomenclature was used in 15% of diagnoses (n = 488). Diagnoses could be clustered into carcinoids (n = 1086), NEC (n = 1316), carcinomas with neuroendocrine features/differentiation (n = 624), and unspecified pNETs (n = 26). Non-WHO nomenclature within these clusters was found for 7% of carcinoids, 20% of NECs, 13% of carcinomas with neuroendocrine features/differentiation, and 100% of unspecified pNETs and was observed more often in conclusions regarding biopsy or cytological specimens (62% and 12%) compared with resection specimens (26%). Analysis of the questionnaire results revealed that 4 of 19 diagnoses based on non-WHO nomenclature were uniformly interpreted (>50% agreement) by physicians, as were 10 of 19 diagnoses by pathologists. In 15% of pNETs other than small cell lung cancer, a non-WHO nomenclature diagnosis was provided, more frequently on the basis of smaller specimens. The interpretation was different between physicians and

  10. Pathology of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Female Genital Tract.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Kelly, Paul; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014. The term ovarian small-cell carcinoma of pulmonary type is included in WHO 2014 for a tumour which in other organs is termed high small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuroendocrine tumours at various sites within the female genital tract often occur in association with other neoplasms and more uncommonly in pure form.

  11. Classification of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors: new insights.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Sonzogni, Angelica; Harari, Sergio; Albini, Adriana; Bresaola, Enrica; Marchiò, Caterina; Massa, Federica; Righi, Luisella; Gatti, Gaia; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Vijayvergia, Namrata; Calabrese, Fiorella; Papotti, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (Lu-NETs) embrace a heterogeneous family of neoplasms classified into four histological variants, namely typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Defining criteria on resection specimens include mitotic count in 2 mm 2 and the presence or absence of necrosis, alongside a constellation of cytological and histological traits including cell size and shape, nuclear features and overall architecture. Clinically, TC are low-grade malignant tumors, AC intermediate-grade malignant tumors and SCLC/LCNEC high-grade malignant full-blown carcinomas with no significant differences in survival between them. Homologous tumors arise in the thymus that occasionally have some difficulties in differentiating from the lung counterparts when presented with large unresectable or metastatic lesions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) helps refine NE diagnosis at various anatomical sites, particularly on small-sized tissue material, in which only TC and small cell carcinoma categories can be recognized easily on hematoxylin & eosin stain, while AC and LCNEC can only be suggested on such material. The Ki-67 labeling index effectively separates carcinoids from small cell carcinoma and may prove useful for the clinical management of a metastatic disease to help the therapeutic decision-making process. Although carcinoids and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas in the lung and elsewhere make up separate tumor categories on molecular grounds, emerging data supports the concept of secondary high-grade NETs arising in the preexisting carcinoids, whose clinical and biological relevance will have to be placed into the proper context for the optimal management of these patients. In this review, we will discuss the selected, recent literature with a focus on current issues regarding Lu-NET nosology, i.e., classification, derivation and tumor evolution.

  12. Acromegaly in a patient with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor: case report and review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Krug, Sebastian; Boch, Michael; Rexin, Peter; Pfestroff, Andreas; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick; Rinke, Anja

    2016-06-27

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. In these tumors, paraneoplastic syndromes have been described to drive the course of the disease, among them acromegaly induced by paraneoplastic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We report the case of a 43 years old patient initially diagnosed with acromegaly accompanied by weight gain and acral enlargement. Subsequently, further diagnostic work-up identified a solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Laboratory tests revealed markedly increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) without GHRH elevation in the absence of pituitary pathologies confirming the paraneoplastic origin of clinical presentation with acromegaly. Curative surgery was performed leading to normalization of the elevated hormone levels and improvement of the clinical symptoms. Immunohistochemically, a typical carcinoid (TC) was seen with low proliferation index and abundant IGF-1 expression. The association of acromegaly and pulmonary NET has only rarely been reported. We present an individual case of paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion in a patient with pulmonary NET. Based on their rarity, the knowledge of paraneoplastic syndromes occurring in patients with pulmonary NET such as acromegaly due to paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion is mandatory to adequately diagnose and treat these patients.

  13. Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Reig Castillejo, Anna; Membrive Conejo, Ismael; Foro Arnalot, Palmira; Rodríguez de Dios, Nuria; Algara López, Manuel

    2010-07-01

    Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) is a rare disease that mixes clinical and biological characteristics of both cervical neoplasms and neuroendocrine small cell cancer. The prognosis is poor and the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Multimodality treatment, with surgery and concurrent chemoradiation has recently been shown to improve local control and survival rates.

  14. Depletion of neuroendocrine cells in rectal biopsy specimens from HIV positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, J. B.; Batman, P. A.; Miller, A. R.; Sedgwick, P. M.; Griffin, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the density of neuroendocrine cells in rectal biopsy specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals with that of a control group. METHODS: Neuroendocrine cells in rectal biopsies were identified using an immunohistochemical stain for chromogranin and subsequently quantified using a method of linear intercept. RESULTS: Neuroendocrine cells were found to be significantly decreased in the HIV positive group. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of neuroendocrine cells may contribute to apoptotic bodies seen in this condition. This could be related to infection of these cells with HIV and could contribute to diarrhoeal disease in HIV infection. Images PMID:1624601

  15. Synchronous occurrence of neuroendocrine colon carcinoma and hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Pinialidis, Dionisios; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Gakis, Christos; Nakos, Georgios; Sambaziotis, Dimitrios; Christofyllakis, Charalambos

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND-PURPOSE: The risk of secondary malignancy development in patients with hairy cell leukemia has been evaluated in several studies with varying results. The aim of this study is to describe a case of synchronous occurrence of neuroendocrine colon carcinoma and hairy cell leukemia. A 69-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed a rectal tumor, whereas biopsy specimens revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma. During the preoperative evaluation, pancytopenia was detected. At laparotomy, a mass was detected 16 cm from the anal verge and an anterior resection of the rectum was performed. Detailed histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum. Postoperative evaluation of pancytopenia revealed hairy cell leukemia. The patient was initially treated with chemotherapy for hairy cell leukemia followed by chemotherapy for neuroendocrine colon carcinoma. Survival was 44 months. To our knowledge, synchronous occurrence of neuroendocrine colon carcinoma and hairy cell leukemia has not been previously reported in the literature. Given the rare incidence of both entities in the general population, it is highly unlikely that they occurred together by chance. Further research is needed to determine what would be the optimal management options of patients with simultaneous hairy cell leukemia and a neuroendocrine colon cancer.

  16. Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) deficiency in high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma: an opportunity for personalized targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Walts, Ann E; Bomalaski, John S; Ines, Delma; Orsulic, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Cells deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) must absorb the arginine they need for growth from circulating blood. Treatment with pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) selectively eliminates arginine from the circulation and has shown some efficacy against ASS-deficient tumors including small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We sought to assess ASS expression in a cohort of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (PNEC) which include SCLC and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Sixty-nine PNEC (49 SCLC and 20 LCNEC) were retrieved from our pathology archives. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of the 54 primary tumors, 15 metastases and appropriate positive and negative controls were immunostained using an ASS-specific monoclonal antibody. Positive staining in <30 % of the tumor was scored as weak; staining in ≥30 % of the tumor was scored as strong. The absence of staining in the tumor was recorded as ASS negative. 58 % of the PNEC including 61.2 % of the SCLC and 50 % of the LCNEC were ASS negative. These ASS-negative tumors included 63 % of the primary and 40 % of the metastatic lesions tested. More than 50 % of the high-grade PNEC tested lack immunohistochemically detectable ASS, suggesting that they are auxotrophic for arginine and potential candidates for arginine deprivation therapy. PNEC comprise about 25 % of primary lung cancers and have a 5-year overall survival of only 5-10 %, underscoring the need for new and more effective therapies. Immunostaining for ASS has potential to improve the selection of patients with PNEC for arginine deprivation therapy with ADI-PEG 20.

  17. [High dosage therapy with stem cell transplantation in neuroendocrine carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Buxhofer, V; Ruckser, R; Kier, P; Habertheuer, K H; Zelenka, P; Tatzreiter, G; Dorner, S; Vedovelli, H; Sebesta, C; Hinterberger, W

    2000-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) are highly responsive to chemo- and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, most patients (pts.) experience relapse. At the 2nd department of medicine in the Donauspital, 4 pts. with neuroendocrine carcinomas of different primary sites underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASTx). Pt. 1 suffered from neuroendocrine lung cancer, pt. 2 from a small-cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Pt. 3 had a metastatic small-cell abdominal bulky tumor and pt. 4 presented with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate. After 4-6 cycles induction chemotherapy pts. were consolidated with 1 cycle of HDCht and ASTx. Prior to HDCht pt. 1 and pt. 2 were in complete remission (CR) and pt. 3 and pt. 4 in partial remission. Pt. 3 converted in CR after HDCht. He is still in CR with a disease-free survival of 23 month after ASTx and 30 month after diagnosis. Pt. 1, 2 and 4 died from relapse 10, 16 and 5 month after ASTx and 16, 22 and 9 month after diagnosis. Pts. with neuroendocrine carcinomas might be suitable candidates for HDCht and ASTx.

  18. Neuroendocrine differentiation in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Houcine, Yoldez; Chelly, Ines; Zehani, Alia; Belhaj Kacem, Linda; Azzouz, Haifa; Rekik, Wafa; C, Hend; Haouet, Slim; Kchir, Nidhameddine

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the prototypical basaloid tumor of the skin. It may show various patterns simulating other cutaneous tumors due to its pleomorphism. It may have an unusal pattern of differentiation such as squamous, sebaceous, apocrine, eccrine, pilar, and endocrine differentiation. In order to establish the relative frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in BCC, we performed a retrospective study of 33 consecutive BCCs using conventional immunohistochemistry with two neuroendocrine antibodies: Chromogranine A and synaptophysine. The age of the patients ranged from 17-83 years with mean of 65 years. The male to female ratio was 16:17. In immunohistochimestry, Chromogranine A was seen in 72.2% (24/33) while Synaptophysine was positive in 9.09% (3/33). Their expression was cytoplasmic and membranous and was seen in the periphery of these tumors in the overlying cells. Positive staining of chromogranine A was high (75-100% of tumors cells) in 9%, intermediate (25-75% of tumors cells) in 33% of cases and relatively low (<25%) in 30.3% of cases.

  19. [Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Balderrama, Lázaro; López-Briones, Sergio; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Macías, Maciste H; López-Gaytán, Teresa; Pérez-Vázquez, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    The human prostate is a gland composed of many types of cells and extracellular components with specific functions. The stromal compartment includes nerve tissue, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscular cells. The epithelial compartment is composed of luminal epithelial cells, basal cells, and a lesser number of neuroendocrine cells, which are transcendental in growth regulation, differentiation, and secretory function. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells replicate especially in high grade and advanced stage, and hormonally treated tumoral cells adopt characteristics that make them resistant to hormonal deprivation. Androgen receptors have a crucial role in tumorigenesis of prostate adenocarcinoma. Deprivation hormone therapy blocks the expression of androgen receptors in the prostatic epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells lack androgen receptors; their growth is hormonally independent and that is why deprivation hormonal therapy does not eliminate the neoplasic neuroendocrine cells. In contrast, these types of cells proliferate after therapy and make a paracrine network, stimulating the proliferation of androgen-independent neoplastic cells, which finally lead to tumoral recurrence. In this work we describe the neuroendocrine function in normal tissue and in prostatic adenocarcinoma, including neoplasic proliferation stimulation, invasion, apoptosis resistance, and angiogenesis, and describe some molecular pathways involved in this neuroendocrine differentiation.

  20. The neuroendocrine phenotype, genomic profile and therapeutic sensitivity of GEPNET cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hofving, Tobias; Arvidsson, Yvonne; Almobarak, Bilal; Inge, Linda; Pfragner, Roswitha; Persson, Marta; Stenman, Göran; Kristiansson, Erik; Johanson, Viktor; Nilsson, Ola

    2018-01-01

    Experimental models of neuroendocrine tumour disease are scarce, and no comprehensive characterisation of existing gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (GEPNET) cell lines has been reported. In this study, we aimed to define the molecular characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity of these cell lines. We therefore performed immunophenotyping, copy number profiling, whole-exome sequencing and a large-scale inhibitor screening of seven GEPNET cell lines. Four cell lines, GOT1, P-STS, BON-1 and QGP-1, displayed a neuroendocrine phenotype while three others, KRJ-I, L-STS and H-STS, did not. Instead, these three cell lines were identified as lymphoblastoid. Characterisation of remaining authentic GEPNET cell lines by copy number profiling showed that GOT1, among other chromosomal alterations, harboured losses on chromosome 18 encompassing the SMAD4 gene, while P-STS had a loss on 11q. BON-1 had a homozygous loss of CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and QGP-1 harboured amplifications of MDM2 and HMGA2. Whole-exome sequencing revealed both disease-characteristic mutations (e.g. ATRX mutation in QGP-1) and, for patient tumours, rare genetic events (e.g. TP53 mutation in P-STS, BON-1 and QGP-1). A large-scale inhibitor screening showed that cell lines from pancreatic NETs to a greater extent, when compared to small intestinal NETs, were sensitive to inhibitors of MEK. Similarly, neuroendocrine NET cells originating from the small intestine were considerably more sensitive to a group of HDAC inhibitors. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive characterisation of GEPNET cell lines, demonstrate their relevance as neuroendocrine tumour models and explore their therapeutic sensitivity to a broad range of inhibitors. PMID:29444910

  1. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Go ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  2. Persistent Lung Disease in Adults with NKX2.1 Mutation and Familial Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Nevel, Rebekah J.; Garnett, Errine T.; Worrell, John A.; Morton, Ronald L.; Nogee, Lawrence M.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a diffuse lung disease that presents in infancy and improves during childhood. Long-term outcomes have not previously been described. In one familial cohort, we have reported that NEHI is associated with a heterozygous variant of NKX2.1/TTF1. Objectives: Our objective was to determine whether pulmonary abnormalities persist in adults with NEHI, to aid in elucidating the natural history of this disease. Methods: Four adult relatives with heterozygous NKX2.1 mutation and with clinical histories compatible with NEHI enrolled in a prospective study that included questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, and chest computed tomography scans. Measurements and Main Results: Mild radiologic abnormalities including mosaicism were seen in all four cases. Three individuals had obstruction on pulmonary function tests, two had marked air trapping, and three had symptomatic impairments with exercise intolerance. Conclusions: Although clinical improvement occurs over time, NEHI may result in lifelong pulmonary abnormalities in some cases. Further studies are required to better describe the natural history of this disease and would be facilitated by additional delineation of genetic mechanisms to enable improved case identification. PMID:27187870

  3. Changes in neuroendocrine elements in bronchial mucosa in chronic lung disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Pilmane, M; Luts, A; Sundler, F

    1995-05-01

    It is not clear whether there is any association between metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium and changes in the distribution of neuroendocrine cells. This study examined, by immunohistological techniques, the distribution of neuroendocrine cells and juxtamucoscal nerve fibres in bronchial biopsies showing metaplastic changes. Bronchial biopsies from 12 subjects with epithelial metaplasia associated with bronchiectasis and diffuse pulmonary fibrosis were examined by conventional light microscopy and immunohistological techniques for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), chromogranin A and B (CAB), serotonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calcitonin (CT), and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP). Regions of non-metaplastic epithelium contained numerous PGP and serotonin immunoreactive cells. Sub-populations of these cells displayed CAB, CGRP, CT, and GRP immunoreactivity. Metaplastic epithelium contained only a few weakly stained PGP, serotonin, CAB, GRP, CT and CGRP immunoreactive cells in six cases. Metaplastic epithelium was characterised by a high number of CAB-containing cells in six cases and in these biopsies prominent PGP-containing nerve bundles were seen in the subepithelial layer beneath the metaplastic epithelium. The distribution patterns of neuroendocrine cells and neuronal elements vary between areas of normal and metaplastic epithelium and within areas of metaplastic epithelium. Neuronal hyperplasia was associated with an increase in the number of CAB-containing cells within the metaplastic epithelium.

  4. Changes in neuroendocrine elements in bronchial mucosa in chronic lung disease in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Pilmane, M.; Luts, A.; Sundler, F.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--It is not clear whether there is any association between metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium and changes in the distribution of neuroendocrine cells. This study examined, by immunohistological techniques, the distribution of neuroendocrine cells and juxtamucoscal nerve fibres in bronchial biopsies showing metaplastic changes. METHODS--Bronchial biopsies from 12 subjects with epithelial metaplasia associated with bronchiectasis and diffuse pulmonary fibrosis were examined by conventional light microscopy and immunohistological techniques for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), chromogranin A and B (CAB), serotonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calcitonin (CT), and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP). RESULTS--Regions of non-metaplastic epithelium contained numerous PGP and serotonin immunoreactive cells. Sub-populations of these cells displayed CAB, CGRP, CT, and GRP immunoreactivity. Metaplastic epithelium contained only a few weakly stained PGP, serotonin, CAB, GRP, CT and CGRP immunoreactive cells in six cases. Metaplastic epithelium was characterised by a high number of CAB-containing cells in six cases and in these biopsies prominent PGP-containing nerve bundles were seen in the subepithelial layer beneath the metaplastic epithelium. CONCLUSIONS--The distribution patterns of neuroendocrine cells and neuronal elements vary between areas of normal and metaplastic epithelium and within areas of metaplastic epithelium. Neuronal hyperplasia was associated with an increase in the number of CAB-containing cells within the metaplastic epithelium. Images PMID:7541167

  5. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the parotid gland: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Casas, Pablo; Bernáldez, Ricardo; Patrón, Mercedes; López-Ferrer, Pilar; García-Cabezas, Miguel A

    2005-03-01

    A 74-year-old male presented with a large polinodular mass in the neck. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed an undifferentiated large cell carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large parotid mass with multiple satelite nodules. The remaining radiological studies were normal. Radical parotidectomy was performed. The tumor was a large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine features and positive immunostain for neuroendocrine markers. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy and was free of tumor eight months later. Only four cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the salivary gland have been communicated. All of them have involved the parotid gland. This tumor presents in elderly patients as a large infiltrating parotid mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology serves to recognize the carcinoma, but it fails in recognizing the neuroendocrine features of the tumor. The histopathological features of this tumor are the same as in other organs. Chromogranin and synaptophysin are useful immunohistochemical markers. A primary location of the tumor in another organ, specially the lung, should be ruled out. Surgery is the main treatment modality and can be complemented with postoperative radiotherapy. The prognosis seems to be poor. More studies are needed to better define the therapeutical alternatives and prognostic factors of these rare tumors.

  6. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven ‘pure’ Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52–89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression. PMID:26022453

  7. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2015-08-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven 'pure' Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52-89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression.

  8. Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Wagner, Ludwig; Brandt Sørensen, Flemming; Bording Astrup, Lone; Gartner, Wolfgang; Scherübl, Hans; Heine, Bernhard; Christiansen, Peer; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2005-01-01

    Our previous microarray-based studies identified secretagogin to be highly expressed in normal colon mucosa compared to basal expression in colon adenocarcinomas. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of secretagogin in normal mucosa, adenocarcinomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy and ELISA were applied. Western blot analysis detected a 32-kDa secretagogin band in samples from normal mucosa. Immunohistochemical analyses on tissue specimens showed that secretagogin is exclusively expressed in neuroendocrine cells and nerve cells in normal mucosa of the digestive tract. Tissues adjacent to benign hyperplasic polyps and adenomas showed a decreased number of secretagogin-expressing neuroendocrine cells. Secretagogin co-localized with neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin) in neuroendocrine cells in crypts of normal mucosa, and in tumor cells of carcinoids. Secretagogin was strongly expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus of 19 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoids and carcinoid metastases, as well as in neuroendocrine tumors from the lung, pancreas and adrenal gland. Secretagogin was detected in plasma from carcinoid patients with distant metastasis. Combined immunohistochemical analysis of secretagogin and FK506-binding protein 65, a protein de novo synthesized in adenocarcinomas, distinguished well-differentiated carcinoids, adenocarcinoids and undifferentiated carcinomas. We conclude that secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.

  9. A drug repositioning approach identifies tricyclic antidepressants as inhibitors of small cell lung cancer and other neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jahchan, Nadine S; Dudley, Joel T; Mazur, Pawel K; Flores, Natasha; Yang, Dian; Palmerton, Alec; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Vaka, Dedeepya; Tran, Kim QT; Zhou, Margaret; Krasinska, Karolina; Riess, Jonathan W; Neal, Joel W; Khatri, Purvesh; Park, Kwon S; Butte, Atul J; Sage, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine subtype of lung cancer with high mortality. We used a systematic drug-repositioning bioinformatics approach querying a large compendium of gene expression profiles to identify candidate FDA-approved drugs to treat SCLC. We found that tricyclic antidepressants and related molecules potently induce apoptosis in both chemonaïve and chemoresistant SCLC cells in culture, in mouse and human SCLC tumors transplanted into immunocompromised mice, and in endogenous tumors from a mouse model for human SCLC. The candidate drugs activate stress pathways and induce cell death in SCLC cells, at least in part by disrupting autocrine survival signals involving neurotransmitters and their G protein-coupled receptors. The candidate drugs inhibit the growth of other neuroendocrine tumors, including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and Merkel cell carcinoma. These experiments identify novel targeted strategies that can be rapidly evaluated in patients with neuroendocrine tumors through the repurposing of approved drugs. PMID:24078773

  10. Programming of neuroendocrine self in the thymus and its defect in the development of neuroendocrine autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Vincent; Bodart, Gwennaëlle; Henry, Séverine; Michaux, Hélène; Dardenne, Olivier; Charlet-Renard, Chantal; Martens, Henri; Hober, Didier

    2013-10-16

    For centuries after its first description by Galen, the thymus was considered as only a vestigial endocrine organ until the discovery in 1961 by Jacques FAP Miller of its essential role in the development of T (thymo-dependent) lymphocytes. A unique thymus first appeared in cartilaginous fishes some 500 million years ago, at the same time or shortly after the emergence of the adaptive (acquired) immune system. The thymus may be compared to a small brain or a computer highly specialized in the orchestration of central immunological self-tolerance. This was a necessity for the survival of species, given the potent evolutionary pressure imposed by the high risk of autotoxicity inherent in the stochastic generation of the diversity of immune cell receptors that characterize the adaptive immune response. A new paradigm of "neuroendocrine self-peptides" has been proposed, together with the definition of "neuroendocrine self." Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) not according to the classic model of neuroendocrine signaling, but are processed for presentation by, or in association with, the thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in TECs. The presentation of self-peptides in the thymus is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells, which emerge during the random recombination of gene segments that encode variable parts of the T cell receptor for the antigen (TCR). At the same time, self-antigen presentation in the thymus generates regulatory T (Treg) cells that can inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells that escaped negative selection in the thymus. Several arguments indicate that the origin of autoimmunity directed against neuroendocrine glands results primarily from a defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. This defect may be genetic or

  11. Small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are genetically similar and distinct from well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Yachida, Shinichi; Vakiani, Efsevia; White, Catherine M; Zhong, Yi; Saunders, Tyler; Morgan, Richard; de Wilde, Roeland F; Maitra, Anirban; Hicks, Jessica; Demarzo, Angelo M; Shi, Chanjuan; Sharma, Rajni; Laheru, Daniel; Edil, Barish H; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Schulick, Richard D; Hruban, Ralph H; Tang, Laura H; Klimstra, David S; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A

    2012-02-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the pancreas are rare malignant neoplasms with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic and genetic features of poorly differentiated NECs and compare them with other types of pancreatic neoplasms. We investigated alterations of KRAS, CDKN2A/p16, TP53, SMAD4/DPC4, DAXX, ATRX, PTEN, Bcl2, and RB1 by immunohistochemistry and/or targeted exomic sequencing in surgically resected specimens of 9 small cell NECs, 10 large cell NECs, and 11 well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) of the pancreas. Abnormal immunolabeling patterns of p53 and Rb were frequent (p53, 18 of 19, 95%; Rb, 14 of 19, 74%) in both small cell and large cell NECs, whereas Smad4/Dpc4, DAXX, and ATRX labeling was intact in virtually all of these same carcinomas. Abnormal immunolabeling of p53 and Rb proteins correlated with intragenic mutations in the TP53 and RB1 genes. In contrast, DAXX and ATRX labeling was lost in 45% of PanNETs, whereas p53 and Rb immunolabeling was intact in these same cases. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protein was observed in all 9 small cell NECs (100%) and in 5 of 10 (50%) large cell NECs compared with only 2 of 11 (18%) PanNETs. Bcl-2 overexpression was significantly correlated with higher mitotic rate and Ki67 labeling index in neoplasms in which it was present. Small cell NECs are genetically similar to large cell NECs, and these genetic changes are distinct from those reported in PanNETs. The finding of Bcl-2 overexpression in poorly differentiated NECs, particularly small cell NEC, suggests that Bcl-2 antagonists/inhibitors may be a viable treatment option for these patients.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of bronchial brush cytology and the added value of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Jordan P.; Voss, Jesse S.; Brankley, Shannon M.; Caudill, Jill M.; Henry, Michael R.; Clayton, Amy C.; Halling, Kevin C.; Nassar, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchial brush (BB) cytology carries low sensitivity for detecting neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), including typical carcinoid (TC) tumors of the lung. We aimed to investigate the detection of neuroendocrine tumors including TC through BB routine cytology cell block (CB), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Materials and Methods: A SNOMED search showed 187 lung biopsy or resection specimens from 2008 through 2011 containing neuroendocrine or carcinoid in the diagnosis. Residual BB specimens retained in PreservCyt were used to prepare a ThinPrep slide for FISH analysis. CBs were stained with H and E and IHC for chromogranin and synaptophysin. Results: Of the 187 cases, 16 had residual BB material available within 1 year of diagnosis and were used in CB preparation for IHC and FISH slides. Cytologic evaluation determined 1 case positive for malignancy (small cell lung carcinoma [SCLC]), 1 suspicious for adenocarcinoma, and 14 negative for malignancy. On the basis of histologic diagnosis, FISH was performed. SCLC showed polysomy (86% abnormal cells); 2 TC tumors showed a gain of 7p12 (15% abnormal cells) and a gain of 5q15 (72% abnormal cells), respectively. Two cases had CBs with positive immunoreactivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin. The sensitivity for detection of NEC was 18.8%, 15.4%, and 25% for cytologic evaluation, CB, and FISH, respectively. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumors, including TC are difficult to detect with BB cytologic evaluation, most likely because tumor cells lack in the specimen. Assessment of further studies is needed to explore the role of cytology and ancillary methods for detection of these tumors. PMID:25558272

  13. Detection of the Merkel cell polyomavirus in the neuroendocrine component of combined Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kervarrec, Thibault; Samimi, Mahtab; Gaboriaud, Pauline; Gheit, Tarik; Beby-Defaux, Agnès; Houben, Roland; Schrama, David; Fromont, Gaëlle; Tommasino, Massimo; Le Corre, Yannick; Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Eva; Aubin, Francois; Bens, Guido; Maillard, Hervé; Furudoï, Adeline; Michenet, Patrick; Touzé, Antoine; Guyétant, Serge

    2018-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. The main etiological agent is Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), detected in 80% of cases. About 5% of cases, called combined MCC, feature an admixture of neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells. Reports of the presence or absence of MCPyV in combined MCC are conflicting, most favoring the absence, which suggests that combined MCC might have independent etiological factors and pathogenesis. These discrepancies might occur with the use of different virus identification assays, with different sensitivities. In this study, we aimed to determine the viral status of combined MCC by a multimodal approach. We histologically reviewed 128 cases of MCC and sub-classified them as "combined" or "conventional." Both groups were compared by clinical data (age, sex, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage, immunosuppression, risk of recurrence, and death during follow-up) and immunochemical features (cytokeratin 20 and 7, thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF1], p53, large T antigen [CM2B4], CD8 infiltrates). After a first calibration step with 12 conventional MCCs and 12 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as controls, all eight cases of combined MCC were investigated for MCPyV viral status by combining two independent molecular procedures. Furthermore, on multiplex genotyping assay, the samples were examined for the presence of other polyoma- and papillomaviruses. Combined MCC differed from conventional MCC in earlier AJCC stage, increased risk of recurrence and death, decreased CD8 infiltrates, more frequent TTF1 positivity (5/8), abnormal p53 expression (8/8), and frequent lack of large T antigen expression (7/8). With the molecular procedure, half of the combined MCC cases were positive for MCPyV in the neuroendocrine component. Beta papillomaviruses were detected in 5/8 combined MCC cases and 9/12 conventional MCC cases. In conclusion, the detection of MCPyV DNA in half of

  14. Pulmonary tumorlets with surrounding fibrous tissue--suspected carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alerić, Ivan; Mosler, Domagoj; Seiwerth, Sven; Polić, Ines Mlinarević; Mosler, Elvira Lazić

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary tumorlets are small, often multiple nodular proliferations of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. They are common incidental findings in chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases. They can also be found in normal lung parenchyma and as one part of the continuum known as diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. In many cases, they are incidental histologic findings of no importance or clinical consequences, or they can be associated with a very slow progression of either obstructive or mixed obstructive/restrictive impairment with good prognosis. Only rarely, they metastasize to an adjacent lymph node or produce ectopic neuroendocrine products. When found during diagnostic examination, they represent a doubt to be a malignant tumor until proven otherwise, which is often impossible without biopsy or surgical removal of the adjacent lung lobe. Hereby, we present a patient with a persistent nodular lung structure after being treated for nonspecific symptoms, cough with non purulent sputum and pain among the scapulae, for a period of one month. He had otherwise normal clinical and laboratory findings, except for a mild mixed obstructive/restrictive pattern of impairment that was shown by lung spirometry. After 8 months, he underwent lobectomy of the medial lobe of the lung with partial lymphadenectomy, since the diagnostic methods applied could not define the nature of lung nodular infiltration. Histologic examination showed a few tumorlets surrounded by the fibrous tissue with a very dense lymphocyte infiltration. We present a review of the literature and emphasize the necessity to include tumorlets with adjacent fibrosis as part of the differential diagnosis of a solitary nodular lung structure.

  15. A bipartite graph of Neuroendocrine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhong-Wei; Zou, Sheng-Rong; Peng, Yu-Jing; Zhou, Ta; Gu, Chang-Gui; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    We present an empirical investigation on the neuroendocrine system and suggest describe it by a bipartite graph. In the net the cells can be regarded as collaboration acts and the mediators can be regarded as collaboration actors. The act degree stands for the number of the cells that secrete a single mediator. Among them bFGF (the basic fibroblast growth factor) has the largest node act degree. It is the most important mitogenic cytokine, followed by TGF-beta, IL-6, IL1-beta, VEGF, IGF-1and so on. They are critical in neuroendocrine system to maintain bodily healthiness, emotional stabilization and endocrine harmony. The act degree distribution shows a shifted power law (SPL) function forms [1]. The average act degree of neuroendocrine network is h=3.01, It means that each mediator is secreted by three cells on average. The similarity, which stands for the average probability of secreting the same mediators by all neuroendocrine cells, is observed as s=0.14. Our results may be used in the research of the medical treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. [1] Assortativity and act degree distribution of some collaboration networks, Hui Chang, Bei-Bei Su, Yue-Ping Zhou, Daren He, Physica A, 383 (2007) 687-702

  16. Pulmonary artery segmentation and quantification in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Mukherjee, Nisha; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Summers, Ronald M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a known complication associated with sickle-cell disease; roughly 75% of sickle cell disease-afflicted patients have pulmonary arterial hypertension at the time of death. This prospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to act as a surrogate for presence and extent of disease, and whether the size change of the pulmonary arteries of sickle cell patients could be linked to sickle-cell associated pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary CT-Angiography scans from sickle-cell patients were obtained and retrospectively analyzed. Randomly selected pulmonary CT-Angiography studies from patients without sickle-cell anemia were used as negative controls. First, images were smoothed using anisotropic diffusion. Then, a combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery. An algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute the centerline of the segmented arteries. From the centerline, the diameters at the pulmonary trunk and first branch of the pulmonary arteries were measured automatically. Arterial diameters were normalized to the width of the thoracic cavity, patient weight and body surface. Results show that the pulmonary trunk and first right and left pulmonary arterial branches at the pulmonary trunk junction are significantly larger in diameter with increased blood flow in sickle-cell anemia patients as compared to controls (p values of 0.0278 for trunk and 0.0007 for branches). CT with image processing shows great potential as a surrogate indicator of pulmonary hemodynamics or response to therapy, which could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance.

  17. Programming of neuroendocrine self in the thymus and its defect in the development of neuroendocrine autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Geenen, Vincent; Bodart, Gwennaëlle; Henry, Séverine; Michaux, Hélène; Dardenne, Olivier; Charlet-Renard, Chantal; Martens, Henri; Hober, Didier

    2013-01-01

    For centuries after its first description by Galen, the thymus was considered as only a vestigial endocrine organ until the discovery in 1961 by Jacques FAP Miller of its essential role in the development of T (thymo-dependent) lymphocytes. A unique thymus first appeared in cartilaginous fishes some 500 million years ago, at the same time or shortly after the emergence of the adaptive (acquired) immune system. The thymus may be compared to a small brain or a computer highly specialized in the orchestration of central immunological self-tolerance. This was a necessity for the survival of species, given the potent evolutionary pressure imposed by the high risk of autotoxicity inherent in the stochastic generation of the diversity of immune cell receptors that characterize the adaptive immune response. A new paradigm of “neuroendocrine self-peptides” has been proposed, together with the definition of “neuroendocrine self.” Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) not according to the classic model of neuroendocrine signaling, but are processed for presentation by, or in association with, the thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in TECs. The presentation of self-peptides in the thymus is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells, which emerge during the random recombination of gene segments that encode variable parts of the T cell receptor for the antigen (TCR). At the same time, self-antigen presentation in the thymus generates regulatory T (Treg) cells that can inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells that escaped negative selection in the thymus. Several arguments indicate that the origin of autoimmunity directed against neuroendocrine glands results primarily from a defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. This defect may be genetic

  18. Neuroendocrine-like cells -derived CXCL10 and CXCL11 induce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophage leading to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Xu, He-Yang; Wang, Jie; Chu, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that neuroendocrine differentiation in colorectal cancer is one of the important factors leading to worse prognosis. In this study, we apply immunohistochemical staining, Western-blot, RT-PCR and ELISA to investigate the underlying mechanism that how the neuroendocrine differentiation to affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer. The interaction of colorectal cancer cells, neuroendocrine-like cells and tumor-associated macrophages in colorectal cancer progress is also investigated. By analyzing 82 cases of colorectal cancer patients treated in our institution, we found that colorectal adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation had increasing number of tumor-associated macrophages and worse prognosis. Further evaluation of cytology showed that neuroendocrine cells have the ability to recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate the tumor tissue, and the tumor-associated macrophages enhance the proliferation and invasion abilities of the colon cancer cells. Moreover, we confirmed that CXCL10 and CXCL11 are the key chemokines in neuroendocrine-like cells and they promote the chemotaxis activity of tumor-associated macrophages. The secretion of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by neuroendocrine-like cells can recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate in tumor tissues. The latter enhances the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cell and lead to poor prognosis. PMID:27034164

  19. Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Sporadic CRC and Hereditary Nonpolyosis Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Extent neuroendocrine differentiation can be encountered in many human neoplasm derived from different organs and systems using immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural techniques. The tumor cells' behaviors resemble those of neurons and neuroendocrine cells. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation reputedly appears to be associated with a poorer prognosis than the adenocarcinoma counterparts in sporadic human neoplasm. In this review the neuroendocrine carcinoma and the adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of colon and rectum both in sporadic colorectal carcinoma and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the relationship of neuroendocrine differentiation and some possible molecular pathways in tumorogenesis of colorectal cancer will be discussed. Possible treatment strategy will also be addressed. PMID:15528794

  20. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for brain metastases from pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a Japanese multi-institutional cooperative study (JLGK1401).

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takuya; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Sato, Yasunori; Yomo, Shoji; Kondoh, Takeshi; Nagano, Osamu; Serizawa, Toru; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Okamoto, Hisayo; Akabane, Atsuya; Aita, Kazuyasu; Sato, Manabu; Jokura, Hidefumi; Kawagishi, Jun; Shuto, Takashi; Kawai, Hideya; Moriki, Akihito; Kenai, Hiroyuki; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Gondo, Masazumi; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Yasuda, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Nagatomo, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinya; Hashimoto, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non-small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established. Little information is available regarding management of LCNEC patients with brain metastases (METs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for patients with brain METs from LCNEC. METHODS The Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife Society planned this retrospective study in which 21 Gamma Knife centers in Japan participated. Data from 101 patients were reviewed for this study. Most of the patients with LCNEC were men (80%), and the mean age was 67 years (range 39-84 years). Primary lung tumors were reported as well controlled in one-third of the patients. More than half of the patients had extracranial METs. Brain metastasis and lung cancer had been detected simultaneously in 25% of the patients. Before GKRS, brain METs had manifested with neurological symptoms in 37 patients. Additionally, prior to GKRS, resection was performed in 17 patients and radiation therapy in 10. A small cell lung carcinoma-based chemotherapy regimen was chosen for 48 patients. The median lesion number was 3 (range 1-33). The median cumulative tumor volume was 3.5 cm 3 , and the median radiation dose was 20.0 Gy. For statistical analysis, the standard Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine post-GKRS survival. Competing risk analysis was applied to estimate GKRS cumulative incidences of maintenance of neurological function and death, local recurrence, appearance of new lesions, and complications. RESULTS The overall median survival time

  1. Pancreatic mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm with clear cells leading to diagnosis of von Hippel Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Mehar C; Yadav, Rajni; Panwar, Rajesh; Mathur, Sandeep R; Iyer, Venkateswaran K; Sahni, Peush

    2016-08-01

    Mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasms are extremely rare tumors that are usually seen in female patients and are often associated with von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease. We describe the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with complaints of anorexia, weight loss, and abdominal pain. CT abdomen showed a mass in the head of the pancreas, multiple small nodules in the body of pancreas, and bilateral adrenal masses. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the mass showed features of a neuroendocrine tumor, with many of the cells demonstrating abundant clear cytoplasm. Histopathological examination of the pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen showed a mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm with two components viz. serous cystadenoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2. In addition, he was diagnosed to have bilateral pheochromocytomas and a paraganglioma. The synchronicity of these tumors suggested the possibility of VHL disease. Thus, identification of a NET with clear cells or of a mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm should raise suspicion of VHL disease. In a mixed tumor, FNAC may identify only one of the two components. Thorough processing of all pancreatic serous tumors for pathological examination is recommended, as NET may occur as a small nodule within the serous cystadenoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Small-cell anaplastic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum].

    PubMed

    Molas, G; Bougis-de-Brux, M A; Potet, F

    1987-12-01

    A pediculed tumor of the rectum was discovered in a 63 years old man. Within the tumor adenomatous dysplastic proliferation was associated with a neuroendocrine small-cell anaplastic carcinoma. The neuroendocrine nature of the tumor was suspected on conventional optic microscopy and confirmed by a positive Grimelius technique. Specific typical granules were also found on electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical techniques using neurospecific enolase were also positive. Carcinomatous invasion was limited to the submucosa, but the surgical specimen showed that one lymph node was metastatic. Three months later, hepatic metastasis was suspected on physical examination and the patient died of hepatic failure ten months after the discovery of the tumor. Twenty-two similar cases were found in the literature: of these five cases were associated with benign adenomatous lesions. In all cases the patients died of early metastatic diffusion. This tumor raises the problems of diagnosis, terminology, classification and therapy: only aggressive chemotherapy, similar to that applied to the same type of carcinoma in the respiratory tract might improve prognosis.

  3. Small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma colliding with squamous cell carcinoma at esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luoluo; Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Meng, Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Collision tumor is an extremely rare tumor which defined as the concrescence of two distinct primaries neoplasms. We report here a case of collision tumor at lower third esophagus composed of small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which is an very rare, highly aggressive and poorly prognostic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). In our case, pathologically, the small cell carcinoma display the characteristic of small, round, ovoid or spindle-shaped tumor cells with scant cytoplasm, which colliding with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive activities for CD56, synaptophysin, 34βE12, CK 5/6, ki-67 (70%-80%), but negative for CD99, chromogranin A, and TTF-1. Accurate diagnosis was made base on these findings. PMID:24817981

  4. Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Poppinga, Wilfred Jelco; Tania, Navessa Padma; Ammit, Alaina; Schuliga, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue remodelling, but also have an important role in pulmonary inflammation. This review will describe the immunomodulatory functions of pulmonary mesenchymal cells, such as airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and lung fibroblasts, in chronic respiratory disease. An important theme of the review is that pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only respond to inflammatory mediators, but also produce their own mediators, whether pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving, which influence the quantity and quality of the lung immune response. The notion that defective pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving signalling in these cells potentially contributes to disease progression is also discussed. Finally, the concept of specifically targeting pulmonary mesenchymal cell immunomodulatory function to improve therapeutic control of chronic respiratory disease is considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) treatment includes surgery with curative intent and surgery for metastatic disease. Hormone therapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy are sometimes used. Get detailed information on the treatment of this disease in this clinician summary.

  6. Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma as a variant form of prostate cancer recurrence: a case report and short literature review.

    PubMed

    Yashi, Masahiro; Terauchi, Fumihito; Nukui, Akinori; Ochi, Masanori; Yuzawa, Masayuki; Hara, Yosuke; Morita, Tatsuo

    2006-01-01

    Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma has been recognized as a rare histologic variant occurring in only 0.5% to 2% of prostatic primary tumors. However, recent autopsy studies suggest development to this phenotype in up to 10% to 20% of the cases with hormone-refractory disease. A case of conventional adenocarcinoma before androgen-ablation therapy but showing progression to small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma at the recurrence. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor showed strong positive staining for progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), a carboxy terminal region common to 3 precursors for gastrin-releasing peptide, but almost negative staining for chromogranin-A and prostate-specific antigen. Combination chemotherapy based on cisplatin and etoposide was effective for controlling the tumor progression for 7 months, and the serum ProGRP level correlated well to the clinical course. Neither objective nor subjective responses were observed to somatostatin analogue therapy performed in the late stage of disease. The present case reminds the urologist that small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma may be a variant form of disease recurrence during androgen ablation in advanced prostate cancer. A strategic approach for this phenotype evaluating serum neuroendocrine markers, such as ProGRP, should be taken when serum prostate-specific antigen does not reflect the disease state. This approach would allow one to choose alternative therapies targeting neuroendocrine cells other than androgen ablation.

  7. Regulation of neuroendocrine cells and neuron factors in the ovary by zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Hao, Ya-Nan; Song, Ran; Li, Lan; Feng, Yan-Ni; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Di; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    The pubertal period is an important window during the development of the female reproductive system. Development of the pubertal ovary, which supplies the oocytes intended for fertilization, requires growth factors, hormones, and neuronal factors. It has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause cytotoxicity of neuron cells. However, there have been no reports of the effects of ZnO NPs on neuronal factors and neuroendocrine cells in the ovary (in vivo). For the first time, this in vivo study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs on gene and protein expression of neuronal factors and the population of neuroendocrine cells in ovaries. Intact NPs were detected in ovarian tissue and although ZnO NPs did not alter body weight, they reduced the ovary organ index. Compared to the control or ZnSO4 treatments, ZnO NPs treatments differentially regulated neuronal factor protein and gene expression, and the population of neuroendocrine cells. ZnO NPs changed the contents of essential elements in the ovary; however, they did not alter levels of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. These data together suggest that intact ZnO NPs might pose a toxic effect on neuron development in the ovary and eventually negatively affect ovarian developmental at puberty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  9. [Neuroendocrine tumors of digestive system: morphologic spectrum and cell proliferation (Ki67 index)].

    PubMed

    Delektorskaia, V V; Kushliskiĭ, N E

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts ofdiferent types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

  10. Neuroendocrine Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site: management and outcomes of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Kotteas, E A; Pavlidis, N

    2015-04-01

    Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary (MCCUP) is a rare neuroendocrine tumour with distinct clinical and biological behaviour. We conducted a review of retrospective data extracted from 90 patients focusing on the management and outcome of this disease. We also compared life expectancy of these patients with the outcome of patients with known Merkel primaries and with neuroendocrine cancers of unidentifiable primary. There is a limited body of data for this type of malignancy, however, patients with Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site, seem to have better survival when treated aggressively than patients with cutaneous Merkel tumours of the same stage and equal survival with patients with low-grade neuroendocrine tumour of unknown origin. The lack of prospective trials, and the inadequate data, hamper the management of these tumours. Establishment of treatment guidelines is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrence of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and sustained hypotension shock in cystic pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Chen, Shen-Jie; Yang, Bing-Sheng; Lü, Shu-Min; Zhu, Min; Xu, Yi-Fei; Chen, Jie; Cai, Hong-Wen; Mao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor which derives from chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland or relevant to sympathetic nerves and ganglia. The clinical features of pheochromocytoma are various. Paroxysmal episodes of serious hypertension, headache, palpitation, and diaphoresis are the typical manifestations (Bravo, 2004). Hypotension shock, pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome induced by pheochromocytoma are uncommon (Malindretos et al., 2008; Batisse-Lignier et al., 2015). In this study, we present a rare case of cystic pheochromocytoma causing recurrent hypotension shock, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome, and the possible mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Extracellular pH Modulates Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Cell Metabolism and Susceptibility to the Mitochondrial Inhibitor Niclosamide

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Joseph E.; Brandenburg, Matthew W.; Ge, Xia; Crowley, Jan R.; Kirmess, Kristopher M.; Som, Avik; D’Avignon, D. Andre; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal variant of prostate cancer that is associated with castrate-resistant growth, metastasis, and mortality. The tumor environment of neuroendocrine prostate cancer is heterogeneous and characterized by hypoxia, necrosis, and numerous mitoses. Although acidic extracellular pH has been implicated in aggressive cancer features including metastasis and therapeutic resistance, its role in neuroendocrine prostate cancer physiology and metabolism has not yet been explored. We used the well-characterized PNEC cell line as a model to establish the effects of extracellular pH (pH 6.5, 7.4, and 8.5) on neuroendocrine prostate cancer cell metabolism. We discovered that alkalinization of extracellular pH converted cellular metabolism to a nutrient consumption-dependent state that was susceptible to glucose deprivation, glutamine deprivation, and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) mediated inhibition of glycolysis. Conversely, acidic pH shifted cellular metabolism toward an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent state that was susceptible to OXPHOS inhibition. Based upon this mechanistic knowledge of pH-dependent metabolism, we identified that the FDA-approved anti-helminthic niclosamide depolarized mitochondrial potential and depleted ATP levels in PNEC cells whose effects were enhanced in acidic pH. To further establish relevance of these findings, we tested the effects of extracellular pH on susceptibility to nutrient deprivation and OXPHOS inhibition in a cohort of castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines C4-2B, PC-3, and PC-3M. We discovered similar pH-dependent toxicity profiles among all cell lines with these treatments. These findings underscore a potential importance to acidic extracellular pH in the modulation of cell metabolism in tumors and development of an emerging paradigm that exploits the synergy of environment and therapeutic efficacy in cancer. PMID:27438712

  13. Veliparib, Capecitabine, and Temozolomide in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, and Recurrent Neuroendocrine Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-26

    Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Malignant Somatostatinoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thymic Carcinoid Tumor; VIP-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Well Differentiated Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

  14. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    PubMed

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  15. Neuroendocrine cells in the gills of the bowfin Amia calva. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Goniakowska-Witalińska, L; Zaccone, G; Fasulo, S; Mauceri, A; Licata, A; Youson, J

    1995-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) cells were localized by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry in the gill epithelium of bowfin Amia calva. The NE cells are dispersed in whole epithelium of the gill as solitary cells without intraepithelial innervation. All the observed NE cells do not reach the surface of the epithelium. The NE cells are characterized by a large nucleus with patches of condensed chromatin, numerous mitochondria, a well developed Golgi apparatus and a few dense core vesicles of various size scattered in the cytoplasm. Dense core vesicles range from 100 to 560 nm in diameter, while a clear space between the electron dense core ant the limiting membrane ranges from 20 to 240 nm. Immunocytochemical observations reveal the presence of general neuroendocrine markers such as neuro-specific enolase and bioactive substances: serotonin, leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin. we demonstrated the presence of endothelin - for the first time in fish - and suggested a local paracrine role for the NE cells. Some ultrastructural aspects and the immunocytochemical characteristics of NE cells of bowfin gills are common with those encountered in such cells of other lower vertebrate species.

  16. Tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system: an overview.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, R A; Nesland, J M

    1994-01-01

    For the sake of discussion, the markedly diversified tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system are classified as those originating in classic epithelial endocrine organs (eg, adrenal cortical adenomas), from the diffuse endocrine cells (eg, jejunal carcinoid tumors), or from clusters of these cells (eg, islet cell tumors); and those arising from neurosecretory neurons (eg, neuroblastoma) or paraganglia (eg, carotid body tumor). Although traditional transmission electron microscopy is useful for identifying neurosecretory or endosecretory granules as such, with few exceptions (eg, insulin-containing granules with a complex paracrystalline core) it is not possible to ascribe a granule type (size, shape, or ultrastructure) to a distinct nosologic entity or secretory product because of their overlapping fine structures in different cell types. Immunoelectron microscopy methods utilizing colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies can be used to localize virtually any antigen (peptide or neuroamine) to a specific neurosecretory or endosecretory granule or other cell structure. General endocrine/neuroendocrine cell markers such as neuron-specific enolase, the chromogranins, and synaptophysin are useful in identifying neuroendocrine differentiation in a neoplasm using routine immunohistochemical procedures. The current relevance of the APUD concept of Pearse as well as the biologic importance of endocrine/neuroendocrine secretory products such as bombesin and insulinlike growth factors also are discussed.

  17. BRD4 inhibitor IBET upregulates p27kip/cip protein stability in neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Matkar, Smita; Xie, Gengchen; An, Chiying; He, Xin; Kong, Xiangchen; Liu, Xiuheng; Hua, Xianxin

    2017-04-03

    The prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has recently been increasing. Although various drugs such as Octreotide and its analogs show certain efficacy, NETs in many patients progress and metastasize. It is desirable to develop new interventions to improve the therapy. Here we show that human neuroendocrine tumor BON cells are resistant to several drugs commonly used for NET therapy, including Octreotide that activates somatostatin receptor-induced anti-proliferation, and Capecitabine and Temozolimide that damage DNA. In contrast, an inhibitor (IBET) to an epigenetic regulator, Brd4 that binds acetylated histones and upregulates transcription of multiple genes including protooncogene c-Myc, potently inhibited the NET cells. We found that IBET increased the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 kip/cip (or p27), but not its mRNA levels. Moreover, the p27 induction at protein level by IBET was at least partly through increasing the protein stability of p27. The increased protein stability of p27 likely resulted from IBET-mediated suppression of Skp2, an E3 ligase that can mediate p27 degradation by increasing its ubiquitinylation. These findings unravel a new mechanism whereby the IBET-induced repression of proliferation of neuroendocrine cells.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiajie G; Farukhi, M Aabid; Mayeda, Donna; French, Samuel W

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, where tumor cells stain for both hepatocellular and neuroendocrine markers, is extremely rare. We report a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a 14-cm rapidly growing mass in the right lobe of his liver with local extension into the gallbladder and portal vein. Serum AFP was 4625ng/mL. Liver biopsy showed a poorly differentiated neoplasm with cells showing nuclear pleomorphism, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells stain for AFP, glutamine synthase, arginase, and glypican-3. The same tumor regions also stain positively for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. Given this histological pattern, this tumor was ultimately diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp; Ohno, Hideki; Yamada, Yumi

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique markermore » of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.« less

  20. Recurrence of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and sustained hypotension shock in cystic pheochromocytoma*#

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jin; Chen, Shen-jie; Yang, Bing-sheng; Lü, Shu-min; Zhu, Min; Xu, Yi-fei; Chen, Jie; Cai, Hong-wen; Mao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor which derives from chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland or relevant to sympathetic nerves and ganglia. The clinical features of pheochromocytoma are various. Paroxysmal episodes of serious hypertension, headache, palpitation, and diaphoresis are the typical manifestations (Bravo, 2004). Hypotension shock, pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome induced by pheochromocytoma are uncommon (Malindretos et al., 2008; Batisse-Lignier et al., 2015). In this study, we present a rare case of cystic pheochromocytoma causing recurrent hypotension shock, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome, and the possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:28471119

  1. The selective PI3Kα inhibitor BYL719 as a novel therapeutic option for neuroendocrine tumors: Results from multiple cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Rentsch, Jakob; Freitag, Helma; Detjen, Katharina; Briest, Franziska; Möbs, Markus; Weissmann, Victoria; Siegmund, Britta; Auernhammer, Christoph J.; Aristizabal Prada, Elke Tatjana; Lauseker, Michael; Grossman, Ashley; Exner, Samantha; Fischer, Christian; Grötzinger, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The therapeutic options for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are limited. As PI3K signaling is often activated in NETs, we have assessed the effects of selective PI3Kp110α inhibition by the novel agent BYL719 on cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, signaling pathways, differentiation and secretion in pancreatic (BON-1, QGP-1) and pulmonary (H727) NET cell lines. Methods Cell viability was investigated by WST-1 assay, colony formation by clonogenic assay, apoptosis by caspase3/7 assay, the cell cycle by FACS, cell signaling by Western blot analysis, expression of chromogranin A and somatostatin receptors 1/2/5 by RT-qPCR, and chromogranin A secretion by ELISA. Results BYL719 dose-dependently decreased cell viability and colony formation with the highest sensitivity in BON-1, followed by H727, and lowest sensitivity in QGP-1 cells. BYL719 induced apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest associated with increased p27 expression. Western blots showed inhibition of PI3K downstream targets to a varying degree in the different cell lines, but IGF1R activation. The most sensitive BON-1 cells displayed a significant, and H727 cells a non-significant, GSK3 inhibition after BYL719 treatment, but these effects do not appear to be mediated through the IGF1R. In contrast, the most resistant QGP-1 cells showed no GSK3 inhibition, but a modest activation, which would partially counteract the other anti-proliferative effects. Accordingly, BYL719 enhanced neuroendocrine differentiation with the strongest effect in BON-1, followed by H727 cells indicated by induction of chromogranin A and somatostatin receptor 1/2 mRNA-synthesis, but not in QGP-1 cells. In BON-1 and QGP-1 cells, the BYL719/everolimus combination was synergistic through simultaneous AKT/mTORC1 inhibition, and significantly increased somatostatin receptor 2 transcription compared to each drug separately. Conclusion Our results suggest that the agent BYL719 could be a novel

  2. The selective PI3Kα inhibitor BYL719 as a novel therapeutic option for neuroendocrine tumors: Results from multiple cell line models.

    PubMed

    Nölting, Svenja; Rentsch, Jakob; Freitag, Helma; Detjen, Katharina; Briest, Franziska; Möbs, Markus; Weissmann, Victoria; Siegmund, Britta; Auernhammer, Christoph J; Aristizabal Prada, Elke Tatjana; Lauseker, Michael; Grossman, Ashley; Exner, Samantha; Fischer, Christian; Grötzinger, Carsten; Schrader, Jörg; Grabowski, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic options for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are limited. As PI3K signaling is often activated in NETs, we have assessed the effects of selective PI3Kp110α inhibition by the novel agent BYL719 on cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, signaling pathways, differentiation and secretion in pancreatic (BON-1, QGP-1) and pulmonary (H727) NET cell lines. Cell viability was investigated by WST-1 assay, colony formation by clonogenic assay, apoptosis by caspase3/7 assay, the cell cycle by FACS, cell signaling by Western blot analysis, expression of chromogranin A and somatostatin receptors 1/2/5 by RT-qPCR, and chromogranin A secretion by ELISA. BYL719 dose-dependently decreased cell viability and colony formation with the highest sensitivity in BON-1, followed by H727, and lowest sensitivity in QGP-1 cells. BYL719 induced apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest associated with increased p27 expression. Western blots showed inhibition of PI3K downstream targets to a varying degree in the different cell lines, but IGF1R activation. The most sensitive BON-1 cells displayed a significant, and H727 cells a non-significant, GSK3 inhibition after BYL719 treatment, but these effects do not appear to be mediated through the IGF1R. In contrast, the most resistant QGP-1 cells showed no GSK3 inhibition, but a modest activation, which would partially counteract the other anti-proliferative effects. Accordingly, BYL719 enhanced neuroendocrine differentiation with the strongest effect in BON-1, followed by H727 cells indicated by induction of chromogranin A and somatostatin receptor 1/2 mRNA-synthesis, but not in QGP-1 cells. In BON-1 and QGP-1 cells, the BYL719/everolimus combination was synergistic through simultaneous AKT/mTORC1 inhibition, and significantly increased somatostatin receptor 2 transcription compared to each drug separately. Our results suggest that the agent BYL719 could be a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of NETs

  3. Nasal and paranasal adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, F; Suzuki, S; Tanaka, H; Hayashi, S; Ozaki, K; Narama, I

    2008-03-01

    Tumors of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses of 18 dogs were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically, and histochemically. The tumors were classified histologically as 13 adenocarcinomas, 3 transitional carcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma. Tumor cells were strongly immunoreactive for broad-spectrum cytokeratins in all cases, for cytokeratin 8/18 in 16 cases, and for cytokeratin 19 in 17 cases. None of the 18 carcinomas had cytologic or histologic features indicative of neuroendocrine differentiation, yet tumor cells in 5 of the 13 adenocarcinomas were argyrophilic and immunohistochemically positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin A. Results of this study indicate that neuroendocrine markers may be detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in canine nasal or paranasal adenocarcinomas despite the lack of typical histologic features of neuroendocrine differentiation.

  4. Large cell neuroendocrine cervical tumor treated by radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    BacalbaȘa, Nicolae; Stoica, Claudia; Marcu, Madalina; Mihalache, Daniela; Vasilescu, Florina; Popa, Ileana; Mirea, Gratiela; Bălescu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterine cervix are rare, but extremely aggressive, gynecological malignancies that are associated with an overall poor prognosis. The present study reports the case of a 41-year-old patient diagnosed with large cell neuroendocrine cervical tumor. A radical total hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, pelvic and lymph node dissection was performed. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on post-operative day 8.

  5. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx with metastasis to the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Assi, Hussein A; Patel, Raina; Mehdi, Syed

    2015-10-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are a rare type of neoplasms that comprise only 0.5% of all malignancies.¹ They usually arise from the gastrointestinal tract and the lung.¹,² Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is a relatively rare malignancy described in the literature. The larynx is the most commonly affected region of the head and neck.³,⁴ Nevertheless, small-cell carcinoma comprises only 0.5% of all laryngeal cancers.⁵ Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx carries variable prognosis depending on the histological subtype.⁶ Typical carcinoid rarely metastasizes, but atypical carcinoid and small-cell carcinoma have high rates of metastasis, usually in the lung and liver.² Cutaneous metastasis from neuroendocrine carcinoma is an extremely rare entity, with only few cases reported in the English literature.⁷,⁸ We report the case of an elderly man with recurrent laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma with metastasis to the eyelid. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  6. A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder with prolonged spontaneous remission

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent; Zwi, Jonathan; Hanning, Fritha; Lim, Remy; Cadwallader, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with back pain and acute renal failure. Ultrasound showed a soft tissue mass in the base of the bladder causing bilateral ureteric obstruction. Subsequent biopsy of this mass demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma. He was commenced on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/etoposide) and proceeded to a radical cysto-prostatectomy. Histology revealed a LCNEC involving the bladder, T4a with invasion through to adipose tissue and posteriorly at perivesical resection margins. In addition, there was a Gleason score 9 prostatic adenocarcinoma, distinct from the neuroendocrine carcinoma. Following surgery, the patient developed gross local-regional recurrence and refused further systemic therapy. However, 1 year following referral to palliative care, a further CT-PET showed complete spontaneous remission of his disease. There are only few case reports of LCNEC of the urinary bladder therefore the pathogenesis and treatment protocol are still unclear. This case report highlights the unpredictable nature of this disease. PMID:28560016

  7. A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder with prolonged spontaneous remission.

    PubMed

    Chong, Vincent; Zwi, Jonathan; Hanning, Fritha; Lim, Remy; Williams, Andrew; Cadwallader, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with back pain and acute renal failure. Ultrasound showed a soft tissue mass in the base of the bladder causing bilateral ureteric obstruction. Subsequent biopsy of this mass demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma. He was commenced on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/etoposide) and proceeded to a radical cysto-prostatectomy. Histology revealed a LCNEC involving the bladder, T4a with invasion through to adipose tissue and posteriorly at perivesical resection margins. In addition, there was a Gleason score 9 prostatic adenocarcinoma, distinct from the neuroendocrine carcinoma. Following surgery, the patient developed gross local-regional recurrence and refused further systemic therapy. However, 1 year following referral to palliative care, a further CT-PET showed complete spontaneous remission of his disease. There are only few case reports of LCNEC of the urinary bladder therefore the pathogenesis and treatment protocol are still unclear. This case report highlights the unpredictable nature of this disease.

  8. Neuroendocrine activity of the melanocyte

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    More than 15 years ago, we have proposed that melanocytes are sensory and regulatory cells with computing capability, which transform external and/or internal signals/energy into organized regulatory network(s) for the maintenance of the cutaneous homeostasis. This concept is substantiated by accumulating evidence that melanocytes produce classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones, express corresponding receptors and these processes are modified and/or regulated by ultraviolet radiation, biological factors or stress. Examples of the above are catecholamines, serotonin, N-acetyl-serotonin, melatonin, proopiomelanocortin-derived adrenocorticotropic hormone, β-endorphin or melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides, corticotropin releasing factor, related urocortins and corticosteroids including cortisol and corticosterone as well as their precursors. Furthermore, their production is not random, but hierarchical and follows the structures of classical neuroendocrine organizations such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, serotoninergic, melatoninergic and catecholaminergic systems. An example of an intrinsic but overlooked neuroendocrine activity is production and secretion of melanogenesis intermediates including L-DOPA or its derivatives that could enter circulation and act on distant sites. Such capabilities have defined melanocytes as neuroendocrine cells that not only coordinate cutaneous but also can affect a global homeostasis. PMID:19558501

  9. A marked response to icotinib in a patient with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma harboring an EGFR mutation: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuehong; Shen, Yi Hong; Ma, Shanni; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-09-01

    The present study reports the case of an 84-year-old male with primary pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation that exhibited a long-lasting response to the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) icotinib. The patient had an extensive smoking history, a poor performance status, and presented with an irregular mass in the middle lobe of the right lung on computed tomography (CT) and an enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node on physical examination. Right middle lobe bronchial brushing during fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified poorly-differentiated cancer cells. The left supraclavicular lymph node was biopsied and a diagnosis of metastatic LCNEC was determined. Furthermore, an EGFR exon 19 deletion was identified by DNA sequencing. Following diagnosis, icotinib was administered at a dose of 125 mg three times a day. Chest CT scans were performed after 1 month of treatment, which indicated that the tumor was in partial remission. This marked response to icotinib lasted for 8 months. Thus, the present case illustrates the possibility of identifying EGFR mutations in LCNEC and indicates that EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an alternative treatment strategy for patients with LCNEC harboring activating EGFR mutations.

  10. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Luis J.; Navarro, Carmen; Medina, Gabriela; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Blanco, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) are characterized by aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are a potent activator of the HPA axis. In consequence, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones such as estrogens and prolactin, and low levels of glucocorticoids, an anti-inflammatory hormone, have been described in the active phase of ARD. In addition, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones and cytokines have also been frequently detected in organ involvement of patients with ARD, suggesting an abnormal local neuroendocrine immune interaction. There is evidence that hormonal changes may appear before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Therefore, it is possible that a pro-inflammatory hormone favors the rupture of tolerance, which is a key feature of autoimmune diseases. The interactions between the immune-neuroendocrine system have a major impact on our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapy of ARD. PMID:17162354

  11. Glial Control of Endocannabinoid Heterosynaptic Modulation in Hypothalamic Magnocellular Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Ion R.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors are functionally operant at both glutamate and GABA synapses on hypothalamic magnocellular neuroendocrine cells; however, retrograde endocannabinoid actions are evoked at only glutamate synapses. We tested whether the functional targeting of evoked retrograde endocannabinoid actions to glutamate, and not GABA, synapses on magnocellular neurons is the result of the spatial restriction of extracellular endocannabinoids by astrocytes. Whole-cell GABA synaptic currents were recorded in magnocellular neurons in rat hypothalamic slices following manipulations to reduce glial buffering of extracellular signals. Depolarization- and glucocorticoid-evoked retrograde endocannabinoid suppression of synaptic GABA release was not detected under normal conditions, but occurred in both oxytocin and vasopressin neurons under conditions of attenuated glial coverage and depressed glial metabolic function, suggesting an emergent endocannabinoid modulation of GABA synapses with the loss of astrocyte function. Tonic endocannabinoid suppression of GABA release was insensitive to glial manipulation. Blocking cannabinoid transport mimicked, and increasing the extracellular viscosity reversed, the effect of suppressed glial buffering on the endocannabinoid modulation of GABA release. Evoked, but not tonic, endocannabinoid modulation of GABA synapses was mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Therefore, depolarization- and glucocorticoid-evoked 2-arachidonoylglycerol release from magnocellular neurons is spatially restricted to glutamate synapses by astrocytes, but spills over onto GABA synapses under conditions of reduced astrocyte buffering; tonic endocannabinoid modulation of GABA release, in contrast, is likely mediated by anandamide and is insensitive to astrocytic buffering. Astrocytes, therefore, provide dynamic control of stimulus-evoked 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not tonic anandamide, regulation of GABA synaptic inputs to magnocellular neuroendocrine cells under

  12. MAOA-a novel decision maker of apoptosis and autophagy in hormone refractory neuroendocrine prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Yi-Ting; Campbell, Mel; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Pan, Chin-Chen; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Shih, Jean C.; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two well-controlled mechanisms regulating cell fate. An understanding of decision-making between these two pathways is in its infancy. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme that is well-known in psychiatric research. Emerging reports showed that overexpression MAOA is associated with prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we show that MAOA is involved in mediating neuroendocrine differentiation of PCa cells, a feature associated with hormone-refractory PCa (HRPC), a lethal type of disease. Following recent reports showing that NED of PCa requires down-regulation of repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) and activation of autophagy; we observe that MAOA is a novel direct target gene of REST. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by overexpressed MAOA plays an essential role in inhibiting apoptosis and activating autophagy in NED PCa cells. MAOA inhibitors significantly reduced NED and autophagy activation of PCa cells. Our results here show MAOA as a new decision-maker for activating autophagy and MAOA inhibitors may be useful as a potential therapy for neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:28402333

  13. MAOA-a novel decision maker of apoptosis and autophagy in hormone refractory neuroendocrine prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Yi-Ting; Campbell, Mel; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Pan, Chin-Chen; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Shih, Jean C; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2017-04-12

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two well-controlled mechanisms regulating cell fate. An understanding of decision-making between these two pathways is in its infancy. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme that is well-known in psychiatric research. Emerging reports showed that overexpression MAOA is associated with prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we show that MAOA is involved in mediating neuroendocrine differentiation of PCa cells, a feature associated with hormone-refractory PCa (HRPC), a lethal type of disease. Following recent reports showing that NED of PCa requires down-regulation of repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) and activation of autophagy; we observe that MAOA is a novel direct target gene of REST. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by overexpressed MAOA plays an essential role in inhibiting apoptosis and activating autophagy in NED PCa cells. MAOA inhibitors significantly reduced NED and autophagy activation of PCa cells. Our results here show MAOA as a new decision-maker for activating autophagy and MAOA inhibitors may be useful as a potential therapy for neuroendocrine tumors.

  14. A "live" biopsy in a small-cell lung cancer patient by detection of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Simona; Gallo, Marianna; Franco, Renato; Rossi, Antonio; De Luca, Antonella; Rocco, Gaetano; Botti, Gerardo; Gridelli, Cesare; Normanno, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    A 71-year-old patient with a pulmonary lesion was diagnosed with a low-grade neuroendocrine tumor following examination of a fine needle aspiration biopsy. Analysis of a peripheral blood sample with the CellSearch system revealed the presence of putative circulating tumor cells (CTC) that were positive for EpCAM and cytokeratin (CK) expression. Since EpCAM is not usually expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, we performed a biopsy of liver metastases. Morphological and immunophenotypical characterization revealed that the patient had an EpCAM and CK positive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). By using the CellSearch apparatus, EpCAM/CK positive CTC were detected in peripheral blood samples from 3 out of 4 additional SCLC patients. This study is the first to demonstrate that CTC can be identified in SCLC patients by using the CellSearch system.

  15. What clinicians are asking pathologists when dealing with lung neuroendocrine neoplasms?

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Alessandra; Cossa, Mara; Sonzogni, Angelica; Valeri, Barbara; Righi, Luisella; Papotti, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Lung neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are currently classified in resection specimens according to four histological categories, namely typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell carcinoma (SCC). Diagnostic criteria have remained unchanged in the 2015 WHO classification, which has ratified the wide acceptance and popularity of such terminology in the pathologists׳ and clinicians׳ community. A unifying umbrella of NE morphology and differentiation has been recognized in lung NET, which has pushed to enter an unique box of invasive tumors along with diffuse idiopathic pulmonary NE cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) as a pre-invasive lesion with a potential toward the development of carcinoids. However, uncertainties remain in the terminology of lung NET upon small samples, where Ki-67 antigen could play some role to avoid misdiagnosing carcinoids as high-grade NE tumors. Epidemiologic, clinical and genetic traits support a biological three-tier over a pathology four-tier model, according to which TC are low malignancy tumors, AC intermediate malignancy tumors and LCNEC/SCC high malignancy tumors with no significant differences in survival among them. Inconsistencies in diagnostic reproducibility, troubles in the therapy of AC and LCNEC, and limitations to histology within the same tumor category argue in favor of a global re-thinking of lung NET where a grading system could play a role. This review outlines three main key questions in the field of lung NET: (A) unbiased diagnoses, (B) the role of Ki-67 and tumor grading, and (C) management of predictive markers. Answers are still inconclusive, thus additional research is required to improve our understanding on lung NET. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alternative RNA splicing of the MEAF6 gene facilitates neuroendocrine prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahn R; Li, Yinan; Xie, Ning; Gleave, Martin E; Cox, Michael E; Collins, Colin C; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-04-25

    Although potent androgen receptor pathway inhibitors (ARPI) improve overall survival of metastatic prostate cancer patients, treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-NEPC) as a consequence of the selection pressures of ARPI is becoming a more common clinical issue. Improved understanding of the molecular biology of t-NEPC is essential for the development of new effective management approaches for t-NEPC. In this study, we identify a splice variant of the MYST/Esa1-associated factor 6 (MEAF6) gene, MEAF6-1, that is highly expressed in both t-NEPC tumor biopsies and neuroendocrine cell lines of prostate and lung cancers. We show that MEAF6-1 splicing is stimulated by neuronal RNA splicing factor SRRM4. Rather than inducing neuroendocrine trans-differentiation of cells in prostate adenocarcinoma, MEAF6-1 upregulation stimulates cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, invasion and xenograft tumor growth. Gene microarray identifies that these MEAF6-1 actions are in part mediated by the ID1 and ID3 genes. These findings suggest that the MEAF6-1 variant does not induce neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, but rather facilitates t-NEPC progression by increasing the proliferation rate of cells that have acquired neuroendocrine phenotypes.

  17. Patient-derived xenograft in zebrafish embryos: a new platform for translational research in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Gaudenzi, Germano; Albertelli, Manuela; Dicitore, Alessandra; Würth, Roberto; Gatto, Federico; Barbieri, Federica; Cotelli, Franco; Florio, Tullio; Ferone, Diego; Persani, Luca; Vitale, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical research on neuroendocrine tumors usually involves immortalized cell lines and few animal models. In the present study we described an in vivo model based on patient-derived xenografts of neuroendocrine tumor cells in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, allowing a rapid analysis of the angiogenic and invasive potential. Patient-derived neuroendocrine tumor cells were transplanted in 48 hours post-fertilization Tg(fli1a:EGFP) y1 zebrafish embryos that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in the entire vasculature. Neuroendocrine tumor cells, stained with CM-Dil, were injected into the subperidermal (perivitelline) space, close to the developing subintestinal venous plexus. A proper control group, represented by zebrafish injected with only D-PBS, was included in this study. Angiogenic and invasive potentials of each patient-derived xenograft were evaluated by both epifluorescence and confocal microscopes. Six out of eight neuroendocrine tumor samples were successfully transplanted in zebrafish embryos. Although the implanted tumor mass had a limited size (about 100 cells for embryos), patient-derived xenografts showed pro-angiogenic (5 cases) and invasive (6 cases) behaviors within 48 hours post injection. Patient-derived xenograft in zebrafish embryos appears to be a reliable in vivo preclinical model for neuroendocrine tumors, tumors with often limited cell availability. The rapidity of this procedure makes our model a promising platform to perform preclinical drug screening and opens a new scenario for personalized treatment in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

  18. Sickle Cell Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... My doctor wants to screen me for pulmonary hypertension. Why is this? Sickle cell disease (SCD), a ... What are some of the symptoms of pulmonary hypertension? Because they are somewhat general symptoms, the characteristics ...

  19. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research

    PubMed Central

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M.; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E. S.; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M.; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E.; Chisholm, Townley W.; Kim, Seung K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila. However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. PMID:27527793

  20. Prospective evaluation of 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in limited disease neuroendocrine tumors and/or elevated serum neuroendocrine biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Sophie; Garrigue, Philippe; Dahan, Laetitia; Castinetti, Frédéric; Sebag, Frédéric; Baumstark, Karine; Archange, Cendrine; Abhishek, Jha; Pacak, Karel; Guillet, Benjamin; Taïeb, David

    2018-05-22

    The 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues ( 68 Ga-DOTA-SSAs) is becoming popular as an important diagnostic tool in neuroendocrine tumors as evidenced by a growing number of reports detailing institutional experience with various DOTA peptides. However, only few prospective studies have compared 68 Ga-DOTA-SSAs and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of our prospective study was to perform head-to-head comparison between 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and standard imaging work-up (SI) that included multiphasic CT, liver MRI, and SRS using single photon emission computed tomography. In this prospective study, the patients were enrolled only if they met any of the following inclusion criteria were: i- initial staging of a NETs without distant metastases on SI or neuroendocrine tumor with unknown primary on SI; ii-restaging of NETs that could be treated by focused therapeutic interventions; iii- elevated serum neuroendocrine hormones or peptides. The exclusion criteria was grade 3 GEP-NETs. Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the study. Eleven patients (6 pancreas, 4 ileum, 1 duodenal) were included for initial evaluation and staging of NETs, 8 patients (5 pancreas, 1 ileal, 1 lung, 1 duodenal gastrinoma) for restaging, and 13 patients for elevated serum neuroendocrine biomarkers (5 ectopic Cushing's syndrome, 5 organic hypoglycemia, 1 patient each with elevated vasoactive inhibitory peptide, chromogranin A, and neuron-specific enolase). 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT detected more primary tumors than SRS (15/18 vs 10/18: p=0.074). The missed tumors on 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT were located in the lung in 2 cases and duodenum in 1 case. For other anatomical regions (nodal and distant metastasis), no statistical difference was observed between imaging modalities using 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and SRS. Overall, 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT+CT+MRI detected 31/33 of the involved regions

  1. [Neuroendocrine prostate cancer: Natural history, molecular features, therapeutic management and future directions].

    PubMed

    Campedel, Luca; Kossaï, Myriam; Blanc-Durand, Paul; Rouprêt, Morgan; Seisen, Thomas; Compérat, Eva; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Malouf, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a rare malignancy with a an adverse prognostic. Histologically, It can be pure (small cells or large cells neuroendocrine carcinoma) or mixed with a adenocarcinoma component. Rarely diagnosed de novo, neuroendocrine prostate cancer is generally associated with advanced stage disease resistant to castration. As such, this histological subtype could represent an aggressive evolution of prostatic adenocarcinoma, through the epithelio-neuroendocrine transdifferentiation mechanism (phenomenon of lineage plasticity). Nonetheless, neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a heterogeneous malignancy with multiple histopathological variants showing distinct clinical features. The broad variety of molecular analyses could help to understand the ontogeny of this histological subtype and its signaling pathways. This may also allow identifying diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as potential molecular targets. However, treatment options are currently limited and consist only in platinium-based chemotherapy for advanced stage disease. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Mecca, Patricia; Busam, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare entity accounting for < 1% of all breast cancer cases in the United States, but with a rate that has been rising over the last 25 years. Nipple skin/subcutaneous tumors in men are even rarer. Likewise, true neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast, defined as > 50% of tumor cells staining for either chromogranin or synaptophysin, is not a common entity, usually occurring in older women. We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a slowly growing nipple mass that had enlarged over the previous 1.5 years. The histology consisted of nests, trabeculae and sheets of basaloid cells with rare abortive gland formation and a pushing edge. The case was originally misdiagnosed as a Merkel cell carcinoma, based largely on histologic morphology. Strong staining for synaptophysin (in greater than 50% of cells), CD56, keratins AE1 : AE3 and Cam 5.2, as well as estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor was noted. Myoepithelial cells within in situ areas were identified using stains for calponin and 4A4, supporting a primary mammary duct origin. Additionally, a substantial portion of cells stained for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 (GCDFP-15), confirming some overlap with sweat duct differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, although reported in the male breast, no case of primary nipple neuroendocrine carcinoma in a male patient has been reported in the literature. The gender of the patient and association with the skin of the chest wall probably contributed to the original misdiagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in this patient.

  3. Pulmonary microvascular cytology can detect tumor cells of intravascular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Kagiyama, Naho; Saito, Hiroo; Sugita, Yutaka; Kojima, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for indistinct consciousness, progressive dyspnea, night sweats and fever of 2 weeks duration. Hypoxemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase were found. Computed tomography was negative except for a small bilateral pleural effusion. Chest perfusion scintigraphy showed inhomogeneous perfusion thought unlikely to be pulmonary artery thromboembolism. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma was suspected, and a pulmonary microvascular cytology specimen was obtained that contained numerous large lymphoma cells. Because the patient's condition was rapidly deteriorating, we started chemotherapy on the basis of the pulmonary microvascular cytology findings, and he improved. Later, atypical lymphocytes similar to those in the pulmonary microvascular cytology specimen were found in a bone marrow specimen. He was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Because lymphoma cells were found in the pulmonary microvasculature, intravascular lymphoma was also diagnosed. Pulmonary microvascular cytology was helpful to detect lymphoma cells in the pulmonary microvasculature.

  4. Overcrowding-mediated stress alters cell proliferation in key neuroendocrine areas during larval development in Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Distler, Mijal J; Jungblut, Lucas D; Ceballos, Nora R; Paz, Dante A; Pozzi, Andrea G

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to adverse environmental conditions can elicit a stress response, which results in an increase in endogenous corticosterone levels. In early life stages, it has been thoroughly demonstrated that amphibian larval growth and development is altered as a consequence of chronic stress by interfering with the metamorphic process, however, the underlying mechanisms involved have only been partially disentangled. We examined the effect of intraspecific competition on corticosterone levels during larval development of the toad Rhinella arenarum and its ultimate effects on cell proliferation in particular brain areas as well as the pituitary gland. While overcrowding altered the number of proliferating cells in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and third ventricle of the brain, no differences were observed in areas which are less associated with neuroendocrine processes, such as the first ventricle of the brain. Apoptosis was increased in hypothalamic regions but not in the pituitary. With regards to pituitary cell populations, thyrotrophs but not somatoatrophs and corticotrophs showed a decrease in the cell number in overcrowded larvae. Our study shows that alterations in growth and development, produced by stress, results from an imbalance in the neuroendocrine systems implicated in orchestrating the timing of metamorphosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Mutation in TTF1/NKX2.1 Is Associated With Familial Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lisa R.; Deutsch, Gail H.; Bokulic, Ronald E.; Brody, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a childhood diffuse lung disease of unknown etiology. We investigated the mechanism for lung disease in a subject whose clinical, imaging, and lung biopsy specimen findings were consistent with NEHI; the subject’s extended family and eight other unrelated patients with NEHI were also investigated. Methods: The proband’s lung biopsy specimen (at age 7 months) and serial CT scans were diagnostic of NEHI. Her mother, an aunt, an uncle, and two first cousins had failure to thrive in infancy and chronic respiratory symptoms that improved with age. Genes associated with autosomal-dominant forms of childhood interstitial lung disease were sequenced. Results: A heterozygous NKX2.1 mutation was identified in the proband and the four other adult family members with histories of childhood lung disease. The mutation results in a nonconservative amino acid substitution in the homeodomain in a codon extensively conserved through evolution. None of these individuals have thyroid disease or movement disorders. NKX2.1 mutations were not identified by sequence analysis in eight other unrelated subjects with NEHI. Conclusions: The nature of the mutation and its segregation with disease support that it is disease-causing. Previously reported NKX2.1 mutations have been associated with “brain-thyroid-lung” syndrome and a spectrum of more severe pulmonary phenotypes. We conclude that genetic mechanisms may cause NEHI and that NKX2.1 mutations may result in, but are not the predominant cause of, this phenotype. We speculate that altered expression of NKX2.1 target genes other than those in the surfactant system may be responsible for the pulmonary pathophysiology of NEHI. PMID:23787483

  6. Pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Mark; Li, Jinghong; Amirrezvani, Ali; Riker, David

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary giant cell carcinoma is a rare subtype of sarcomatoid carcinoma. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare condition in which gelatinous material accumulates within the peritoneal cavity. It is believed PMP arises from a primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasm that perforates the gut, causing mucinous ascites. There are sporadic reports of PMP associated with neoplasms of other organs, rarely the lung. Here, we report on a 60-year-old woman with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with PMP. She presented with progressive dyspnea and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed moderately dense ascites without an obvious mass. Chest computed tomography revealed a large, solitary right lower-lobe lung mass. She underwent transbronchial fine-needle aspiration of the mass, and was diagnosed with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma. The ascites showed scattered malignant cells in a background of mucin, confirming PMP. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with PMP.

  7. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research.

    PubMed

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E S; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E; Chisholm, Townley W; Kim, Seung K

    2016-10-13

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. Copyright © 2016 Kockel et al.

  8. [The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Magno, L; Sivero, L; Napolitano, V; Ruggiero, S; Fontanarosa, G; Massa, S

    2010-01-01

    Versione italiana Riassunto: Il ruolo dell'endoscopia nei tumori neuroendocrini gastroenteropancreatici. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa I tumori neuroendocrini (NET) gastro-entero-pancreatici (GEP) sono neoplasie rare che originano dalle cellule neuroendocrine del tubo digerente e del pancreas. L'endoscopia digestiva e l'ecoendoscopia rivestono un ruolo importante nella diagnosi, stadiazione e sorveglianza dei pazienti con NET. Inoltre, in casi selezionati, le tecniche endoscopiche operative consentono il trattamento di queste neoplasie in fase precoce. English version Summary: The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare neoplasia arisen from neuroendocrine cells present in the gut mucosa and pancreas. Digestive endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography play a relevant role in NET diagnosis, stadiation and surveillance. Moreover, in selected patients, surgical endoscopy allows the tratment of these cancers at an early stage.

  9. Computer-assisted diagnostic tool to quantify the pulmonary veins in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Pamulapati, Vivek; Alam, Shoaib; Mehari, Alem; Kato, Gregory J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common cause of death among patients with sickle cell disease. This study investigates the use of pulmonary vein analysis to assist the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension non-invasively with CT-Angiography images. The characterization of the pulmonary veins from CT presents two main challenges. Firstly, the number of pulmonary veins is unknown a priori and secondly, the contrast material is degraded when reaching the pulmonary veins, making the edges of these vessels to appear faint. Each image is first denoised and a fast marching approach is used to segment the left atrium and pulmonary veins. Afterward, a geodesic active contour is employed to isolate the left atrium. A thinning technique is then used to extract the skeleton of the atrium and the veins. The locations of the pulmonary veins ostia are determined by the intersection of the skeleton and the contour of the atrium. The diameters of the pulmonary veins are measured in each vein at fixed distances from the corresponding ostium, and for each distance, the sum of the diameters of all the veins is computed. These indicators are shown to be significantly larger in sickle-cell patients with pulmonary hypertension as compared to controls (p-values < 0.01).

  10. Tripartite differentiation (squamous, glandular, and melanocytic) of a primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Isimbaldi, G; Sironi, M; Taccagni, G; Declich, P; Dell'Antonio, A; Galli, C

    1993-06-01

    We report a case of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (PCNEC) with squamous, glandular, and melanocytic differentiation and associated Bowen disease. The paranuclear globular positivity of low-molecular-weight cytokeratins agrees with the ultrastructural observations of paranuclear fibrous bodies in the small neuroendocrine cells, while the diffuse cytoplasmic positivity corresponds to the sparse intermediate filaments in large cells with squamous differentiation. "Transitional forms" are characterized by both diffuse and globular cytoplasmic positivity for cytokeratins and by the ultrastructural evidence of neuroendocrine and squamous features. Therefore the ultrastructural demonstration of intracytoplasmic tonofibrils and tonofilaments, intercellular glandular lumina, lined by well-formed microvilli, and immature premelanosomes in the neurosecretory cells supports the proposed tripartite differentiation of neuroendocrine cells of this case of PCNEC.

  11. Canine mammary minute oncocytomas with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with multifocal acinar cell oncocytic metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Rei; Kimura, Masayuki; Itahashi, Megu; Sugahara, Go; Kawashima, Masashi; Murayama, Hirotada; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident. Cellular atypia was minimal, and no mitotic figures were visible. One tumor had several oncocytic cellular foci revealing cellular transition, with perivascular pseudorosettes consisting of columnar epithelial cells surrounding the fine vasculature. Scattered foci of mammary acinar cell hyperplasia showing oncocytic metaplasia were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells of the 2 microtumors showed diffuse immunoreactivity to anti-cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and finely granular immunoreactivity for 60-kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase complex V beta subunit, and chromogranin A. One tumor also had oncocytic cellular foci forming perivascular pseudorosettes showing cellular membrane immunoreactivity for neural cell adhesion molecule. The tumors were negative for smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, desmin, S100, and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural observation confirmed the abundant mitochondria in the cytoplasm of both neoplastic and hyperplastic cells, the former cells also having neuroendocrine granule-like electron-dense bodies. From these results, our case was diagnosed with mammary oncocytomas accompanied by neuroendocrine differentiation. Scattered foci of mammary oncocytosis might be related to the multicentric occurrence of these oncocytomas. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  13. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-19

    Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  14. Chemokines and chemokine receptors: new actors in neuroendocrine regulations.

    PubMed

    Rostène, William; Guyon, Alice; Kular, Lara; Godefroy, David; Barbieri, Federica; Bajetto, Adriana; Banisadr, Ghazal; Callewaere, Céline; Conductier, Gregory; Rovère, Carole; Mélik-Parsadaniantz, Stéphane; Florio, Tullio

    2011-01-01

    Chemokines are small secreted proteins that chemoattract and activate immune and non-immune cells. Their role in the immune system is well-known, and it has recently been suggested that they may also play a role in the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, they do not only act as immunoinflammatory mediators in the brain but they also act as potential modulators in neurotransmission. Although we are only beginning to be aware of the implication of chemokines in neuroendocrine functions, this review aims at summarizing what is known in that booming field of research. First we describe the expression of chemokines and their receptors in the CNS with a focus on the hypothalamo-pituitary system. Secondly, we present what is known on some chemokines in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions such as cell migration, stress, thermoregulation, drinking and feeding as well as anterior pituitary functions. We suggest that chemokines provide a fine modulatory tuning system of neuroendocrine regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    PubMed

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Combination therapies for primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nakatake, Richi; Ishizaki, Morihiko; Matui, Kosuke; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Inoue, Kentaro; Kaibori, Masaki; Kawaguchi, Yusai; Kon, Masanori

    2017-09-11

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinomas are extremely rare. Because of the rarity of PHNEC, its clinical features and treatment outcomes are not well understood. A proper diagnosis and the correct therapeutic approach therefore remain clinically challenging. A 67-year-old man was admitted to our department because of a liver tumor. Computed tomography revealed a single liver tumor 50 mm in diameter and located in the S3 region. Biopsy and imaging findings resulted in a diagnosis of primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Left lateral segmentectomy was performed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56. Ki-67 was positive in > 90% of the tumor cells. The final diagnosis was primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. The patient suffered two episodes of lymph node recurrence. Nonetheless, the tumor was excised to prolong survival. Thus, after lymphadenectomy, he received adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months. Two years after surgery, the patient remains alive and in good general condition. In most cases, primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, while extremely rare, has a poor prognosis. At present, surgical resection is a priority for curative treatment, but in patients with recurrence, combined therapies are recommended.

  17. A case of multicentric low-grade neuroendocrine breast tumor with an unusual histological pattern.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Antonio; Addesso, Maria; Memoli, Domenico; Cascone, Annamaria; Cremone, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine features are detectable in carcinomas of the breast either as scattered cells, that are recognized by their expression of neuroendocrine cell markers. Instead, pure breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine features (NEBC) are very rare and represent <1% of all breast cancer. Usually NEBC may be well or poorly differentiated and more frequent in older woman. These tumors showed variable histological pattern but a common feature is represented by expression of neuroendocrine markers. Here we report a case of a primary multicentric low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast presented because of its rarity and for the unusual tubular and cribriform pattern resembling a well-differentiated conventional breast carcinoma. The tumor was treated with left quadrantectomy with concomitant wide excisional biopsy of other two nodules and lymph node sentinel biopsy. No recurrence was observed during 1-year follow-up. Because of its rarity and variability of morphologic features, there exist diagnostic challenges for pathologists to differentiate primary NEBC to some conventional breast carcinomas and to the breast metastasis from neuroendocrine tumor of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. It is important to be able recognize this tumor in order to avoid potential misdiagnosis and improper management of afflicted patients.

  18. Nongenomic Glucocorticoid Suppression of a Postsynaptic Potassium Current via Emergent Autocrine Endocannabinoid Signaling in Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Cells following Chronic Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids rapidly stimulate endocannabinoid synthesis and modulation of synaptic transmission in hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells via a nongenomic signaling mechanism. The endocannabinoid actions are synapse-constrained by astrocyte restriction of extracellular spatial domains. Exogenous cannabinoids have been shown to modulate postsynaptic potassium currents, including the A-type potassium current (IA), in different cell types. The activity of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells is shaped by a prominent IA. We tested for a rapid glucocorticoid modulation of the postsynaptic IK and IA in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) using whole-cell recordings in rat brain slices. Application of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) had no rapid effect on the IK or IA amplitude, voltage dependence, or kinetics in magnocellular neurons in slices from untreated rats. In magnocellular neurons from salt-loaded rats, however, Dex application caused a rapid suppression of the IA and a depolarizing shift in IA voltage dependence. Exogenously applied endocannabinoids mimicked the rapid Dex modulation of the IA, and CB1 receptor antagonists and agonists blocked and occluded the Dex-induced changes in the IA, respectively, suggesting an endocannabinoid dependence of the rapid glucocorticoid effect. Preincubation of control slices in a gliotoxin resulted in the partial recapitulation of the glucocorticoid-induced rapid suppression of the IA. These findings demonstrate a glucocorticoid suppression of the postsynaptic IA in PVN magnocellular neurons via an autocrine endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism following chronic dehydration, and suggest a possible role for astrocytes in the control of the autocrine endocannabinoid actions. PMID:28966975

  19. A microfluidic platform for chemical stimulation and real time analysis of catecholamine secretion from neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Ges, Igor A; Brindley, Rebecca L; Currie, Kevin P M; Baudenbacher, Franz J

    2013-12-07

    Release of neurotransmitters and hormones by calcium-regulated exocytosis is a fundamental cellular process that is disrupted in a variety of psychiatric, neurological, and endocrine disorders. As such, there is significant interest in targeting neurosecretion for drug and therapeutic development, efforts that will be aided by novel analytical tools and devices that provide mechanistic insight coupled with increased experimental throughput. Here, we report a simple, inexpensive, reusable, microfluidic device designed to analyze catecholamine secretion from small populations of adrenal chromaffin cells in real time, an important neuroendocrine component of the sympathetic nervous system and versatile neurosecretory model. The device is fabricated by replica molding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using patterned photoresist on silicon wafer as the master. Microfluidic inlet channels lead to an array of U-shaped "cell traps", each capable of immobilizing single or small groups of chromaffin cells. The bottom of the device is a glass slide with patterned thin film platinum electrodes used for electrochemical detection of catecholamines in real time. We demonstrate reliable loading of the device with small populations of chromaffin cells, and perfusion/repetitive stimulation with physiologically relevant secretagogues (carbachol, PACAP, KCl) using the microfluidic network. Evoked catecholamine secretion was reproducible over multiple rounds of stimulation, and graded as expected to different concentrations of secretagogue or removal of extracellular calcium. Overall, we show this microfluidic device can be used to implement complex stimulation paradigms and analyze the amount and kinetics of catecholamine secretion from small populations of neuroendocrine cells in real time.

  20. Circulating tumor cells and miRNAs as prognostic markers in neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Grossrubatscher, Erika Maria; Guadagno, Elia; Sciammarella, Concetta; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    The prognosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) is widely variable and has been shown to associate with several tissue- and blood-based biomarkers in different settings. The identification of prognostic factors predicting NEN outcome is of paramount importance to select the best clinical management for these patients. Prognostic markers have been intensively investigated, also taking advantage of the most modern techniques, in the perspective of personalized medicine and appropriate resource utilization. This review summarizes the available data on the possible role of circulating tumor cells and microRNAs as prognostic markers in NENs. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. The role of immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and ultrastructural cytochemistry in the diagnosis of mixed carcinoma-neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Graham, A R; Payne, C M; Nagle, R B; Angel, E

    1987-02-01

    We studied four mixed carcinoma-neuroendocrine neoplasms from gastrointestinal tract and pancreas by routine light microscopy (LM), immunohistochemistry (IH), electron microscopy (EM), and ultrastructural cytochemistry (UC). By LM, the individual tumors showed fairly pure neuroendocrine (carcinoid) or epithelial (papillary) patterns, mixed neuroendocrine-carcinoma features and poorly-differentiated tumor in sheets and nests which did not lend itself to morphologic characterization. IH demonstrated mixed expression, within different areas of the same neoplasm, of epithelial antigens (keratins and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) and neuroendocrine markers (neuron-specific enolase [NSE], bombesin and neurohormonal peptides). By EM, each tumor showed ultrastructural features of epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation which varied substantially in terms of number of cells involved and their distribution; two of the neoplasms showed biphasic differentiation within single cells. The nature of the neurosecretory granules was verified with the uranaffin reaction (UR). This study illustrates the value of combining LM, IH, EM and UC for the identification of mixed carcinoma-neuroendocrine lesions.

  2. Cabozantinib S-malate in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors Previously Treated With Everolimus That Are Locally Advanced, Metastatic, or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-12

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Carcinoid Tumor; Digestive System Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Enterochromaffin Cell Serotonin-Producing Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Intermediate Grade Lung Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Low Grade Lung Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Lung Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Nonfunctional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage IIIA Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor AJCC v7; Stage IV Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor AJCC v7

  3. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland in a dog.

    PubMed

    Nakahira, R; Michishita, M; Yoshimura, H; Hatakeyama, H; Takahashi, K

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old female border collie was presented with a mass (2 cm diameter) in the fifth mammary gland. The mass was located in the subcutis and the cut surface was grey-white in colour. Microscopically, the mass was composed of tumour cells arranged in nests of various sizes separated by delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumour cells had small, round hypochromatic nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. Metastases were observed in the inguinal lymph node. Immunohistochemically, most tumour cells expressed cytokeratin (CK) 20, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and oestrogen receptor-β, but not low molecular weight CK (CAM5.2), p63 and insulin. Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells contained a large number of electron-dense granules corresponding to neuroendocrine granules. Based on these findings, this case was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of tumorigenic cells and therapeutic targets in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Krampitz, Geoffrey Wayne; George, Benson M.; Willingham, Stephen B.; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Weiskopf, Kipp; Jahchan, Nadine; Newman, Aaron M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Zemek, Allison J.; Yanovsky, Rebecca L.; Nguyen, Julia K.; Schnorr, Peter J.; Mazur, Pawel K.; Sage, Julien; Longacre, Teri A.; Visser, Brendan C.; Poultsides, George A.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Weissman, Irving L.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a type of pancreatic cancer with limited therapeutic options. Consequently, most patients with advanced disease die from tumor progression. Current evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells is responsible for tumor development, metastasis, and recurrence, and targeting these tumor-initiating cells is necessary to eradicate tumors. However, tumor-initiating cells and the biological processes that promote pathogenesis remain largely uncharacterized in PanNETs. Here we profile primary and metastatic tumors from an index patient and demonstrate that MET proto-oncogene activation is important for tumor growth in PanNET xenograft models. We identify a highly tumorigenic cell population within several independent surgically acquired PanNETs characterized by increased cell-surface protein CD90 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDHA1) activity, and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for their stem-like properties. We performed proteomic profiling of 332 antigens in two cell lines and four primary tumors, and showed that CD47, a cell-surface protein that acts as a “don’t eat me” signal co-opted by cancers to evade innate immune surveillance, is ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, CD47 coexpresses with MET and is enriched in CD90hi cells. Furthermore, blocking CD47 signaling promotes engulfment of tumor cells by macrophages in vitro and inhibits xenograft tumor growth, prevents metastases, and prolongs survival in vivo. PMID:27035983

  6. Immunohistochemical characterization of neuroendocrine differentiation of canine anal sac glandular tumours.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Morita, R; Hojo, Y; Nomura, K; Shibutani, M; Mitsumori, K

    2013-01-01

    Histological features and expression of neuroendocrine markers were examined in 69 samples of canine anal sac glandular carcinomas (ASGCs). The tumours were classified into solid, rosette and tubular types and mixtures of these types. Tumour-associated death in dogs with solid tumours and mixed tumours with solid components was higher than in dogs with rosette and tubular type tumours. Chromogranin A immunoreactivity was observed in 28 of 69 samples (40.6%) irrespective of histological type and was localized to the marginal areas of the tumour nest and the basal areas of the tubular and rosette structures. Neuron-specific enolase immunoreactivity in neoplastic epithelial cells was observed in 32 cases (46.4%) and was less frequently observed in the tubular type (14.3%). Synaptophysin expression was present in 15.9% of cases and was least frequent in the tubular type. Twenty-one of the 69 samples expressed more than two neuroendocrine markers and were classified as carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. There was no relationship between neuroendocrine differentiation and clinical outcome. These results suggest that some ASGCs have neuroendocrine differentiation regardless of histological pattern, but clinical outcome is more related to the histological pattern than to neuroendocrine differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A dual yet opposite growth-regulating function of miR-204 and its target XRN1 in prostate adenocarcinoma cells and neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Miao; Lin, Biaoyang; Li, Tao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuhua; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Miao, Maohua; Gu, Jinfa; Pan, Hongjie; Yang, Fen; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Xin Yuan; Li, Runsheng

    2015-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer (PCa) causes neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) of prostatic adenocarcinomas (PAC) cells, leading to recurrence of PCa. Androgen-responsive genes involved in PCa progression including NED remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrated the importance of androgen receptor (AR)-microRNA-204 (miR-204)-XRN1 axis in PCa cell lines and the rat ventral prostate. Androgens downregulate miR-204, resulting in induction of XRN1 (5′-3′ exoribonuclease 1), which we identified as a miR-204 target. miR-204 acts as a tumor suppressor in two PAC cell lines (LNCaP and 22Rv1) and as an oncomiR in two neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer (NEPC) cell lines (PC-3 and CL1). Importantly, overexpression of miR-204 and knockdown of XRN1 inhibited AR expression in PCa cells. Repression of miR-34a, a known AR-targeting miRNA, contributes AR expression by XRN1. Thus we revealed the AR-miR-204-XRN1-miR-34a positive feedback loop and a dual function of miR-204/XRN1 axis in prostate cancer. PMID:25797256

  8. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Yukio; Gen, Ryozo; Hashimoto, Shinji; Oda, Tatsuya; Sato, Taiki; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) originating from the gastrointestinal hepatobiliary-pancreas is a rare, invasive, and progressive disease, for which the prognosis is extremely poor. The patient was a 72-year-old man referred with complaints of jaundice. He was diagnosed with middle extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (cT4N1M0, cStage IV). He underwent a right hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct and portal vein resection after percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization. Microscopic examination showed a large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma according to the WHO criteria for the clinicopathologic classification of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Currently, the patient is receiving combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for postoperative multiple liver metastases. Although NEC is difficult to diagnose preoperatively, it should be considered an uncommon alternative diagnosis. PMID:27570432

  9. A microfluidic platform for chemical stimulation and real time analysis of catecholamine secretion from neuroendocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Ges, Igor A.; Brindley, Rebecca L.; Currie, Kevin P.M.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    Release of neurotransmitters and hormones by calcium-regulated exocytosis is a fundamental cellular process that is disrupted in a variety of psychiatric, neurological, and endocrine disorders. As such, there is significant interest in targeting neurosecretion for drug and therapeutic development, efforts that will be aided by novel analytical tools and devices that provide mechanistic insight coupled with increased experimental throughput. Here, we report a simple, inexpensive, reusable, microfluidic device designed to analyze catecholamine secretion from small populations of adrenal chromaffin cells in real time, an important neuroendocrine component of the sympathetic nervous system and versatile neurosecretory model. The device is fabricated by replica molding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using patterned photoresist on silicon wafer as the master. Microfluidic inlet channels lead to an array of U-shaped “cell traps”, each capable of immobilizing single or small groups of chromaffin cells. The bottom of the device is a glass slide with patterned thin film platinum electrodes used for electrochemical detection of catecholamines in real time. We demonstrate reliable loading of the device with small populations of chromaffin cells, and perfusion / repetitive stimulation with physiologically relevant secretagogues (carbachol, PACAP, KCl) using the microfluidic network. Evoked catecholamine secretion was reproducible over multiple rounds of stimulation, and graded as expected to different concentrations of secretagogue or removal of extracellular calcium. Overall, we show this microfluidic device can be used to implement complex stimulation paradigms and analyze the amount and kinetics of catecholamine secretion from small populations of neuroendocrine cells in real time. PMID:24126415

  10. Bone Marrow CD11c+ Cell-Derived Amphiregulin Promotes Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Liu, Tianju; Wu, Zhe; Hu, Biao; Nakashima, Taku; Ullenbruch, Matthew; De Los Santos, Francina Gonzalez; Phan, Sem H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AREG), an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, is implicated in tissue repair and fibrosis but its cellular source and role in regeneration vs. fibrosis remain unclear. In this study we hypothesize that AREG induced in bone marrow derived CD11c+ cells is essential for pulmonary fibrosis. Thus the objectives were to evaluate the importance and role of AREG in pulmonary fibrosis, identify the cellular source of AREG induction and analyze its regulation of fibroblast function and activation. The results showed that lung AREG expression was significantly induced in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. AREG deficiency in knockout (KO) mice significantly diminished pulmonary fibrosis. Analysis of AREG expression in major lung cell types revealed induction in fibrotic lungs predominantly occurred in CD11c+ cells. Moreover depletion of bone marrow derived CD11c+ cells suppressed both induction of lung AREG expression and pulmonary fibrosis. Conversely, adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived CD11c+ cells from BLM-treated donor mice exacerbated pulmonary fibrosis but not if the donor cells were made AREG-deficient prior to transfer. CD11c+ cell conditioned media or co-culture stimulated fibroblast proliferation, activation and myofibroblast differentiation in an AREG dependent manner. Furthermore recombinant AREG induced telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) which appeared to be essential for the proliferative effect. Finally AREG significantly enhanced fibroblast motility, which was associated with increased expression of α6 integrin. These findings suggested that induced AREG specifically in recruited bone marrow-derived CD11c+ cells promoted bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of fibroblast TERT dependent proliferation, motility and indirectly, myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:27206766

  11. Bone Marrow CD11c+ Cell-Derived Amphiregulin Promotes Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Liu, Tianju; Wu, Zhe; Hu, Biao; Nakashima, Taku; Ullenbruch, Matthew; Gonzalez De Los Santos, Francina; Phan, Sem H

    2016-07-01

    Amphiregulin (AREG), an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, is implicated in tissue repair and fibrosis, but its cellular source and role in regeneration versus fibrosis remain unclear. In this study, we hypothesize that AREG induced in bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells is essential for pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, the objectives were to evaluate the importance and role of AREG in pulmonary fibrosis, identify the cellular source of AREG induction, and analyze its regulation of fibroblast function and activation. The results showed that lung AREG expression was significantly induced in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. AREG deficiency in knockout mice significantly diminished pulmonary fibrosis. Analysis of AREG expression in major lung cell types revealed induction in fibrotic lungs predominantly occurred in CD11c(+) cells. Moreover, depletion of bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells suppressed both induction of lung AREG expression and pulmonary fibrosis. Conversely, adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells from bleomycin-treated donor mice exacerbated pulmonary fibrosis, but not if the donor cells were made AREG deficient prior to transfer. CD11c(+) cell-conditioned media or coculture stimulated fibroblast proliferation, activation, and myofibroblast differentiation in an AREG-dependent manner. Furthermore, recombinant AREG induced telomerase reverse transcriptase, which appeared to be essential for the proliferative effect. Finally, AREG significantly enhanced fibroblast motility, which was associated with increased expression of α6 integrin. These findings suggested that induced AREG specifically in recruited bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells promoted bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of fibroblast telomerase reverse transcriptase-dependent proliferation, motility, and indirectly, myofibroblast differentiation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Neuroendocrine carcinoma in the nasal cavity of ten dogs.

    PubMed

    Sako, T; Shimoyama, Y; Akihara, Y; Ohmachi, T; Yamashita, K; Kadosawa, T; Nakade, T; Uchida, E; Okamoto, M; Hirayama, K; Taniyama, H

    2005-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma was diagnosed in 10 dogs. In six cases examined by cephalometric radiography and computerized tomography, a large mass was seen to fill the nasal cavity. Histopathologically, sheets, nests or ribbons of neoplastic cells were separated by delicate or thick fibrovascular stroma. The neoplastic cells were round, oval, or spindle-shaped; cytoplasmic granules and hyperchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli were present. Neoplastic cells were invariably immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Eight dogs were positive for S100 protein, seven for synaptophysin, five for protein gene product 9.5, two for somatostatin, and one for Leu-7. Immunolabelling gave negative results for CK 8, CK 19, calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related polypeptide, neurofilaments, serotonin, gastrin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells contained a large number of round, membrane-bounded, densely-cored granules corresponding to neurosecretory granules. These observations were consistent with the neuroendocrine nature of the carcinomas.

  13. Neuroendocrine tumors and fibrosis: An unsolved mystery?

    PubMed

    Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Rombouts, Krista; Caplin, Martyn; Toumpanakis, Christos; Thirlwell, Christina; Mandair, Dalvinder

    2017-12-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors are a heterogeneous group of slow-growing neoplasms arising mainly from the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive and respiratory tract. Although they are relatively rare, their incidence is rising. It has long been observed that they often are associated with the development of fibrosis, both local and distant. Fibrotic complications, such as carcinoid heart disease and mesenteric desmoplasia, may lead to considerable morbidity or even affect prognosis. The elucidation of the pathophysiology of fibrosis would be of critical importance for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. In this article, the authors review the available evidence regarding the biological basis of fibrosis in neuroendocrine tumors. They explore the role of the tumor microenvironment and the interplay between tumor cells and fibroblasts as a key factor in fibrogenesis and tumor development/progression. They also review the role of serotonin, growth factors, and other peptides in the development of carcinoid-related fibrotic reactions. Cancer 2017;123:4770-90. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Pathways Impacted by Genomic Alterations in Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Asiedu, Michael K; Thomas, Charles F; Dong, Jie; Schulte, Sandra C; Khadka, Prasidda; Sun, Zhifu; Kosari, Farhad; Jen, Jin; Molina, Julian; Vasmatzis, George; Kuang, Ray; Aubry, Marie Christine; Yang, Ping; Wigle, Dennis A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary carcinoid tumors account for up to 5% of all lung malignancies in adults, comprise 30% of all carcinoid malignancies, and are defined histologically as typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC) tumors. The role of specific genomic alterations in the pathogenesis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors remains poorly understood. We sought to identify genomic alterations and pathways that are deregulated in these tumors to find novel therapeutic targets for pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Experimental Design: We performed integrated genomic analysis of carcinoid tumors comprising whole genome and exome sequencing, mRNA expression profiling and SNP genotyping of specimens from normal lung, TC and AC, and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) to fully represent the lung neuroendocrine tumor spectrum. Results: Analysis of sequencing data found recurrent mutations in cancer genes including ATP1A2, CNNM1, MACF1, RAB38, NF1, RAD51C, TAF1L, EPHB2, POLR3B , and AGFG1 The mutated genes are involved in biological processes including cellular metabolism, cell division cycle, cell death, apoptosis, and immune regulation. The top most significantly mutated genes were TMEM41B, DEFB127, WDYHV1, and TBPL1 Pathway analysis of significantly mutated and cancer driver genes implicated MAPK/ERK and amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) pathways whereas analysis of CNV and gene expression data suggested deregulation of the NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathways. The mutation signature was predominantly C>T and T>C transitions with a minor contribution of T>G transversions. Conclusions: This study identified mutated genes affecting cancer relevant pathways and biological processes that could provide opportunities for developing targeted therapies for pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1691-704. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Extraordinarily Large Renal Cell Carcinoma With Metasynchronous Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Ileocecal Valve: A Rare Presentation of Disease.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Daniel C; Gitman, Robert; May, Noah R; Amster, Melanie I

    2017-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with a large, protuberant abdominal mass, and was found to have both a left renal mass and a biopsy-proven neuroendocrine tumor of the ileocecal valve. Ultimately, right hemicolectomy revealed a well-differentiated and low-grade neuroendocrine tumor of the ileocecal valve, whereas left radical nephrectomy revealed a 23 cm × 22 cm × 15 cm renal cell carcinoma, chromophobe-type (RCC-CT) weighing 3564 g. RCC-CT represents a small portion of diagnosed RCC, and generally portends a more favorable prognosis than other variants. Modern reports of renal tumors exceeding 20 cm are exceedingly rare. In spite of massive size, favorable histology may allow for surgical cure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuron-to-glia signaling mediated by excitatory amino acid receptors regulates ErbB receptor function in astroglial cells of the neuroendocrine brain.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Barbara; Prevot, Vincent; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Jung, Heike; Cornea, Anda; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2003-02-01

    Hypothalamic astroglial erbB tyrosine kinase receptors are required for the timely initiation of mammalian puberty. Ligand-dependent activation of these receptors sets in motion a glia-to-neuron signaling pathway that prompts the secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the neuropeptide controlling sexual development, from hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons. The neuronal systems that may regulate this growth factor-mediated back signaling to neuroendocrine neurons have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that hypothalamic astrocytes contain metabotropic receptors of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 subtype and the AMPA receptor subunits glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) and GluR3. As in excitatory synapses, these receptors are in physical association with their respective interacting/clustering proteins Homer and PICK1. In addition, they are associated with erbB-1 and erbB-4 receptors. Concomitant activation of astroglial metabotropic and AMPA receptors results in the recruitment of erbB tyrosine kinase receptors and their respective ligands to the glial cell membrane, transactivation of erbB receptors via a mechanism requiring metalloproteinase activity, and increased erbB receptor gene expression. By facilitating erbB-dependent signaling and promoting erbB receptor gene expression in astrocytes, a neuron-to-glia glutamatergic pathway may represent a basic cell-cell communication mechanism used by the neuroendocrine brain to coordinate the facilitatory transsynaptic and astroglial input to LHRH neurons during sexual development.

  17. UTSW Researchers Identify Potential Therapeutic Targets for High-grade Neuroendocrine Lung Cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Neuroendocrine specific lung cancers comprise about 10% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cases. Studies have previously shown that the transcription factor achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1) is a cancer “lineage” factor required for the development and survival of SCLC, and is highly expressed in neuroendocrine-specific NSCLC (NE-NSCLC).

  18. A gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing somatostatin in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jeremiah A; Newman, Shelley J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Dunlap, John

    2010-03-01

    A metastatic gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 2.5-year-old inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) with a chronic history of anorexia, weight loss, depression, and acute melena is described. Histologic examination of the gastric mass revealed a densely cellular tumor arranged in nests and occasional rosettes of hyperchromatic cells with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei and minimal cytoplasm; the tumor was supported by a moderate fibrovascular stroma. Similar cells invaded through the gastric mucosa, and there were multiple hepatic metastases. The neoplastic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuron-specific enolase and moderately positive for somatostatin but were negative for chromogranin AB and gastrin. Ultrastructural studies revealed scattered neurosecretory granules in the neoplastic cells, confirming the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.

  19. Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma. Case series 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Ramón; Gil-Carcedo, Elisa; Alonso, David; Vallejo, Luis A; Oñate, Juan M; Gil-Carcedo, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma was first described by Toker in 1972. It is an uncommon, primary neuroendocrine skin carcinoma which appears in the dermoepidermic area, grows fast, is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this work is to highlight the importance of this tumour, which develops mainly in the skin of the head and neck area, and whose prevalence has increased in recent years. We gathered data on 16 patients suffering cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma treated at our hospital between September 12, 1991 and July 13, 2012. We indicated the age and gender of patients. We described the area where the tumour was located, indicating the size in millimetres, according to the major axis of the lesion. Most of the patients studied were over 70 years old, except for one who was 55. The highest frequency of cases appeared among patients aged over 80 years. In the cases studied, when the tumour appeared in the head and neck region (10/16), its location could be nasal-lateronasal, cheek-malar, upper eyelid, frontal or mandibular. The major axis of the lesion ranged between 7 and 35 mm. Unlike with epidermoid or basocellular carcinomas, recurrence and ganglionar metastases were common. Immunohistochemical (CK20) tests are essential for a correct diagnosis. Treatment is usually surgical and occasionally followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This carcinoma is not a very common skin tumour. It appears in old age, in the head and neck region in 50% of cases and often leads to exitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. PlanHab study: assessment of psycho-neuroendocrine function in male subjects during 21 d of normobaric hypoxia and bed rest.

    PubMed

    Strewe, C; Zeller, R; Feuerecker, M; Hoerl, M; Kumprej, I; Crispin, A; Johannes, B; Debevec, T; Mekjavic, I; Schelling, G; Choukèr, A

    2017-03-01

    Immobilization and hypoxemia are conditions often seen in patients suffering from severe heart insufficiency or primary pulmonary diseases (e.g. fibrosis, emphysema). In future planned long-duration and exploration class space missions (including habitats on the moon and Mars), healthy individuals will encounter such a combination of reduced physical activity and oxygen tension by way of technical reasons and the reduced gravitational forces. These overall unconventional extraterrestrial conditions can result in yet unknown consequences for the regulation of stress-permissive, psycho-neuroendocrine responses, which warrant appropriate measures in order to mitigate foreseeable risks. The Planetary Habitat Simulation Study (PlanHab) investigated these two space-related conditions: bed rest as model of reduced gravity and normobaric hypoxia, with the aim of examining their influence on psycho-neuroendocrine responses. We hypothesized that both conditions independently increase measures of psychological stress and enhance neuroendocrine markers of stress, and that these effects would be exacerbated by combined treatment. The cross-over study composed of three interventions (NBR, normobaric normoxic horizontal bed rest; HBR, normobaric hypoxic horizontal bed rest; HAMB, normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement) with 14 male subjects during three sequential campaigns separated by 4 months. The psychological state was determined through three questionnaires and principal neuroendocrine responses were evaluated by measuring cortisol in saliva, catecholamine in urine, and endocannabinoids in blood. The results revealed no effects after 3 weeks of normobaric hypoxia on psycho-neuroendocrine responses. Conversely, bed rest induced neuroendocrine alterations that were not influenced by hypoxia.

  1. Local protein dynamics during microvesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Agila; Taraska, Justin

    2018-06-06

    Calcium triggered exocytosis is key to many physiological processes, including neurotransmitter and hormone release by neurons and endocrine cells. Dozens of proteins regulate exocytosis, yet the temporal and spatial dynamics of these factors during vesicle fusion remain unclear. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to visualize local protein dynamics at single sites of exocytosis of small synaptic-like microvesicles in live cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells. We employ two-color imaging to simultaneously observe membrane fusion (using vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) tagged to pHluorin) and the dynamics of associated proteins at the moments surrounding exocytosis. Our experiments show that many proteins, including the SNAREs syntaxin1 and VAMP2, the SNARE modulator tomosyn, and Rab proteins, are pre-clustered at fusion sites and rapidly lost at fusion. The ATPase NSF is locally recruited at fusion. Interestingly, the endocytic BAR domain-containing proteins amphiphysin1, syndapin2, and endophilins are dynamically recruited to fusion sites, and slow the loss of vesicle membrane-bound cargo from fusion sites. A similar effect on vesicle membrane protein dynamics was seen with the over-expression of the GTPases dynamin1 and dynamin2. These results suggest that proteins involved in classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis can regulate exocytosis of synaptic-like microvesicles. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics, assembly, and mechanistic roles of many key factors of exocytosis and endocytosis at single sites of microvesicle fusion in live cells.

  2. MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 - pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines with neuroendocrine differentiation and somatostatin receptors.

    PubMed

    Gradiz, Rui; Silva, Henriqueta C; Carvalho, Lina; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2016-02-17

    Studies using cell lines should always characterize these cells to ensure that the results are not distorted by unexpected morphological or genetic changes possibly due to culture time or passage number. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe those MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell line phenotype and genotype characteristics that may play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer therapeutic assays, namely neuroendocrine chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Epithelial, mesenchymal, endocrine and stem cell marker characterization was performed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and genotyping by PCR, gene sequencing and capillary electrophoresis. MIA PaCa-2 (polymorphism) expresses CK5.6, AE1/AE3, E-cadherin, vimentin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, SSTR2 and NTR1 but not CD56. PANC-1 (pleomorphism) expresses CK5.6, MNF-116, vimentin, chromogranin A, CD56 and SSTR2 but not E-cadherin, synaptophysin or NTR1. MIA PaCA-1 is CD24(-), CD44(+/++), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-), while PANC-1 is CD24(-/+), CD44(+), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-). Both cell lines have KRAS and TP53 mutations and homozygous deletions including the first 3 exons of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A), but no SMAD4/DPC4 mutations or microsatellite instability. Both have neuroendocrine differentiation and SSTR2 receptors, precisely the features making them suitable for the therapies we propose to assay in future studies.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Warren A; Rosenzweig, Erika B

    2011-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale have long been known to be complications of sickle cell disease, thought mostly to affect the adult population. Recently, pediatric studies in sickle cell patients have uncovered a similar prevalence of elevated tricuspid regurgitation jet velocities, a finding consistent with increased right-sided pressures, when compared with adult counterparts. Implications on mortality to date, while significant in the adult sickle cell population, appear to be unsubstantiated in children and adolescents. We review the recent literature in an attempt to discuss the prevalence, etiology and implications of an elevated tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity in pediatric sickle cell patients. We also suggest screening, diagnostics, treatment and follow-up plans that may improve the disease burden of pulmonary hypertension in both pediatric and adult sickle cell populations.

  4. Specification of Drosophila Corpora Cardiaca Neuroendocrine Cells from Mesoderm Is Regulated by Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangbin; Bustamante, Erika L.; Antonova, Julie; McLean, Graeme W.; Kim, Seung K.

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC) are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism. PMID:21901108

  5. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions: Evolution, Ecology, and Susceptibility to Illness.

    PubMed

    Blom, Johanna M C; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2017-11-16

    The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc.) and neuroendocrine (stress) responses. Furthermore, the immune-neuroendocrine system provides vital answers to ecological and immunological demands in terms of economy and efficiency. Finally, susceptibility to disease emerges as the result of a continuous dynamic interaction between the world within and the world outside. New fields such as ecological immunology study the susceptibility to pathogens in an evolutionary perspective while the field of neuro-endocrine-immunology studies the susceptibility from a more immediate perspective.

  6. Pulmonary stromal cells induce the generation of regulatory DC attenuating T-cell-mediated lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Guo, Zhenhong; Xu, Xiongfei; Xia, Sheng; Cao, Xuetao

    2008-10-01

    The tissue microenvironment may affect the development and function of immune cells such as DC. Whether and how the pulmonary stromal microenvironment can affect the development and function of lung DC need to be investigated. Regulatory DC (DCreg) can regulate T-cell response. We wondered whether such regulatory DC exist in the lung and what is the effect of the pulmonary stromal microenvironment on the generation of DCreg. Here we demonstrate that murine pulmonary stromal cells can drive immature DC, which are regarded as being widely distributed in the lung, to proliferate and differentiate into a distinct subset of DCreg, which express high levels of CD11b but low levels of MHC class II (I-A), CD11c, secrete high amounts of IL-10, NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and suppress T-cell proliferation. The natural counterpart of DCreg in the lung with similar phenotype and regulatory function has been identified. Pulmonary stroma-derived TGF-beta is responsible for the differentiation of immature DC to DCreg, and DCreg-derived PGE2 contributes to their suppression of T-cell proliferation. Moreover, DCreg can induce the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg. Importantly, infusion with DCreg attenuates T-cell-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation in vivo. Therefore, the pulmonary microenvironment may drive the generation of DCreg, thus contributing to the maintenance of immune homoeostasis and the control of inflammation in the lung.

  7. Hsp70 in the atrial neuroendocrine units of the snail, Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Martynova, M G; Bystrova, O A; Shabelnikov, S V; Margulis, B A; Prokofjeva, D S

    2007-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are evolutionary conserved peptides well known as molecular chaperones and stress proteins. Elevated levels of extracellular Hsps in blood plasma have been observed during the stress responses and some diseases. Information on the cellular sources of extracellular Hsps and mechanisms regulating their release is still scanty. Here we showed the presence and localization of Hsp70 in the neuroendocrine system in the atrium of the snail, Achatina fulica. The occurrence of the peptide in snail atrium lysate was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunoperoxidase and immunogold staining demonstrated that Hsp70-immunoreactivity is mainly confined to the peculiar atrial neuroendocrine units which are formed by nerve fibers tightly contacted with large granular cells. Immunolabelling intensity differed in morphologically distinct types of secretory granules in the granular cells. The pictures of exocytosis of Hsp70-immunolabeled granules from the granular cells were observed. In nerve bundles, axon profiles with Hsp70-immunoreactive and those with non-immunoreactive neurosecretory granules were found. In addition, Hsp70-like material was also revealed in the granules of glia-interstitial cells that accompanied nerve fibers. Our findings provide an immuno-morphological basis for a role of Hsp70 in the functioning of the neuroendocrine system in the snail heart, and show that the atrial granular cells are a probable source of extracellular Hsp70 in the snail hemolymph.

  8. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Ion Channels in Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Ayako; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a low resistance and low pressure system. Sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and excessive vascular remodeling often occur under pathophysiological conditions such as in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary vasoconstriction is a consequence of smooth muscle contraction. Many factors released from the endothelium contribute to regulating pulmonary vascular tone, while the extracellular matrix in the adventitia is the major determinant of vascular wall compliance. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is characterized by adventitial and medial hypertrophy due to fibroblast and smooth muscle cell proliferation, neointimal proliferation, intimal, and plexiform lesions that obliterate the lumen, muscularization of precapillary arterioles, and in situ thrombosis. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction, while increased release of mitogenic factors, upregulation (or downregulation) of ion channels and transporters, and abnormalities in intracellular signaling cascades are key to the remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Changes in the expression, function, and regulation of ion channels in PASMC and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and development of vascular remodeling. This article will focus on describing the ion channels and transporters that are involved in the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and structure and illustrating the potential pathogenic role of ion channels and transporters in the development of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23733654

  10. Neuroendocrine-Immune Circuits, Phenotypes, and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Noah T.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions. One classic example is the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that steroid hormones act as mediators of traits important for female choice while suppressing the immune system. Reciprocally, neuroendocrine-immune pathways can promote the development of altered behavioral states, such as sickness behavior. Understanding the energetic signals that mediate neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk is an active area of research. Although the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has begun to explore this crosstalk from a biomedical standpoint, the neuroendocrine-immune-behavior nexus has been relatively underappreciated in comparative species. The field of ecoimmunology, while traditionally emphasizing the study of non-model systems from an ecological evolutionary perspective, often under natural conditions, has focused less on the physiological mechanisms underlying behavioral responses. This review summarizes neuroendocrine-immune interactions using a comparative framework to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape these complex physiological interactions. PMID:27765499

  11. Neuroendocrine-immune circuits, phenotypes, and interactions.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Noah T; Demas, Gregory E

    2017-01-01

    Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions. One classic example is the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that steroid hormones act as mediators of traits important for female choice while suppressing the immune system. Reciprocally, neuroendocrine-immune pathways can promote the development of altered behavioral states, such as sickness behavior. Understanding the energetic signals that mediate neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk is an active area of research. Although the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has begun to explore this crosstalk from a biomedical standpoint, the neuroendocrine-immune-behavior nexus has been relatively underappreciated in comparative species. The field of ecoimmunology, while traditionally emphasizing the study of non-model systems from an ecological evolutionary perspective, often under natural conditions, has focused less on the physiological mechanisms underlying behavioral responses. This review summarizes neuroendocrine-immune interactions using a comparative framework to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape these complex physiological interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Utility of the quantitative Ki-67 proliferation index and CD56 together in the cytologic diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma and other lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gang; Ettinger, David S; Maleki, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Distinction of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) from non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is critical because of the differences in prognosis and management. Patients with SCLC usually present with distant metastasis, and clinicians demand an accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy. Limited cytology material, occasionally with crush artifact, is not uncommon. Therefore, robust cytomorphologic features and a small immunostaining panel would be ideal to differentiate SCLC from NSCLC and other neuroendocrine neoplasms. We evaluated CD56 and the quantitative Ki-67 immunohistochemical panel in comparison to synaptophysin and chromogranin, along with cytomorphology to diagnose SCLC. Eighty-eight cases of SCLC were retrieved from the cytology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Forty neuroendocrine neoplasms were used as control cases. SCLCs included 33 lung cases and 55 metastatic lesions. The specimens were obtained by fine needle aspiration, thoracocentesis, bronchoalveolar lavage and abdominal paracentesis. CD56 was expressed in 98.9% of SCLCs, which is significantly more sensitive than synaptophysin and chromogranin. The Ki-67 labeling index was high (>70%) in all cases, which is a reliable marker to differentiate SCLC from other neuroendocrine neoplasms and NSCLC. CD56 and quantitative Ki-67 along with cytomorphology is a robust immunohistochemical panel to differentiate SCLC from other neuroendocrine neoplasms and NSCLC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Crotalaria-induced pulmonary hypertension. Uptake of 3H-thymidine by the cells of the pulmonary circulation and alveolar walls.

    PubMed Central

    Meyrick, B. O.; Reid, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Feeding with Crotalaria spectabilis seeds induces structural changes in the pulmonary arterial circulation characteristic of pulmonary hypertension: increased medial and adventitial thickness, the appearance of muscle in smaller arteries than normal, and reduction in the number of peripheral arteries. By autoradiographic techniques, after injection of 3H-thymidine into rats fed Crotalaria for 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 days, the contribution of hyperplasia to these changes has been assessed at two levels of the pulmonary artery--the hilum and the periphery. In the hilar pulmonary artery, a biphasic increase in labeling index (LI) is seen in each cell type. After 3 days of feeding, the medial smooth muscle cells show a slight but significant increase (1.5 times the control value), and, after 7 days, so do the adventitial fibroblasts (3 x) and the endothelial cells (EC) (2 x). After 14 days LI for all three cell types is again at control values, but after 21 days (wall thickness is no increased) each cell type shows at least a fivefold increase; by 35 days all are again near control levels. In the intra-acinar region, by 14 days, "newly" muscularized arteries are identified and increase in number and proportion up to 35 days; 3H-thymidine uptake is not evident in this cell type until 35 days have passed. The ECs of these arteries, however, show a striking increase in LI after 14 days as do those of the alveolar capillaries. The ECs of the intra-acinar veins show a biphasic response being increased after 7, 28, and 35 days. The present study has shown that Crotalaria ingestion induces hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial cells at pre- and intra-acinar levels. The early increase in LI probably represents a response to the original cell injury, the later changes, a response to continuing damage or, in part, adaptation to the pulmonary hypertension now present. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:7055214

  14. Grading the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an evidence-based proposal.

    PubMed

    Rindi, G; Klersy, C; Inzani, F; Fellegara, G; Ampollini, L; Ardizzoni, A; Campanini, N; Carbognani, P; De Pas, T M; Galetta, D; Granone, P L; Righi, L; Rusca, M; Spaggiari, L; Tiseo, M; Viale, G; Volante, M; Papotti, M; Pelosi, G

    2014-02-01

    Lung neuroendocrine tumors are catalogued in four categories by the World Health Organization (WHO 2004) classification. Its reproducibility and prognostic efficacy was disputed. The WHO 2010 classification of digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms is based on Ki67 proliferation assessment and proved prognostically effective. This study aims at comparing these two classifications and at defining a prognostic grading system for lung neuroendocrine tumors. The study included 399 patients who underwent surgery and with at least 1 year follow-up between 1989 and 2011. Data on 21 variables were collected, and performance of grading systems and their components was compared by Cox regression and multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. At Cox analysis, WHO 2004 stratified patients into three major groups with statistically significant survival difference (typical carcinoid vs atypical carcinoid (AC), P=0.021; AC vs large-cell/small-cell lung neuroendocrine carcinomas, P<0.001). Optimal discrimination in three groups was observed by Ki67% (Ki67% cutoffs: G1 <4, G2 4-<25, G3 ≥25; G1 vs G2, P=0.021; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001), mitotic count (G1 ≤2, G2 >2-47, G3 >47; G1 vs G2, P≤0.001; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001), and presence of necrosis (G1 absent, G2 <10% of sample, G3 >10% of sample; G1 vs G2, P≤0.001; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001) at uni and multivariable analyses. The combination of these three variables resulted in a simple and effective grading system. A three-tiers grading system based on Ki67 index, mitotic count, and necrosis with cutoffs specifically generated for lung neuroendocrine tumors is prognostically effective and accurate.

  15. Effect of prepro-calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing endothelial progenitor cells on pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Zixiong; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Lu, Jun

    2007-08-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent smooth muscle cell proliferation inhibitor and vasodilator. It is now believed that CGRP plays an important role in maintaining a low pulmonary vascular resistance. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of intravenously administered CGRP-expressing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on left-to-right shunt-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Endothelial progenitor cells were obtained from cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The genetic sequence for CGRP was subcloned into cultured EPCs by human expression plasmid. Pulmonary hypertension was established in immunodeficient rats with an abdominal aorta to inferior vena cava shunt operation. The transfected EPCs were injected through the left jugular vein at 10 weeks after the shunt operation. Mean pulmonary artery pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance were detected with right cardiac catheterization at 4 weeks. The distribution of EPCs in the lung tissue was examined with immunofluorescence technique. Histopathologic changes in the structure of the pulmonary arteries was observed with electron microscopy and subjected to computerized image analysis. The lungs of rats transplanted with CGRP-expressing EPCs demonstrated a decrease in both mean pulmonary artery pressure (17.64 +/- 0.79 versus 22.08 +/- 0.95 mm Hg; p = 0.018) and total pulmonary vascular resistance (1.26 +/- 0.07 versus 2.45 +/- 0.18 mm Hg x min/mL; p = 0.037) at 4 weeks. Immunofluorescence revealed that intravenously administered cells were incorporated into the pulmonary vasculature. Pulmonary vascular remodeling was remarkably attenuated with the administration of CGRP-expressing EPCs. The transplantation of CGRP-expressing EPCs may effectively attenuate established pulmonary hypertension and exert reversal effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our findings suggest that the therapy based on the combination of both CGRP transfection and EPCs may be a potentially useful

  16. Coexistence of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Balega, J; Ulbright, T M; Look, K Y

    2001-01-01

    Women now constitute 28% of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Cervical cancer in HIV-infected women has a high recurrence and death rate, as well as decreased intervals to recurrence and death. Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix are characterized by a high frequency of early nodal and distant metastases. We present the first report of a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix in an HIV-positive patient. A 28 year old with a 9-year history of HIV succumbed to metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix 5 months after diagnosis. Given the aggressive nature of the cell type, an extended metastatic workup should be considered prior to surgery. The immune suppression present in HIV-positive patients with neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma may make such a workup particularly crucial, such that surgery is offered only to those who can be expected to benefit.

  17. [Neuroendocrine immunomodulation].

    PubMed

    Uchakin, P N; Uchakina, O N; Tobin, B V; Ershov, F I

    2007-01-01

    Close interaction between the immune and nervous systems is well documented. The ability of immunocompetent cells to express receptors to neuroendocrine mediators as well as secrete many of them is proved. The current literature suggests that the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonodal axes play the most significant role in the regulation of immune responsiveness. On the other hand, the immune system communicates with the CNS directly through the cytokines that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, or directly via the nervus vagus, as well as via secondary messengers. Receptors to a number of cytokines have been found in the nervous tissue. Moreover, glial cells are able to secrete cytokines in the amount significant enough for at least autocrine action. In this article, the authors review the role of the "major" stress hormones such as cortisol, DHEA, growth hormone in the regulation of immune response, as well as neuro- and psychotropic properties of two major groups of cytokines that support cell-mediated (Type 1) and humoral (Type 2) immune reactions. This review emphasizes neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in response to infection both under laboratory and clinical conditions.

  18. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Treatment of Patients with Neuroendocrine Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Weber, Matthias M; Fottner, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are usually controlled by antiproliferative, local ablative and/or radionuclide therapies, whereas poorly differentiated NENs generally require cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, treatment options for patients with advanced/metastatic high-grade NENs remain limited. Review of the literature and international congress abstracts on the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibition in advanced/metastatic NENs. Evidence points to an important role of immune phenomena in the pathogenesis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein and its ligand are mainly expressed in poorly differentiated NENs. Microsatellite instability and high mutational load are more pronounced in high-grade NENs and may predict response to immunotherapy. Clinical experience of immune checkpoint blockade mainly exists for Merkel cell carcinoma, a high-grade cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which has led to approval of the anti-PD-1 antibody avelumab. In addition, there is anecdotal evidence for the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in large-cell lung NECs, ovarian NECs and others, including gastroenteropancreatic NENs. Currently, phase II studies investigate PDR001, pembrolizumab, combined durvalumab and tremelimumab, and avelumab treatment in patients with advanced/metastatic NENs. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a promising therapeutic option, especially in progressive NECs or high-grade NETs with high tumor burden, microsatellite instability, and/or mutational load. © 2018 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  19. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Ritter, J M; Garner, M M; Chilton, J A; Jacobson, E R; Kiupel, M

    2009-11-01

    This article describes a newly recognized highly malignant neoplastic entity in young bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, which readily metastasize. Ten bearded dragons with histories of anorexia (8), vomiting (3), hyperglycemia (2), and anemia (3) were included in this study. All animals had neoplastic masses in their stomach, with metastasis to the liver. Microscopically, 6 of these neuroendocrine carcinomas were well-differentiated and 4 were poorly differentiated. For further characterization, immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5, neuron-specific enolase, endorphin, chromogranins A and B, synaptophysin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide was performed on 5 animals. Because only immunolabeling for somatostatin was consistently observed in all neoplasms, a diagnosis of somatostatinoma was made for these 5 bearded dragons. Some neoplasms also exhibited multihormonal expression. Electron microscopy performed on 1 tumor confirmed the presence of neuroendocrine granules within neoplastic cells. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, and specifically somatostatinomas, have not been previously reported in bearded dragons, or other reptiles, and may be underdiagnosed due to inconsistent, ambiguous clinical signs. In humans, pancreatic somatostatinomas are associated with a syndrome of hypersomatostatinemia, which includes hyperglycemia, weight loss, and anemia, as observed in some of these bearded dragons. Somatostatinomas in humans are commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (Von Recklinghausen's disease), caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene NF1, which results in decreased expression of neurofibromin. In all 5 animals examined, neoplasms exhibited decreased neurofibromin expression compared with control tissues, suggesting that decreased functional neurofibromin may play a role in the pathogenesis of somatostatinomas in bearded dragons.

  20. The pulmonary neuroendocrine system and drainage of the fetal lung: effects of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Chua, B A; Perks, A M

    1999-03-01

    The neuroendocrine system of the lungs is maximally developed and activated at birth, but has no clear function. Here, one of its products, serotonin, was tested for an ability to stop lung fluid production or activate reabsorption. Lungs from fetal guinea pigs (61 +/- 2 days of gestation) were supported in vitro for 3 h; lung liquid production was monitored by a dye dilution method. Initial studies on 36 young fetuses (61 +/- 1 days of gestation) showed that untreated controls produced fluid at 1.17 +/- 0.23 ml.kg-1.h-1, with no significant change over 3 h (ANOVA; regression analysis); those given 10(-8) M serotonin during the middle hour showed no significant changes, but those given 5 x 10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6), or 10(-5) M serotonin reduced production significantly (P < 0.01 to P < 0.0005). Responses were linear up to 10(-7) M (threshold, 10(-9) M) and then become maximal at 50% reduction. However, responses increased with age. Comparison of 40 fetuses divided into groups of 60-61 or 65-67 days of gestation showed a large and significant increase in responses in the older fetuses (P < 0.01), where half the preparations reabsorbed fluid. Serotonin receptors were involved, since 10(-6) M cyproheptadine abolished responses (based on 24 preparations). Amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels were involved, since 10(-6) M amiloride abolished responses (based on 24 preparations). These results, in combination with earlier results from somatostatin and dopamine, together with histochemical and clinical observations, strongly suggest that the neuroendocrine system of the lungs may find a function in clearing fluid from the lungs at time of birth. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Enhanced autophagy in pulmonary endothelial cells on exposure to HIV-Tat and morphine: Role in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dalvi, Pranjali; Sharma, Himanshu; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Sanderson, Miles; Allen, Julie; Zeng, Ruoxi; Choi, Augustine; O'Brien-Ladner, Amy; Dhillon, Navneet K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intravenous drug use is one of the major risk factors for HIV-infection in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. We previously demonstrated exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodeling with enhanced apoptosis followed by increased proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells on simultaneous exposure to both opioids and HIV protein(s). Here we hypothesize that the exacerbation of autophagy may be involved in the switching of endothelial cells from an early apoptotic state to later hyper-proliferative state. Treatment of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) with both the HIV-protein Tat and morphine resulted in an oxidative stress-dependent increase in the expression of various markers of autophagy and formation of autophagosomes when compared to either Tat or morphine monotreatments as demonstrated by western blot, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Autophagy flux experiments suggested increased formation rather than decreased clearance of autolysosomes. Inhibition of autophagy resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis and reduction in proliferation of HPMECs with combined morphine and Tat (M+T) treatment compared to monotreatments whereas stimulation of autophagy resulted in opposite effects. Significant increases in the expression of autophagy markers as well as the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes was observed in the lungs of SIV-infected macaques and HIV-infected humans exposed to opioids. Overall our findings indicate that morphine in combination with viral protein(s) results in the induction of autophagy in pulmonary endothelial cells that may lead to an increase in severity of angio-proliferative remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature on simian and human immunodeficiency virus infection in the presence of opioids. PMID:27723373

  2. Enhanced autophagy in pulmonary endothelial cells on exposure to HIV-Tat and morphine: Role in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Pranjali; Sharma, Himanshu; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Sanderson, Miles; Allen, Julie; Zeng, Ruoxi; Choi, Augustine; O'Brien-Ladner, Amy; Dhillon, Navneet K

    2016-12-01

    Intravenous drug use is one of the major risk factors for HIV-infection in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. We previously demonstrated exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodeling with enhanced apoptosis followed by increased proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells on simultaneous exposure to both opioids and HIV protein(s). Here we hypothesize that the exacerbation of autophagy may be involved in the switching of endothelial cells from an early apoptotic state to later hyper-proliferative state. Treatment of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) with both the HIV-protein Tat and morphine resulted in an oxidative stress-dependent increase in the expression of various markers of autophagy and formation of autophagosomes when compared to either Tat or morphine monotreatments as demonstrated by western blot, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Autophagy flux experiments suggested increased formation rather than decreased clearance of autolysosomes. Inhibition of autophagy resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis and reduction in proliferation of HPMECs with combined morphine and Tat (M+T) treatment compared to monotreatments whereas stimulation of autophagy resulted in opposite effects. Significant increases in the expression of autophagy markers as well as the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes was observed in the lungs of SIV-infected macaques and HIV-infected humans exposed to opioids. Overall our findings indicate that morphine in combination with viral protein(s) results in the induction of autophagy in pulmonary endothelial cells that may lead to an increase in severity of angio-proliferative remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature on simian and human immunodeficiency virus infection in the presence of opioids.

  3. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasm of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Kasaraneni, Ramesh; Smith, David A; Goulbourne, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours are distinct neuroendocrine tumours with characteristic clinical and histological behavioural properties which arise mainly in the gastrointestinal tract (73.7%) or bronchopulmonary system (25.1%). Neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder are rare-to date there have been only 42 cases reported in the literature. This case was an incidental finding which was recognised during routine histopathological examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The patient recovered well from the operation. There were no concurrent lesions or metastases noted on further investigations, and the final diagnosis was a primary neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder.

  4. Update on the management of unusual neuroendocrine tumors: pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, medullary thyroid cancer and adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, Jonathan R

    2013-02-01

    Pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) originate in cells that share a common neuroectodermal origin. Like other neuroendocrine neoplasms, they are characterized by a propensity to secrete amines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and peptide hormones (calcitonin). Improved understanding of underlying molecular pathways, such as mutations of the RET (rearranged during transfection) proto-oncogene, has led to new rational targeted therapies. Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) originate in the steroid hormone-producing adrenal cortex. While tumors of the adrenal cortex are not, strictly speaking, part the "diffuse neuroendocrine system," they are often included in neuroendocrine tumor guidelines due to their orphan status. In this update on management of unusual neuroendocrine tumors, we review the biology and treatment of these rare neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of deregulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung via NanoString nCounter expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Ting, Saskia; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Theegarten, Dirk; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Mairinger, Fabian Dominik

    2015-09-22

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise typical (TC) and atypical carcinoids (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Cell cycle and apoptosis are key pathways of multicellular homeostasis and deregulation of these pathways is associated with cancerogenesis. Sixty representative FFPE-specimens (16 TC, 13 AC, 16 LCNEC and 15 SCLC) were used for mRNA expression analysis using the NanoString technique. Eight genes related to apoptosis and ten genes regulating key points of cell cycle were investigated. ASCL1, BCL2, CASP8, CCNE1, CDK1, CDK2, CDKN1A and CDKN2A showed lower expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. In contrast, CCNE1 and CDK6 showed elevated expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. The calculated BCL2/BAX ratio showed increasing values from TC to SCLC. Between SCLC and LCNEC CDK2, CDKN1B, CDKN2A and PNN expression was significantly different with higher expression in SCLC. Carcinoids have increased CDK4/6 and CCND1 expression controlling RB1 phosphorylation via this signaling cascade. CDK2 and CCNE1 were increased in carcinomas showing that these use the opposite way to control RB1. BAX and BCL2 are antagonists in regulating apoptosis. BCL2 expression increased over BAX expression with increasing malignancy of the tumor from TC to SCLC.

  6. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasm of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Kasaraneni, Ramesh; Smith, David A; Goulbourne, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours are distinct neuroendocrine tumours with characteristic clinical and histological behavioural properties which arise mainly in the gastrointestinal tract (73.7%) or bronchopulmonary system (25.1%). Neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder are rare—to date there have been only 42 cases reported in the literature. This case was an incidental finding which was recognised during routine histopathological examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The patient recovered well from the operation. There were no concurrent lesions or metastases noted on further investigations, and the final diagnosis was a primary neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder. PMID:21686357

  7. Adult Lung Spheroid Cells Contain Progenitor Cells and Mediate Regeneration in Rodents With Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Henry, Eric; Cores, Jhon; Hensley, M Taylor; Anthony, Shirena; Vandergriff, Adam; de Andrade, James B M; Allen, Tyler; Caranasos, Thomas G; Lobo, Leonard J; Cheng, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Lung diseases are devastating conditions and ranked as one of the top five causes of mortality worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for lung regeneration. Previous animal and clinical studies have focused on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (from other parts of the body) for lung regenerative therapies. We report a rapid and robust method to generate therapeutic resident lung progenitors from adult lung tissues. Outgrowth cells from healthy lung tissue explants are self-aggregated into three-dimensional lung spheroids in a suspension culture. Without antigenic sorting, the lung spheroids recapitulate the stem cell niche and contain a natural mixture of lung stem cells and supporting cells. In vitro, lung spheroid cells can be expanded to a large quantity and can form alveoli-like structures and acquire mature lung epithelial phenotypes. In severe combined immunodeficiency mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, intravenous injection of human lung spheroid cells inhibited apoptosis, fibrosis, and infiltration but promoted angiogenesis. In a syngeneic rat model of pulmonary fibrosis, lung spheroid cells outperformed adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in reducing fibrotic thickening and infiltration. Previously, lung spheroid cells (the spheroid model) had only been used to study lung cancer cells. Our data suggest that lung spheroids and lung spheroid cells from healthy lung tissues are excellent sources of regenerative lung cells for therapeutic lung regeneration. The results from the present study will lead to future human clinical trials using lung stem cell therapies to treat various incurable lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. The data presented here also provide fundamental knowledge regarding how injected stem cells mediate lung repair in pulmonary fibrosis. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. [A case of neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the esophagus with lung metastases successfully treated with CPT-11/CDDP].

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Tomohira; Hirao, Motohiro; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Asaoka, Tadafumi; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masataka; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2013-11-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with dysphagia to another institution and was referred to our hospital. We diagnosed the patient with primary neuroendocrine cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Following 2 courses of CDDP+5-FU+ADM combination neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the primary tumor had reduced in size. Thereafter, we performed subtotal esophagectomy by right thoracotomy, retrosternal gastric tube reconstruction, and 2-field lymph node dissection. Computed tomography scan 3 months after the surgery revealed lung metastasis. He received CPT-11+CDDP chemotherapy, and the disease was diagnosed as cCR. At present, he is alive without any evidence of recurrence 12 months after the surgery.

  9. [Regulation of airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Wu, Q; Sun, X; Li, X; Li, K; Xu, L; Li, Y; Zhang, Q Y; Zhang, Y C; Chen, H Y

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of fibroblasts on regulating airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung cell suspension was prepared from β-actin-GFP mice. Airway stem cells were obtained by fluorescence activated cell sorting and co-cultured with lung fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were treated with TGF-β inhibitor SB43142. The expression of growth factors FGF1/2 and the effect of FGF1/2 on stem cell proliferation were observed. The cloning efficiency of airway stem cells, when co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, was (3.5±1.1)%, while the cloning efficiency was reduced to (0.04±0.04)% when co-cultured with lung fibroblasts from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant(P=0.002 5). TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 increased lung fibroblast growth factors FGF1/2 expression.FGF1 mRNA expression was increased to the experimental group 0.005 5 from 0.000 2 in the control group.FGF2 mRNA expression of the amount raised to the experimental group 0.000 15 from 0.000 8 in the control group.FGF1/2 promoted the growth of airway stem cells. After FGF1/2 was co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, the cloning efficiency of airway stem cells was (0.3±0.1)%. During the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, fibroblast secreted FGF1/2 regulate airway stem cell proliferation.

  10. Dual Tracer PET Imaging (68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG) Features in Pulmonary Carcinoid: Correlation with Tumor Proliferation Index.

    PubMed

    Bhatkar, Dhiraj; Utpat, Ketaki; Basu, Sandip; Joshi, Jyotsna M

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are rare group of lung neoplasms representing 1% of all the lung tumors. The typical bronchial carcinoids showed higher and more selective uptake of 68 Ga-DOTATATE than of 18 F-FDG on PET-CT. The Ki-67(MIB-1), a tumor proliferation index is a prognostic marker in neuroendocrine tumors for estimating tumor progression. Atypical carcinoids have higher Ki-67 index and have an increased propensity to metastasize as compared to typical ones. 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET imaging along with Ki-67 can be correlated for better management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. We describe the dual tracer imaging features in a patient of pulmonary carcinoid with avid 68 Ga-DOTATATE and minimal 18 FDG ( 18 Flurodeoxyglucose) uptake diagnosed on the basis of imaging and bronchoscopic biopsy and its correlation with tumor proliferation index.

  11. ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ling-Pin; Li, Yan; Zou, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Chi; Lei, Wei; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Shi-An

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly disorder is associated with excessive growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial (HPAECs) and smooth muscle (HPASMCs) cells. Current therapies primarily aim at promoting vasodilation, which only ameliorates clinical symptoms without a cure. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, and mediates many cellular function including cell growth. However, the roles of ITE in human lung endothelial cells remain elusive. Herein, we tested a hypothesis that ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells via AhR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize AhR expression in human lung tissues. The crystal violet method and MTT assay were used to determine ITE's effects on growth of HPAECs. The AhR activation in HPAECs was confirmed using Western blotting and RT-qPCR. The role of AhR in ITE-affected proliferation of HPAECs was assessed using siRNA knockdown method followed by the crystal violet method. Immunohistochemistry revealed that AhR was present in human lung tissues, primarily in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of pulmonary veins and arteries, as well as in bronchial and alveolar sac epithelia. We also found that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation of HPAECs with a maximum inhibition of 83% at 20 µM after 6 days of treatment. ITE rapidly decreased AhR protein levels, while it increased mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP), family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1) and B1 (CYP1B1), indicating activation of the AhR/CYP1A1 and AhR/CYP1B1 pathways in HPAECs. The AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression, whereas it did not significantly alter ITE-inhibited growth of HPAECs. ITE suppresses growth of HPAECs independent of AhR, suggesting that ITE may play an important role in preventing excessive growth of lung endothelial cells.

  12. Targeted Delivery of Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells Overexpressing Interleukin-8 Receptors Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinyan; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Zhao, Xiangmin; Creighton, Judy; Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Hage, Fadi G.; Oparil, Suzanne; Xing, Daisy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-8 (IL8) receptors IL8RA and IL8RB (ILRA/B) on neutrophil membranes bind to IL8 with high affinity and play a critical role in neutrophil recruitment to sites of injury and/or inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of rat pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (ECs) overexpressing IL8RA/B can accelerate the adhesion of ECs to the injured lung and inhibit monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary inflammation, arterial thickening and hypertension, and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. Approach and Results The treatment groups included 10-wk-old ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats that received s.c. injection of phosphate-buffered-saline (Vehicle); a single injection of MCT (MCT alone, 60 mg/kg, s.c.); MCT followed by i.v. transfusion of ECs transduced with the empty adenoviral vector (Null-EC); and MCT followed by i.v. transfusion of ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B (IL8RA/B-EC, 1.5×106 cells/rat). Two days or 4 wks after MCT treatment, eNOS, iNOS, CINC-2β (IL8 equivalent in rat) and MCP-1 expression; neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into pulmonary arterioles, and arteriolar and alveolar morphology were measured by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine protein levels were measured by Multiplexed rat specific magnetic beads based sandwich immunoassay in total lung homogenates. Transfusion of IL8RA/B-ECs significantly reduced MCT-induced neutrophil infiltration and pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-8, MCP-1, iNOS, CINC and MIP-2) expression in lungs and pulmonary arterioles and alveoli, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary arteriole and RV hypertrophy and remodeling. Conclusion These provocative findings suggest that targeted delivery of ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B is effective in repairing the injured pulmonary vasculature. PMID:24790141

  13. Characterization of the cell of origin for small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwon-Sik; Liang, Mei-Chih; Raiser, David M; Zamponi, Raffaella; Roach, Rebecca R; Curtis, Stephen J; Walton, Zandra; Schaffer, Bethany E; Roake, Caitlin M; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Kriegel, Christina; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine subtype of lung cancer that affects more than 200,000 people worldwide every year with a very high mortality rate. Here, we used a mouse genetics approach to characterize the cell of origin for SCLC; in this mouse model, tumors are initiated by the deletion of the Rb and p53 tumor suppressor genes in the lung epithelium of adult mice. We found that mouse SCLCs often arise in the lung epithelium, where neuroendocrine cells are located, and that the majority of early lesions were composed of proliferating neuroendocrine cells. In addition, mice in which Rb and p53 are deleted in a variety of non-neuroendocrine lung epithelial cells did not develop SCLC. These data indicate that SCLC likely arises from neuroendocrine cells in the lung. PMID:21822053

  14. Chemotherapy for neuroendocrine tumors: the Beatson Oncology Centre experience.

    PubMed

    Hatton, M Q; Reed, N S

    1997-01-01

    The role of chemotherapy in malignant neuroendocrine tumours is difficult to assess because of their rarity and variation in biological behaviour. We present a retrospective review of chemotherapy given to 18 patients with metastatic and one with locally advanced neuroendocrine tumours. There were eight poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours, six thyroid medullary carcinomas, two phaeochromocytomas, two pancreatic islet cell tumours and one undifferentiated neuroblastoma. Four patients were given 3-weekly dacarbazine, vincristine and cyclophosphamide (DOC) chemotherapy. In eight patients, this regimen was modified by substituting the dacarbazine and cisplatin and etoposide (OPEC). A further six patients were treated with dacarbazine reintroduced into the 3-weekly regimen (DOPEC). The remaining patient received cisplatin and etoposide. There were two complete responses (both with OPEC) and eight partial responses (two with DOC, three with OPEC and three with DOPEC). Five patients had stable disease and four progressed. Four received further chemotherapy on relapse, producing one complete and one partial response. The median response duration to initial chemotherapy was 10 months (range 3-34). The median survival was 12 months (range 1-42). The main toxicity was haematological, with grade 3-4 neutropenia in 12 patients; eight suffered episodes of sepsis. One death was treatment related. Other toxicity was mild although three patients discontinued vincristine with grade 2 neurotoxicity. The response rate and side effects of these three regimens appear comparable. We conclude that, although these patient numbers are small, combination chemotherapy produces an encouraging response rate (53%; 95% CI 30-75) in malignant neuroendocrine tumours, with acceptable toxicity.

  15. Clinicopathological Features of Intraductal Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Cong-Wei; Meng, Yun-Xiao; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-10

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of intraductal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). Methods Four cases of intraductal PanNETs were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with the analysis of morphologic features and review of relevant literatures. Results Two female patients and two male patients aged 41- 58 years were enrolled in this study. The chief complaint was abdominal pain in two patients,vomiting in one patient,and jaundice in the last patient. Imaging examination showed intraductal neoplasm with diagnosis as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in case 1; space-occupying lesions were found in the head of pancreas in the other three cases with pancreatic ductal ectasia and distal pancreatic atrophy. Grossly the masses were located in pancreatic main duct and invaded into surrounding pancreatic parachyma. Microscopically the tumors arranged with solid pattern,with some trabecular structures in the last two cases. Small duct and ductules were seen in intraductal PanNETs. The immunohistochemical expression showed that SYN and CgA were positive in neoplastic cells and negative in small duct and ductules.Conclusions Intraductal PanNETs are rare conditions. The clinical symptoms and imaging findings are similar to IPMN or pancreatic carcinoma. The tumors are located within pancreatic duct partly and can invade the pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopically the neuroendocrine tumors mix with small duct and forms ductulo-insular structure,which should be differentiated with mixed ductal endocrine carcinoma. The grade and prognosis are similar to those of classical neuroendocrine tumors.

  16. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  17. Normal and PPP-affected palmoplantar sweat gland express neuroendocrine markers chromogranins and synaptophysin differently.

    PubMed

    Hagforsen, Eva; Michaëlsson, Gerd; Stridsberg, Mats

    2010-11-01

    Earlier findings indicate the acrosyringium as the target for the inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat gland apparatus seems to be an immune-competent structure that probably contributes to the defence of the skin. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ because it expresses cholineacetyl-transferase and acetylcholinesterase, nicotinic receptors, beta-adrenergic and angiotensin receptors. The aim of this study was to obtain further information about neuroendocrine properties of the sweat gland apparatus by examining the expression of common neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranins A and B in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin. Synaptophysin and chromogranins were expressed in the sweat glands and ducts with some variation in the pattern and intensity of the expression. In PPP skin the expression differed, being higher and lower, depending on the part of the sweat duct. Chromogranins were further expressed in the epidermis, endothelium and inflammatory cells, but its intensity was weaker in epidermis than in the sweat gland apparatus. In most cases, chromogranins in epidermis in involved PPP were weakly expressed compared to healthy controls. The presence of synaptophysin and chromogranins in palmoplantar skin may have marked neuroendocrine effects, and the palmoplantar skin is likely to have important neuroimmuno-endocrine properties. Moreover, the altered chromogranin expression in PPP skin might influence both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunologic properties of palmoplantar skin in these patients. These results indicate important neuroendocrine properties of the palmoplantar skin.

  18. The distribution of immunomodulatory cells in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nuovo, Gerard J.; Hagood, James S.; Magro, Cynthia M.; Chin, Nena; Kapil, Rubina; Davis, Luke; Marsh, Clay B.; Folcik, Virginia A.

    2011-01-01

    We have characterized the immune system involvement in the disease processes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in novel ways. To do so, we analyzed lung tissue from 21 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 21 (non-fibrotic, non-cancerous) controls for immune cell and inflammation-related markers. The immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue was grouped by patterns of severity in disease pathology. There were significantly greater numbers of CD68+ and CD80+ cells, and significantly fewer CD3+, CD4+, and CD45RO+ cells in areas of relatively (histologically) normal lung in biopsies from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients compared to controls. In zones of active disease, characterized by epithelial cell regeneration and fibrosis, there were significantly more cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD80, CCR6, S100, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and retinoic acid-related orphan receptors compared to histologically normal lung areas from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Inflammation was implicated in these active regions by the cells that expressed retinoid orphan receptor-α, -β, and -γ, CCR6, and IL-17. The regenerating epithelial cells predominantly expressed these pro-inflammatory molecules, as evidenced by co-expression analyses with epithelial cytokeratins. Macrophages in pseudo-alveoli and CD3+ T cells in the fibrotic interstitium also expressed IL-17. Co-expression of IL-17 with retinoid orphan receptors, and epithelial cytoskeletal proteins, CD68, and CD3 in epithelial cells, macrophages, and T-cells, respectively, confirmed the production of IL-17 by these cell types. There was little staining for Foxp3, CD56, or CD34 in any idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung regions. The fibrotic regions had fewer immune cells overall. In summary, our study shows participation of innate and adaptive mononuclear cells in active-disease regions of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung, where the regenerating epithelial cells appear to propagate inflammation

  19. Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms, including gastrinoma - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    PubMed

    Lipiński, Michał; Rydzewska, Grażyna; Foltyn, Wanda; Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Falconi, Massimo; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Poczkaj, Karolina; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Starzyńska, Teresa; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the updated Polish Neuroendocrine Tumour Network expert panel recommendations on the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach and duodenum, including gastrinoma. The recommendations discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of these tumours as well as their diagnosis, including biochemical, histopathological, and localisation diagnoses. The principles of treatment are discussed, including endoscopic, surgical, pharmacological, and radionuclide treatments. Finally, there are also recommendations on patient monitoring.

  20. Cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Longhini-Dos-Santos, Nathalia; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Kozma, Rodrigo Heras; Faria, Carolina Arruda de; Stessuk, Talita; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2013-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by destruction of alveolar walls with loss of gas exchange surface and consequent progressive dyspnea. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in an animal model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. Emphysema was induced in C57Bl/J6 female mice by intranasal instillation of elastase. After 21 days, the mice received bone marrow mononuclear cells from EGFP male mice with C57Bl/J6 background. The groups were assessed by comparison and statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the groups treated with BMMC and evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days. Analysis of the mean linear intercept (Lm) values for the different groups allowed to observe that the group treated with BMMC and evaluated after 21 days showed the most significant result. The group that received no treatment showed a statistically significant difference when compared to other groups, except the group treated and evaluated after 21 days, evidencing the efficacy of cell therapy with BMMC in pulmonary emphysema.

  1. Ectopic Cushing' syndrome caused by a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery.

    PubMed

    Fasshauer, Mathias; Lincke, Thomas; Witzigmann, Helmut; Kluge, Regine; Tannapfel, Andrea; Moche, Michael; Buchfelder, Michael; Petersenn, Stephan; Kratzsch, Juergen; Paschke, Ralf; Koch, Christian A

    2006-04-27

    ACTH overproduction within the pituitary gland or ectopically leads to hypercortisolism. Here, we report the first case of Cushing' syndrome caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery. Moreover, diagnostic procedures and pitfalls associated with ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors are demonstrated and discussed. A 41 year-old man presented with clinical features and biochemical tests suggestive of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. First, subtotal thyroidectomy was performed without remission of hypercortisolism, because an octreotide scan showed increased activity in the left thyroid gland and an ultrasound revealed nodules in both thyroid lobes one of which was autonomous. In addition, the patient had a 3 mm hypoenhancing lesion of the neurohypophysis and a 1 cm large adrenal tumor. Surgical removal of the pituitary lesion within the posterior lobe did not improve hypercortisolism and we continued to treat the patient with metyrapone to block cortisol production. At 18-months follow-up from initial presentation, we detected an ACTH-producing neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery by using a combination of octreotide scan, computed tomography scan, and positron emission tomography. Intraoperatively, use of a gamma probe after administration of radiolabeled (111)In-pentetreotide helped identify the mesenteric neuroendocrine tumor. After removal of this carcinoma, the patient improved clinically. Laboratory testing confirmed remission of hypercortisolism. An octreotide scan 7 months after surgery showed normal results. This case underscores the diagnostic challenge in identifying an ectopic ACTH-producing tumor and the pluripotency of cells, in this case of mesenteric cells that can start producing and secreting ACTH. It thereby helps elucidate the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine tumors. This case also suggests that patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome and an octreotide scan positive in atypical locations may benefit from explorative

  2. Ectopic Cushing' syndrome caused by a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Fasshauer, Mathias; Lincke, Thomas; Witzigmann, Helmut; Kluge, Regine; Tannapfel, Andrea; Moche, Michael; Buchfelder, Michael; Petersenn, Stephan; Kratzsch, Juergen; Paschke, Ralf; Koch, Christian A

    2006-01-01

    Background ACTH overproduction within the pituitary gland or ectopically leads to hypercortisolism. Here, we report the first case of Cushing' syndrome caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery. Moreover, diagnostic procedures and pitfalls associated with ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors are demonstrated and discussed. Case presentation A 41 year-old man presented with clinical features and biochemical tests suggestive of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. First, subtotal thyroidectomy was performed without remission of hypercortisolism, because an octreotide scan showed increased activity in the left thyroid gland and an ultrasound revealed nodules in both thyroid lobes one of which was autonomous. In addition, the patient had a 3 mm hypoenhancing lesion of the neurohypophysis and a 1 cm large adrenal tumor. Surgical removal of the pituitary lesion within the posterior lobe did not improve hypercortisolism and we continued to treat the patient with metyrapone to block cortisol production. At 18-months follow-up from initial presentation, we detected an ACTH-producing neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery by using a combination of octreotide scan, computed tomography scan, and positron emission tomography. Intraoperatively, use of a gamma probe after administration of radiolabeled 111In-pentetreotide helped identify the mesenteric neuroendocrine tumor. After removal of this carcinoma, the patient improved clinically. Laboratory testing confirmed remission of hypercortisolism. An octreotide scan 7 months after surgery showed normal results. Conclusion This case underscores the diagnostic challenge in identifying an ectopic ACTH-producing tumor and the pluripotency of cells, in this case of mesenteric cells that can start producing and secreting ACTH. It thereby helps elucidate the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine tumors. This case also suggests that patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome and an octreotide scan positive in atypical

  3. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gumuscu, Burak; Norwood, Kevin; Parker, George A.; Bridges, C. Lee; Rountree, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A 13-year-old African–American female presented to her primary care physician's office with fatigue, syncope, and hematemesis. After initial evaluation, the patient was referred to pediatric gastroenterology clinic for further evaluation. Main concerns, important findings: An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to evaluate the source of her bleeding. Endoscopy revealed a 3-cm mass in the lesser curvature of the stomach, and a biopsy of the mass revealed a concern for carcinoid (neuroendocrine) features. Diagnosis: She underwent an open gastrectomy. Post-surgical pathology reports confirmed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach in children are rare and we presently do not have pediatric-specific diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Although adult-based The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) guidelines are helpful, they are clearly not geared toward pediatric patients. To establish pediatric guidelines and to assess effectiveness of treatments, multicenter data collection is essential. In the long run, accumulation of clinically useful treatment information and long-term follow-up guidelines should enable clinicians to improve standard of care given to children with neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:27442656

  4. Synchronous GIST with osteoclast-like giant cells and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor in Ampula Vateri: coexistence of two extremely rare entities.

    PubMed

    Koçer, N Emrah; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet; Calişkan, Kenan; Ulusan, Serife

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal system with variable histopathological appearances and constant expression of CD117 are known as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Neuroendocrine tumors may be seen in the gastrointestinal system and other organ systems of the body. We report a 44-year-old male patient with a 6.5 x 3 x 6cm mass located in the Ampulla of Vater. Histopathologic examination revealed a GIST with a marked nuclear pleomorphism and a high mitotic rate, and that was rich in osteoclast-like giant cells (OGC). Immunohistochemically, GIST was positive for CD117, while OGCs were negative for CD117 and positive for CD68 and alpha1-antitrypsin. There was also found a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor near the GIST, in the serosal aspect of the duodenum at the point of the Ampulla of Vater. This second tumor was 20mm in diameter, and was relatively well circumscribed with few glands invading the GIST. This tumor was positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin. Neither mitosis nor vascular invasion was observed. The patient had no familial history or clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis. This case presents the unique synchronous existence of two extremely rare entities, a GIST with OGC and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, both located in the Ampulla of Vater.

  5. Identification of deregulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung via NanoString nCounter expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Ting, Saskia; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Theegarten, Dirk; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Mairinger, Fabian Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise typical (TC) and atypical carcinoids (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Cell cycle and apoptosis are key pathways of multicellular homeostasis and deregulation of these pathways is associated with cancerogenesis. Materials and Methods Sixty representative FFPE-specimens (16 TC, 13 AC, 16 LCNEC and 15 SCLC) were used for mRNA expression analysis using the NanoString technique. Eight genes related to apoptosis and ten genes regulating key points of cell cycle were investigated. Results ASCL1, BCL2, CASP8, CCNE1, CDK1, CDK2, CDKN1A and CDKN2A showed lower expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. In contrast, CCNE1 and CDK6 showed elevated expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. The calculated BCL2/BAX ratio showed increasing values from TC to SCLC. Between SCLC and LCNEC CDK2, CDKN1B, CDKN2A and PNN expression was significantly different with higher expression in SCLC. Conclusion Carcinoids have increased CDK4/6 and CCND1 expression controlling RB1 phosphorylation via this signaling cascade. CDK2 and CCNE1 were increased in carcinomas showing that these use the opposite way to control RB1. BAX and BCL2 are antagonists in regulating apoptosis. BCL2 expression increased over BAX expression with increasing malignancy of the tumor from TC to SCLC. PMID:26008974

  6. Quantitative proteomics in teleost fish: insights and challenges for neuroendocrine and neurotoxicology research.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Popesku, Jason T; Chown, Brittany; Denslow, Nancy D; Trudeau, Vance L

    2012-05-01

    Neuroendocrine systems integrate both extrinsic and intrinsic signals to regulate virtually all aspects of an animal's physiology. In aquatic toxicology, studies have shown that pollutants are capable of disrupting the neuroendocrine system of teleost fish, and many chemicals found in the environment can also have a neurotoxic mode of action. Omics approaches are now used to better understand cell signaling cascades underlying fish neurophysiology and the control of pituitary hormone release, in addition to identifying adverse effects of pollutants in the teleostean central nervous system. For example, both high throughput genomics and proteomic investigations of molecular signaling cascades for both neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor agonists/antagonists have been reported. This review highlights recent studies that have utilized quantitative proteomics methods such as 2D differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) in neuroendocrine regions and uses these examples to demonstrate the challenges of using proteomics in neuroendocrinology and neurotoxicology research. To begin to characterize the teleost neuroproteome, we functionally annotated 623 unique proteins found in the fish hypothalamus and telencephalon. These proteins have roles in biological processes that include synaptic transmission, ATP production, receptor activity, cell structure and integrity, and stress responses. The biological processes most represented by proteins detected in the teleost neuroendocrine brain included transport (8.4%), metabolic process (5.5%), and glycolysis (4.8%). We provide an example of using sub-network enrichment analysis (SNEA) to identify protein networks in the fish hypothalamus in response to dopamine receptor signaling. Dopamine signaling altered the abundance of proteins that are binding partners of microfilaments, integrins, and intermediate filaments, consistent with data suggesting dopaminergic

  7. GDF-15 is abundantly expressed in plexiform lesions in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and affects proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress-responsive, transforming growth factor-β-related cytokine, which has recently been reported to be elevated in serum of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). The aim of the study was to examine the expression and biological roles of GDF-15 in the lung of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods GDF-15 expression in normal lungs and lung specimens of PAH patients were studied by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Using laser-assisted micro-dissection, GDF-15 expression was further analyzed within vascular compartments of PAH lungs. To elucidate the role of GDF-15 on endothelial cells, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) were exposed to hypoxia and laminar shear stress. The effects of GDF-15 on the proliferation and cell death of HPMEC were studied using recombinant GDF-15 protein. Results GDF-15 expression was found to be increased in lung specimens from PAH patients, com-pared to normal lungs. GDF-15 was abundantly expressed in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells with a strong signal in the core of plexiform lesions. HPMEC responded with marked upregulation of GDF-15 to hypoxia and laminar shear stress. Apoptotic cell death of HPMEC was diminished, whereas HPMEC proliferation was either increased or decreased depending of the concentration of recombinant GDF-15 protein. Conclusions GDF-15 expression is increased in PAH lungs and appears predominantly located in vascular endothelial cells. The expression pattern as well as the observed effects on proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells suggest a role of GDF-15 in the homeostasis of endothelial cells in PAH patients. PMID:21548946

  8. Modulation of cGMP by human HO-1 retrovirus gene transfer in pulmonary microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Nader G; Quan, Shuo; Mieyal, Paul A; Yang, Liming; Burke-Wolin, Theresa; Mingone, Christopher J; Goodman, Alvin I; Nasjletti, Alberto; Wolin, Michael S

    2002-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) stimulates guanylate cyclase (GC) and increases guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) levels. We transfected rat-lung pulmonary endothelial cells with a retrovirus-mediated human heme oxygenase (hHO)-1 gene. Pulmonary cells that expressed hHO-1 exhibited a fourfold increase in HO activity associated with decreases in the steady-state levels of heme and cGMP without changes in soluble GC (sGC) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) proteins or basal nitrite production. Heme elicited significant increases in CO production and intracellular cGMP levels in both pulmonary endothelial and pulmonary hHO-1-expressing cells. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NOS, significantly decreased cGMP levels in heme-treated pulmonary endothelial cells but not heme-treated hHO-1-expressing cells. In the presence of exogenous heme, CO and cGMP levels in hHO-1-expressing cells exceeded the corresponding levels in pulmonary endothelial cells. Acute exposure of endothelial cells to SnCl2, which is an inducer of HO-1, increased cGMP levels, whereas chronic exposure decreased heme and cGMP levels. These results indicate that prolonged overexpression of HO-1 ultimately decreases sGC activity by limiting the availability of cellular heme. Heme activates sGC and enhances cGMP levels via a mechanism that is largely insensitive to NOS inhibition.

  9. Pulmonary serotonin and histamine in experimental asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, I.M.; Day, R.; Lemaire, S.

    1986-03-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were treated once with tracheal instillation of 5 mg Crysotile B asbestos fibers in 0.5 ml saline under ketamine/xylaxine anesthesia. Control rats (n = 37) received 0.5 ml saline. Test and control rats were killed at 7 and 14 d., and 1, 3 and 6 mo. post instillation. Serotonin (5-HT) was quantitated in lung tissue homogenate from all rats using HPLC and electrochemical detection. Among rats killed at 1, 3 and 6 mo., lung tissue histamine-o-phthaldialdehyde complex was quantitated using reverse phase HPLC coupled to a fluorometric detector. Furthermore, 5-HT was quantitated in the cytoplasm ofmore » grouped (NEB) and individual (NEC) neuroendocrine cells and in mast cells using formaldehyde-vapor-induced fluorescence and microspectrofluorometry, and mast cell numbers were determined. Test rats had higher pulmonary 5-HT and histamine levels than controls at 1, 3 and 6 mo. Test rats also had higher cellular 5-HT compared to controls in NEB's at 1 mo., but not in NECs, and tended to have higher 5-HT-levels in mast cells at 6 mo. Mast cell numbers were higher among tests at 1 and 3 mo. The authors results suggest that NEBs may contribute to the early asbestos induced rise in 5-HT, and that the major source of 5-HT and histamine is from the increased numbers of mast cells.« less

  10. Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas: An Update in the Classification, Definition, and Molecular Genetic Advances.

    PubMed

    Guilmette, Julie M; Nosé, Vania

    2018-06-14

    This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into 2 broad categories: well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET) and poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (panNEC), and incorporates a new subcategory of "well-differentiated high-grade NET (G3)" to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management. In addition, these neuroendocrine neoplasms are capable of producing large quantity of hormones leading to clinical hormone hypersecretion syndromes. These functioning tumors include, insulinomas, glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, gastrinomas, VIPomas, serotonin-producing tumors, and ACTH-producing tumors. Although most panNENs arise as sporadic diseases, a subset of these heterogeneous tumors present as parts on inherited genetic syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, von Hippel-Lindau, neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis, and glucagon cell hyperplasia and neoplasia syndromes. Characteristic clinical and morphologic findings for certain functioning and syndromic panNENs should alert both pathologists and clinicians as appropriate patient management and possible genetic counseling may be necessary.

  11. Non-invasive estimation of pulmonary artery pressures in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Ibadan, Nigeria: an echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Enakpene, Evbu O; Adebiyi, Adewole A; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Olaniyi, John A; Aje, Akinyemi; Adeoye, Moshood A; Falase, Ayodele O

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is emerging as one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in adults with sickle cell disease. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in Nigerian adults with sickle cell anaemia is unknown. We decided to estimate the pulmonary artery systolic and diastolic pressures in subjects with sickle cell anaemia seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, and to determine the frequency of pulmonary hypertension among them. Ninety patients (38 males and 52 females) with sickle cell anaemia in steady state and comparable age- and sex-matched normal controls had a clinical evaluation and echocardiographic examination. The mean age of the subjects with sickle cell anaemia was 24.0 (9.00) years while the mean age for the control group was 24.0 (7.00) years. The frequency of pulmonary hypertension as assessed by a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of > 2.5 m/s in this study was 12.2%. Larger left ventricular dimensions and volumes, higher stroke volume and increased left ventricular mass indexed by body surface area were found to be associated with pulmonary hypertension. A multivariate analysis of the potential predictors of pulmonary hypertension in this study showed that male sex and lower packed cell volume (PCV) were independent predictors of pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anaemia. We conclude that pulmonary artery systolic and diastolic pressures are higher in subjects with sickle cell disease than normal controls. Male sex and low PCV are independent determinants of pulmonary arterial pressure in subjects with sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria.

  12. Arachidonic acid-induced Ca2+ entry and migration in a neuroendocrine cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Goswamee, Priyodarshan; Pounardjian, Tamar; Giovannucci, David R

    2018-01-01

    Store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) has been implicated in the migration of some cancer cell lines. The canonical SOCE is defined as the Ca 2+ entry that occurs in response to near-maximal depletion of Ca 2+ within the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively, arachidonic acid (AA) has been shown to induce Ca 2+ entry in a store-independent manner through Orai1/Orai3 hetero-multimeric channels. However, the role of this AA-induced Ca 2+ entry pathway in cancer cell migration has not been adequately assessed. The present study investigated the involvement of AA-induced Ca 2+ entry in migration in BON cells, a model gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEPNET) cell line using pharmacological and gene knockdown methods in combination with live cell fluorescence imaging and standard migration assays. We showed that both the store-dependent and AA-induced Ca 2+ entry modes could be selectively activated and that exogenous administration of AA resulted in Ca 2+ entry that was pharmacologically distinct from SOCE. Also, whereas homomeric Orai1-containing channels appeared to largely underlie SOCE, the AA-induced Ca 2+ entry channel required the expression of Orai3 as well as Orai1. Moreover, we showed that AA treatment enhanced the migration of BON cells and that this migration could be abrogated by selective inhibition of the AA-induced Ca 2+ entry. Taken together, these data revealed that an alternative Orai3-dependent Ca 2+ entry pathway is an important signal for GEPNET cell migration.

  13. Evaluation of profile and functionality of memory T cells in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tonaco, Marcela M; Moreira, Jôsimar D; Nunes, Fernanda F C; Loures, Cristina M G; Souza, Larissa R; Martins, Janaina M; Silva, Henrique R; Porto, Arthur Henrique R; Toledo, Vicente Paulo C P; Miranda, Silvana S; Guimarães, Tânia Mara P D

    2017-12-01

    The cells T CD4+ T and CD8+ can be subdivided into phenotypes naïve, T of central memory, T of effector memory and effector, according to the expression of surface molecules CD45RO and CD27. The T lymphocytes are cells of long life with capacity of rapid expansion and function, after a new antigenic exposure. In tuberculosis, it was found that specific memory T cells are present, however, gaps remain about the role of such cells in the disease immunology. In this study, the phenotypic profile was analyzed and characterized the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells of memory and effector, in response to specific stimuli in vitro, in patients with active pulmonary TB, compared to individuals with latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis the ones treated with pulmonary TB. It was observed that the group of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was the one which presented the highest proportion of cells T CD4+ of central memory IFN-ɣ+ e TNF-α+, suggesting that in TB, these T of central memory cells would have a profile of protective response, being an important target of study for the development of more effective vaccines; this group also developed lower proportion of CD8+ T effector lymphocytes than the others, a probable cause of specific and less effective response against the bacillus in these individuals; the ones treated for pulmonary tuberculosis were those who developed higher proportion of T CD4+ of memory central IL-17+ cells, indicating that the stimulation of long duration, with high antigenic load, followed by elimination of the pathogen, contribute to more significant generation of such cells; individuals with latent infection by M. tuberculosis and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis, showed greater response of CD8+ T effector lymphocytes IFN-ɣ+ than the controls, suggesting that these cells, as well as CD4+ T lymphocytes, have crucial role of protection against M. tuberculosis. These findings have contributed to a better

  14. The prognostic value of natural killer cell infiltration in resected pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takanami, I; Takeuchi, K; Giga, M

    2001-06-01

    Natural cytotoxicity caused by mediated natural killer cells is believed to play an important role in host-cancer defense mechanisms. Immunohistochemically, we have detected natural killer cells in tissue specimens from patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma and have assessed their clinical characteristics. Using the monoclonal antibody for CD57 specific marker for natural killer cells, we quantified natural killer cell infiltration in 150 patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma who underwent curative tumor resection to investigate the relationship between natural killer cell counts and clinicopathologic factors and prognosis. The natural killer cell count was significantly related to the regulation of tumor progression, involving T classification, N classification, and stage (P =.01 for T classification or stage; P =.02 for N classification). A significant difference in the rate of patient survival was detected between those patients whose tumors had either high or low natural killer cell counts in both the overall and stage I groups (P =.0002 for the overall group; P =.049 for the stage I group). These data indicate that natural killer infiltration may contribute to the regulation of tumor progression and that the natural killer cell count can serve as a useful prognostic marker in overall and stage I pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  15. Isolation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keng Jin; Czech, Lyubov; Waypa, Gregory B; Farrow, Kathryn N

    2013-10-19

    Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al. that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.

  16. Unicentric study of cell therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/pulmonary emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; Bilaqui, Aldemir; Greco, Oswaldo T; Ruiz, Milton Artur; Marcelino, Monica Y; Stessuk, Talita; de Faria, Carolina A; Lago, Mario R

    2011-01-01

    Within the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) spectrum, lung emphysema presents, as a primarily histopathologic feature, the destruction of pulmonary parenchyma and, accordingly, an increase in the airflow obstruction distal to the terminal bronchiole. Notwithstanding the significant advances in prevention and treatment of symptoms, no effective or curative therapy has been accomplished. In this context, cellular therapy with stem cells (SCs) arises as a new therapeutic approach, with a wide application potential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of SCs infusion procedure in patients with advanced COPD (stage IV dyspnea). After selection, patients underwent clinical examination and received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, immediately prior to the bone marrow harvest. The bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) were isolated and infused into a peripheral vein. The 12-month follow-up showed a significant improvement in the quality of life, as well as a clinical stable condition, which suggest a change in the natural process of the disease. Therefore, the proposed methodology in this study for BMMC cell therapy in sufferers of advanced COPD was demonstrated to be free of significant adverse effects. Although a larger sample and a greater follow-up period are needed, it is possible to infer that BMMC cell therapy introduces an unprecedented change in the course or in the natural history of emphysema, inhibiting or slowing the progression of disease. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01110252) and was approved by the Brazilian National Committee of Ethics in Research (registration no. 14764, CONEP report 233/2009). PMID:21311694

  17. Neuroendocrine Disorders in Pediatric Craniopharyngioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Daubenbüchel, Anna M. M.; Müller, Hermann L.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood-onset craniopharyngiomas are partly cystic embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region. The therapy of choice in patients with favorable tumor localization is complete resection with a specific focus on maintaining optical and hypothalamic neuroendocrine functions. In patients with unfavorable tumor localization (i.e., hypothalamic involvement), a limited hypothalamus-sparing surgical strategy followed by local irradiation is recommended. Involvement and/or surgical lesions of posterior hypothalamic areas cause major neuroendocrine sequelae. The overall survival rates are high (92%) but neuroendocrine disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome due to involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic lesions have major negative impact on survival and quality of life. Recurrences and progressions are frequent post-surgical events. Because irradiation is efficient in preventing tumor progression, appropriate timing of post-surgical irradiation is currently under investigation in a randomized multinational trial (KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007). Childhood-onset craniopharyngioma should be recognized as a chronic disease requiring treatment and constant monitoring of the clinical and quality of life consequences, frequently impaired due to neuroendocrine disorders, by experienced multidisciplinary teams in order to provide optimal care of surviving patients. PMID:26239246

  18. Evidence for local dendritic cell activation in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease characterized by a seemingly exaggerated immune response against a difficult to discern antigen. Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal antigen presenting cells thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis. Paradoxically, decreased DC immune reactivity was reported in blood samples from pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. However, functional data on lung DCs in sarcoidosis are lacking. We hypothesized that at the site of disease DCs are mature, immunocompetent and involved in granuloma formation. Methods We analyzed myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and blood from newly diagnosed, untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls using 9-color flowcytometry. DCs, isolated from BAL using flowcytometric sorting (mDCs) or cultured from monocytes (mo-DCs), were functionally assessed in a mixed leukocyte reaction with naïve allogeneic CD4+ T cells. Using Immunohistochemistry, location and activation status of CD11c+DCs was assessed in mucosal airway biopsies. Results mDCs in BAL, but not in blood, from sarcoidosis patients were increased in number when compared with mDCs from healthy controls. mDCs purified from BAL of sarcoidosis patients induced T cell proliferation and differentiation and did not show diminished immune reactivity. Mo-DCs from patients induced increased TNFα release in co-cultures with naïve allogeneic CD4+ T cells. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses revealed increased numbers of mature CD86+ DCs in granuloma-containing airway mucosal biopsies from sarcoidosis patients. Conclusion Taken together, these finding implicate increased local DC activation in granuloma formation or maintenance in pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:22513006

  19. Pulmonary endothelial pavement patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Kibria, G; Heath, D; Smith, P; Biggar, R

    1980-01-01

    The appearance of the endothelial pavement pattern was studied in the pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, aorta, and inferior vena cava of the rat by means of silver staining of the cell borders. The endothelial cell in each of the four blood vessels was found to have its own distinctive shape, fusiform and pointed in the direction of blood flow in the case of the aorta and larger and more rectangular in the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary veins. Detailed quantitation of the dimensions and surface area of the endothelial cells in each blood vessel was carried out by a photographic technique. Pulmonary hypertension was induced in one group of rats by feeding them on Crotalaria spectabilis seeds. The endothelial pavement pattern in their pulmonary trunks became disrupted with many of the cells assuming a fusiform shape reminiscent of aortic endothelium. Many small, new endothelial cells formed in the pulmonary trunk suggesting division of cells to line the enlarging blood vessels. In contrast the endothelial cells of the inferior vena cava merely increased in size to cope with the dilatation of this vein. Images PMID:7385090

  20. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    PubMed Central

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are upset). Pollutants may also disrupt numerous other neurochemical pathways to affect an animal's capacity to reproduce, develop and grow, or deal with stress and other challenges. Several examples are presented in this review, from both vertebrates and invertebrates, illustrating that diverse environmental pollutants including pharmaceuticals, organochlorine pesticides, and industrial contaminants have the potential to disrupt neuroendocrine control mechanisms. While most investigations on EDC are carried out with vertebrate models, an attempt is also made to highlight the importance of research on invertebrate neuroendocrine disruption. The neurophysiology of many invertebrates is well described and many of their neurotransmitters are similar or identical to those in vertebrates; therefore, lessons learned from one group of organisms may help us understand potential adverse effects in others. This review argues for the adoption of systems biology and integrative physiology to address the effects of EDC. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish reproduction are a good example of where relatively narrow hypothesis testing strategies (e.g., whether or not pollutants are sex steroid mimics) have only partially solved a major problem in environmental biology. It is clear that a global, integrative physiological approach, including improved understanding of neuroendocrine control mechanisms, is warranted to fully understand the impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents

  1. Occult Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastasis to the Breast Detected on Screening Mammogram.

    PubMed

    Policeni, Fabiana; Pakalniskis, Brittany; Yang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed. Pathology revealed metastatic WDNET. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was then performed and demonstrated left axillary Level 2 lymphadenopathy, and liver lesions were suspicious for metastasis. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) to evaluate for distant metastatic disease. A spiculated mass was found near the ileocecal valve, suggestive of primary ileal WDNET. In addition, CT identified multiple liver lesions, most compatible with metastasis. Indium 111 OctreoScan confirmed radiotracer uptake in the ileum consistent with primary neuroendocrine tumor. In this report, we review the imaging characteristics of metastatic WDNET to the breast by different imaging modalities including mammogram, ultrasound, and breast MRI.

  2. Abnormal pulmonary function in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Klings, Elizabeth S; Wyszynski, Diego F; Nolan, Vikki G; Steinberg, Martin H

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 +/- 14.7% predicted) and DLCO (64.5 +/- 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DLCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function.

  3. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated onmore » days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.« less

  4. Flow cytometry analysis of hormone receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify stress-induced neuroendocrine effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the role of circulating peptide hormones in the pathogenesis of space-flight induced disorders would be greatly facilitated by a method which monitors chronic levels of hormones and their effects upon in vivo cell physiology. Single and simultaneous multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was employed to identify subpopulations of mononuclear cells bearing receptors for ACTH, Endorphin, and Somatomedin-C using monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera with indirect immunofluorescence. Blood samples were obtained from normal donors and subjects participating in decompression chamber studies (acute stress), medical student academic examination (chronic stress), and a drug study (Dexamethasone). Preliminary results indicate most ACTH and Endorphin receptor positive cells are monocytes and B-cells, exhibit little diurnal variation but the relative percentages of receptor positive cells are influenced by exposure to various stressors and ACTH inhibition. This study demonstrates the capability of flow cytometry analysis to study cell surface hormone receptor regulation which should allow insight into neuroendocrine modulation of the immune and other cellular systems during exposure to stress or microgravity.

  5. Gene network-based analysis identifies two potential subtypes of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M; Drozdov, Ignat

    2014-07-15

    Tumor transcriptomes contain information of critical value to understanding the different capacities of a cell at both a physiological and pathological level. In terms of clinical relevance, they provide information regarding the cellular "toolbox" e.g., pathways associated with malignancy and metastasis or drug dependency. Exploration of this resource can therefore be leveraged as a translational tool to better manage and assess neoplastic behavior. The availability of public genome-wide expression datasets, provide an opportunity to reassess neuroendocrine tumors at a more fundamental level. We hypothesized that stringent analysis of expression profiles as well as regulatory networks of the neoplastic cell would provide novel information that facilitates further delineation of the genomic basis of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors. We re-analyzed two publically available small intestinal tumor transcriptomes using stringent quality control parameters and network-based approaches and validated expression of core secretory regulatory elements e.g., CPE, PCSK1, secretogranins, including genes involved in depolarization e.g., SCN3A, as well as transcription factors associated with neurodevelopment (NKX2-2, NeuroD1, INSM1) and glucose homeostasis (APLP1). The candidate metastasis-associated transcription factor, ST18, was highly expressed (>14-fold, p < 0.004). Genes previously associated with neoplasia, CEBPA and SDHD, were decreased in expression (-1.5 - -2, p < 0.02). Genomic interrogation indicated that intestinal tumors may consist of two different subtypes, serotonin-producing neoplasms and serotonin/substance P/tachykinin lesions. QPCR validation in an independent dataset (n = 13 neuroendocrine tumors), confirmed up-regulated expression of 87% of genes (13/15). An integrated cellular transcriptomic analysis of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors identified that they are regulated at a developmental level, have key activation of hypoxic pathways (a known

  6. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies diverse roles of epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Takako; Sridharan, Anusha; Du, Yina; Guo, Minzhe; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Perl, Anne-Karina T.; Funari, Vincent A.; Gokey, Jason J.; Stripp, Barry R.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by airway remodeling, inflammation, alveolar destruction, and fibrosis. We utilized single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to identify epithelial cell types and associated biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Transcriptomic analysis of normal human lung epithelial cells defined gene expression patterns associated with highly differentiated alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, indicated by enrichment of RNAs critical for surfactant homeostasis. In contrast, scRNA-seq of IPF cells identified 3 distinct subsets of epithelial cell types with characteristics of conducting airway basal and goblet cells and an additional atypical transitional cell that contributes to pathological processes in IPF. Individual IPF cells frequently coexpressed alveolar type 1 (AT1), AT2, and conducting airway selective markers, demonstrating “indeterminate” states of differentiation not seen in normal lung development. Pathway analysis predicted aberrant activation of canonical signaling via TGF-β, HIPPO/YAP, P53, WNT, and AKT/PI3K. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy identified the disruption of alveolar structure and loss of the normal proximal-peripheral differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. scRNA-seq analyses identified loss of normal epithelial cell identities and unique contributions of epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of IPF. The present study provides a rich data source to further explore lung health and disease. PMID:27942595

  7. Identification of genuine primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma via clinicopathologic observation and clonality assay.

    PubMed

    Gong, Li; Wei, Long-Xiao; Huang, Gao-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Han, Xiu-Juan; Yao, Li; Lan, Miao; Li, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-19

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is an uncommon lymphoma associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It most commonly involves the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract. Primary pulmonary NK/T cell lymphoma is extremely rare. If a patient with a NK or T-cell tumor has an unusual reaction to treatment or an unusual prognosis, it is wise to differentiate NK from T-cell tumors. The clinicopathologic characteristics, immunophenotype, EBV in situ hybridization, and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement of primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma from a 73-year-old Chinese woman were investigated and the clonal status was determined using female X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism and polymorphisms at the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene. The lesion showed the typical histopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemical features of NK/T cell lymphoma. However, the sample was negative for TCR gene rearrangement. A clonality assay demonstrated that the lesion was monoclonal. It is concluded that this is the first recorded case of genuine primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma. The purpose of the present work is to recommend that pathologists carefully investigate the whole lesion to reduce the likelihood that primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma will be misdiagnosed as an infectious lesion. In addition, TCR gene rearrangement and clonal analysis, which is based on female X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism and polymorphisms at PGK and androgen receptor (AR) loci, were found to play important roles in differentiating NK cell lymphoma from T cell lymphoma. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5205300349457729.

  8. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a unilateral solitary round pulmonary hilar node infarction.

    PubMed

    Yonemori, Kan; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Tateishi, Ukihide; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2006-03-01

    Unilateral solitary pulmonary hilar node adenopathy is a rare presentation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this report, the authors present a case with a solitary pulmonary hilar lymph node infarction caused by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Enhanced CT examinations revealed a well-defined round mass with homogenous low attenuation in the left pulmonary hilum. Both radiological imaging and pathological examination can provide useful information for the interpretation of abnormalities and may enable the diagnosis of rare aetiologies.

  9. Role of Transcription Factors in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells: An Important Link to Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Di Mise, Annarita; Wang, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Yun-Min

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia, namely a lack of oxygen in the blood, induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasoremodeling, which serve as essential pathologic factors leading to pulmonary hypertension (PH). The underlying molecular mechanisms are uncertain; however, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an essential role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, vasoremodeling, and PH. Hypoxia causes oxidative damage to DNAs, proteins, and lipids. This damage (oxidative stress) modulates the activity of ion channels and elevates the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i , Ca 2+ signaling) of PASMCs. The oxidative stress and increased Ca 2+ signaling mutually interact with each other, and synergistically results in a variety of cellular responses. These responses include functional and structural abnormalities of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus; cell contraction, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, as well as generation of vasoactive substances, inflammatory molecules, and growth factors that mediate the development of PH. A number of studies reveal that various transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, disrupted PAMSC Ca 2+ signaling and the development and progress of PH. It is believed that in the pathogenesis of PH, hypoxia facilitates these roles by mediating the expression of multiple genes. Therefore, the identification of specific genes and their transcription factors implicated in PH is necessary for the complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, this identification may aid in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for PH.

  10. Characterization of prostate neuroendocrine cancers and therapeutic management: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sargos, P; Ferretti, L; Gross-Goupil, M; Orre, M; Cornelis, F; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Houédé, N; Merino, C; Roubaud, G; Dallaudiére, B; Richaud, P; Fléchon, A

    2014-09-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancers (NEPCs) are rare. The current lack of consensus for clinical, biological and pathological characterization as well as therapeutic approach makes the management of those tumors a clinical challenge. This literature review aims to summarize available data on the characterization and management of patients with prostate cancer with a neuroendocrine element. We try to identify major controversies and uncertainties in order to understand all aspects of this particular entity. We searched for all articles published and registered in the MEDLINE database before 31 November 2013 with the following search terms: (('prostatic neoplasms' (MeSH Terms)) AND ('carcinoma, neuroendocrine' (MeSH Terms)) OR ('carcinoma, small cell' (MeSH Terms))) AND (English (Language)). Case reports, letters or comments were excluded. We then selected relevant articles from titles and abstracts. Overall, 278 articles published between 1976 and November 2013 were identified. No definition of NEPC seems to be clearly established. Natural history of the disease reveals poor prognosis with median survival of up to 10 to 13 months. Histological characterization appears difficult. Serum markers could be helpful with some controversies in terms of prognostic significance. Concerning management, the majority of patients received local treatment combined with chemotherapy in case of early and localized disease. Few clinical trials described strategy for metastatic disease. The exploration of the different pathways implicated in the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancers is essential for the comprehension of castration-resistance mechanisms. It will enable the identification of optimal therapeutic strategies for which no recommendation is currently established. Inclusion in prospective clinical trials appears necessary to identify the adequate strategy.

  11. Functional malignant cell heterogeneity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors revealed by targeting of PDGF-DD.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Eliane; Gladh, Hanna; Braun, Sebastian; Bocci, Matteo; Cordero, Eugenia; Björkström, Niklas K; Miyazaki, Hideki; Michael, Iacovos P; Eriksson, Ulf; Folestad, Erika; Pietras, Kristian

    2016-02-16

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most human cancers and has profound implications for cancer therapy. As a result, there is an emergent need to explore previously unmapped mechanisms regulating distinct subpopulations of tumor cells and to understand their contribution to tumor progression and treatment response. Aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling in cancer has motivated the development of several antagonists currently in clinical use, including imatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib. The discovery of a novel ligand for PDGFRβ, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, opened the possibility of a previously unidentified signaling pathway involved in tumor development. However, the precise function of PDGF-DD in tumor growth and invasion remains elusive. Here, making use of a newly generated Pdgfd knockout mouse, we reveal a functionally important malignant cell heterogeneity modulated by PDGF-DD signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Our analyses demonstrate that tumor growth was delayed in the absence of signaling by PDGF-DD. Surprisingly, ablation of PDGF-DD did not affect the vasculature or stroma of PanNET; instead, we found that PDGF-DD stimulated bulk tumor cell proliferation by induction of paracrine mitogenic signaling between heterogeneous malignant cell clones, some of which expressed PDGFRβ. The presence of a subclonal population of tumor cells characterized by PDGFRβ expression was further validated in a cohort of human PanNET. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity in PanNET characterized by signaling through the PDGF-DD/PDGFRβ axis.

  12. Functional malignant cell heterogeneity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors revealed by targeting of PDGF-DD

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Eliane; Gladh, Hanna; Braun, Sebastian; Bocci, Matteo; Cordero, Eugenia; Björkström, Niklas K.; Miyazaki, Hideki; Michael, Iacovos P.; Eriksson, Ulf; Folestad, Erika; Pietras, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most human cancers and has profound implications for cancer therapy. As a result, there is an emergent need to explore previously unmapped mechanisms regulating distinct subpopulations of tumor cells and to understand their contribution to tumor progression and treatment response. Aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling in cancer has motivated the development of several antagonists currently in clinical use, including imatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib. The discovery of a novel ligand for PDGFRβ, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, opened the possibility of a previously unidentified signaling pathway involved in tumor development. However, the precise function of PDGF-DD in tumor growth and invasion remains elusive. Here, making use of a newly generated Pdgfd knockout mouse, we reveal a functionally important malignant cell heterogeneity modulated by PDGF-DD signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Our analyses demonstrate that tumor growth was delayed in the absence of signaling by PDGF-DD. Surprisingly, ablation of PDGF-DD did not affect the vasculature or stroma of PanNET; instead, we found that PDGF-DD stimulated bulk tumor cell proliferation by induction of paracrine mitogenic signaling between heterogeneous malignant cell clones, some of which expressed PDGFRβ. The presence of a subclonal population of tumor cells characterized by PDGFRβ expression was further validated in a cohort of human PanNET. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity in PanNET characterized by signaling through the PDGF-DD/PDGFRβ axis. PMID:26831065

  13. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system: a potential target for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jordan A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Das, Satya; Berlin, Jordan; Shi, Chanjuan

    2017-12-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system has a dismal prognosis with limited treatment options. This study aimed to investigate expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in these tumors. Thirty-seven patients with a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system were identified. Their electronic medical records, pathology reports, and pathology slides were reviewed for demographics, clinical history, and pathologic features. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically labeled for PD-1 and PD-L1, and expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was analyzed and compared between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. The mean age of patients was 61 years old with 18 men and 19 women. The colorectum (n=20) was the most common primary site; other primary sites included the pancreaticobiliary system, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and ampulla. Expression of PD-1 was detected on tumor cells (n=6, 16%) as well as on tumor-associated immune cells (n=23, 63%). The 6 cases with PD-1 expression on tumor cells also had the expression on immune cells. Expression of PD-L1 was visualized on tumor cells in 5 cases (14%) and on tumor-associated immune cells in 10 cases (27%). There was no difference in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. In conclusion, PD-1/PD-L1 expression is a frequent occurrence in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system. Checkpoint blockade targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may have a potential role in treating patients with this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Klings, Elizabeth S.; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Nolan, Vikki G.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Methods: Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Measurements and Main Results: Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 ± 14.7% predicted) and DlCO (64.5 ± 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DlCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Conclusions: Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function. PMID:16556694

  15. Role of Vascular and Lymphatic Endothelial Cells in Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Suggests Targeted Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunova, Elena E.; Dalrymple, Nadine A.; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Hantaviruses in the Americas cause a highly lethal acute pulmonary edema termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Hantaviruses nonlytically infect microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells and cause dramatic changes in barrier functions without disrupting the endothelium. Hantaviruses cause changes in the function of infected endothelial cells that normally regulate fluid barrier functions. The endothelium of arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels are unique and central to the function of vast pulmonary capillary beds that regulate pulmonary fluid accumulation. Results We have found that HPS-causing hantaviruses alter vascular barrier functions of microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells by altering receptor and signaling pathway responses that serve to permit fluid tissue influx and clear tissue edema. Infection of the endothelium provides several mechanisms for hantaviruses to cause acute pulmonary edema, as well as potential therapeutic targets for reducing the severity of HPS disease. Conclusions Here we discuss interactions of HPS-causing hantaviruses with the endothelium, roles for unique lymphatic endothelial responses in HPS, and therapeutic targeting of the endothelium as a means of reducing the severity of HPS disease. PMID:24024573

  16. Role of vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome suggests targeted therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Mackow, Erich R; Gorbunova, Elena E; Dalrymple, Nadine A; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N

    2013-09-01

    Hantaviruses in the Americas cause a highly lethal acute pulmonary edema termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Hantaviruses nonlytically infect microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells and cause dramatic changes in barrier functions without disrupting the endothelium. Hantaviruses cause changes in the function of infected endothelial cells that normally regulate fluid barrier functions. The endothelium of arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels are unique and central to the function of vast pulmonary capillary beds that regulate pulmonary fluid accumulation. We have found that HPS-causing hantaviruses alter vascular barrier functions of microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells by altering receptor and signaling pathway responses that serve to permit fluid tissue influx and clear tissue edema. Infection of the endothelium provides several mechanisms for hantaviruses to cause acute pulmonary edema, as well as potential therapeutic targets for reducing the severity of HPS disease. Here we discuss interactions of HPS-causing hantaviruses with the endothelium, roles for unique lymphatic endothelial responses in HPS, and therapeutic targeting of the endothelium as a means of reducing the severity of HPS disease.

  17. Impact of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells on duroquinone redox status.

    PubMed

    Merker, Marilyn P; Bongard, Robert D; Krenz, Gary S; Zhao, Hongtao; Fernandes, Viola S; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Hogg, Neil; Audi, Said H

    2004-07-01

    The study objective was to use pulmonary arterial endothelial cells to examine kinetics and mechanisms contributing to the disposition of the quinone 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (duroquinone, DQ) observed during passage through the pulmonary circulation. The approach was to add DQ, durohydroquinone (DQH2), or DQ with the cell membrane-impermeant oxidizing agent, ferricyanide (Fe(CN)6(3)-), to the cell medium, and to measure the medium concentrations of substrates and products over time. Studies were carried out under control conditions and with dicumarol, to inhibit NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), or cyanide, to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport. In control cells, DQH2 appears in the extracellular medium of cells incubated with DQ, and DQ appears when the cells are incubated with DQH2. Dicumarol blocked the appearance of DQH2 when DQ was added to the cell medium, and cyanide blocked the appearance of DQ when DQH2 was added to the cell medium, suggesting that the two electron reductase NQO1 dominates DQ reduction and mitochondrial electron transport complex III is the predominant route of DQH2 oxidation. In the presence of cyanide, the addition of DQ also resulted in an increased rate of appearance of DQH2 and stimulation of cyanide-insensitive oxygen consumption. As DQH2 does not autoxidize-comproportionate over the study time course, these observations suggest a cyanide-stimulated one-electron DQ reduction and durosemiquinone (DQ*-) autoxidation. The latter processes are apparently confined to the cell interior, as the cell membrane impermeant oxidant, ferricyanide, did not inhibit the DQ-stimulated cyanide-insensitive oxygen consumption. Thus, regardless of whether DQ is reduced via a one- or two-electron reduction pathway, the net effect in the extracellular medium is the appearance of DQH2. These endothelial redox functions and their apposition to the vessel lumen are consistent with the pulmonary endothelium being an important site of

  18. Derivation of therapeutic lung spheroid cells from minimally invasive transbronchial pulmonary biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Phuong-Uyen C; Cores, Jhon; Hensley, M Taylor; Vandergriff, Adam C; Tang, Junnan; Allen, Tyler A; Caranasos, Thomas G; Adler, Kenneth B; Lobo, Leonard J; Cheng, Ke

    2017-06-30

    Resident stem and progenitor cells have been identified in the lung over the last decade, but isolation and culture of these cells remains a challenge. Thus, although these lung stem and progenitor cells provide an ideal source for stem-cell based therapy, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain the most popular cell therapy product for the treatment of lung diseases. Surgical lung biopsies can be the tissue source but such procedures carry a high risk of mortality. In this study we demonstrate that therapeutic lung cells, termed "lung spheroid cells" (LSCs) can be generated from minimally invasive transbronchial lung biopsies using a three-dimensional culture technique. The cells were then characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic potential was tested by in-vitro HUVEC tube formation assay. In-vivo bio- distribution of LSCs was examined in athymic nude mice after intravenous delivery. From one lung biopsy, we are able to derive >50 million LSC cells at Passage 2. These cells were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry and were shown to represent a mixture of lung stem cells and supporting cells. When introduced systemically into nude mice, LSCs were retained primarily in the lungs for up to 21 days. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated that direct culture and expansion of human lung progenitor cells from pulmonary tissues, acquired through a minimally invasive biopsy, is possible and straightforward with a three-dimensional culture technique. These cells could be utilized in long-term expansion of lung progenitor cells and as part of the development of cell-based therapies for the treatment of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  19. Neuroendocrine host factors and inflammatory disease susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Ligier, S; Sternberg, E M

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of autoimmune diseases is multifactorial, resulting from a combination of genetically predetermined host characteristics and environmental exposures. As the term autoimmune implies, immune dysfunction and dysregulated self-tolerance are key elements in the pathophysiology of all these diseases. The neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous systems are increasingly recognized as modulators of the immune response at the levels of both early inflammation and specific immunity. As such, alterations in their response represent a potential mechanism by which pathologic autoimmunity may develop. Animal models of autoimmune diseases show pre-existing changes in neuroendocrine responses to a variety of stimuli, and both animal and human studies have shown altered stress responses in the setting of active immune activation. The potential role of the neuroendocrine system in linking environmental exposures and autoimmune diseases is 2-fold. First, it may represent a direct target for toxic compounds. Second, its inadequate function may result in the inappropriate response of the immune system to an environmental agent with immunogenic properties. This article reviews the relationship between autoimmune diseases and the neuroendocrine system and discusses the difficulties and pitfalls of investigating a physiologic response that is sensitive to such a multiplicity of environmental exposures. PMID:10502534

  20. Thiocoraline alters neuroendocrine phenotype and activates the Notch pathway in MTC-TT cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tesfazghi, Sara; Eide, Jacob; Dammalapati, Ajitha; Korlesky, Colin; Wyche, Thomas P; Bugni, Tim S; Chen, Herbert; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Previous research has shown that activation of Notch signaling has a tumor suppressor role in NETs. The potential therapeutic effect of thiocoraline on the activation of the Notch pathway in an MTC cell line (TT) was investigated. Thiocoraline was isolated from a marine bacterium Verrucosispora sp. MTT assay (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was used to determine the IC50 value and to measure cell proliferation. Western blot revealed the expression of Notch isoforms, NET, and cell cycle markers. Cell cycle progression was validated by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of Notch isoforms and downstream targets were measured using real-time PCR. The IC50 value for thiocoraline treatment in TT cells was determined to be 7.6 nmol/L. Thiocoraline treatment decreased cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The mechanism of growth inhibition was found to be cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Thiocoraline activated the Notch pathway as demonstrated by the dose-dependent increase in mRNA and protein expression of Notch isoforms. Furthermore, treatment with thiocoraline resulted in changes in the expression of downstream targets of the Notch pathway (HES1, HES2, HES6, HEY1, and HEY2) and reduced expression of NET markers, CgA, and ASCL1. Thiocoraline is a potent Notch pathway activator and an inhibitor of MTC-TT cell proliferation at low nanomolar concentrations. These results provide exciting evidence for the use of thiocoraline as a potential treatment for intractable MTC. Thiocoraline is a potent Notch pathway activator and an inhibitor of medullary thyroid cancer cell line (MTC-TT) cell proliferation at low nanomolar concentrations. These results provide evidence for the use of thiocoraline as a potential treatment for intractable MTC. PMID:24403239

  1. PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway Mediates the Alleviation of Pulmonary Fibrosis by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ke; Liu, Ming; Zheng, Jian; Wen, Liyan; Chen, Qingyun; Xiang, Zheng; Lam, Kowk-Tai; Liu, Yinping; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Lau, Yu-Lung; Tu, Wenwei

    2018-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease with few treatments. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to be beneficial in pulmonary fibrosis because they have immunomodulatory capacity. However, there is no reliable model to test the therapeutic effect of human MSCs in vivo. To mimic pulmonary fibrosis in humans, we established a novel bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in humanized mice. With this model, the benefit of human MSCs in pulmonary fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. In addition, the relevant parameters in patients with pulmonary fibrosis were examined. We demonstrate that human CD8 + T cells were critical for the induction of pulmonary fibrosis in humanized mice. Human MSCs could alleviate pulmonary fibrosis and improve lung function by suppressing bleomycin-induced human T-cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production in the lungs of humanized mice. Importantly, alleviation of pulmonary fibrosis by human MSCs was mediated by the PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 pathway. Moreover, abnormal PD-1 expression was found in circulating T cells and lung tissues of patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Our study supports the potential benefit of targeting the PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 pathway in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Engineered cell and tissue models of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sundarakrishnan, Aswin; Chen, Ying; Black, Lauren D; Aldridge, Bree B; Kaplan, David L

    2018-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis includes several lung disorders characterized by scar formation and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a particularly severe form of pulmonary fibrosis of unknown etiology with a mean life expectancy of 3years' post-diagnosis. Treatments for IPF are limited to two FDA approved drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib. Most lead candidate drugs that are identified in pre-clinical animal studies fail in human clinical trials. Thus, there is a need for advanced humanized in vitro models of the lung to improve candidate treatments prior to moving to human clinical trials. The development of 3D tissue models has created systems capable of emulating human lung structure, function, and cell and matrix interactions. The specific models accomplish these features and preliminary studies conducted using some of these systems have shown potential for in vitro anti-fibrotic drug testing. Further characterization and improvements will enable these tissue models to extend their utility for in vitro drug testing, to help identify signaling pathways and mechanisms for new drug targets, and potentially reduce animal models as standard pre-clinical models of study. In the current review, we contrast different in vitro models based on increasing dimensionality (2D, 2.5D and 3D), with added focus on contemporary 3D pulmonary models of fibrosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Neuroendocrine and immune network re-modeling in chronic fatigue syndrome: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuite, Jim; Vernon, Suzanne D; Broderick, Gordon

    2008-12-01

    This work investigates the significance of changes in association patterns linking indicators of neuroendocrine and immune activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Gene sets preferentially expressed in specific immune cell isolates were integrated with neuroendocrine data from a large population-based study. Co-expression patterns linking immune cell activity with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), thyroidal (HPT) and gonadal (HPG) axis status were computed using mutual information criteria. Networks in control and CFS subjects were compared globally in terms of a weighted graph edit distance. Local re-modeling of node connectivity was quantified by node degree and eigenvector centrality measures. Results indicate statistically significant differences between CFS and control networks determined mainly by re-modeling around pituitary and thyroid nodes as well as an emergent immune sub-network. Findings align with known mechanisms of chronic inflammation and support possible immune-mediated loss of thyroid function in CFS exacerbated by blunted HPA axis responsiveness.

  4. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM alpha) recruits bone marrow-derived cells to the murine pulmonary vasculature.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniel J; Su, Qingning; Kolosova, Irina A; Fan, Chunling; Skinner, John T; Yamaji-Kegan, Kazuyo; Collector, Michael; Sharkis, Saul J; Johns, Roger A

    2010-06-22

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease of multiple etiologies with several common pathological features, including inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent evidence has suggested a potential role for the recruitment of bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells to this remodeling process. We recently demonstrated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM alpha) is chemotactic to murine bone marrow cells in vitro and involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling in vivo. We used a mouse bone marrow transplant model in which lethally irradiated mice were rescued with bone marrow transplanted from green fluorescent protein (GFP)(+) transgenic mice to determine the role of HIMF in recruiting BMD cells to the lung vasculature during PH development. Exposure to chronic hypoxia and pulmonary gene transfer of HIMF were used to induce PH. Both models resulted in markedly increased numbers of BMD cells in and around the pulmonary vasculature; in several neomuscularized small (approximately 20 microm) capillary-like vessels, an entirely new medial wall was made up of these cells. We found these GFP(+) BMD cells to be positive for stem cell antigen-1 and c-kit, but negative for CD31 and CD34. Several of the GFP(+) cells that localized to the pulmonary vasculature were alpha-smooth muscle actin(+) and localized to the media layer of the vessels. This finding suggests that these cells are of mesenchymal origin and differentiate toward myofibroblast and vascular smooth muscle. Structural location in the media of small vessels suggests a functional role in the lung vasculature. To examine a potential mechanism for HIMF-dependent recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the pulmonary vasculature, we performed a cell migration assay using cultured human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs). The addition of recombinant HIMF induced migration of HMSCs in a phosphoinosotide-3-kinase-dependent manner. These results demonstrate HIMF-dependent recruitment of BMD

  5. Dynamic Immune Cell Recruitment After Murine Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus Infection under Different Immunosuppressive Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Kalleda, Natarajaswamy; Amich, Jorge; Arslan, Berkan; Poreddy, Spoorthi; Mattenheimer, Katharina; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Einsele, Hermann; Brock, Matthias; Heinze, Katrin Gertrud; Beilhack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to airborne spores of the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. However, in healthy individuals pulmonary host defense mechanisms efficiently eliminate the fungus. In contrast, A. fumigatus causes devastating infections in immunocompromised patients. Host immune responses against A. fumigatus lung infections in immunocompromised conditions have remained largely elusive. Given the dynamic changes in immune cell subsets within tissues upon immunosuppressive therapy, we dissected the spatiotemporal pulmonary immune response after A. fumigatus infection to reveal basic immunological events that fail to effectively control invasive fungal disease. In different immunocompromised murine models, myeloid, notably neutrophils, and macrophages, but not lymphoid cells were strongly recruited to the lungs upon infection. Other myeloid cells, particularly dendritic cells and monocytes, were only recruited to lungs of corticosteroid treated mice, which developed a strong pulmonary inflammation after infection. Lymphoid cells, particularly CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells and NK cells were highly reduced upon immunosuppression and not recruited after A. fumigatus infection. Moreover, adoptive CD11b+ myeloid cell transfer rescued cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed mice from lethal A. fumigatus infection but not cortisone and cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed mice. Our findings illustrate that CD11b+ myeloid cells are critical for anti-A. fumigatus defense under cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed conditions. PMID:27468286

  6. AMD3100 treatment attenuates pulmonary angiogenesis by reducing the c-kit (+) cells and its pro-angiogenic activity in CBDL rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Gu, Jian-Teng; Ning, Jiao-Lin; Zeng, Jing; Yi, Bin; Lu, Kai-Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that pulmonary angiogenesis is an important pathological process in the development of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), and growing evidence has indicated that Stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (SDF-1/CXCR4) axis is involved in pulmonary vascular disease by mediating the accumulation of c-kit+ cells. This study aimed to test the effect of AMD3100, an antagonist of CXCR4, in HPS pulmonary angiogenesis. Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) rats were used as experimental HPS model and were treated with AMD3100 (1.25mg/kg/day, i.p.) or 0.9% saline for 3weeks. The sham rats underwent common bile duct exposure without ligation. The c-kit+ cells accounts and its angiogenic-related functions, prosurvival signals, pulmonary angiogenesis and arterial oxygenation were analysed in these groups. Our results showed that pulmonary SDF-1/CXCR4, Akt, Erk and VEGF/VEGFR2 were significantly activated in CBDL rats, and the numbers of circulating and pulmonary c-kit+ cells were increased in CBDL rats compared with control rats. Additionally, the angiogenic-related functions of c-kit+ cells and pulmonary microvessel counts were also elevated in CBDL rats. CXCR4 inhibition reduced pulmonary c-kit+ cells and microvessel counts and improved arterial oxygenation within 3weeks in CBDL rats. The pulmonary prosurvival signals and pro-angiogenic activity of c-kit+ cells were also down-regulated in AMD3100-treated rats. In conclusion, AMD3100 treatment attenuated pulmonary angiogenesis in CBDL rats and prevented the development of HPS via reductions in pulmonary c-kit+ cells and inhibition of the prosurvival signals. Our study provides new insights in HPS treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Treatment Outcomes, Growth Height, and Neuroendocrine Functions in Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Odagiri, Kazumasa, E-mail: t086016a@yokohama-cu.ac.jp; Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama; Omura, Motoko

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The medianmore » radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients

  8. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E.; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J.; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B.; Bowman, Frederick P.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10−9 to 10−7 M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor–small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro. Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo. Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.—Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery

  9. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  10. Pharmacological induction of skin pigmentation unveils the neuroendocrine circuit regulated by light.

    PubMed

    Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Vazhappilly, Sherene T; Hehr, Carrie L; McFarlane, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Light-regulated skin colour change is an important physiological process in invertebrates and lower vertebrates, and includes daily circadian variation and camouflage (i.e. background adaptation). The photoactivation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in the eye initiates an uncharacterized neuroendocrine circuit that regulates melanin dispersion/aggregation through the secretion of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). We developed experimental models of normal or enucleated Xenopus embryos, as well as in situ cultures of skin of isolated dorsal head and tails, to analyse pharmacological induction of skin pigmentation and α-MSH synthesis. Both processes are triggered by a melanopsin inhibitor, AA92593, as well as chloride channel modulators. The AA9253 effect is eye-dependent, while functional data in vivo point to GABAA receptors expressed on pituitary melanotrope cells as the chloride channel blocker target. Based on the pharmacological data, we suggest a neuroendocrine circuit linking mRGCs with α-MSH secretion, which is used normally during background adaptation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The axon guidance molecule semaphorin 3F is a negative regulator of tumor progression and proliferation in ileal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vercherat, Cécile; Blanc, Martine; Lepinasse, Florian; Gadot, Nicolas; Couderc, Christophe; Poncet, Gilles; Walter, Thomas; Joly, Marie-Odile; Hervieu, Valérie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Roche, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, frequently metastatic, raising difficult clinical and therapeutic challenges due to a poor knowledge of their biology. As neuroendocrine cells express both epithelial and neural cell markers, we studied the possible involvement in GI-NETs of axon guidance molecules, which have been shown to decrease tumor cell proliferation and metastatic dissemination in several tumor types. We focused on the role of Semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) in ileal NETs, one of the most frequent subtypes of GI-NETs. SEMA3F expression was detected in normal neuroendocrine cells but was lost in most of human primary tumors and all their metastases. SEMA3F loss of expression was associated with promoter gene methylation. After increasing endogenous SEMA3F levels through stable transfection, enteroendocrine cell lines STC-1 and GluTag showed a reduced proliferation rate in vitro. In two different xenograft mouse models, SEMA3F-overexpressing cells exhibited a reduced ability to form tumors and a hampered liver dissemination potential in vivo. This resulted, at least in part, from the inhibition of mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. This study demonstrates an anti-tumoral role of SEMA3F in ileal NETs. We thus suggest that SEMA3F and/or its cellular signaling pathway could represent a target for ileal NET therapy. PMID:26447612

  12. CYTOLOGY ASSESSMENT CAN PREDICT SURVIVAL FOR PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC PANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE NEOPLASMS

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie S.; Guo, Huimin; Sigel, Keith M.; Zhang, Ming; Rekhtman, Natasha; Lin, Oscar; Klimstra, David S.; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Tang, Laura K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Histological features and Ki67 index have known utility for predicting prognosis and guiding therapy for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) may offer advantages for Ki67 assessment because the technique obtains highly cellular, well-preserved specimens with potential for broader tumor sampling. We evaluated concordance for grade and differentiation between concurrent core biopsy and cytology preparations. Secondly, cytological features and grade were correlated with survival. Methods Differentiation, grade by Ki67 index, and correlation of these features with survival were compared between concurrent core biopsy and cytology from 44 metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Results Differentiation by cytology smear was 38 (86%) well and 6 (14%) poor. Agreement for differentiation between smear and cell block, smear and biopsy, and cell block and biopsy was: 88%, 94%, and 83%, respectively and agreement for grade were: 68%, 54%, and 22%, respectively. Cytology differentiation and cytology grade were strong predictors of outcome with respective hazard ratio of 8.3 (95% CI: 3.1–22.1; p<0.001) and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2–2.9) for each ascending grade. Cytology median disease specific survival projections (months) were G1= 121 (95% CI: 57–185 (estimated)); G2= 45 (95% CI 29–87); and G3=19 (95% CI 1–44) and WD=45; PD= 3; (P<.001)). Conclusions Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm grading on cytology may not exactly correlate with concurrent core biopsy, but cytology differentiation and grade are predictive of survival based on stage-adjusted analysis. PMID:28094897

  13. T cell infiltrate and outcome following resection of intermediate-grade primary neuroendocrine tumours and liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Katz, Steven C; Donkor, Charan; Glasgow, Kristen; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Gönen, Mithat; Espat, N Joseph; Klimstra, David S; D'Angelica, Michael I; Allen, Peter J; Jarnagin, William; Dematteo, Ronald P; Brennan, Murray F; Tang, Laura H

    2010-12-01

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been shown to predict survival in numerous malignancies. The importance of TILs in primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and NET liver metastases (NETLMs) has not been defined. We identified 87 patients with NETs and 39 with NETLMs who had undergone resection. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine TIL counts. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined using the log-rank test. The median follow-up time was 62 months in NET patients and 48 months in NETLM patients. Vascular invasion and histologic grade were the only independent predictors of outcome for NETs and NETLMs, respectively. Analysis of intermediate-grade NETs indicated that a dense T cell (CD3+) infiltrate was associated with a median RFS of 128 months compared with 61 months for those with low levels of intratumoral T cells (P= 0.05, univariate analysis). Examination of NETLMs revealed that a low level of infiltrating regulatory T cells (Treg, FoxP3+) was a predictor of prolonged survival (P < 0.01, univariate analysis). A robust T cell infiltrate is associated with improved RFS following resection of intermediate-grade NETs, whereas the presence of more Treg correlated with shorter OS after treatment of NETLMs. Further study of the immune response to intermediate-grade NETs and NETLMs is warranted.

  14. HPV positive neuroendocrine cervical cancer cells are dependent on Myc but not E6/E7 viral oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hang; Krawczyk, Ewa; Blancato, Jan; Albanese, Christopher; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Naidong; Paul, Siddartha; Alkhilaiwi, Faris; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Dakic, Aleksandra; Fang, Shuang; Choudhary, Sujata; Hou, Tung-Wei; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Haddad, Bassem R; Usuda, Yukari; Hartmann, Dan; Symer, David; Gillison, Maura; Agarwal, Seema; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Liu, Xuefeng; Schlegel, Richard

    2017-04-05

    Using conditional cell reprogramming, we generated a stable cell culture of an extremely rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cervical cancer. The cultured cells contained HPV-16, formed colonies in soft agar and rapidly produced tumors in immunodeficient mice. The HPV-16 genome was integrated adjacent to the Myc gene, both of which were amplified 40-fold. Analysis of RNA transcripts detected fusion of the HPV/Myc genes, arising from apparent microhomologous recombination. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated coordinate localization and translocation of the amplified Myc and HPV genes on chromosomes 8 and 21. Similar to the primary tumor, tumor cell cultures expressed very high levels of the Myc protein and, in contrast to all other HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, they harbored a gain-of-function mutation in p53 (R273C). Unexpectedly, viral oncogene knockdown had no effect on the growth of the cells, but it did inhibit the proliferation of a conventional HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cell line. Knockdown of Myc, but not the mutant p53, significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation. On the basis of these data, we propose that the primary driver of transformation in this aggressive cervical cancer is not HPV oncogene expression but rather the overexpression of Myc.

  15. IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release regulates protein metabolism in Drosophila neuroendocrine cells: implications for development under nutrient stress.

    PubMed

    Megha; Hasan, Gaiti

    2017-04-15

    Successful completion of animal development is fundamentally reliant on nutritional cues. Surviving periods of nutritional insufficiency requires adaptations that are coordinated, in part, by neural circuits. As neuropeptides secreted by neuroendocrine (NE) cells modulate neural circuits, we investigated NE cell function during development under nutrient stress. Starved Drosophila larvae exhibited reduced pupariation if either insulin signaling or IP 3 /Ca 2+ signaling were downregulated in NE cells. Moreover, an IP 3 R (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor) loss-of-function mutant displayed reduced protein synthesis, which was rescued by overexpression of either InR (insulin receptor) or IP 3 R in NE cells of the mutant, suggesting that the two signaling pathways might be functionally compensatory. Furthermore, cultured IP 3 R mutant NE cells, but not neurons, exhibited reduced protein translation. Thus cell-specific regulation of protein synthesis by IP 3 R in NE cells influences protein metabolism. We propose that this regulation helps developing animals survive in poor nutritional conditions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor for death in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gladwin, Mark T; Sachdev, Vandana; Jison, Maria L; Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Plehn, Jonathan F; Minter, Karin; Brown, Bernice; Coles, Wynona A; Nichols, James S; Ernst, Inez; Hunter, Lori A; Blackwelder, William C; Schechter, Alan N; Rodgers, Griffin P; Castro, Oswaldo; Ognibene, Frederick P

    2004-02-26

    The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease, the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significance are unknown. We performed Doppler echocardiographic assessments of pulmonary-artery systolic pressure in 195 consecutive patients (82 men and 113 women; mean [+/-SD] age, 36+/-12 years). Pulmonary hypertension was prospectively defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second. Patients were followed for a mean of 18 months, and data were censored at the time of death or loss to follow-up. Doppler-defined pulmonary hypertension occurred in 32 percent of patients. Multiple logistic-regression analysis, with the use of the dichotomous variable of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of less than 2.5 m per second or 2.5 m per second or more, identified a self-reported history of cardiovascular or renal complications, increased systolic blood pressure, high lactate dehydrogenase levels (a marker of hemolysis), high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and low transferrin levels as significant independent correlates of pulmonary hypertension. The fetal hemoglobin level, white-cell count, and platelet count and the use of hydroxyurea therapy were unrelated to pulmonary hypertension. A tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second, as compared with a velocity of less than 2.5 m per second, was strongly associated with an increased risk of death (rate ratio, 10.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 47.0; P<0.001) and remained so after adjustment for other possible risk factors in a proportional-hazards regression model. Pulmonary hypertension, diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography, is common in adults with sickle cell disease. It appears to be a complication of chronic hemolysis, is resistant to hydroxyurea therapy, and confers a high risk of death. Therapeutic trials targeting this population of patients are indicated. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society

  17. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is required for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival and the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ibe, Joyce Christina F; Zhou, Qiyuan; Chen, Tianji; Tang, Haiyang; Yuan, Jason X-J; Raj, J Usha; Zhou, Guofei

    2013-10-01

    Human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) express both adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 and α2. We investigated the distinct roles of AMPK α1 and α2 in the survival of HPASMCs during hypoxia and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The exposure of HPASMCs to hypoxia (3% O2) increased AMPK activation and phosphorylation, and the inhibition of AMPK with Compound C during hypoxia decreased their viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and apoptosis. Although the suppression of either AMPK α1 or α2 expression led to increased cell death, the suppression of AMPK α2 alone increased caspase-3 activity and apoptosis in HPASMCs exposed to hypoxia. It also resulted in the decreased expression of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1). The knockdown of MCL-1 or MCL-1 inhibitors increased caspase-3 activity and apoptosis in HPASMCs exposed to hypoxia. On the other hand, the suppression of AMPK α1 expression alone prevented hypoxia-mediated autophagy. The inhibition of autophagy induced cell death in HPASMCs. Our results suggest that AMPK α1 and AMPK α2 play differential roles in the survival of HPASMCs during hypoxia. The activation of AMPK α2 maintains the expression of MCL-1 and prevents apoptosis, whereas the activation of AMPK α1 stimulates autophagy, promoting HPASMC survival. Moreover, treatment with Compound C, which inhibits both isoforms of AMPK, prevented and partly reversed hypoxia-induced PH in mice. Taking these results together, our study suggests that AMPK plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and AMPK may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  18. Adenosine Monophosphate–Activated Protein Kinase Is Required for Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Survival and the Development of Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Joyce Christina F.; Zhou, Qiyuan; Chen, Tianji; Tang, Haiyang; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Raj, J. Usha

    2013-01-01

    Human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) express both adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 and α2. We investigated the distinct roles of AMPK α1 and α2 in the survival of HPASMCs during hypoxia and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The exposure of HPASMCs to hypoxia (3% O2) increased AMPK activation and phosphorylation, and the inhibition of AMPK with Compound C during hypoxia decreased their viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and apoptosis. Although the suppression of either AMPK α1 or α2 expression led to increased cell death, the suppression of AMPK α2 alone increased caspase-3 activity and apoptosis in HPASMCs exposed to hypoxia. It also resulted in the decreased expression of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1). The knockdown of MCL-1 or MCL-1 inhibitors increased caspase-3 activity and apoptosis in HPASMCs exposed to hypoxia. On the other hand, the suppression of AMPK α1 expression alone prevented hypoxia-mediated autophagy. The inhibition of autophagy induced cell death in HPASMCs. Our results suggest that AMPK α1 and AMPK α2 play differential roles in the survival of HPASMCs during hypoxia. The activation of AMPK α2 maintains the expression of MCL-1 and prevents apoptosis, whereas the activation of AMPK α1 stimulates autophagy, promoting HPASMC survival. Moreover, treatment with Compound C, which inhibits both isoforms of AMPK, prevented and partly reversed hypoxia-induced PH in mice. Taking these results together, our study suggests that AMPK plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and AMPK may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:23668615

  19. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: neuroendocrine interferences.

    PubMed

    Poiană, Cătălina; Muşat, Mădălina; Carsote, Mara; Chiriţă, Corina

    2009-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) consists in severe cognitive and mood changes, more aggressive as seen in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). These two syndromes are situated at the border between gynecology and psychiatry but the link between the two domains remains the neuroendocrine underlying mechanisms. In present, there are some molecular systems certainly proved as being involved, like estrogens. The hormonal pattern consists not in different levels of the hormones but different response to normal hormonal levels. The cyclical biochemical triggers are related to neurotransmitters as serotonin, endorphin and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). The heritability of the syndrome is sustained by genetic polymorphism in ESR1 gene. Thus, the PMDD is the result of multiple disturbances regarding neuroendocrine systems.

  20. Fibrosis of Two: Epithelial Cell-Fibroblast Interactions in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Norihiko; Tager, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the progressive and ultimately fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung that distorts its architecture and compromises its function. IPF is now thought to result from wound-healing processes that, although initiated to protect the host from injurious environmental stimuli, lead to pathological fibrosis due to these processes becoming aberrant or over-exuberant. Although the environmental stimuli that trigger IPF remain to be identified, recent evidence suggests that they initially injure the alveolar epithelium. Repetitive cycles of epithelial injury and resultant alveolar epithelial cell death provoke the migration, proliferation, activation and myofibroblast differentiation of fibroblasts, causing the accumulation of these cells and the extracellular matrix that they synthesize. In turn, these activated fibroblasts induce further alveolar epithelial cell injury and death, thereby creating a vicious cycle of pro-fibrotic epithelial cell-fibroblast interactions. Though other cell types certainly make important contributions, we focus here on the “pas de deux” (steps of two), or perhaps more appropriate to IPF pathogenesis, the “folie à deux” (madness of two) of epithelial cells and fibroblasts that drives the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. We describe the signaling molecules that mediate the interactions of these cell types in their “fibrosis of two”, including transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, sonic hedgehog, prostaglandin E2, angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species. PMID:23499992

  1. Cigarette smoke-induced Egr-1 upregulates proinflammatory cytokines in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Paul R; Cosio, Manuel G; Hoidal, John R

    2006-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is a progressive and irreversible disorder. Cigarette smoking is associated with 80-90% of COPD cases; however, the genes involved in COPD-associated emphysema and chronic inflammation are poorly understood. It was recently demonstrated that early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) is significantly upregulated in the lungs of smokers with COPD (Ning W and coworkers, Proc Natl Acad Sci 2004;101:14895-14900). We hypothesized that Egr-1 is activated in pulmonary epithelial cells during exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A-549) and primary epithelial cells lacking basal Egr-1 markedly induce Egr-1 expression after CSE exposure. To evaluate Egr-1-specific effects, we used antisense (alphaS) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to knock down Egr-1 expression. Incorporation of Egr-1 alphaS ODN significantly decreased CSE-induced Egr-1 mRNA and protein, while sense ODN had no effect. Via Egr-1-mediated mechanisms, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly upregulated in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to CSE or transfected with Egr-1. To investigate the relationship between Egr-1 induction by smoking and susceptibility to emphysema, we determined Egr-1 expression in strains of mice with different susceptibilities for the development of smoking-induced emphysema. Egr-1 was markedly increased in the lungs of emphysema-susceptible AKR/J mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke, but only minimally increased in resistant NZWLac/J mice. In conclusion, Egr-1 is induced by cigarette smoke and functions in proinflammatory mechanisms that likely contribute to the development of COPD in the lungs of smokers.

  2. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  3. Immunohistochemical study of the neural development transcription factors (TTF1, ASCL1 and BRN2) in neuroendocrine prostate tumours.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Zarco, E; Vallejo-Benítez, A; Umbría-Jiménez, S; Pereira-Gallardo, S; Pabón-Carrasco, S; Azueta, A; González-Cámpora, R; Espinal, P S; García-Escudero, A

    2017-10-01

    Prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that constitutes 0.5-1% of all prostate malignancies. The median cancer-specific survival of patients with prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is 19 months, and 60.5% of the patients have metastatic disease. Neural development transcription factors are molecules involved in the organogenesis of the central nervous system and of neuroendocrine precursors of various tissues, including the suprarenal gland, thyroid glands, lungs and prostate. We present 3 cases of this uncommon condition, applying the new World Health Organisation criteria. We conducted studies through haematoxylin and eosin staining and analysed the expression of the neural development transcription factors achaete-scute homolog like 1, thyroid transcription factor 1 and the class III/IV POU transcription factors, as a new research line in the carcinogenesis of prostatic neuroendocrine tumours. In case 1, there was no TTF1 immunoexpression. Cases 2 and 3 had positive immunostaining for ASCL1, and Case 1 had negative immunostaining. BRN2 immunostaining was negative in case 1 and positive in cases 2 and 3. The World Health Organisation does not recognise any molecular or genetic marker with prognostic value. ASCL-1 is related to the NOTCH and WNT signalling pathways. ASCL-1, TTF1 and BRN2 could be used for early diagnosis and as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 AEU. All rights reserved.

  4. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the kidney with rare pulmonary and ileum metastases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huijuan; Cao, Qinghua; Li, Hui; Zhen, Tiantian; Lai, Yingrong; Han, Anjia

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To report one case of malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the kidney with rare pulmonary and ileum metastases and analyze its clinicopathological features. Methods: We analyzed the clinicopathological features of one case of malignant PEComa of the kidney with pulmonary and ileum metastases. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed. Results: The patient was a 48-year-old man with a renal mass approximately 14 cm × 11 cm × 8 cm in size. Microscopically, the tumor was mainly composed of polygonal epithelioid cells with dense eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei with small nucleoli. Focal tumor cells showed pleomorphism with multinucleated giant cells and prominent nucleoli. The tumor cells nests were surrounded by thick-walled irregular blood vessels. Focal fat cells were found within the tumor. Hemorrhage and coagulative necrosis were also present. The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, HMB45, and Melan-A, and focally positive for SMA and S-100 protein. After 5 years and 5.6 years of nephrectomy, the tumor metastasized to the right lung and ileum, respectively. Conclusion: We first reported one case of malignant PEComa of the kidney with pulmonary and ileum metastases. Metastatic PEComa of the lung and ileum should differentiate from primary carcinoma, metastatic carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. PMID:25337291

  5. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the kidney with rare pulmonary and ileum metastases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijuan; Cao, Qinghua; Li, Hui; Zhen, Tiantian; Lai, Yingrong; Han, Anjia

    2014-01-01

    To report one case of malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the kidney with rare pulmonary and ileum metastases and analyze its clinicopathological features. We analyzed the clinicopathological features of one case of malignant PEComa of the kidney with pulmonary and ileum metastases. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed. The patient was a 48-year-old man with a renal mass approximately 14 cm × 11 cm × 8 cm in size. Microscopically, the tumor was mainly composed of polygonal epithelioid cells with dense eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei with small nucleoli. Focal tumor cells showed pleomorphism with multinucleated giant cells and prominent nucleoli. The tumor cells nests were surrounded by thick-walled irregular blood vessels. Focal fat cells were found within the tumor. Hemorrhage and coagulative necrosis were also present. The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, HMB45, and Melan-A, and focally positive for SMA and S-100 protein. After 5 years and 5.6 years of nephrectomy, the tumor metastasized to the right lung and ileum, respectively. We first reported one case of malignant PEComa of the kidney with pulmonary and ileum metastases. Metastatic PEComa of the lung and ileum should differentiate from primary carcinoma, metastatic carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

  6. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Concomitant with Ectopic ACTH Syndrome Caused by a Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Thymus.

    PubMed

    Oda, Naohiro; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Tabata, Masahiro; Minami, Daisuke; Ninomiya, Kiichiro; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Inagaki, Kenichi; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 44-year-old man who was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) concomitant with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, which had been caused by a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacities in the lungs. PCP was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction with bronchoalveolar lavage. The levels of cortisol were slowly corrected with an adrenal enzyme inhibitor, and the exacerbation of PCP was successfully avoided. Our case indicates that in addition to prophylaxis, the early diagnosis of PCP and the slow correction of hypercortisolemia should be considered in order to prevent an exacerbation due to the reconstitution of the immune function in patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome.

  7. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Francesco; Giudici, Francesco; Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present. PMID:24213321

  8. Primary pulmonary NK/T-cell lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yajuan; Hou, Junna; Hao, Dexun; Zhang, Dandan

    2018-06-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. The lung is a relatively rare site of involvement. The current study presents a case of primary pulmonary ENKTL with fever and dyspnea, mimicking pneumonia and initially treated with empirical antibiotics. The patient demonstrated rapid deterioration and died shortly following diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, large-scale investigations referring to primary pulmonary ENKTL are not available. As a result, the exact incidence and clinical features of primary pulmonary ENKTL are unknown. In the current report, a literature review is presented to discuss the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis factors of this malignant disease.

  9. Airway Basal Cells. The “Smoking Gun” of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The earliest abnormality in the lung associated with smoking is hyperplasia of airway basal cells, the stem/progenitor cells of the ciliated and secretory cells that are central to pulmonary host defense. Using cell biology and ’omics technologies to assess basal cells isolated from bronchoscopic brushings of nonsmokers, smokers, and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), compelling evidence has been provided in support of the concept that airway basal cells are central to the pathogenesis of smoking-associated lung diseases. When confronted by the chronic stress of smoking, airway basal cells become disorderly, regress to a more primitive state, behave as dictated by their inheritance, are susceptible to acquired changes in their genome, lose the capacity to regenerate the epithelium, are responsible for the major changes in the airway that characterize COPD, and, with persistent stress, can undergo malignant transformation. Together, these observations led to the conclusion that accelerated loss of lung function in susceptible individuals begins with disordered airway basal cell biology (i.e., that airway basal cells are the “smoking gun” of COPD, a potential target for the development of therapies to prevent smoking-related lung disorders). PMID:25354273

  10. Clinical correlates of acute pulmonary events in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease*

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rabindra; Minniti, Caterina P.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Campbell, Andrew; Rana, Sohail; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Darbari, Deepika S.; Ajayi, Olaid; Arteta, Manuel; Ensing, Gregory; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Castro, Oswaldo L.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to identify risk factors for acute pulmonary events in children and adolescents in the Pulmonary Hypertension and the Hypoxic Response in SCD (PUSH) study. Methods Patients with hemoglobin SS (n=376) and other sickle cell genotypes (n=127) aged 3-20 years were studied at four centers in a cross-sectional manner. A sub-group (n=293) was followed for a median of 21 months (range 9-35). Results A patient-reported history of one or more acute pulmonary events, either acute chest syndrome (ACS) or pneumonia, was obtained in 195 hemoglobin SS patients (52%) and 51 patients with other genotypes (40%). By logistic regression, history of acute pulmonary events was independently associated with patient-reported history of asthma (p<0.0001), older age (p=0.001), >3 severe pain episodes in the preceding 12 months (p=0.002), higher tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) (p=0.028), and higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.043) among hemoglobin SS patients. History of acute pulmonary events was associated with >3 severe pain episodes (p=0.009) among patients with other genotypes. During follow-up, 43 patients (15%) had at least one new ACS episode including 11 without a baseline history of acute pulmonary events. History of acute pulmonary events (odds ratio 5.4; p<0.0001) and younger age (odds ratio 0.9; p=0.010) were independently associated with developing a new episode during follow-up. Conclusions Asthma history, frequent pain and higher values for TRV and WBC count were independently associated with history of acute pulmonary events in hemoglobin SS patients and frequent pain was associated in those with other genotypes. Measures to reduce pain episodes and control asthma may help to decrease the incidence of acute pulmonary events in SCD. PMID:23560516

  11. Severe Unresponsive Hypoglycemia Associated with Neuroendocrine Tumor of Unknown Primary Site - 18 Years after Rectal Cancer Surgery. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Octavia Cristina; Costea, Radu Virgil; Popa, Cristian Constantin; Iliesiu, Andreea; Dumitru, Adrian; Becheanu, Gabriel; Neagu, Stefan Ilie

    2015-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are derived from cells that have the unique ability to synthesize, store and secrete a variety of metabolically active substances, peptides and amines, characteristic of the tissue of origin, which can cause distinct clinical syndromes. We present the case of a 58-year-old patient diagnosed and surgically treated in January 1996 for stage III inferior rectal cancer, who was readmitted after 18 years presenting persistent diarrheic syndrome and asthenia. Investigations performed (abdominal CT) showed multiple liver metastases, initially suspected as being related to the rectal cancer. Biopsy of liver metastases and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the neuroendocrine origin (moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumor). Seven months after the identification of liver metastases and after initiation of oncological therapy with Interferon and Somatostatin, the patient presented severe hypoglycemia (serum glucose 13-70 mg/dl) proved to be due to insulin-like factors (serum insulin level 64.9 ìU/ml) secreted by metastases. Due to the aggressive evolution of neuroendocrine tumor, with multiple episodes of severe hypoglycemia, resistant to treatment, the patient died approximately one month after the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes. Despite comprehensive tests (abdominal CT scan, colonoscopy, bone scintigraphy and PET/CT), the primary site of the neuroendocrine tumors remained unknown.

  12. Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: A Newly Recognized Cause of Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Williams, K; Andrie, K; Cartoceti, A; French, S; Goldsmith, D; Jennings, S; Priestnall, S L; Wilson, D; Jutkowitz, A

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a well-known though poorly characterized disease in veterinary medicine. In humans, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of severe pulmonary hypertension with a mean survival time of 2 years without lung transplantation. Eleven adult dogs (5 males, 6 females; median age 10.5 years, representing various breeds) were examined following the development of severe respiratory signs. Lungs of affected animals were evaluated morphologically and with immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD31, CD3, CD20, and CD204. All dogs had pulmonary lesions consistent with PVOD, consisting of occlusive remodeling of small- to medium-sized pulmonary veins, foci of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH), and accumulation of hemosiderophages; 6 of 11 dogs had substantial pulmonary arterial medial and intimal thickening. Ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemistry showed that smooth muscle cells contributed to the venous occlusion. Increased expression of CD31 was evident in regions of PCH indicating increased numbers of endothelial cells in these foci. Spindle cells strongly expressing alpha smooth muscle actin and desmin co-localized with foci of PCH; similar cells were present but less intensely labeled elsewhere in non-PCH alveoli. B cells and macrophages, detected by immunohistochemistry, were not co-localized with the venous lesions of canine PVOD; small numbers of CD3-positive T cells were occasionally in and around the wall of remodeled veins. These findings indicate a condition in dogs with clinically severe respiratory disease and pathologic features resembling human PVOD, including foci of pulmonary venous remodeling and PCH. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer: common driver of pulmonary cachexia?

    PubMed

    Ceelen, Judith J M; Langen, Ramon C J; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2014-12-01

    In this article, a putative role of systemic inflammation as a driver of pulmonary cachexia induced by either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or nonsmall cell lung cancer is reviewed. Gaps in current translational research approaches are discussed and alternative strategies are proposed to provide new insights. Activation of the ubiquitin proteasome system has generally been considered a cause of pulmonary cachexia, but current animal models lack specificity and evidence is lacking in nonsmall cell lung cancer and conflicting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Recent studies have shown activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in both nonsmall cell lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Myonuclear loss, as a consequence of increased apoptotic events in myofibers, has been suggested in cancer-cachexia-associated muscle atrophy. Plasma transfer on myotube cultures can be used to detect early inflammatory signals in patients and presence of atrophy-inducing activity within the circulation. Comparative clinical research between nonsmall cell lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in different disease stages is useful to unravel disease-specific versus common denominators of pulmonary cachexia.

  14. Specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition reduces neuroendocrine markers and suppresses neuroblastoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Carter, Yvette M; Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Chen, Herbert; Gamblin, T Clark; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2014-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common neuroendocrine (NE) tumor that presents in early childhood, with a high incidence of malignancy and recurrence. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) pathway is a potential therapeutic target, as this pathway has been shown to be crucial in the management of other NE tumors. However, it is not known which isoform is necessary for growth inhibition. In this study, we investigated the effect of the GSK-3 inhibitor AR-A014418 on the different GSK-3 isoforms in neuroblastoma. NGP and SH-5Y-SY cells were treated with 0-20 μM of AR-A014418 and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Expression levels of NE markers CgA and ASCL1, GSK-3 isoforms, and apoptotic markers were analyzed by western blot. Neuroblastoma cells treated with AR-A014418 had a significant reduction in growth at all doses and time points (P<0.001). A reduction in growth was noted in cell lines on day 6, with 10 μM (NGP-53% vs. 0% and SH-5Y-SY-38% vs. 0%, P<0.001) treatment compared to control, corresponding with a noticeable reduction in tumor marker ASCL1 and CgA expression. Treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines with AR-A014418 reduced the level of GSK-3α phosphorylation at Tyr279 compared to GSK-3β phosphorylation at Tyr216, and attenuated growth via the maintenance of apoptosis. This study supports further investigation to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which GSK-3α inhibition downregulates the expression of NE tumor markers and growth of neuroblastoma.

  15. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor after 4 years tumor-free follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lambrescu, Ioana Maria; Martin, Sorina; Cima, Luminita; Herlea, Vlad; Badiu, Corin; Fica, Simona

    2015-06-01

    A primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumour (PHNET) is a very rare disease. The liver represents the preferential site for neuroendocrine tumors' metastases. A 45-year old Caucasian female who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, accompanied by diffuse abdominal pain was found to have on contrast-enhanced computer tomography an encapsulated, partially cystic liver mass. The patient underwent an uneventful left atypical hepatic resection. Histopatological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a slowly growing (G1) hepatic neuroendocrine tumour. Post surgery, the specific neuroendocrine markers (serum Chromogranin A and 24h urinary 5 hydroxy-indolacetic acid) were within normal range. Further functional imaging investigations were performed. No other lesions were found making probable the diagnosis of PHNET. The patient is presently after 4 years of follow-up with no local recurrence or distant metastases. The diagnosis of PHNET is a medical challenge that requires a thorough long term follow-up in order to exclude an occult primary neuroendocrine tumour.

  16. Intrauterine growth restriction decreases pulmonary alveolar and vessel growth and causes pulmonary artery endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro in fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Seedorf, Gregory J.; Brown, Alicia; Roe, Gates; O'Meara, Meghan C.; Gien, Jason; Tang, Jen-Ruey; Abman, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Abnormal lung structure has been noted in animal models of IUGR, but whether IUGR adversely impacts fetal pulmonary vascular development and pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) function is unknown. We hypothesized that IUGR would decrease fetal pulmonary alveolarization, vascular growth, and in vitro PAEC function. Studies were performed in an established model of severe placental insufficiency and IUGR induced by exposing pregnant sheep to elevated temperatures. Alveolarization, quantified by radial alveolar counts, was decreased 20% (P < 0.005) in IUGR fetuses. Pulmonary vessel density was decreased 44% (P < 0.01) in IUGR fetuses. In vitro, insulin increased control PAEC migration, tube formation, and nitric oxide (NO) production. This response was absent in IUGR PAECs. VEGFA stimulated tube formation, and NO production also was absent. In control PAECs, insulin increased cell growth by 68% (P < 0.0001). Cell growth was reduced in IUGR PAECs by 29% at baseline (P < 0.01), and the response to insulin was attenuated (P < 0.005). Despite increased basal and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in IUGR PAECs, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein expression as well as basal and insulin-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation were decreased in IUGR PAECs. Both VEGFA and VEGFR2 also were decreased in IUGR PAECs. We conclude that fetuses with IUGR are characterized by decreased alveolar and vascular growth and PAEC dysfunction in vitro. This may contribute to the increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes and BPD in infants with IUGR. PMID:21873446

  17. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    PubMed

    Gorla, Arun Kumar Reddy; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bal, Amanjit; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2017-02-01

    Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the liver are a diagnostic challenge. We present a rare case of primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor in which Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging played an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up.

  18. Pathological characteristics and clinical specifications in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a study of 68 cases.

    PubMed

    Stoica-Mustafa, Elena; Pechianu, C; Iorgescu, Andreea; Hortopan, Monica; Dima, Simona Olimpia; Tomulescu, V; Dumitraşcu, T; Ungureanu, C; Andronesi, D; Popescu, I; Herlea, V

    2012-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) represent a group of tumors, having their origin in cells of diffuse endocrine system, with particular clinical course, diagnosis and treatment. In our study, were included 68 patients with neuroendocrine digestive tumors admitted, diagnosed and treated in Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, in the last ten years--2000-2010 (retrospective study). Thirty-three (49%) patients were males, 35 (51%) females, and the main age was 58.9 years. In 62 (90.3%) cases was possible to find the primary tumor. The examined tumors had different localizations: pancreas--32 (47.04%) cases (head--17 (24.99%) cases, and body and tail--15 (22.05%) cases), stomach--7 (10.29%) cases, small intestine--7 (10.29%) cases, 6 (8.82%) cases--unknown primary site (diagnosis was established on metastases), right colon--6 (8.82%) cases, liver--6 (8.82%) cases, rectum--2 (2.94%) cases, and retroperitoneum--2 (2.94%) cases. Microscopic examination revealed 59 (86.8%) malignant tumors and 9 (13.2%) benign tumors. Using WHO 2000 Classification, 28 cases of malignant tumors were well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 31 cases were poor differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. From malignant cases, 25 (42.3%) have distant metastases and 15 (25.9%) lymph node metastases. Cases of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors included in our study had clinical and histopathological features in correspondence with data from literature--slight predominance in women, predominance in 5th and 6th decades of life, the most frequent localizations were at pancreatic level--both head and body and tail, but the rarest were in colon and retroperitoneum. Most of the cases studied, were malignant tumors, from these more than a half were poor differentiated, and a quarter of them having lymph node or distant metastases.

  19. Grape seed procyanidin extract attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting oxidative stress and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haifeng; Liu, Mingcheng; Zhang, Xin; Pan, Jinjin; Han, Jinzhen; Wang, Yudong; Lei, Haixin; Ding, Yanchun; Yuan, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play important roles in the pathological process of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) possesses antioxidant properties and has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of GSPE on HPH remains unclear. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent chronic hypoxia for 4 weeks to mimic a severe HPH condition. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that chronic hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) ratio and median width of pulmonary arteries. GSPE attenuated the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV+S, and reduced the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling. GSPE also increased the levels of SOD and reduced the levels of MDA in hypoxia-induced HPH model. In addition, GSPE suppressed Nox4 mRNA levels, ROS production and PASMCs proliferation. Meanwhile, increased expression of phospho-STAT3, cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and Ki67 in PASMCs caused by hypoxia was down-regulated by GSPE. These results suggested that GSPE might potentially prevent HPH via antioxidant and antiproliferative mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Acute cor pulmonale due to pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Story, Maria; Kwon, Sook Kyung; Robinson, Robert; Fortis, Spyridon

    2017-06-28

    We report the case of a previously healthy man who presented with subacute dyspnoea after a long drive. He developed hypoxic respiratory failure, thought secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism and was treated with tissue plasminogen activator but died in the hospital despite aggressive medical measures. Autopsy revealed pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) from papillary renal cell carcinoma. PTTM is a rare clinicopathological syndrome that clinically results in symptoms of dyspnoea and right heart failure. Pathologically, a localised paraneoplastic process evolves from tumour microemboli in the pulmonary arterioles, resulting in fibrocellular proliferation and narrowing of the vessels, causing subacute right heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PTTM due to papillary renal cell carcinoma. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. SRRM4 Expression and the Loss of REST Activity May Promote the Emergence of the Neuroendocrine Phenotype in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotun; Coleman, Ilsa M; Brown, Lisha G; True, Lawrence D; Kollath, Lori; Lucas, Jared M; Lam, Hung-Ming; Dumpit, Ruth; Corey, Eva; Chéry, Lisly; Lakely, Bryce; Higano, Celestia S; Montgomery, Bruce; Roudier, Martine; Lange, Paul H; Nelson, Peter S; Vessella, Robert L; Morrissey, Colm

    2015-10-15

    The neuroendocrine phenotype is associated with the development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our objective was to characterize the molecular features of the neuroendocrine phenotype in CRPC. Expression of chromogranin A (CHGA), synaptophysin (SYP), androgen receptor (AR), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was analyzed by IHC in 155 CRPC metastases from 50 patients and in 24 LuCaP prostate cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Seventy-one of 155 metastases and the 24 LuCaP xenograft lines were analyzed by whole-genome microarrays. REST splicing was verified by PCR. Coexpression of CHGA and SYP in >30% of cells was observed in 22 of 155 metastases (9 patients); 11 of the 22 metastases were AR(+)/PSA(+) (6 patients), 11/22 were AR-/PSA- (4 patients), and 4/24 LuCaP PDXs were AR(-)/PSA(-). By IHC, of the 71 metastases analyzed by whole-genome microarrays, 5 metastases were CHGA(+)/SYP(+)/AR(-), and 5 were CHGA(+)/SYP(+)/AR(+). Only CHGA(+)/SYP(+) metastases had a neuroendocrine transcript signature. The neuronal transcriptional regulator SRRM4 transcript was associated with the neuroendocrine signature in CHGA(+)/SYP(+) metastases and all CHGA(+)/SYP(+) LuCaP xenografts. In addition, expression of SRRM4 in LuCaP neuroendocrine xenografts correlated with a splice variant of REST that lacks the transcriptional repressor domain. (i) Metastatic neuroendocrine status can be heterogeneous in the same patient, (ii) the CRPC neuroendocrine molecular phenotype can be defined by CHGA(+)/SYP(+) dual positivity, (iii) the neuroendocrine phenotype is not necessarily associated with the loss of AR activity, and (iv) the splicing of REST by SRRM4 could promote the neuroendocrine phenotype in CRPC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Pulmonary CCR2+CD4+ T cells are immune regulatory and attenuate lung fibrosis development.

    PubMed

    Milger, Katrin; Yu, Yingyan; Brudy, Eva; Irmler, Martin; Skapenko, Alla; Mayinger, Michael; Lehmann, Mareike; Beckers, Johannes; Reichenberger, Frank; Behr, Jürgen; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Animal models have suggested that CCR2-dependent signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but global blockade of CCL2 failed to improve the clinical course of patients with lung fibrosis. However, as levels of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in paediatric lung fibrosis had previously been found to be increased, correlating with clinical symptoms, we hypothesised that distinct CCR2 + cell populations might either increase or decrease disease pathogenesis depending on their subtype. To investigate the role of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in experimental lung fibrosis and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrosis. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were analysed using flow cytometry and mRNA profiling, followed by in silico pathway analysis, in vitro assays and adoptive transfer experiments. Frequencies of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were increased in experimental fibrosis-specifically the CD62L - CD44 + effector memory T cell phenotype, displaying a distinct chemokine receptor profile. mRNA profiling of isolated CCR2 + CD4 + T cells from fibrotic lungs suggested immune regulatory functions, a finding that was confirmed in vitro using suppressor assays. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells attenuated fibrosis development. The results were partly corroborated in patients with lung fibrosis, by showing higher percentages of Foxp3 + CD25 + cells within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CCR2 + CD4 + T cells as compared with CCR2 - CD4 + T cells. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells are immunosuppressive, and could attenuate lung inflammation and fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies completely abrogating CCR2-dependent signalling will therefore also eliminate cell populations with protective roles in fibrotic lung disease. This emphasises the need for a detailed understanding of the functions of immune cell subsets in fibrotic lung disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  3. The Role of Mitochondrial DNA in Mediating Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P.; Williams, David B.; Kamp, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Convincing evidence has emerged demonstrating that impairment of mitochondrial function is critically important in regulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) programmed cell death (apoptosis) that may contribute to aging-related lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis following asbestos exposure). The mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for 13 proteins, including several essential for oxidative phosphorylation. We review the evidence implicating that oxidative stress-induced mtDNA damage promotes AEC apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We focus on the emerging role for AEC mtDNA damage repair by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO-2) in maintaining mtDNA integrity which is important in preventing AEC apoptosis and asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. We then review recent studies linking the sirtuin (SIRT) family members, especially SIRT3, to mitochondrial integrity and mtDNA damage repair and aging. We present a conceptual model of how SIRTs modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-driven mitochondrial metabolism that may be important for their tumor suppressor function. The emerging insights into the pathobiology underlying AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis is suggesting novel therapeutic targets that may prove useful for the management of age-related diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:26370974

  4. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (p<0.0001) and pulmonary capillary blood volume from 39.7 to 64.1 ml/m2 (p<0.0001); forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Gastroenteropancreatic System: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Ilett, Emma Elizabeth; Langer, Seppo W.; Olsen, Ingrid Holst; Federspiel, Birgitte; Kjær, Andreas; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    To date, empirical literature has generally been considered lacking in relation to neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), the highly malignant subgroup of neuroendocrine neoplasms. NECs are often found in the lungs or the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system and can be of small or large cell type. Concentrating on GEP-NECs, we can conclude that survival times are poor, with a median of only 4–16 months depending on disease stage and primary site. Further, this aggressive disease appears to be on the rise, with incidence numbers increasing while survival times are stagnant. Treatment strategies concerning surgery are often undecided and second-line chemotherapy is not yet established. After an analysis of over 2600 articles, we can conclude that there is indeed more empirical literature concerning GEP-NECs available than previously assumed. This unique review is based on 333 selected articles and contains detailed information concerning all aspects of GEP-NECs. Namely, the classification, histology, genetic abnormalities, epidemiology, origin, biochemistry, imaging, treatment and survival of GEP-NECs are described. Also, organ-specific summaries with more detail in relation to disease presentation, diagnosis, treatment and survival are presented. Finally, key points are discussed with directions for future research priorities. PMID:26854147

  6. Fundamentals of pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Groneberg, D A; Witt, C; Wagner, U; Chung, K F; Fischer, A

    2003-04-01

    Aerosol administration of peptide-based drugs plays an important role in the treatment of pulmonary and systemic diseases and the unique cellular properties of airway epithelium offers a great potential to deliver new compounds. As the relative contributions from the large airways to the alveolar space are important to the local and systemic availability, the sites and mechanism of uptake and transport of different target compounds have to be characterized. Among the different respiratory cells, the ciliated epithelial cells of the larger and smaller airways and the type I and type II pneumocytes are the key players in pulmonary drug transport. With their diverse cellular characteristics, each of these cell types displays a unique uptake possibility. Next to the knowledge of these cellular aspects, the nature of aerosolized drugs, characteristics of delivery systems and the depositional and pulmonary clearance mechanisms display major targets to optimize pulmonary drug delivery. Based on the growing knowledge on pulmonary cell biology and pathophysiology due to modern methods of molecular biology, the future characterization of pulmonary drug transport pathways can lead to new strategies in aerosol drug therapy.

  7. Colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    PubMed

    Starzyńska, Teresa; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Deptała, Andrzej; Falconi, Massimo; Foltyn, Wanda; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Lipiński, Michał; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Remiszewski, Piotr; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms/tumours (NENs/NETs) of the large intestine are detected increasingly often, especially rectal tumours, which is probably associated with the widespread use of screening colonoscopy. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the thesis that the NENs of the rectum and the NENs of the colon are two different diseases. Rectal NENs are usually small lesions, of low to moderate histological malignancy, associated with good prognosis, and most may be treated endoscopically. NENs of the colon, however, are often aggressive, poorly differentiated, associated with a poor or uncer-tain prognosis, and require surgical treatment. The management guidelines regarding these groups of patients are constantly changing. On the basis of the recent literature data and conclusions reached by the working meeting of the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours (December 2016), this study completes and updates the data and management guidelines regarding colorectal NENs published in Endokrynologia Polska 2013; 64: 358-368.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of the antiproliferative activity of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Florio, Tullio

    2008-01-01

    The current treatment of neuroendocrine tumors include the use of somatostatin (SST) agonists. These compounds are able to control most of the symptoms caused by the hypersecretory activity of the tumor cells, and for this reason, they provide a significant improvement in the well-being of the patients. Although, several reports also showed a possible direct antiproliferative activity of SST agonists in different neuroendocrine tumors, the therapeutic potential of an in vivo antiproliferative activity mediated by SST receptors is still debated. In recent years, there has been great insights on understanding the molecular basis of the antitumoral activity of SST that appears to be exerted via both direct and indirect mechanisms. Direct mechanisms require the activation of SST receptors in tumor cells and the induction of cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, mainly through the regulation of phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and MAP kinase activities. The indirect mechanisms involve the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and the inhibition of the secretion of factors which are required for tumor growth. Here, we will review the molecular mechanisms which are implicated in the antiproliferative activity of SST. Such an understanding is necessary for improving the antitumoral efficacy of SSTR agonists as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  9. Relationship between pulmonary and cardiac abnormalities in sickle cell disease: implications for the management of patients

    PubMed Central

    Maioli, Maria Christina Paixão; Soares, Andrea Ribeiro; Bedirian, Ricardo; Alves, Ursula David; de Lima Marinho, Cirlene; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between clinical, pulmonary, and cardiovascular findings in patients with sickle cell disease and, secondarily, to compare these findings between sickle cell anemia patients and those with other sickle cell diseases. Methods Fifty-nine adults were included in this cross-sectional study; 47 had sickle cell anemia, and 12 had other sickle cell diseases. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests, chest computed tomography, and echocardiography. Results Abnormalities on computed tomography, echocardiography, and pulmonary function tests were observed in 93.5%, 75.0%; and 70.2% of patients, respectively. A higher frequency of restrictive abnormalities was observed in patients with a history of acute chest syndrome (85% vs. 21.6%; p-value < 0.0001) and among patients with increased left ventricle size (48.2% vs. 22.2%; p-value = 0.036), and a higher frequency of reduced respiratory muscle strength was observed in patients with a ground-glass pattern (33.3% vs. 4.3%; p-value = 0.016). Moreover, a higher frequency of mosaic attenuation was observed in patients with elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity (61.1% vs. 24%; p-value = 0.014). Compared to patients with other sickle cell diseases, sickle cell anemia patients had suffered increased frequencies of acute pain episodes, and acute chest syndrome, and exhibited mosaic attenuation on computed tomography, and abnormalities on echocardiography. Conclusion A significant interrelation between abnormalities of the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems was observed in sickle cell disease patients. Furthermore, the severity of the cardiopulmonary parameters among patients with sickle cell anemia was greater than that of patients with other sickle cell diseases. PMID:26969771

  10. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexistence with pulmonary tuberculosis and right pneumothorax: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Limin; Li, Huifang; Li, Gandi; Liu, Weiping; Li, Jinnan; Zhang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    We report an uncommon 22-year-old male Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) case which co-existed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Unlike the common PLCH cases, this PLCH case has cervical lymph node involvement and right pneumothorax. The diagnosis was established by the imaging of lung and the biopsies of the lung and left neck lymph node. Imaging of the chest showed characteristic small nodules and thin-walled cysts and right pneumothorax. The LCH cells in the lung and left neck lymph node were characterized by large convoluted nuclei with cerebriform indentations of the nuclear envelope and longitudinal grooves. The nuclei contained small eosinophilic nucleoli and moderate amount cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were positive for Langerin, CD1a and S-100. Acid-fast bacilli were found in sputum and lung biopsy tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PLCH with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexisted with pulmonary tuberculosis, right pneumothorax. A contribution of this case and review three of the five cases of PLCH with extrapulmonary involvement to lymph nodes resolved spontaneously after smoking cessation constitute a novel addition that it is inappropriate to regard pulmonary/nodal LCH as multi-organ or disseminated disease, and the treatment methods are the same whether the PLCH patient with lymph node involvement or not.

  11. Proposed morphologic classification of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Amin, Mahul B; Beltran, Himisha; Lotan, Tamara L; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Reuter, Victor E; Robinson, Brian D; Troncoso, Patricia; Rubin, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    On July 31, 2013, the Prostate Cancer Foundation assembled a working committee on the molecular biology and pathologic classification of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer. New clinical and molecular data emerging from prostate cancers treated by contemporary androgen deprivation therapies, as well as primary lesions, have highlighted the need for refinement of diagnostic terminology to encompass the full spectrum of NE differentiation. The classification system consists of: Usual prostate adenocarcinoma with NE differentiation; 2) Adenocarcinoma with Paneth cell NE differentiation; 3) Carcinoid tumor; 4) Small cell carcinoma; 5) Large cell NE carcinoma; and 5) Mixed NE carcinoma - acinar adenocarcinoma. The article also highlights "prostate carcinoma with overlapping features of small cell carcinoma and acinar adenocarcinoma" and "castrate-resistant prostate cancer with small cell cancer-like clinical presentation". It is envisioned that specific criteria associated with the refined diagnostic terminology will lead to clinically relevant pathologic diagnoses that will stimulate further clinical and molecular investigation and identification of appropriate targeted therapies.

  12. ERYTHROCYTE DERIVED MICROPARTICLES ACTIVATE PULMONARY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN A MURINE MODEL OF TRANSFUSION

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alex L; Kim, Young; Seitz, Aaron P; Schuster, Rebecca M; Lentsch, Alex B; Pritts, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocyte-derived microparticles (MPs) are sub-micrometer, biologically active vesicles shed by red blood cells as part of the biochemical changes that occur during storage. We hypothesized that MPs from stored red blood cells would activate endothelial cells. MPs from aged murine packed red blood cells (pRBCs) were isolated and used to treat confluent layers of cultured endothelial cells. Endothelial expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules, ELAM-1 and ICAM-1, and inflammatory mediator, IL-6, were evaluated at 0.5, 6, 12, and 24 hours of treatment. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were transfused with a MP suspension and lung sections were analyzed for adhesion molecules and sequestered interstitial leukocytes. Increased levels of ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 were found on cultured endothelial cells 6 hours after MP stimulation (6.91 vs 4.07 relative fluorescent intensity, RFI, p<0.01, and 5.85 vs 3.55 RFI, p=0.01, respectively). IL-6 in cell culture supernatants was increased after 12 hours of MP stimulation compared to controls (1.24 vs 0.73 ng/ml, p=0.03). In vivo experiments demonstrated that MP injection increased ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression at 1 hour (18.56 vs 7.08 RFI, p<0.01, and 23.66 vs 6.87 RFI, p<0.01, respectively) and caused increased density of pulmonary interstitial leukocytes by 4 hours of treatment (69.25 vs 29.25 cells/HPF, p<0.01). This series of experiments supports our hypothesis that erythrocyte-derived MPs are able to activate pulmonary endothelium, leading to the pulmonary sequestration of leukocytes following the transfusion of stored pRBCs. PMID:27792124

  13. Involvement of neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors in the regulation of neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; DeJoseph, M Regina; Brownfield, Mark S; Urban, Janice H

    2007-08-01

    The neuroendocrine parvocellular CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus are the main integrators of neural inputs that initiate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression is prominent within the PVN, and previous reports indicated that NPY stimulates CRH mRNA levels. The purpose of these studies was to examine the participation of NPY receptors in HPA axis activation and determine whether neuroendocrine CRH neurons express NPY receptor immunoreactivity. Infusion of 0.5 nmol NPY into the third ventricle increased plasma corticosterone levels in conscious rats, with the peak of hormone levels occurring 30 min after injection. This increase was prevented by pretreatment with the Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP3226. Immunohistochemistry showed that CRH-immunoreactive neurons coexpressed Y1 receptor immunoreactivity (Y1r-ir) in the PVN, and a majority of these neurons (88.8%) were neuroendocrine as determined by ip injections of FluoroGold. Bilateral infusion of the Y1/Y5 agonist, [leu(31)pro(34)]NPY (110 pmol), into the PVN increased c-Fos and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein expression and elevated plasma corticosterone levels. Increased expression of c-Fos and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein was observed in populations of CRH/Y1r-ir cells. The current findings present a comprehensive study of NPY Y1 receptor distribution and activation with respect to CRH neurons in the PVN. The expression of NPY Y1r-ir by neuroendocrine CRH cells suggests that alterations in NPY release and subsequent activation of NPY Y1 receptors plays an important role in the regulation of the HPA.

  14. Transcription elongation factors are involved in programming hormone production in pituitary neuroendocrine GH4C1 cells.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Piuz, Isabelle; Schlegel, Werner

    2010-05-05

    Transcription elongation of many eukaryotic genes is regulated. Two negative transcription elongation factors, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) and negative elongation factor (NELF) are known to stall collaboratively RNA polymerase II promoter proximally. We discovered that DSIF and NELF are linked to hormone expression in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. When NELF-E, a subunit of NELF or Spt5, a subunit of DSIF was stably knocked-down, prolactin (PRL) expression was increased both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, stable knock-down of only Spt5 abolished growth hormone (GH) expression. Transient NELF-E knock-down increased coincidentally PRL expression and enhanced transcription of a PRL-promoter reporter gene. However, no direct interaction of NELF with the PRL gene could be demonstrated by chromatin immuno-precipitation. Thus, NELF suppressed PRL promoter activity indirectly. In conclusion, transcription regulation by NELF and DSIF is continuously involved in the control of hormone production and may contribute to neuroendocrine cell differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Pulmonary Immunity and Tissue Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Barbara C.; Fritz, Jörg H.; Duerr, Claudia U.

    2018-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) represent an evolutionary rather old but only recently identified member of the family of innate lymphoid cells and have received much attention since their detailed description in 2010. They can orchestrate innate as well as adaptive immune responses as they interact with and influence several immune and non-immune cell populations. Moreover, ILC2 are able to rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 cytokines that can contribute to protective but also detrimental host immune responses depending on timing, location, and physiological context. Interestingly, ILC2, despite their scarcity, are the dominant innate lymphoid cell population in the lung, indicating a key role as first responders and amplifiers upon immune challenge at this site. In addition, the recently described tissue residency of ILC2 further underlines the importance of their respective microenvironment. In this review, we provide an overview of lung physiology including a description of the most prominent pulmonary resident cells together with a review of known and potential ILC2 interactions within this unique environment. We will further outline recent observations regarding pulmonary ILC2 during immune challenge including respiratory infections and discuss different models and approaches to study ILC2 biology in the lung. PMID:29760695

  16. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Pulmonary Immunity and Tissue Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Mindt, Barbara C; Fritz, Jörg H; Duerr, Claudia U

    2018-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) represent an evolutionary rather old but only recently identified member of the family of innate lymphoid cells and have received much attention since their detailed description in 2010. They can orchestrate innate as well as adaptive immune responses as they interact with and influence several immune and non-immune cell populations. Moreover, ILC2 are able to rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 cytokines that can contribute to protective but also detrimental host immune responses depending on timing, location, and physiological context. Interestingly, ILC2, despite their scarcity, are the dominant innate lymphoid cell population in the lung, indicating a key role as first responders and amplifiers upon immune challenge at this site. In addition, the recently described tissue residency of ILC2 further underlines the importance of their respective microenvironment. In this review, we provide an overview of lung physiology including a description of the most prominent pulmonary resident cells together with a review of known and potential ILC2 interactions within this unique environment. We will further outline recent observations regarding pulmonary ILC2 during immune challenge including respiratory infections and discuss different models and approaches to study ILC2 biology in the lung.

  17. From pituitary adenoma to pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET): an International Pituitary Pathology Club proposal.

    PubMed

    Asa, S L; Casar-Borota, O; Chanson, P; Delgrange, E; Earls, P; Ezzat, S; Grossman, A; Ikeda, H; Inoshita, N; Karavitaki, N; Korbonits, M; Laws, E R; Lopes, M B; Maartens, N; McCutcheon, I E; Mete, O; Nishioka, H; Raverot, G; Roncaroli, F; Saeger, W; Syro, L V; Vasiljevic, A; Villa, C; Wierinckx, A; Trouillas, J

    2017-04-01

    The classification of neoplasms of adenohypophysial cells is misleading because of the simplistic distinction between adenoma and carcinoma, based solely on metastatic spread and the poor reproducibility and predictive value of the definition of atypical adenomas based on the detection of mitoses or expression of Ki-67 or p53. In addition, the current classification of neoplasms of the anterior pituitary does not accurately reflect the clinical spectrum of behavior. Invasion and regrowth of proliferative lesions and persistence of hormone hypersecretion cause significant morbidity and mortality. We propose a new terminology, pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET), which is consistent with that used for other neuroendocrine neoplasms and which recognizes the highly variable impact of these tumors on patients. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Immunological Signatures after Bordetella pertussis Infection Demonstrate Importance of Pulmonary Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Jolanda; van der Maas, Larissa; Tilstra, Wichard; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Han, Wanda G. H.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.; van Riet, Elly; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Metz, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Effective immunity against Bordetella pertussis is currently under discussion following the stacking evidence of pertussis resurgence in the vaccinated population. Natural immunity is more effective than vaccine-induced immunity indicating that knowledge on infection-induced responses may contribute to improve vaccination strategies. We applied a systems biology approach comprising microarray, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays to unravel the molecular and cellular signatures in unprotected mice and protected mice with infection-induced immunity, around a B. pertussis challenge. Pre-existing systemic memory Th1/Th17 cells, memory B-cells, and mucosal IgA specific for Ptx, Vag8, Fim2/3 were detected in the protected mice 56 days after an experimental infection. In addition, pre-existing high activity and reactivation of pulmonary innate cells such as alveolar macrophages, M-cells and goblet cells was detected. The pro-inflammatory responses in the lungs and serum, and neutrophil recruitment in the spleen upon an infectious challenge of unprotected mice were absent in protected mice. Instead, fast pulmonary immune responses in protected mice led to efficient bacterial clearance and harbored potential new gene markers that contribute to immunity against B. pertussis. These responses comprised of innate makers, such as Clca3, Retlna, Glycam1, Gp2, and Umod, next to adaptive markers, such as CCR6+ B-cells, CCR6+ Th17 cells and CXCR6+ T-cells as demonstrated by transcriptome analysis. In conclusion, besides effective Th1/Th17 and mucosal IgA responses, the primary infection-induced immunity benefits from activation of pulmonary resident innate immune cells, achieved by local pathogen-recognition. These molecular signatures of primary infection-induced immunity provided potential markers to improve vaccine-induced immunity against B. pertussis. PMID:27711188

  19. Management of the hormonal syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Woliński, Kosma; Kaznowski, Jarosław; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP/NET) are unusual and rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They characteristically synthesize store and secrete a variety of peptides and neuroamines which can lead to the development of distinct clinical syndrome, however many are clinically silent until late presentation with mass effects. Management strategies include surgery cure and cytoreduction with the use of somatostatin analogues. Somatostatin have a broad range of biological actions that include inhibition of exocrine and endocrine secretions, gut motility, cell proliferation, cell survival and angiogenesis. Five somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-SSTR5) have been cloned and characterized. Somatostatin analogues include octreotide and lanreotide are effective medical tools in the treatment and present selectivity for SSTR2 and SSTR5. During treatment is seen disapperance of flushing, normalization of bowel movements and reduction of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) secretion. Telotristat represents a novel approach by specifically inhibiting serotonin synthesis and as such, is a promising potential new treatment for patients with carcinoid syndrome. To pancreatic functionig neuroendocrine tumors belongs insulinoma, gastrinoma, glucagonoma and VIP-oma. Medical management in patients with insulinoma include diazoxide which suppresses insulin release. Also mTOR inhibitors may inhibit insulin secretion. Treatment of gastrinoma include both proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 – receptor antagonists. In patients with glucagonomas hyperglycaemia can be controlled using insulin and oral blood glucose lowering drugs. In malignant glucagonomas smatostatin analogues are effective in controlling necrolytic migratory erythemia. Severe cases of the VIP-oma syndrome require supplementation of fluid losses. Octreotide reduce tumoral VIP secretion and control secretory diarrhoea. PMID:28507564

  20. VEGF isoforms have differential effects on permeability of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ourradi, Khadija; Blythe, Thomas; Jarrett, Caroline; Barratt, Shaney L; Welsh, Gavin I; Millar, Ann B

    2017-06-02

    Alternative splicing of Vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA transcripts (commonly referred as VEGF) leads to the generation of functionally differing isoforms, the relative amounts of which have potentially significant physiological outcomes in conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The effect of such isoforms on pulmonary vascular permeability is unknown. We hypothesised that VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b isoforms would have differing effects on pulmonary vascular permeability caused by differential activation of intercellular signal transduction pathways. To test this hypothesis we investigated the physiological effect of VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b on Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cell (HPMEC) permeability using three different methods: trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and FITC-BSA passage. In addition, potential downstream signalling pathways of the VEGF isoforms were investigated by Western blotting and the use of specific signalling inhibitors. VEGF 165 a increased HPMEC permeability using all three methods (paracellular and transcellular) and led to associated VE-cadherin and actin stress fibre changes. In contrast, VEGF 165 b decreased paracellular permeability and did not induce changes in VE-cadherin cell distribution. Furthermore, VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b had differing effects on both the phosphorylation of VEGF receptors and downstream signalling proteins pMEK, p42/44MAPK, p38 MAPK, pAKT and peNOS. Interestingly specific inhibition of the pMEK, p38 MAPK, PI3 kinase and eNOS pathways blocked the effects of both VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b on paracellular permeability and the effect of VEGF 165 a on proliferation/migration, suggesting that this difference in cellular response is mediated by an as yet unidentified signalling pathway(s). This study demonstrates that the novel isoform VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b induce differing effects on permeability in

  1. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of "NR3C1," "11ß-HSD2," and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive…

  2. Flushing Disorders Associated with Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Part 1, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Mast Cell Disorders and Hyperbasophila.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Singh, Devina; Mazza, Joseph J; Yang, Dennis; Parajuli, Dipendra; Yale, Steven H

    2018-04-12

    Flushing is the subjective sensation of warmth accompanied by visible cutaneous erythema occurring throughout the body with a predilection for the face, neck, pinnae, and upper trunk where the skin is thinnest and cutaneous vessels are superficially located and in greatest numbers. Flushing can be present in either a wet or dry form depending upon whether neural-mediated mechanisms are involved. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in wet flushing, accompanied by diaphoresis, due to concomitant stimulation of eccrine sweat glands. Wet flushing is caused by certain medications, panic disorder and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). Vasodilator mediated flushing due to the formation and release of a variety of biogenic amines, neuropeptides and phospholipid mediators such as histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins respectively, typically presents as dry flushing where sweating is characteristically absent. Flushing occurring with neuroendocrine tumors accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms is generally of the dry flushing variant, which may be an important clinical clue to the differential diagnosis. A number of primary diseases of the gastrointestinal tract cause flushing, and conversely extra-intestinal conditions are associated with flushing and gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal findings vary and include one or more of the following non-specific symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. The purpose of this review is to provide a focused comprehensive discussion on the presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation and management of those diseases that arise from the gastrointestinal tract or other site that may cause gastrointestinal symptoms secondarily accompanied by flushing. The paper is divided into two parts given the scope of conditions that cause flushing and affect the gastrointestinal tract. Part 1 covered is neuroendocrine tumors, (carcinoid, pheochromocytomas, vasoactive

  3. Silencing the Snail-dependent RNA splice regulator ESRP1 drives malignant transformation of human pulmonary epithelial cells. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is organized in cancer cells by a set of key transcription factors, but the significance of this process is still debated including in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we report increased expression of the EMT-inducing transcription factor Snail in premalignant pulmonary lesions, relative to histologically normal pulmonary epithelium. In immortalized human pulmonary epithelial cells and isogenic derivatives, we documented Snail-dependent anchorage-independent growth in vitro and primary tumor growth and metastatic behavior in vivo.

  4. Phagocytic cells contribute to the antibody-mediated elimination of pulmonary-infected SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Kohara, Michinori; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Nishiwaki, Tetsu; Fujii, Hideki; Tateno, Chise; Yoneda, Misako; Morita, Kouichi; Matsushima, Kouji; Koyasu, Shigeo; Kai, Chieko

    2014-04-01

    While the 2002-2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) resulted in 774 deaths, patients who were affected with mild pulmonary symptoms successfully recovered. The objective of the present work was to identify, using SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mouse infection models, immune factors responsible for clearing of the virus. The elimination of pulmonary SARS-CoV infection required the activation of B cells by CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, passive immunization (post-infection) with homologous (murine) anti-SARS-CoV antiserum showed greater elimination efficacy against SARS-CoV than that with heterologous (rabbit) antiserum, despite the use of equivalent titers of neutralizing antibodies. This distinction was mediated by mouse phagocytic cells (monocyte-derived infiltrating macrophages and partially alveolar macrophages, but not neutrophils), as demonstrated both by adoptive transfer from donors and by immunological depletion of selected cell types. These results indicate that the cooperation of anti-SARS-CoV antibodies and phagocytic cells plays an important role in the elimination of SARS-CoV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Platelet GPIIb supports initial pulmonary retention but inhibits subsequent proliferation of melanoma cells during hematogenic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Echtler, Katrin; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Schneider, Simon; Hofmaier, Sebastian; Plenagl, Florian; Stark, Konstantin; Czermak, Thomas; Tirniceriu, Anca; Eichhorn, Martin; Walch, Axel; Enders, Georg; Massberg, Steffen; Schulz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Platelets modulate the process of cancer metastasis. However, current knowledge on the direct interaction of platelets and tumor cells is mostly based on findings obtained in vitro. We addressed the role of the platelet fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb (integrin αIIb) for experimental melanoma metastasis in vivo. Highly metastatic B16-D5 melanoma cells were injected intravenously into GPIIb-deficient (GPIIb-/-) or wildtype (WT) mice. Acute accumulation of tumor cells in the pulmonary vasculature was assessed in real-time by confocal videofluorescence microscopy. Arrest of tumor cells was dramatically reduced in GPIIb-/- mice as compared to WT. Importantly, we found that mainly multicellular aggregates accumulated in the pulmonary circulation of WT, instead B16-D5 aggregates were significantly smaller in GPIIb-/- mice. While pulmonary arrest of melanoma was clearly dependent on GPIIb in this early phase of metastasis, we also addressed tumor progression 10 days after injection. Inversely, and unexpectedly, we found that melanoma metastasis was now increased in GPIIb-/- mice. In contrast, GPIIb did not regulate local melanoma proliferation in a subcutaneous tumor model. Our data suggest that the platelet fibrinogen receptor has a differential role in the modulation of hematogenic melanoma metastasis. While platelets clearly support early steps in pulmonary metastasis via GPIIb-dependent formation of platelet-tumor-aggregates, at a later stage its absence is associated with an accelerated development of melanoma metastases. PMID:28253287

  6. Platelet GPIIb supports initial pulmonary retention but inhibits subsequent proliferation of melanoma cells during hematogenic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Echtler, Katrin; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Schneider, Simon; Hofmaier, Sebastian; Plenagl, Florian; Stark, Konstantin; Czermak, Thomas; Tirniceriu, Anca; Eichhorn, Martin; Walch, Axel; Enders, Georg; Massberg, Steffen; Schulz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Platelets modulate the process of cancer metastasis. However, current knowledge on the direct interaction of platelets and tumor cells is mostly based on findings obtained in vitro. We addressed the role of the platelet fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb (integrin αIIb) for experimental melanoma metastasis in vivo. Highly metastatic B16-D5 melanoma cells were injected intravenously into GPIIb-deficient (GPIIb-/-) or wildtype (WT) mice. Acute accumulation of tumor cells in the pulmonary vasculature was assessed in real-time by confocal videofluorescence microscopy. Arrest of tumor cells was dramatically reduced in GPIIb-/- mice as compared to WT. Importantly, we found that mainly multicellular aggregates accumulated in the pulmonary circulation of WT, instead B16-D5 aggregates were significantly smaller in GPIIb-/- mice. While pulmonary arrest of melanoma was clearly dependent on GPIIb in this early phase of metastasis, we also addressed tumor progression 10 days after injection. Inversely, and unexpectedly, we found that melanoma metastasis was now increased in GPIIb-/- mice. In contrast, GPIIb did not regulate local melanoma proliferation in a subcutaneous tumor model. Our data suggest that the platelet fibrinogen receptor has a differential role in the modulation of hematogenic melanoma metastasis. While platelets clearly support early steps in pulmonary metastasis via GPIIb-dependent formation of platelet-tumor-aggregates, at a later stage its absence is associated with an accelerated development of melanoma metastases.

  7. Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas with neuroendocrine features: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; De Leo, Antonio; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Corominas, Marina; Gonzalez, Alan; Palacios, José; Prat, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of uterine cancer, which is occasionally associated with a low-grade endometrioid carcinoma component. This combination is referred to as "dedifferentiated endometrioid endometrial carcinoma." Neuroendocrine expression may occur in undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma, but its significance in dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas is unknown. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors we have analyzed the immunophenotype (ARID1A, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6, p53, β-catenin, SMARCB1, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56) and mutational status (PTEN, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53 and POLE) of 4 dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas with strong and diffuse neuroendocrine expression. All tumors demonstrated neuroendocrine expression in ≥70% of the cells in the undifferentiated carcinoma areas. Loss of expression of at least 1 DNA mismatch repair protein was observed in 2 cases, and p53 immunoreaction was aberrant (mutated/inactivated) in one case. All carcinomas were negative for β-catenin and maintained nuclear SMARCB1 (INI1) and ARID1A expression. Three tumors shared identical endometrioid molecular profile (PTEN and/or PIK3CA mutations) in both components. One tumor had POLE exonuclease domain mutation in the undifferentiated component. In one case, TP53 mutation was found exclusively in the undifferentiated component. Two patients died with peritoneal carcinomatosis and abdominal metastases, respectively; one patient died of a renal failure without evidence of disease, and the last patient is alive and free of disease at 3.3 years. Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas with neuroendocrine features are clinically and molecularly heterogeneous tumors. Probably, these carcinomas might acquire undifferentiated phenotype through mutations in TP53 and POLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transbronchial biopsy in the management of pulmonary complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    O’Dwyer, David N.; Duvall, Adam S.; Xia, Meng; Hoffman, Timothy C.; Bloye, Kiernan S.; Bulte, Camille A.; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Murray, Susan; Moore, Bethany B.; Yanik, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    The utility of transbronchial biopsy in the management of pulmonary complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has shown variable results. Herein, we examine the largest case series of patients undergoing transbronchial biopsy following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 130 transbronchial biopsy cases performed in patients with pulmonary complications post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Logistic regression models were applied to examine diagnostic yield, odds of therapy change and complications. The most common histologic finding on transbronchial biopsy was a non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (n= 24 cases, 18%). Pathogens identified by transbronchial biopsy were rare, occurring in < 5% of cases. A positive transbronchial biopsy significantly increased the odds of a subsequent change in corticosteroid therapy (OR=3.12, 95% CI 1.18–8.23; p=0.02) but was not associated with a change in antibiotic therapy (OR=1.01, 95% CI 0.40–2.54; p=0.98) or changes in overall therapy (OR=1.92, 95% CI 0.79–4.70; p=0.15). Patients who underwent a transbronchial biopsy had increased odds of complications related to the bronchoscopy (OR=3.33, 95% CI 1.63–6.79; p=0.001). In conclusion, transbronchial biopsy may contribute to the diagnostic management of non-infectious lung injury post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, while its utility in the management of infectious pulmonary complications of HSCT remains low. PMID:29058699

  9. STARS knockout attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by suppressing pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhaoling; Wu, Huajie; Luo, Jianfeng; Sun, Xin

    2017-03-01

    STARS (STriated muscle Activator of Rho Signaling) is a sarcomeric protein, which expressed early in cardiac development and involved in pathological remodeling. Abundant evidence indicated that STARS could regulate cell proliferation, but it's exact function remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of STARS in the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and the potential effect on the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study, we established a PAH mouse model through chronic hypoxia exposure as reflected by the increased RVSP and RVHI. Western blot and RT-qPCR detected the increased STARS protein and mRNA levels in PAH mice. Next, we cultured the primary PASMC from PAH mice. After STARS overexpression in PASMC, STARS, SRF and Egr-1 were up-regulated significantly. The MTT assay revealed an increase in cell proliferation. Flow cytometry showed a marked inhibition of cell apoptosis. However, STARS silence in PASMC exerted opposite effects with STARS overexpression. SRF siRNA transfection blocked the effects of STARS overexpression in PASMC. In order to further confirm the role of STARS in PAH mice in vivo, we exposed STARS knockout mice to hypoxia and found lower RVSP and RVHI in knockout mice as compared with controls. Our results not only suggest that STARS plays a crucial role in the development of PAH by increasing the proliferation of PASMC through activation of the SRF/Egr-1 pathway, but also provides a new mechanism for hypoxia-induced PAH. In addition, STARS may represent a potential treatment target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer resulting in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Sundhar; Eisenberg, Adva; Foo, Wen Chi; Freedman, Jennifer; Armstrong, Andrew J; Moss, Larry G; Harrison, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism) resulting from treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer - a highly aggressive and difficult disease to treat. A 51-year-old man was started on androgen deprivation therapy after presenting with metastatic prostate cancer, characterized by diffuse osseous metastasis. Shortly thereafter, he developed progressive disease with biopsy proven neuroendocrine prostate cancer as well as symptoms of increased skin pigmentation, hypokalemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia and profound weakness, consistent with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Molecular analysis of the patient's tumor through RNA sequencing showed high expression of several genes including CHGA, ASCL1, CALCA, HES6, PCSK1, CALCB and INSM1 confirming his neuroendocrine phenotype; elevated POMC expression was found, supporting the diagnosis of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Roles for miR-375 in Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Tumor Suppression via Notch Pathway Suppression in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Karan J; Zhang, Xiao; Vidal, Ricardo; Paré, Geneviève C; Feilotter, Harriet E; Tron, Victor A

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of key miRNA pathways regulating basic cellular processes is a common driver of many cancers. However, the biological roles and/or clinical applications of such pathways in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but lethal cutaneous neuroendocrine (NE) malignancy, have yet to be determined. Previous work has established that miR-375 is highly expressed in MCC tumors, but its biological role in MCC remains unknown. Herein, we show that elevated miR-375 expression is a specific feature of well-differentiated MCC cell lines that express NE markers. In contrast, miR-375 is strikingly down-regulated in highly aggressive, undifferentiated MCC cell lines. Enforced miR-375 expression in these cells induced NE differentiation, and opposed cancer cell viability, migration, invasion, and survival, pointing to tumor-suppressive roles for miR-375. Mechanistically, miR-375-driven phenotypes were caused by the direct post-transcriptional repression of multiple Notch pathway proteins (Notch2 and RBPJ) linked to cancer and regulation of cell fate. Thus, we detail a novel molecular axis linking tumor-suppressive miR-375 and Notch with NE differentiation and cancer cell behavior in MCC. Our findings identify miR-375 as a putative regulator of NE differentiation, provide insight into the cell of origin of MCC, and suggest that miR-375 silencing may promote aggressive cancer cell behavior through Notch disinhibition. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of confocal immunofluorescence FRET microscopy to Investigate eNOS and GSNOR localization and interaction in pulmonary endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shagufta; Brown-Steinke, Kathleen; Palmer, Lisa; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2015-03-01

    Confocal FRET microscopy is a widely used technique for studying protein-protein interactions in live or fixed cells. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) are enzymes involved in regulating the bioavailability of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in the pulmonary endothelium and have roles in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Labeling of endogenous proteins to better understand a disease process can be challenging. We have used immunofluorescence to detect endogenous eNOS and GSNOR in primary pulmonary endothelial cells to co-localize these proteins as well as to study their interaction by FRET. The challenge has been in selecting the right immunofluorescence labeling condition, right antibody, the right blocking reagent, the right FRET pair and eliminating cross-reactivity of secondary antibodies. We have used Alexa488 and Alexa568 as a FRET pair. After a series of optimizations, the data from Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) demonstrate co-localization of eNOS and GSNOR in the perinuclear region of the pulmonary endothelial cell primarily within the cis-Golgi with lower levels of co-localization seen within the trans-Golgi. FRET studies demonstrate, for the first time, interaction between eNOS and GSNOR in both murine and bovine pulmonary endothelial cells. Further characterization of eNOSGSNOR interaction and the subcellular location of this interaction will provide mechanistic insight into the importance of S-nitrosothiol signaling in pulmonary biology, physiology and pathology.

  13. KRASG12D expression in lung-resident myeloid cells promotes pulmonary LCH-like neoplasm sensitive to statin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Giblett, Susan; Pritchard, Catrin

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic neoplasm associated with somatic mutations in the genes involved in the RAF/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Recently, oncogenic mutations in NRAS/KRAS, upstream regulators of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, have been reported in pulmonary, but not in nonpulmonary, LCH cases, suggesting organ-specific contribution of oncogenic RAS to LCH pathogenesis. Using a mouse model expressing KRASG12D in the lung by nasal delivery of adenoviral Cre recombinase (Cre), here we show that KRASG12D expression in lung-resident myeloid cells induces pulmonary LCH-like neoplasms composed of pathogenic CD11chighF4/80+CD207+ cells. The pathogenic cells were mitotically inactive, but proliferating precursors were detected in primary cultures of lung tissue. These precursors were derived, at least in part, from CD11cdimCD11bintGr1− lung-resident monocytic cells transformed by KRASG12D. In contrast, BRAFV600E expression induced by the same method failed to develop LCH-like neoplasms, suggesting that each oncogene may initiate pulmonary LCH by transforming different types of lung-resident myeloid cells. In vivo treatment of the KRASG12D-induced LCH-like mouse with the cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin ameliorated the pathology, implicating statins as potential therapeutics against a subset of pulmonary LCH. PMID:28550040

  14. Clinical characteristics and computed tomography findings of pulmonary toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Masahiko; Norose, Kazumi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Kaiume, Hiroko; Takeda, Wataru; Kirihara, Takehiko; Kurihara, Taro; Sato, Keijiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kuraishi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahide; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-12-01

    The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties associated with early diagnosis and the rapidly progressive deterioration of multiorgan function. In our institution, we identified nine cases of toxoplasmosis, representing incidences of 2.2 and 19.6 % among all HSCT recipients and seropositive HSCT recipients, respectively. Of the patients with toxoplasmosis, six had pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) findings revealed centrilobular, patchy ground-glass opacities (n = 3), diffuse ground-glass opacities (n = 2), ground-glass opacities with septal thickening (n = 1), and marked pleural effusion (n = 1). All cases died, except for one with suspected pulmonary toxoplasmosis who was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction assay 2 days after the onset of symptoms. In pulmonary toxoplasmosis, CT findings are non-specific and may mimic pulmonary congestion, atypical pneumonia, viral pneumonitis, and bronchopneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for overcoming this serious infectious complication. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered during differential diagnosis in a recipient with otherwise unexplained signs of infection and CT findings with ground-glass opacities, regardless of the distribution.

  15. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  16. CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 hydrolyzes bombesin-like peptides and regulates the growth of small cell carcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed

    Shipp, M A; Tarr, G E; Chen, C Y; Switzer, S N; Hersh, L B; Stein, H; Sunday, M E; Reinherz, E L

    1991-12-01

    Bombesin-like peptides are essential autocrine growth factors for many small cell carcinomas (SCCas) of the lung. Herein, we demonstrate that these malignant pulmonary neuroendocrine cells express low levels of the cell surface metalloendopeptidase CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP, common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen) and that this enzyme hydrolyzes bombesin-like peptides. The growth of bombesin-like peptide-dependent SCC as is inhibited by CD10/NEP and potentiated by CD10/NEP inhibition. The results provide evidence that CD10/NEP is involved in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation. Since SCCa of the lung occurs almost exclusively in cigarette smokers and cigarette smoke inactivates CD10/NEP, decreased cell surface CD10/NEP enzymatic activity may be causally related to the development of SCCa of the lung.

  17. Lung Epithelial Cells Coordinate Innate Lymphocytes and Immunity against Pulmonary Fungal Infection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Wiesner, Darin L; Fites, J Scott; McDermott, Andrew J; Warner, Thomas; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S

    2018-04-11

    Lung epithelial cells (LECs) are strategically positioned in the airway mucosa to provide barrier defense. LECs also express pattern recognition receptors and a myriad of immune genes, but their role in immunity is often concealed by the activities of "professional" immune cells, particularly in the context of fungal infection. Here, we demonstrate that NF-κB signaling in LECs is essential for immunity against the pulmonary fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. LECs orchestrate innate antifungal immunity by augmenting the numbers of interleukin-17A (IL-17A)- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing innate lymphocytes, specifically "natural" Th17 (nTh17) cells. Innate lymphocyte-derived IL-17A and GM-CSF in turn enable phagocyte-driven fungal killing. LECs regulate the numbers of nTh17 cells via the production of chemokines such as CCL20, a process dependent on IL-1α-IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling on LECs. Therefore, LECs orchestrate IL-17A- and GM-CSF-mediated immunity in an IL-1R-dependent manner and represent an essential component of innate immunity to pulmonary fungal pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishment of prostate cancer spheres from a prostate cancer cell line after phenethyl isothiocyanate treatment and discovery of androgen-dependent reversible differentiation between sphere and neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yamei; Cang, Shundong; Han, Liying; Liu, Christina; Yang, Patrick; Solangi, Zeeshan; Lu, Quanyi; Liu, Delong; Chiao, J W

    2016-05-03

    Prostate cancer can transform from androgen-responsive to an androgen-independent phenotype. The mechanism responsible for the transformation remains unclear. We studied the effects of an epigenetic modulator, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. After treatment with PEITC, floating spheres were formed with characteristics of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSC). These spheres were capable of self-renewal in media with and without androgen. They have been maintained in both types of media as long term cultures. Upon androgen deprivation, the adherent spheres differentiated to neuroendocrine cells (NEC) with decreased proliferation, expression of androgen receptor, and PSA. NEC reverse differentiated to spheres when androgen was replenished. The sphere cells expressed surface marker CD44 and had enhanced histone H3K4 acetylation, DNMT1 down-regulation and GSTP1 activation. We hypothesize that PEITC-mediated alteration in epigenomics of LNCaP cells may give rise to sphere cells, whereas reversible androgenomic alterations govern the shuttling between sphere PCSC and progeny NEC. Our findings identify unrecognized properties of prostate cancer sphere cells with multi-potential plasticity. This system will facilitate development of novel therapeutic agents and allow further exploration into epigenomics and androgenomics governing the transformation to hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  19. Acute neuroendocrine response to sexual stimulation in sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Haake, Philip; Schedlowski, Manfred; Exton, Michael S; Giepen, Christoph; Hartmann, Uwe; Osterheider, Michael; Flesch, Martin; Janssen, Onno E; Leygraf, Norbert; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2003-05-01

    Several pharmacotherapeutic approaches have confirmed the influence of neuroendocrine parameters on sexual desire, function, and fantasies in men; however, the relevance of acute neuroendocrine changes in mediating heightened sexual drive remains unknown. We recently demonstrated that plasma prolactin substantially increases following orgasm in healthy men, suggesting a feedback mechanism for peripheral prolactin in the control of acute sexual arousal. Because prolactin appears to play a regulatory role in acute sexual drive, we initiated this study to see whether sexual offenders with a high sexual drive have a different neuroendocrine response to sexual arousal. This study compares the prolactin response to orgasm of sexual offenders with high sexual drive and that of healthy subjects with average sexual drive. From a subject pool of 150 inpatients held because of sexual crimes, we recruited 10 volunteers, based on their high sexual drive according to an intensive, semistructured clinical interview. We defined sexual drive by a short refractory period and strong sexualization, or a high frequency of sexual stimulation. We analyzed the acute psychoneuroendocrine response to sexual arousal and orgasm continuously before, during, and after masturbation-induced orgasm in patients and control subjects. Sexual offenders demonstrated higher sexual desire (P < 0.001) and function (P < 0.001) and a more positively perceived refractory period (P < 0.05). Both groups displayed a prolonged, significant increase in prolactin plasma levels after orgasm (P < 0.001). Sexual offenders did not differ from control subjects in neuroendocrine response to sexual arousal and orgasm. These data demonstrate that sexual offenders with a high sexual drive do not differ from control subjects in the postorgasmic neuroendocrine response, particularly in prolactin release. This study confirms that factors other than peripheral hormones influence deviant sexual behaviour.

  20. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  1. Hemolysis in sickle cell mice causes pulmonary hypertension due to global impairment in nitric oxide bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Hunter C.; Campbell-Lee, Sally A.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Manci, Elizabeth A.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Schimel, Daniel M.; Cochard, Audrey E.; Wang, Xunde; Schechter, Alan N.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a highly prevalent complication of sickle cell disease and is a strong risk factor for early mortality. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to pulmonary vasculopathy remain unclear. Transgenic mice provide opportunities for mechanistic studies of vascular pathophysiology in an animal model. By microcardiac catheterization, all mice expressing exclusively human sickle hemoglobin had pulmonary hypertension, profound pulmonary and systemic endothelial dysfunction, and vascular instability characterized by diminished responses to authentic nitric oxide (NO), NO donors, and endothelium-dependent vasodilators and enhanced responses to vasoconstrictors. However, endothelium-independent vasodilation in sickle mice was normal. Mechanisms of vasculopathy in sickle mice involve global dysregulation of the NO axis: impaired constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS) with loss of endothelial NOS (eNOS) dimerization, increased NO scavenging by plasma hemoglobin and superoxide, increased arginase activity, and depleted intravascular nitrite reserves. Light microscopy and computed tomography revealed no plexogenic arterial remodeling or thrombi/emboli. Transplanting sickle marrow into wild-type mice conferred the same phenotype, and similar pathobiology was observed in a nonsickle mouse model of acute alloimmune hemolysis. Although the time course is shorter than typical pulmonary hypertension in human sickle cell disease, these results demonstrate that hemolytic anemia is sufficient to produce endothelial dysfunction and global dysregulation of NO. PMID:17158223

  2. Extracellular superoxide dismutase increased the therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells in radiation pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Zai-Liang; You, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis induced by irradiation is a significant problem of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is found to be predominantly and highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of lung and plays a pivotal role against oxidative damage. Early administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to reduce fibrosis of damaged lung. However, injection of MSCs at a later stage would be involved in fibrosis development. The present study aimed to determine whether injection of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) over-expressing SOD3 at the established fibrosis stage would have beneficial effects in a mice model of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Herein, pulmonary fibrosis in mice was induced using Cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) irradiator with 20 Gy, followed by intravenous injection of UC-MSCs, transduced or not to express SOD3 at 2 h (early delivery) and 60 day (late delivery) post-irradiation, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the early administration of UC-MSCs could attenuate the microscopic damage, reduce collagen deposition, inhibit (myo)fibroblast proliferation, reduce inflammatory cell infiltration, protect alveolar type II (AE2) cell injury, prevent oxidative stress and increase antioxidant status, and reduce pro-fibrotic cytokine level in serum. Furthermore, the early treatment with SOD3-infected UC-MSCs resulted in better improvement. However, we failed to observe the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs, transduced to express SOD3, during established fibrosis. Altogether, our results demonstrated that the early treatment with UC-MSCs alone significantly reduced radiation pulmonary fibrosis in mice through paracrine effects, with further improvement by administration of SOD3-infected UC-MSCs, suggesting that SOD3-infected UC-MSCs may be a potential cell-based gene therapy to treat clinical radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by

  3. Psychosocial dwarfism: psychopathological aspects and putative neuroendocrine markers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; Augustin-Morales, Maríadelcarmen; Contreras-Chova, Francisco; Naranjo-Gómez, Ana; Justicia-Martínez, Fuensanta; Uberos, José

    2011-06-30

    There exists an extensive terminology for defining the situation of children who, in varying circumstances, suffer from affective deprivation (AD), within an unsatisfactory family situation or in institutions. Nevertheless, the neuroendocrine mechanisms (if they exist) determining it have yet to be identified. Our objective was to determine if specific neuroendocrine markers, all of them previously implicated in affective disorders, could be modified, and in which sense, in affective deprivation syndrome of the child. For this purpose, we studied three separate groups of children: (1) control group (CG); (2) children suffering from AD; and (3) children with non-organic failure to thrive (NOFT). In every case, we studied the serum levels of melatonin, serotonin, β-endorphins and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); and kynurenine pathway tryptophan metabolites (both during the day and at night). Significantly, there was a conspicuous reduction in the levels of each of the neuroendocrine markers (melatonin, serotonin, β-endorphins and ACTH) in the group suffering from affective deficiency, a diminution which was even more noticeable in the group of patients presenting delayed growth. Furthermore, as also occurs in other affective disorders, there were corresponding modifications in the metabolisation of tryptophan. We report the existence of neuroendocrine mechanisms that are associated with the above-mentioned clinical manifestations in these patients, mechanisms that may underlie the close connection existing between AD syndrome and the cause of NOFT. These data suggest that the AD syndrome and NOFT comprise a single process, but one with a different evolutionary continuum of psychosocial dwarfism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dependence of Golgi apparatus integrity on nitric oxide in vascular cells: implications in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason E.; Patel, Kirit; Almodóvar, Sharilyn; Tuder, Rubin M.; Flores, Sonia C.

    2011-01-01

    Although reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), its consequences on organellar structure and function within vascular cells is largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of reduced NO on the structure of the Golgi apparatus as assayed by giantin or GM130 immunofluorescence in human pulmonary arterial endothelial (HPAECs) and smooth muscle (HPASMCs) cells, bovine PAECs, and human EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Golgi structure was also investigated in cells in tissue sections of pulmonary vascular lesions in idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and in macaques infected with a chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-nef gene (SHIV-nef) with subcellular three-dimensional (3D) immunoimaging. Compounds with NO scavenging activity including 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), methylene blue, N-acetylcysteine, and hemoglobin markedly fragmented the Golgi in all cell types evaluated as did monocrotaline pyrrole, while LY-83583, sildenafil, fasudil, Y-27632, Tiron, Tempol, or H2O2 did not. Golgi fragmentation by NO scavengers was inhibited by diethylamine NONOate, was evident in HPAECs after selective knockdown of endothelial nitric oxide synthase using small interfering RNA (siRNA), was independent of microtubule organization, required the GTPase dynamin 2, and was accompanied by depletion of α-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) acceptor protein (α-SNAP) from Golgi membranes and codispersal of the SNAP receptor (SNARE) Vti1a with giantin. Golgi fragmentation was confirmed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in pulmonary arterial lesions in IPAH and the SHIV-nef-infected macaque with subcellular 3D immunoimaging. In SHIV-nef-infected macaques Golgi fragmentation was observed in cells containing HIV-nef-bearing endosomes. The observed Golgi fragmentation suggests that NO plays a significant role in

  5. Endothelial cell-dependent relaxation and contraction induced by histamine in the isolated guinea-pig pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Inui, J

    1984-01-27

    Histamine (10(-8)-10(-6) M) relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner the guinea-pig pulmonary artery which had been contracted by noradrenaline (5 X 10(-7) M). After the removal of endothelial cells (ETCs) histamine at the same concentrations did not cause relaxation but induced additional contraction. Both responses to histamine were antagonized by chlorpheniramine (3 X 10(-7) M). These results suggest that in the pulmonary artery histamine simultaneously stimulates H1-receptors located on both ETCs and smooth muscle cells. This results in two opposite effects, relaxation mediated by ETCs, and contraction.

  6. Identification of human somatostatin receptor 2 domains involved in internalization and signaling in QGP-1 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Cambiaghi, Valeria; Vitali, Eleonora; Morone, Diego; Peverelli, Erika; Spada, Anna; Mantovani, Giovanna; Lania, Andrea Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    Somatostatin exerts inhibitory effects on hormone secretion and cell proliferation via five receptor subtypes (SST1-SST5), whose internalization is regulated by β-arrestins. The receptor domains involved in these effects have been only partially elucidated. The aim of the study is to characterize the molecular mechanism and determinants responsible for somatostatin receptor 2 internalization and signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine QGP-1 cell line, focusing on the third intracellular loop and carboxyl terminal domains. We demonstrated that in cells transfected with somatostatin receptor 2 third intracellular loop mutant, no differences in β-arrestins recruitment and receptor internalization were observed after somatostatin receptor 2 activation in comparison with cells bearing wild-type somatostatin receptor 2. Conversely, the truncated somatostatin receptor 2 failed to recruit β-arrestins and to internalize after somatostatin receptor 2 agonist (BIM23120) incubation. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of BIM23120 on cell proliferation, cyclin D1 expression, P-ERK1/2 levels, apoptosis and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion was completely lost in cells transfected with either third intracellular loop or carboxyl terminal mutants. In conclusion, we demonstrated that somatostatin receptor 2 internalization requires intact carboxyl terminal while the effects of SS on cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis mediated by somatostatin receptor 2 need the integrity of both third intracellular loop and carboxyl terminal.

  7. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is present in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurones and is released to the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circuit.

    PubMed

    Larsen, P J; Seier, V; Fink-Jensen, A; Holst, J J; Warberg, J; Vrang, N

    2003-03-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is present in a number of hypothalamic nuclei. Besides actions in circuits regulating feeding behaviour and stress responses, the hypothalamic functions of CART are largely unknown. We report that CART immunoreactivity is present in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurones. Adult male rats received a systemic injection of the neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) 2 days before fixation, and subsequent double- and triple-labelling immunoflourescence analysis demonstrated that neuroendocrine CART-containing neurones were present in the anteroventral periventricular, supraoptic, paraventricular (PVN) and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In the PVN, CART-positive neuroendocrine neurones were found in all of cytoarchitectonically identified nuclei. In the periventricular nucleus, approximately one-third of somatostatin cells were also CART-immunoreactive. In the medial parvicellular subnucleus of the PVN, CART and FG coexisted with thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, whereas very few of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone containing cells were CART-immunoreactive. In the arcuate nucleus, CART was extensively colocalized with pro-opiomelanocortin in the ventrolateral part, but completely absent from neuroendocrine neurones of the dorsomedial part. To assess the possible role of CART as a hypothalamic-releasing factor, immunoreactive CART was measured in blood samples from the long portal vessels connecting the median eminence with the anterior pituitary gland. Adult male rats were anaesthetized and the infundibular stalk exposed via a transpharyngeal approach. The long portal vessels were transected and blood collected in 30-min periods (one prestimulatory and three poststimulatory periods). Compared to systemic venous plasma samples, baseline concentrations of immunoreactive CART were elevated in portal plasma. Exposure to sodium nitroprusside hypotension triggered a two-fold elevation of portal CART42

  8. Doppler-Defined Pulmonary Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Allawi, Nasir; Mohammad, Ameen M; Jamal, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency, clinical and laboratory associations of pulmonary hypertension in Iraqi Kurds with sickle cell anemia, a total of ninety four such patients attending a major hemoglobinopathy center in Iraqi Kurdistan were enrolled. All patients were re-evaluated clinically and had their blood counts, HbF, serum ferritin, LDH, renal and liver function assessed. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography with measurement of tricuspid valve regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was performed. A TRV in excess of 2.8 m/s was considered for the purposes of this study as indicative of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The prevalence of TRV in excess of 2.8m/s was 10.6%. By univariate analysis: significantly higher reticulocyte count, more frequent blood transfusions and pain episodes were encountered in the PH group as compared to the non-PH group (p = 0.001, 0.045 and 0.02 respectively). Moreover, PH patients had significantly higher mean right atrial area, left atrial size, E wave/A wave ratio and ejection fraction by echocardiography (p = 0.027, 0.037, <0.001 and 0.008 respectively). Except for reticulocyte count none of the other parameters remained significant by multivariate analysis (p = 0.024). In conclusion the current study revealed that pulmonary hypertension is rather frequent among Iraqi Kurds with sickle cell anemia, and identified reticulocyte count as an independently associated parameter with PH in this population. Future prospective studies including right heart catheterization and appropriate medical intervention are warranted.

  9. Doppler-Defined Pulmonary Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia in Kurdistan, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency, clinical and laboratory associations of pulmonary hypertension in Iraqi Kurds with sickle cell anemia, a total of ninety four such patients attending a major hemoglobinopathy center in Iraqi Kurdistan were enrolled. All patients were re-evaluated clinically and had their blood counts, HbF, serum ferritin, LDH, renal and liver function assessed. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography with measurement of tricuspid valve regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was performed. A TRV in excess of 2.8 m/s was considered for the purposes of this study as indicative of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The prevalence of TRV in excess of 2.8m/s was 10.6%. By univariate analysis: significantly higher reticulocyte count, more frequent blood transfusions and pain episodes were encountered in the PH group as compared to the non-PH group (p = 0.001, 0.045 and 0.02 respectively). Moreover, PH patients had significantly higher mean right atrial area, left atrial size, E wave/A wave ratio and ejection fraction by echocardiography (p = 0.027, 0.037, <0.001 and 0.008 respectively). Except for reticulocyte count none of the other parameters remained significant by multivariate analysis (p = 0.024). In conclusion the current study revealed that pulmonary hypertension is rather frequent among Iraqi Kurds with sickle cell anemia, and identified reticulocyte count as an independently associated parameter with PH in this population. Future prospective studies including right heart catheterization and appropriate medical intervention are warranted. PMID:27583566

  10. Unraveling endothelin-1 induced hypercontractility of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Rod; Taylor, Linda; Toksoz, Deniz; Hill, Nicholas; Polgar, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Contraction of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) isolated from pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) and normal (non-PAH) subject lungs was determined and measured with real-time electrical impedance. Treatment of HPASMC with vasoactive peptides, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and bradykinin (BK) but not angiotensin II, induced a temporal decrease in the electrical impedance profile mirroring constrictive morphological change of the cells which typically was more robust in PAH as opposed to non-PAH cells. Inhibition with LIMKi3 and a cofilin targeted motif mimicking cell permeable peptide (MMCPP) had no effect on ET-1 induced HPASMC contraction indicating a negligible role for these actin regulatory proteins. On the other hand, a MMCPP blocking the activity of caldesmon reduced ET-1 promoted contraction pointing to a regulatory role of this protein and its activation pathway in HPASMC contraction. Inhibition of this MEK/ERK/p90RSK pathway, which is an upstream regulator of caldesmon phosphorylation, reduced ET-1 induced cell contraction. While the regulation of ET-1 induced cell contraction was found to be similar in PAH and non-PAH cells, a key difference was the response to pharmacological inhibitors and to siRNA knockdown of Rho kinases (ROCK1/ROCK2). The PAH cells required much higher concentrations of inhibitors to abrogate ET-1 induced contractions and their contraction was not affected by siRNA against either ROCK1 or ROCK2. Lastly, blocking of L-type and T-type Ca2+ channels had no effect on ET-1 or BK induced contraction. However, inhibiting the activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase blunted ET-1 and BK induced HPASMC contraction in both PAH and non-PAH derived HPASMC. In summary, our findings here together with previous communications illustrate similarities and differences in the regulation PAH and non-PAH smooth muscle cell contraction relating to calcium translocation, RhoA/ROCK signaling and the activity of caldesmon. These findings

  11. A common deletion in two gamma ray induced rat pulmonary tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Van Klaveren, P; De Bruijne, J; Van der Winden, H; Kal, H B; Bentvelzen, P

    1994-01-01

    Subtraction hybridization was performed on normal WAG/Rij rat DNA with DNA from a syngeneic Ir-192 induced pulmonary tumor cell line L37. The residual DNA was amplified by means of sequence-independent PCR. This procedure yielded a sequence, of which multiple copies are present in normal rat DNA. In the tumor line L37 two restriction fragments hybridizing with this repeat sequence are lacking. In another Ir-192 induced pulmonary tumor line, L33, one of these fragments was also lacking. This indicates a common deletion in the two tumor lines.

  12. Long Noncoding RNA MEG3 Is an Epigenetic Determinant of Oncogenic Signaling in Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sucharitha; Modali, Sita D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MEG3 is significantly downregulated in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). MEG3 loss corresponds with aberrant upregulation of the oncogenic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-MET in PNETs. Meg3 overexpression in a mouse insulin-secreting PNET cell line, MIN6, downregulates c-Met expression. However, the molecular mechanism by which MEG3 regulates c-MET is not known. Using chromatin isolation by RNA purification and sequencing (ChIRP-Seq), we identified Meg3 binding to unique genomic regions in and around the c-Met gene. In the absence of Meg3, these c-Met regions displayed distinctive enhancer-signature histone modifications. Furthermore, Meg3 relied on functional enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), to inhibit c-Met expression. Another mechanism of lncRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression utilized triplex-forming GA-GT rich sequences. Transfection of such motifs from Meg3 RNA, termed triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), in MIN6 cells suppressed c-Met expression and enhanced cell proliferation, perhaps by modulating other targets. This study comprehensively establishes epigenetic mechanisms underlying Meg3 control of c-Met and the oncogenic consequences of Meg3 loss or c-Met gain. These findings have clinical relevance for targeting c-MET in PNETs. There is also the potential for pancreatic islet β-cell expansion through c-MET regulation to ameliorate β-cell loss in diabetes. PMID:28847847

  13. Innate immune activation by the viral PAMP poly I:C potentiates pulmonary graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Kinnier, Christine V; Martinu, Tereza; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Nugent, Julia L; Kelly, Francine L; Palmer, Scott M

    2011-01-15

    Respiratory viral infections cause significant morbidity and increase the risk for chronic pulmonary graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our overall hypothesis is that local innate immune activation potentiates adaptive alloimmunity. In this study, we hypothesized that a viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) alone can potentiate pulmonary GVHD after allogeneic HCT. We, therefore, examined the effect of pulmonary exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a viral mimetic that activates innate immunity, in an established murine HCT model. Poly I:C-induced a marked pulmonary T cell response in allogeneic HCT mice as compared to syngeneic HCT, with increased CD4+ cells in the lung fluid and tissue. This lymphocytic inflammation persisted at 2 weeks post poly I:C exposure in allogeneic mice and was associated with CD3+ cell infiltration into the bronchiolar epithelium and features of epithelial injury. In vitro, poly I:C enhanced allospecific proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In vivo, poly I:C exposure was associated with an early increase in pulmonary monocyte recruitment and activation as well as a decrease in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in allogeneic mice as compared to syngeneic. In contrast, intrapulmonary poly I:C did not alter the extent of systemic GVHD in either syngeneic or allogeneic mice. Collectively, our results suggest that local activation of pulmonary innate immunity by a viral molecular pattern represents a novel pathway that contributes to pulmonary GVHD after allogeneic HCT, through a mechanism that includes increased recruitment and maturation of intrapulmonary monocytes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Open issues on G3 neuroendocrine neoplasms: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Guadagno, Elia; Messina, Erika; Lo Calzo, Fabio; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2018-06-01

    The recent recognition that grade 3 (G3) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) can be divided into two different categories according to the histopathological differentiation, that is G3 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and G3 neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) has generated a lot of interest concerning not only the diagnosis, but also the differential management of such new group of NENs. However, several issues need to be fully clarified in order to put G3 NETs and G3 NECs in the right place. The aim of this review is to focus on those issues that are still undetermined starting from the current knowledge, evaluating the available evidence and the possible clinical implications. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  16. FDA Approves Lutathera for Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    FDA has approved Lutathera® for some people with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that affect the digestive tract. On January 29, FDA approved Lutathera® for adult patients with advanced NETs that affect the pancreas or gastrointestinal tract, known as GEP-NETs.

  17. NEUROENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Effects of Pesticides

    1Stoker, TE, Goldman 2, JM and Cooper 2, RL.

    1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborat...

  18. [Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasopharynx: A case report].

    PubMed

    Elloumi, F; Fourati, N; Siala, W; Ghorbell, L; Jlidi, R; Ghorbel, A; Frikha, M; Daoud, J

    2014-06-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is a rare entity. The parotid gland is the most commonly affected site. A nasopharyngeal site has not been previously described. We report a 35-year-old patient who consulted for tinnitus and nasal obstruction. The assessment found a nasopharyngeal tumour T4N0M0. The patient underwent 6 cycles of chemotherapy based on VP16 and cisplatin, followed by radiotherapy at a dose of 70 Gy to the nasopharynx and 50 Gy to the neck. The evolution was marked by clinical improvement and radiological stability. Six months after the end of treatment, the patient had a local and meningeal relapse. He received palliative care. He died 19 months after the end of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Assigning site of origin in metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a clinically significant application of diagnostic immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, Andrew M

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms (NENs) include well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs). Whereas PDNECs are highly lethal, with localized Merkel cell carcinoma somewhat of an exception, WDNETs exhibit a range of "indolent" biologic potentials-from benign to widely metastatic and eventually fatal. Within each of these 2 groups there is substantial morphologic overlap. In the metastatic setting, the site of origin of a WDNET has significant prognostic and therapeutic implications. In the skin, Merkel cell carcinoma must be distinguished from spread of a visceral PDNEC. This review intends to prove the thesis that determining the site of origin of a NEN is clinically vital and that diagnostic immunohistochemistry is well suited to the task. It will begin by reviewing current World Health Organization terminology for the NENs, as well as an embryologic and histologic pattern-based classification. It will present population-based data on the relative frequency and biology of WDNETs arising at various anatomic sites, including the frequency of metastases of unknown primary, and comment on limitations of contemporary imaging techniques, as a means of defining the scope of the problem. It will go on to discuss the therapeutic significance of site of origin. The heart of this review is a synthesis of data compiled from >100 manuscripts on the expression of individual markers in WDNETs and PDNECs, as regards site of origin. These include proteins that are considered "key markers" and others that are either useful "secondary markers," potentially very useful markers that need to be further vetted, or ones that are widely applied despite a lack of efficacy. It will conclude with my approach to the metastatic NEN of unknown origin.

  20. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihisa; Hayashi, Kazuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Seno, Kyoji; Okada, Yukiko; Ban, Tesshin; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Umemura, Shuichiro; Hori, Yasuki; Natsume, Makoto; Joh, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is rarely secreted by neuroendocrine tumors. Although neuroendocrine tumors may occur at any site in the gastrointestinal system, they very rarely occur in the ampulla of Vater and have a poor prognosis. The present study described the first Cushing's syndrome as a result of ectopic ACTH arising from the ampulla of Vater neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 69-year-old female was admitted with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, confirmed biochemically by hypokalemia, and elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol. In further investigations, a tumor of the ampulla of Vater and liver metastases were detected. Pathological analysis of the biopsy confirmed a neuroendocrine carcinoma, which was immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and ACTH. Therefore, the present study diagnosed a functional and metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater with ectopic ACTH production causing Cushing's syndrome. The patient succumbed to mortality 4 months later, despite administration of combined chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin.

  1. Increased c-kit and stem cell factor expression in the pulmonary vasculature of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Friedmacher, Florian; Zimmer, Julia; Puri, Prem

    2016-05-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension(PPH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is caused by increased vascular cell proliferation and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, thus leading to obstructive changes in the pulmonary vasculature. C-Kit and its ligand, stem cell factor(SCF), are expressed by ECs in the developing lung mesenchyme, suggesting an important role during lung vascular formation. Conversely, absence of c-Kit expression has been demonstrated in ECs of dysplastic alveolar capillaries. We hypothesized that c-Kit and SCF expression is increased in the pulmonary vasculature of nitrofen-induced CDH. Timed-pregnant rats received nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9(D9). Fetuses were sacrificed on D15, D18, and D21, and divided into control and CDH group. Pulmonary gene expression levels of c-Kit and SCF were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Immunofluorescence double staining for c-Kit and SCF was combined with CD34 to evaluate protein expression in ECs of the pulmonary vasculature. Relative mRNA levels of c-Kit and SCF were significantly increased in lungs of CDH fetuses on D15, D18, and D21 compared to controls. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed markedly increased vascular c-Kit and SCF expression in mesenchymal ECs of CDH lungs on D15, D18, and D21 compared to controls. Increased expression of c-Kit and SCF in the pulmonary vasculature of nitrofen-induced CDH lungs suggest that increased c-Kit signaling during lung vascular formation may contribute to vascular remodeling and thus to PPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unusual case of small cell gastric carcinoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Richards, David; Davis, Daniel; Yan, Peisha; Guha, Sushovan

    2011-04-01

    Small cell carcinomas are among the most aggressive, poorly differentiated, and highly malignant of the neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Of which, small cell gastric carcinoma is a rare small cell neuroendocrine tumor. The purpose of our study was to present this case and perform a comprehensive literature review. We review a case of small cell gastric carcinoma that is particularly unusual in that it occurred in a woman from the US when the majority of cases of small cell gastric carcinoma have been reported in men from East Asia, and more specifically, from Japan. The diagnosis was made after endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated mass in the gastric cardia of Borrmann type 3. Biopsies revealed multiple small basophilic cells underlying the squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cardiac mucosa, indicating the presence of a tumor at the gastroesophageal junction. Immunostaining established the diagnosis with positive stains for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD56. Our patient is being treated with chemotherapy, but many different treatment regimens have been tried for small cell gastric carcinoma with variable success. Overall prognosis for small cell gastric carcinoma is dismal. Neuroendocrine tumors in general have variable clinical behaviors and prognosis is dependent on the neuroendocrine tumor type. The adoption of a standardized classification system for neuroendocrine tumors could improve the recognition of infrequently encountered neuroendocrine tumors like small cell gastric carcinoma and will enhance strategies for treatment and thus improve prognosis for patients with these rare and aggressive tumors.

  3. Interrelation between Neuroendocrine Disturbances and Medical Complications Encountered during Rehabilitation after TBI

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Caroline I. E.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is not a discrete event but an unfolding sequence of damage to the central nervous system. Not only the acute phase but also the subacute and chronic period after injury, i.e., during inpatient rehabilitation, is characterized by multiple neurotransmitter alterations, cellular dysfunction, and medical complications causing additional secondary injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances also influence neurological outcome and are easily overlooked as they often present with diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, depression, poor concentration, or a decline in overall cognitive function; these are also typical sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, neurological complications such as hydrocephalus, epilepsy, fatigue, disorders of consciousness, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, or psychiatric-behavioural symptoms may mask and/or complicate the diagnosis of neuroendocrine disturbances, delay appropriate treatment and impede neurorehabilitation. The present review seeks to examine the interrelation between neuroendocrine disturbances with neurological complications frequently encountered after moderate to severe TBI during rehabilitation. Common neuroendocrine disturbances and medical complications and their clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26402710

  4. Elevation of Plasma Cell-Free Hemoglobin in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Janz, David R.; Austin, Eric D.; Bastarache, Julie A.; Wheeler, Lisa A.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Hemnes, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) is a potent nitric oxide scavenger associated with poor outcomes in several diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by reduced nitric oxide availability. We hypothesized that CFH would be elevated in PAH and would associate with hemodynamics and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We measured CFH in 200 consecutively evaluated patients with PAH, 16 unaffected bone morphogenetic receptor protein type 2 (BMPR2) mutation carriers, 19 healthy subjects, and 29 patients with pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH). CFH values were tested for association with hemodynamics, time to hospitalization, and death. RESULTS: CFH was elevated in patients with PAH and BMPR2 carriers compared with healthy subjects and patients with PVH (P ≤ .01 all comparisons). There were no differences in CFH across PAH subtypes. CFH modestly correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure (ρ = 0.16, P = .03) and pulmonary vascular resistance (ρ = 0.21, P = .01) and inversely with cardiac index (ρ = −0.18, P = .02) in patients with PAH. CFH was not associated with hemodynamic response to nitric oxide or death. Patients with the highest CFH levels had increased risk of PAH-related hospitalization when adjusted for age, sex, and PAH cause (hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% CI ,1.08-2.66; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: CFH is elevated in patients with PAH and BMPR2 carriers compared with healthy subjects and patients with PVH. Elevated CFH levels are independently associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. Further study is required to understand the mechanism of CFH elevation and the potential pathologic contribution of CFH in PAH. PMID:24945582

  5. Neuroendocrine regulation of maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female's lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential processes that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female's lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FOXM1: A novel drug target in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Briest, Franziska; Berg, Erika; Grass, Irina; Freitag, Helma; Kaemmerer, Daniel; Lewens, Florentine; Christen, Friederike; Arsenic, Ruza; Altendorf-Hofmann, Annelore; Kunze, Almut; Sänger, Jörg; Knösel, Thomas; Siegmund, Britta; Hummel, Michael; Grabowski, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are heterogeneous tumors that need to be molecularly defined to obtain novel therapeutic options. Forkheadbox protein M1 (FOXM1) is a crucial transcription factor in neoplastic cells and has been associated with differentiation and proliferation. We found that FOXM1 is strongly associated with tumor differentiation and occurrence of metastases in gastrointestinal NENs. In vitro inhibition by the FOXM1 inhibitor siomycin A led to down-regulation of mitotic proteins and resulted in a strong inhibitory effect. Siomycin A decreased mitosis rate, induced apoptosis in GEP-NEN cell lines and exerts synergistic effects with chemotherapy. FOXM1 is associated with clinical outcome and FOXM1 inhibition impairs survival in vitro. We therefore propose FOXM1 as novel therapeutic target in GEP-NENs. PMID:25797272

  7. Neuroendocrine Causes of Amenorrhea—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Fourman, Lindsay T.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Secondary amenorrhea—the absence of menses for three consecutive cycles—affects approximately 3–4% of reproductive age women, and infertility—the failure to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse—affects approximately 6–10%. Neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility, including functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia, constitute a majority of these cases. Objective: In this review, we discuss the physiologic, pathologic, and iatrogenic causes of amenorrhea and infertility arising from perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including potential genetic causes. We focus extensively on the hormonal mechanisms involved in disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility is critical for properly assessing patients presenting with these complaints. Prompt evaluation and treatment are essential to prevent loss of bone mass due to hypoestrogenemia and/or to achieve the time-sensitive treatment goal of conception. PMID:25581597

  8. IL-17 Contributes to Cell-Mediated Defense against Pulmonary Yersinia pestis Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jr-Shiuan; Kummer, Lawrence W.; Szaba, Frank M.; Smiley, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonic plague is one of the world’s most deadly infectious diseases. The causative bacterium, Yersinia pestis, has the potential to be exploited as a biological weapon and no vaccine is available. Vaccinating B cell-deficient mice with D27-pLpxL, a live attenuated Y. pestis strain, induces cell-mediated protection against lethal pulmonary Y. pestis challenge. Here we demonstrate that prime/boost vaccination with D27-pLpxL confers better protection than prime-only vaccination. The improved survival does not result from enhanced bacterial clearance, but is associated with increased levels of IL-17 mRNA and protein in the lungs of challenged mice. The boost also increases pulmonary numbers of IL-17-producing CD4 T cells. Interestingly, the vast majority of these cells simultaneously produce canonical type 1 and type 17 cytokines; most produce IL-17 and TNFα, and many produce IL-17, TNFα and IFNγ. Neutralizing IL-17 counteracts the improved survival associated with prime/boost vaccination without significantly impacting bacterial burden. Thus, IL-17 appears to mediate the enhanced protection conferred by booster immunization. Although neutralizing IL-17 significantly reduces neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of mice challenged with Y. pestis, this impact is equally evident in mice that receive one or two immunizations with D27-pLpxL, suggesting it cannot suffice to account for the improved survival that results from booster immunization. We conclude that IL-17 plays a yet to be identified role in host defense that enhances protection against pulmonary Y. pestis challenge, and we suggest that pneumonic plague vaccines should aim to induce mixed type 1 and type 17 cellular responses. PMID:21172869

  9. Hypoxia induces arginase II expression and increases viable human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell numbers via AMPKα1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianjing; Nelin, Leif D.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is one of the hallmark features of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. With only supportive treatment options available for this life-threatening disease, treating and preventing the proliferation of PASMCs is a viable therapeutic option. A key promoter of hypoxia-induced increases in the number of viable human PASMCs is arginase II, with attenuation of viable cell numbers following pharmacologic inhibition or siRNA knockdown of the enzyme. Additionally, increased levels of arginase have been demonstrated in the pulmonary vasculature of patients with pulmonary hypertension. The signaling pathways responsible for the hypoxic induction of arginase II in PASMCs, however, remain unknown. Hypoxia is a recognized activator of AMPK, which is known to be expressed in human PASMCs (hPASMCs). Activation of AMPK by hypoxia has been shown to promote cell survival in PASMCs. In addition, pharmacologic agents targeting AMPK have been shown to attenuate chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The present studies tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced arginase II expression in hPASMCs is mediated through AMPK signaling. We found that pharmacologic inhibitors of AMPK, as well as siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1, prevented hypoxia-induced arginase II. The hypoxia-induced increase in viable hPASMC numbers was also prevented following both pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown of AMPK. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of AMPK induced arginase II protein expression and viable cells numbers in hPASMCs. PMID:28213467

  10. CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 hydrolyzes bombesin-like peptides and regulates the growth of small cell carcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, M A; Tarr, G E; Chen, C Y; Switzer, S N; Hersh, L B; Stein, H; Sunday, M E; Reinherz, E L

    1991-01-01

    Bombesin-like peptides are essential autocrine growth factors for many small cell carcinomas (SCCas) of the lung. Herein, we demonstrate that these malignant pulmonary neuroendocrine cells express low levels of the cell surface metalloendopeptidase CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP, common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen) and that this enzyme hydrolyzes bombesin-like peptides. The growth of bombesin-like peptide-dependent SCC as is inhibited by CD10/NEP and potentiated by CD10/NEP inhibition. The results provide evidence that CD10/NEP is involved in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation. Since SCCa of the lung occurs almost exclusively in cigarette smokers and cigarette smoke inactivates CD10/NEP, decreased cell surface CD10/NEP enzymatic activity may be causally related to the development of SCCa of the lung. Images PMID:1660144

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and diabetes insipidus in pregnant women: our experience.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Leonardo; Kramer, Mordechai R; Shitrit, David; Raviv, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) occurs predominantly in young adult smokers. Diabetes insipidus occurs in up to 15 % patients with PLCH. Information on PLCH in pregnancy is sparse, especially associated with diabetes insipidus. We report three patients with these conditions and describe the disease history and pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Effects of altitude and exercise on pulmonary capillary integrity: evidence for subclinical high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Marlowe W; Braun, Ruedi K; Yoneda, Ken Y; Walby, William F

    2006-03-01

    Strenuous exercise may be a significant contributing factor for development of high-altitude pulmonary edema, particularly at low or moderate altitudes. Thus we investigated the effects of heavy cycle ergometer exercise (90% maximal effort) under hypoxic conditions in which the combined effects of a marked increase in pulmonary blood flow and nonuniform hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction could add significantly to augment the mechanical stress on the pulmonary microcirculation. We postulated that intense exercise at altitude would result in an augmented permeability edema. We recruited eight endurance athletes and examined their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for red blood cells (RBCs), protein, inflammatory cells, and soluble mediators at 2 and 26 h after intense exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. After heavy exercise, under all conditions, the athletes developed a permeability edema with high BALF RBC and protein concentrations in the absence of inflammation. We found that exercise at altitude (3,810 m) caused significantly greater leakage of RBCs [9.2 (SD 3.1)x10(4) cells/ml] into the alveolar space than that seen with normoxic exercise [5.4 (SD 1.2)x10(4) cells/ml]. At altitude, the 26-h postexercise BALF revealed significantly higher RBC and protein concentrations, suggesting an ongoing capillary leak. Interestingly, the BALF profiles following exercise at altitude are similar to that of early high-altitude pulmonary edema. These findings suggest that pulmonary capillary disruption occurs with intense exercise in healthy humans and that hypoxia augments the mechanical stresses on the pulmonary microcirculation.

  13. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  14. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Samuel M.; Carpenter, Stephen M.; Booty, Matthew G.; Barber, Daniel L.; Jayaraman, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease – the contagious form of tuberculosis. Although there have been significant advances in understanding how the immune system responds to infection, the qualities that define protective immunity against M. tuberculosis remain poorly characterized. The ability to predict who will maintain control over the infection and who will succumb to clinical disease would revolutionize our approach to surveillance, control, and treatment. Here we review the current understanding of pulmonary T cell responses following M. tuberculosis infection. While infection elicits a strong immune response that contains infection, M. tuberculosis evades eradication. Traditionally, its intracellular lifestyle and alteration of macrophage function are viewed as the dominant mechanisms of evasion. Now we appreciate that chronic inflammation leads to T cell dysfunction. While this may arise as the host balances the goals of bacterial sterilization and avoidance of tissue damage, it is becoming clear that T cell dysfunction impairs host resistance. Defining the mechanisms that lead to T cell dysfunction is crucial as memory T cell responses are likely to be subject to the same subject to the same pressures. Thus, success of T cell based vaccines is predicated on memory T cells avoiding exhaustion while at the same time not promoting overt tissue damage. PMID:25311810

  15. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus.

    PubMed

    Behar, Samuel M; Carpenter, Stephen M; Booty, Matthew G; Barber, Daniel L; Jayaraman, Pushpa

    2014-12-01

    Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease--the contagious form of tuberculosis. Although there have been significant advances in understanding how the immune system responds to infection, the qualities that define protective immunity against M. tuberculosis remain poorly characterized. The ability to predict who will maintain control over the infection and who will succumb to clinical disease would revolutionize our approach to surveillance, control, and treatment. Here we review the current understanding of pulmonary T cell responses following M. tuberculosis infection. While infection elicits a strong immune response that contains infection, M. tuberculosis evades eradication. Traditionally, its intracellular lifestyle and alteration of macrophage function are viewed as the dominant mechanisms of evasion. Now we appreciate that chronic inflammation leads to T cell dysfunction. While this may arise as the host balances the goals of bacterial sterilization and avoidance of tissue damage, it is becoming clear that T cell dysfunction impairs host resistance. Defining the mechanisms that lead to T cell dysfunction is crucial as memory T cell responses are likely to be subject to the same subject to the same pressures. Thus, success of T cell based vaccines is predicated on memory T cells avoiding exhaustion while at the same time not promoting overt tissue damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of the hypoxia-sensitive cells involved in amniote respiratory reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Hockman, Dorit; Burns, Alan J; Schlosser, Gerhard; Gates, Keith P; Jevans, Benjamin; Mongera, Alessandro; Fisher, Shannon; Unlu, Gokhan; Knapik, Ela W; Kaufman, Charles K; Mosimann, Christian; Zon, Leonard I; Lancman, Joseph J; Dong, P Duc S; Lickert, Heiko; Tucker, Abigail S; Baker, Clare V H

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the hypoxia-sensitive cells that trigger amniote respiratory reflexes – carotid body glomus cells, and ‘pulmonary neuroendocrine cells’ (PNECs) - are obscure. Homology has been proposed between glomus cells, which are neural crest-derived, and the hypoxia-sensitive ‘neuroepithelial cells’ (NECs) of fish gills, whose embryonic origin is unknown. NECs have also been likened to PNECs, which differentiate in situ within lung airway epithelia. Using genetic lineage-tracing and neural crest-deficient mutants in zebrafish, and physical fate-mapping in frog and lamprey, we find that NECs are not neural crest-derived, but endoderm-derived, like PNECs, whose endodermal origin we confirm. We discover neural crest-derived catecholaminergic cells associated with zebrafish pharyngeal arch blood vessels, and propose a new model for amniote hypoxia-sensitive cell evolution: endoderm-derived NECs were retained as PNECs, while the carotid body evolved via the aggregation of neural crest-derived catecholaminergic (chromaffin) cells already associated with blood vessels in anamniote pharyngeal arches. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21231.001 PMID:28387645

  17. Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Masafumi; Morimoto, Hajime

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, and death. We investigated whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a potent immunosuppresssant, prevents the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. MMF effectively decreased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, and reduced the medial thickness of pulmonary arteries. MMF significantly inhibited the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, infiltration of macrophages, and expression of P-selectin and interleukin-6 on the endothelium of pulmonary arteries. The infiltration of T cells and mast cells was not affected bymore » MMF. In vitro experiments revealed that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an active metabolite of MMF, dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of human pulmonary arterial SMCs. MMF attenuated the development of PAH through its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. These findings provide new insight into the potential role of immunosuppressants in the treatment of PAH.« less

  18. Defining Tumor Cell and Immune Cell Behavior in Vivo during Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    outcome of which is still to be determined. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Lung Metastasis, Intravital Imaging , Tumor Immunology, Tumor Microparticles 16. SECURITY...metastatic fitness in the lung. 2) KEYWORDS: Metastasis, Intravital Imaging , Lung, Breast Cancer, 3) ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the... intravital imaging of Lung Metastasis b) Characterization of Tumor Cell Behavior During Pulmonary Seeding via 2-photon microscopy c) Characterization of

  19. Necrolytic migratory erythema associated with a glucagon-producing primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Midori G; Cullen, John M; Linder, Keith E

    2013-08-01

    In humans, necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a syndrome with a characteristic skin rash that is associated most often with a pancreatic glucagonoma and is recognized as part of the glucagonoma syndrome. In veterinary medicine, NME (also called as superficial necrolytic dermatitis, hepatocutaneous syndrome or metabolic epidermal necrosis) has been described in dogs in association with chronic liver diseases or, less frequently, glucagonoma, but NME associated with glucagonoma has not previously been reported in cats. A 6-year-old male neutered domestic short hair cat was diagnosed with NME associated with a glucagon-producing primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (hepatic carcinoid). The cat presented with a 2 week history of vomiting and anorexia, and a 5-cm-diameter liver mass was detected by abdominal ultrasound. The cat exhibited general weakness, crusted skin lesions and pain in all four limbs. It was euthanized 11 months after the initial presentation. Histopathological review of the paw pads revealed the classic 'red, white and blue' lesion composed of parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, epidermal hydropic change and hyperbasophilia of the deep epidermis. The liver mass was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma (hepatic carcinoid). Neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for glucagon. This is the first case report of NME associated with a glucagon-producing primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a cat. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. PPARδ agonist GW501516 inhibits PDGF-stimulated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell function related to pathological vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPAR δ in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPAR δ was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPAR δ was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPAR δ by GW501516, a specific PPAR δ ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27(kip1). Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPAR δ may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH.

  1. PPARδ Agonist GW501516 Inhibits PDGF-Stimulated Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Function Related to Pathological Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPARδ in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPARδ was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPARδ was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific PPARδ ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27kip1. Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPARδ may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:23607100

  2. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessment of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Ren, Yan; Qu, Yubei; Jiang, Wanglin; Lv, Changjun

    2017-06-14

    Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), a Chinese herbal medicine formula, has been used to treat pulmonary fibrosis for decades. In this study, we systematically evaluated the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic performance of PRM. The pharmacodynamic results showed that PRM could improve the condition of CoCl 2 -stimulated human type II alveolar epithelial cells, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, human lung fibroblasts and pulmonary fibrosis rats induced by bleomycin, PRM treatment reduced the expression of platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, toll-like receptor 4, high-mobility group box protein 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. In the pharmacokinetic study, an accurate and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of calycosin, calycosin-7-O-glucoside, formononetin, ononin and mangiferin of PRM in the rat plasma for the first time. The method was then successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study of PRM in normal and pulmonary fibrosis rats. The five constituents could be absorbed in the blood after the oral administration of PRM and exhibited different pharmacokinetic behaviors in normal and pulmonary fibrosis rats. In summary, PRM exhibited a satisfactory pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic performance, which highlights PRM as a potential multi-target oral drug for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. B cell activating factor is central to bleomycin- and IL-17-mediated experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    François, Antoine; Gombault, Aurélie; Villeret, Bérengère; Alsaleh, Ghada; Fanny, Manoussa; Gasse, Paméla; Adam, Sylvain Marchand; Crestani, Bruno; Sibilia, Jean; Schneider, Pascal; Bahram, Seiamak; Quesniaux, Valérie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Wachsmann, Dominique; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Couillin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive devastating, yet untreatable fibrotic disease of unknown origin. We investigated the contribution of the B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a TNF family member recently implicated in the regulation of pathogenic IL-17-producing cells in autoimmune diseases. The contribution of BAFF was assessed in a murine model of lung fibrosis induced by airway administered bleomycin. We show that murine BAFF levels were strongly increased in the bronchoalveolar space and lungs after bleomycin exposure. We identified Gr1(+) neutrophils as an important source of BAFF upon BLM-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Genetic ablation of BAFF or BAFF neutralization by a soluble receptor significantly attenuated pulmonary fibrosis and IL-1β levels. We further demonstrate that bleomycin-induced BAFF expression and lung fibrosis were IL-1β and IL-17A dependent. BAFF was required for rIL-17A-induced lung fibrosis and augmented IL-17A production by CD3(+) T cells from murine fibrotic lungs ex vivo. Finally we report elevated levels of BAFF in bronchoalveolar lavages from IPF patients. Our data therefore support a role for BAFF in the establishment of pulmonary fibrosis and a crosstalk between IL-1β, BAFF and IL-17A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigation of Late Renal and Pulmonary Injury After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Eric P., E-mail: Eric.Cohen2@va.gov; Bedi, Manpreet; Irving, Amy A.

    Purpose: To update the results of a clinical trial that assessed whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril was effective in mitigating chronic renal failure and pulmonary-related mortality in subjects undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods and Materials: Updated records of the 55 subjects who were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial were analyzed. Twenty-eight patients received captopril, and 27 patients received placebo. Definitions of TBI-HSCT-related chronic renal failure (and relapse) were the same as those in the 2007 analysis. Pulmonary-related mortality was based on clinical or autopsy findings of pulmonary failure ormore » infection as the primary cause of death. Follow-up data for overall and pulmonary-related mortality were supplemented by use of the National Death Index. Results: The risk of TBI-HSCT-related chronic renal failure was lower in the captopril group (11% at 4 years) than in the placebo group (17% at 4 years), but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.2). Analysis of mortality was greatly extended by use of the National Death Index, and no patients were lost to follow-up for reasons other than death prior to 67 months. Patient survival was higher in the captopril group than in the placebo group, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.2). The improvement in survival was influenced more by a decrease in pulmonary mortality (11% risk at 4 years in the captopril group vs. 26% in the placebo group, p = 0.15) than by a decrease in chronic renal failure. There was no adverse effect on relapse risk (p = 0.4). Conclusions: Captopril therapy produces no detectable adverse effects when given after TBI. Captopril therapy reduces overall and pulmonary-related mortality after radiation-based HSCT, and there is a trend toward mitigation of chronic renal failure.« less

  5. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Bunichiro; Taniai, Eriko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Imaoka, Masako; Machida, Noboru; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    A perianal subcutaneous tumor involving the anal sac developed in an 8-year-old male mixed Labrador Retriever dog. Histologically, this tumor showed typical features of the solid-type carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac. However, neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin 8, chromogranin A, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuron-specific enolase, and synaptophysin, and negative for S-100 protein, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, carcinoembryonic antigen, serotonin, and parathyroid hormone-related protein. Considering the distribution of chromogranin A-positive cells within the anal sac apocrine glands, this tumor was diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma originating from the apocrine glands of the anal sac.

  6. Bronchus-associated Lymphoid Tissue in Pulmonary Hypertension Produces Pathologic Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Kelley L.; Cripe, Patrick J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. Objectives: We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. Methods: We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Measurements and Main Results: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3+ T cells over a core of CD45RA+ B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1+ high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule–positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Conclusions: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue–directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24093638

  7. Interobserver variability for the WHO classification of pulmonary carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Dorian R A; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; den Bakker, Michael A; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Thunnissen, Frederik B J M; Volante, Marco; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Scheltinga, Marc R M; Bootsma, Gerben P; Pouwels, Harry M M; van den Borne, Ben E E M; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Speel, Ernst-Jan M

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors histopathologically subclassified into typical (TC; no necrosis, <2 mitoses per 2 mm) and atypical (AC; necrosis or 2 to 10 mitoses per 2 mm). The reproducibility of lung carcinoid classification, however, has not been extensively studied and may be hampered by the presence of pyknotic apoptosis mimicking mitotic figures. Furthermore, prediction of prognosis based on histopathology varies, especially for ACs. We examined the presence of interobserver variation between 5 experienced pulmonary pathologists who reviewed 123 originally diagnosed pulmonary carcinoid cases. The tumors were subsequently redistributed over 3 groups: unanimously classified cases, consensus cases (4/5 pathologists rendered identical diagnosis), and disagreement cases (divergent diagnosis by ≥2 assessors). κ-values were calculated, and results were correlated with clinical follow-up and molecular data. When focusing on the 114/123 cases unanimously classified as pulmonary carcinoids, the interobserver agreement was only fair (κ=0.32). Of these 114 cases, 55% were unanimously classified, 25% reached consensus classification, and for 19% there was no consensus. ACs were significantly more often in the latter category (P=0.00038). The designation of TCs and ACs by ≥3 assessors was not associated with prognosis (P=0.11). However, when disagreement cases were allocated on the basis of Ki-67 proliferative index (<5%; ≥5%) or nuclear orthopedia homeobox immunostaining (+; -), correlation with prognosis improved significantly (P=0.00040 and 0.0024, respectively). In conclusion, there is a considerable interobserver variation in the histopathologic classification of lung carcinoids, in particular concerning ACs. Additional immunomarkers such as Ki-67 or orthopedia homeobox may improve classification and prediction of prognosis.

  8. [The behavioral-neuroendocrine mechanism of development of homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Tai, Fa-Dao

    2007-10-01

    In this review, we primarily focus on the behavioral-neuroendocrine mechanism of development of homosexuality from genetic, neuroendocrine neuroanatomical and behavioral studies. Besides the influence of genetics and environment, sexual orientation was determined by the early perinatal hormone exposure. Gonadal steroidal hormone interacted with many neurotransmitters in individual development by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and hypothalamus pituitary gonadal axis, which regulated the individual's sexual orientation. It was summarized here about the future directions on sexual orientation and demonstrated problems which would have to investigate next step. All these may be beneficial for our understanding of the homosexuality and paying attention to psychological and physiological health of homosexuality, which is useful to prevent the development of teenage homosexuality.

  9. MIP-2 causes differential activation of RhoA in mouse aortic versus pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moldobaeva, Aigul; Baek, Amy; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that endothelial cell chemotaxis to the proangiogenic chemokine MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2), is much greater in mouse aortic endothelial cells (EC) than pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PA EC). This was true despite the observation that both cell types display comparable levels of the ligand receptor, CXCR2 (8). Since the systemic arterial circulation is proangiogenic in the adult lung and the pulmonary circulation is relatively resistant to neovascularization, we questioned whether the observed functional heterogeneity is related to inherent differences in cell signaling cascades of the two EC subtypes. Specifically, we measured activation of Rac1 and RhoA, both thought to be involved in EC cell migration. Rac1 showed inconsistent and minimal changes in both cell types after MIP-2 treatment (p>0.05). However, activated RhoA was increased upon exposure to MIP-2 only in aortic EC (61% increase; p<0.05). Decreased RhoA activation after treatment of aortic EC with specific siRNA for RhoA resulted in a functional decrease in EC chemotaxis to MIP-2 (17% increase; p<0.05). Additionally, increased RhoA activation in PA EC with adenoviral infection of RhoA caused an increase in PA EC chemotaxis to MIP-2 (46% increase; p<0.05). Inhibition of RhoA activity with the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632 blocked aortic EC chemotaxis and stress fiber formation. Thus, RhoA activation is increased after MIP-2 treatment in mouse aortic endothelial cells but not in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We conclude that RhoA is part of a signaling pathway essential for aortic cell migration after CXCR2 ligation. This result provides one explanation for the difference in chemotaxis observed in these two endothelial subtypes that express similar levels of CXCR2. PMID:17662312

  10. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25199978

  11. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  12. Understanding delayed T-cell priming, lung recruitment, and airway luminal T-cell responses in host defense against pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shaler, Christopher R; Horvath, Carly; Lai, Rocky; Xing, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative bacterium of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), is a serious global health concern. Central to M.tb effective immune avoidance is its ability to modulate the early innate inflammatory response and prevent the establishment of adaptive T-cell immunity for nearly three weeks. When compared with other intracellular bacterial lung pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila, or even closely related mycobacterial species such as M. smegmatis, this delay is astonishing. Customarily, the alveolar macrophage (AM) acts as a sentinel, detecting and alerting surrounding cells to the presence of an invader. However, in the case of M.tb, this may be impaired, thus delaying the recruitment of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to the lung. Upon uptake by APC populations, M.tb is able to subvert and delay the processing of antigen, MHC class II loading, and the priming of effector T cell populations. This delay ultimately results in the deferred recruitment of effector T cells to not only the lung interstitium but also the airway lumen. Therefore, it is of upmost importance to dissect the mechanisms that contribute to the delayed onset of immune responses following M.tb infection. Such knowledge will help design the most effective vaccination strategies against pulmonary TB.

  13. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in pregnancy and parturition.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Felice; Imperatore, Alberto; Challis, John R G

    2010-12-01

    The complex mechanisms controlling human parturition involves mother, fetus, and placenta, and stress is a key element activating a series of physiological adaptive responses. Preterm birth is a clinical syndrome that shares several characteristics with term birth. A major role for the neuroendocrine mechanisms has been proposed, and placenta/membranes are sources for neurohormones and peptides. Oxytocin (OT) is the neurohormone whose major target is uterine contractility and placenta represents a novel source that contributes to the mechanisms of parturition. The CRH/urocortin (Ucn) family is another important neuroendocrine pathway involved in term and preterm birth. The CRH/Ucn family consists of four ligands: CRH, Ucn, Ucn2, and Ucn3. These peptides have a pleyotropic function and are expressed by human placenta and fetal membranes. Uterine contractility, blood vessel tone, and immune function are influenced by CRH/Ucns during pregnancy and undergo major changes at parturition. Among the others, neurohormones, relaxin, parathyroid hormone-related protein, opioids, neurosteroids, and monoamines are expressed and secreted from placental tissues at parturition. Preterm birth is the consequence of a premature and sustained activation of endocrine and immune responses. A preterm birth evidence for a premature activation of OT secretion as well as increased maternal plasma CRH levels suggests a pathogenic role of these neurohormones. A decrease of maternal serum CRH-binding protein is a concurrent event. At midgestation, placental hypersecretion of CRH or Ucn has been proposed as a predictive marker of subsequent preterm delivery. While placenta represents the major source for CRH, fetus abundantly secretes Ucn and adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone in women with preterm birth. The relevant role of neuroendocrine mechanisms in preterm birth is sustained by basic and clinic implications.

  14. Targeting pancreatic expressed PAX genes for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Petra I; López-Noriega, Livia; Gauthier, Benoit R

    2017-01-01

    Four members of the PAX family, PAX2, PAX4, PAX6 and PAX8 are known to be expressed in the pancreas. Accumulated evidences indicate that several pancreatic expressed PAX genes play a significant role in pancreatic development/functionality and alterations in these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic diseases. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the ongoing research related to pancreatic PAX genes in diabetes mellitus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We dissect the current knowledge at different levels; from mechanistic studies in cell lines performed to understand the molecular processes controlled by pancreatic PAX genes, to in vivo studies using rodent models that over-express or lack specific PAX genes. Finally, we describe human studies associating variants on pancreatic-expressed PAX genes with pancreatic diseases. Expert opinion: Based on the current literature, we propose that future interventions to treat pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and diabetes mellitus could be developed via the modulation of PAX4 and/or PAX6 regulated pathways.

  15. Reproductive disturbances in multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lytras, Aristides; Tolis, George

    2009-12-01

    In the context of multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes, reproductive abnormalities may occur via a number of different mechanisms, such as hyperprolactinemia, increased GH/IGF-1 levels, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, hyperandrogenism, hyperthyroidism, gonadotropin hypersecretion, as well as, tumorigenesis or functional disturbances in gonads or other reproductive organs. Precocious puberty and/or male feminization is a feature of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Carney complex (CNC), and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), while sperm maturation and ovulation defects have been described in MAS and CNC. Although tumorigenesis of reproductive organs due to a multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndrome is very rare, certain lesions are characteristic and very unusual in the general population. Awareness leading to their recognition is important especially when other endocrine abnormalities coexist, as occasionally they may even be the first manifestation of a syndrome. Lesions such as certain types of ovarian cysts (MAS, CNC), pseudogynecomastia due to neurofibromas of the nipple-areola area (NF1), breast disease (CNC and Cowden disease (CD)), cysts and 'hypernephroid' tumors of the epididymis or bilateral papillary cystadenomas (mesosalpinx cysts) and endometrioid cystadenomas of the broad ligament (von Hippel-Lindau disease), testicular Sertoli calcifying tumors (CNC, PJS) monolateral or bilateral macroochidism and microlithiasis (MAS) may offer diagnostic clues. In addition, multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes may be complicated by reproductive malignancies including ovarian cancer in CNC, breast and endometrial cancer in CD, breast malignancies in NF1, and malignant sex-cord stromal tumors in PJS.

  16. Pulmonary nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Pulmonary Nuclear Medicine; Radionuclide Venography as an Adjunct to V-P Imaging in the Assessment of Thromboembolic Disease; Assessment of Mucous Transport in the Respiratory Tract by Radioisotopic Techniques; Radiolabeled Blood Cells and Tracers in the Study of Acute Pulmonary Injury and ARDS; and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lungs.

  17. Key Role of ROS in the Process of 15-Lipoxygenase/15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoiccid-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Hypoxia Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Gaofeng; Sheng, Tingting; Yu, Xiufeng; Wang, Shuang; Zhu, Daling

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and its metabolite 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) were up-regulated in pulmonary arterial cells from both pulmonary artery hypertension patients and hypoxic rats and that these factors mediated the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary arterial (PA) cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of the remodeling induced by 15-HETE have remained unclear. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 15-LO are both induced by hypoxia, it is possible that ROS are involved in the events of hypoxia-induced 15-LO expression that lead to PH. We employed immunohistochemistry, tube formation assays, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assays, and cell cycle analyses to explore the role of ROS in the process of 15-HETE-mediated hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). We found that exogenous 15-HETE facilitated the generation of ROS and that this effect was mainly localized to mitochondria. In particular, the mitochondrial electron transport chain and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4) were responsible for the significant 15-HETE-stimulated increase in ROS production. Moreover, ROS induced by 15-HETE stimulated endothelial cell (EC) migration and promoted pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation under hypoxia via the p38 MAPK pathway. These results indicated that 15-HETE-regulated ROS mediated hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) via the p38 MAPK pathway. PMID:26871724

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains exhibit differential and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mvubu, Nontobeko Eunice; Pillay, Balakrishna; Gamieldien, Junaid; Bishai, William; Pillay, Manormoney

    2016-12-01

    Although pulmonary epithelial cells are integral to innate and adaptive immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, global transcriptomic changes in these cells remain largely unknown. Changes in gene expression induced in pulmonary epithelial cells infected with M. tuberculosis F15/LAM4/KZN, F11, F28, Beijing and Unique genotypes were investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform generated 50 bp reads that were mapped to the human genome (Hg19) using Tophat (2.0.10). Differential gene expression induced by the different strains in infected relative to the uninfected cells was quantified and compared using Cufflinks (2.1.0) and MeV (4.0.9), respectively. Gene expression varied among the strains with the total number of genes as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (1187), Beijing (1252), F11 (1639), F28 (870), Unique (886) and H37Rv (1179). A subset of 292 genes was commonly induced by all strains, where 52 genes were down-regulated while 240 genes were up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes were compared among the strains and the number of induced strain-specific gene signatures were as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (138), Beijing (52), F11 (255), F28 (55), Unique (186) and H37Rv (125). Strain-specific molecular gene signatures associated with functional pathways were observed only for the Unique and H37Rv strains while certain biological functions may be associated with other strain signatures. This study demonstrated that strains of M. tuberculosis induce differential gene expression and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells. Specific signatures induced by clinical strains of M. tuberculosis can be further explored for novel host-associated biomarkers and adjunctive immunotherapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NMDA-Type Glutamate Receptor Activation Promotes Vascular Remodeling and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Sébastien J; Bru-Mercier, Gilles; Courboulin, Audrey; Quatredeniers, Marceau; Rücker-Martin, Catherine; Antigny, Fabrice; Nakhleh, Morad K; Ranchoux, Benoit; Gouadon, Elodie; Vinhas, Maria-Candida; Vocelle, Matthieu; Raymond, Nicolas; Dorfmüller, Peter; Fadel, Elie; Perros, Frédéric; Humbert, Marc; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia

    2018-05-29

    Excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance in pulmonary vascular cells underlie vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Specific treatments for PAH exist, mostly targeting endothelial dysfunction, but high pulmonary arterial pressure still causes heart failure and death. Pulmonary vascular remodeling may be driven by metabolic reprogramming of vascular cells to increase glutaminolysis and glutamate production. The N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a major neuronal glutamate receptor, is also expressed on vascular cells, but its role in PAH is unknown. We assessed the status of the glutamate-NMDAR axis in the pulmonary arteries of patients with PAH and controls through mass spectrometry imaging, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. We measured the glutamate release from cultured pulmonary vascular cells using enzymatic assays and analyzed NMDAR regulation/phosphorylation through Western blot experiments. The effect of NMDAR blockade on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation was determined using a BrdU incorporation assay. We assessed the role of NMDARs in vascular remodeling associated to pulmonary hypertension, in both smooth muscle-specific NMDAR knockout mice exposed to chronic hypoxia and the monocrotaline rat model of pulmonary hypertension using NMDAR blockers. We report glutamate accumulation, upregulation of the NMDAR, and NMDAR engagement reflected by increases in GluN1-subunit phosphorylation in the pulmonary arteries of human patients with PAH. K v channel inhibition and type A-selective endothelin receptor activation amplified calcium-dependent glutamate release from human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell, and type A-selective endothelin receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor activation led to NMDAR engagement, highlighting crosstalk between the glutamate-NMDAR axis and major PAH-associated pathways. The platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of human

  20. Differential concentration-specific effects of caffeine on cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell cycle in pulmonary oxygen toxicity in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Kirti Kumar; Chu, Chun; Couroucli, Xanthi

    Highlights: • Caffeine at 0.05 mM decreases oxidative stress in hyperoxia. • Caffeine at 1 mM decreases cell viability, increases oxidative stress in hyperoxia. • Caffeine at 1 but not 0.05 mM, abrogates hyperoxia-induced G2/M arrest. - Abstract: Caffeine is used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature neonates. Hyperoxia contributes to the development of BPD, inhibits cell proliferation and decreases cell survival. The mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of caffeine in pulmonary oxygen toxicity remain largely unknown. A549 and MLE 12 pulmonary epithelial cells were exposed to hyperoxia or maintained in room air, in the presence of differentmore » concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 mM) of caffeine. Caffeine had a differential concentration-specific effect on cell cycle progression, oxidative stress and viability, with 1 mM concentration being deleterious and 0.05 mM being protective. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during hyperoxia was modulated by caffeine in a similar concentration-specific manner. Caffeine at 1 mM, but not at the 0.05 mM concentration decreased the G2 arrest in these cells. Taken together this study shows the novel funding that caffeine has a concentration-specific effect on cell cycle regulation, ROS generation, and cell survival in hyperoxic conditions.« less

  1. Gastroenteropancreatic (neuro)endocrine neoplasms: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Rindi, Guido; Bordi, C; La Rosa, S; Solcia, E; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2011-03-01

    Based on the year 2000 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) grading and staging proposals, we here define the minimal guidelines for pathology reporting of (neuro)endocrine neoplasms. The macroscopical description is recommended according to standard procedures and the microscopical description according to recognized architectural and cytological features for endocrine lesions. Minimal diagnostic immunohistochemistry entails the use of chromogranin A, synaptophysin and Ki67. Other potentially useful tests are those for CD56 N-CAM, PGP 9.5 and hormones for diagnosis, the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 for potential radiodiagnostics and therapy, and transcription factors like TTF1 and CDX2, for site of origin. Grading definition is always mandatory as well as TNM staging for surgical specimens. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis is promoted by mesenchymal stem cells through VEGF.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Dong, Ling; Yan, Kang; Long, Hua; Yang, Tong-Tao; Dong, Ming-Qing; Zhou, Yong; Fan, Qing-Yu; Ma, Bao-An

    2013-10-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) play an important role in metastasis. CXCR4 is also expressed in the human osteosarcoma cell line 9607-F5M2 (F5M2), which has a high tumorigenic ability and potential for spontaneous pulmonary metastasis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the formation of the tumor stroma and promote metastasis. However, mechanisms underlying the promotion of osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis by MSCs are still elusive. Our study co-injected the human MSCs and F5M2 cells into the caudal vein of nude mice. The total number of tumor nodules per lung was significantly increased in the F5M2+MSC group compared to the other groups (control, F5M2 cells alone and MSCs alone) at week six. Moreover, a high number of Dil-labeled MSCs was present also at the osteosarcoma metastasis sites in the lung. Using Transwell assays, we found that F5M2 cells migrate towards MSCs, while the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 decreased the migration potential of F5M2 cells towards MSCs. Furthermore, upon treatment with F5M2-conditioned medium, MSCs expressed and secreted higher levels of VEGF as determined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Importantly, co-cultured with F5M2 cells, MSCs expressed and secreted higher VEGF levels, while AMD3100 dramatically decreased the VEGF secretion by MSCs. However, CXCR4 expression on F5M2 cells was not significantly increased in the co-culture system. Additionally, VEGF increased the proliferation of both MSCs and F5M2 cells. These findings suggest that CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis are promoted by MSCs through VEGF.

  3. Interleukin-7 gene-modified dendritic cells reduce pulmonary tumor burden in spontaneous murine bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sherven; Batra, Raj K; Yang, Seok Chul; Hillinger, Sven; Zhu, Li; Atianzar, Kimberly; Strieter, Robert M; Riedl, Karen; Huang, Min; Dubinett, Steven M

    2003-11-01

    The antitumor efficiency of dendritic cells transduced with an adenovirus vector expressing interleukin (IL)-7 (DC-AdIL-7) was evaluated in a murine model of spontaneous bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma. These transgenic mice (CC-10 TAg), expressing the SV40 large T antigen under the Clara cell promoter, develop bilateral multifocal pulmonary adenocarcinomas and die at 4 months as a result of progressive pulmonary tumor burden. Injection of DC-AdIL-7 in the axillary lymph node region (ALNR) weekly for 3 weeks led to a marked reduction in tumor burden with extensive lymphocytic infiltration of the tumors and enhanced survival. The antitumor responses were accompanied by the enhanced elaboration of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-12 as well as an increase in the antiangiogenic chemokines, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG/CXCL9). In contrast, production of the immunosuppressive mediators IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and the proangiogenic modulator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) decreased in response to DC-AdIL-7 treatment. Significant reduction in tumor burden in a model in which tumors develop in an organ-specific manner provides a strong rationale for further evaluation of DC-AdIL-7 in regulation of tumor immunity and its use in lung cancer genetic immunotherapy.

  4. [Rapidly progressive pulmonary malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Shi, X Y; Long, F; Liang, B; Su, L L; Li, H C; Jiang, S J

    2016-10-12

    Objective: To analyze the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor(PEComa). Methods: The clinical features, auxiliary examinations and diagnosis of a case with rapidly progressive pulmonary malignant PEComa were reported and the related literatures were reviewed.The literature review was carried out respectively in Wanfang Data, CNKI and PubMed from Jan. 1975 to Jul. 2015 with "pulmonary malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor" and "PEComa" being the search terms. Results: A 50 year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital on September 4, 2014 because of cough and dyspnea for 60 days, hemoptysis for 40 days and fever for 7 days.Chest CT scan showed diffuse small nodules with infiltrative border and multiple pure and mixed ground-glass opacity. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) was performed and the pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of primary pulmonary malignant PEComa. The patient declined further specific therapy, but followed by rapidly progressive respiratory failure, and died two weeks after the diagnosis. A total of 8 literatures were retrieved from Wanfang Data, CNKI and PubMed and all of them were case reports.There were 3 male and 5 female patients, aging from 50 to 79 years.Radiographically, the previously reported cases presented as round and well-circumscribed masses with or without multiple nodules in both lungs. The symptoms had no specificity. Conclusions: Pulmonary malignant PEComa is a rare disease.It is easily misdiagnosed because of non-specific clinical and imaging manifestations.The final diagnosis depends on pathological biopsy.TBLB is an effective diagnostic method.

  5. The cancer theory of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Boucherat, Olivier; Vitry, Geraldine; Trinh, Isabelle; Paulin, Roxane; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a mysterious killer that, like cancer, is characterized by tremendous complexity. PAH development occurs under sustained and persistent environmental stress, such as inflammation, shear stress, pseudo-hypoxia, and more. After inducing an initial death of the endothelial cells, these environmental stresses contribute with time to the development of hyper-proliferative and apoptotic resistant clone of cells including pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and even pulmonary artery endothelial cells allowing vascular remodeling and PAH development. Molecularly, these cells exhibit many features common to cancer cells offering the opportunity to exploit therapeutic strategies used in cancer to treat PAH. In this review, we outline the signaling pathways and mechanisms described in cancer that drive PAH cells’ survival and proliferation and discuss the therapeutic potential of antineoplastic drugs in PAH. PMID:28597757

  6. Assessment of bronchial and pulmonary blood supply in non-small cell lung cancer subtypes using computed tomography perfusion.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Strobel, Klaus; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Huellner, Martin W

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dual blood supply of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its association with tumor subtype, size, and stage, using computed tomography perfusion (CTP). A total of 54 patients (median age, 65 years; range, 42-79 years; 15 women, 39 men) with suspected lung cancer underwent a CTP scan of the lung tumor. Pulmonary and bronchial vasculature regions of interest were used to calculate independently CTP parameters (blood flow [BF], blood volume [BV], and mean transit time [MTT]) of the tumor tissue. The mean and maximum pulmonary and bronchial perfusion indexes (PImean and PImax) were calculated. The tumoral volume and the largest tumoral diameter were assessed. Differences in CTP parameters and indexes among NSCLC subtypes, tumor stages and tumor dimensions were analyzed using non-parametric tests. According to biopsy, 37 patients had NSCLC (22 adenocarcinomas [ACs], 8 squamous cell carcinomas [SCCs], 7 large-cell carcinomas [LCC]). The mean bronchial BF/pulmonary BF, bronchial BV/pulmonary BV, and bronchial MTT/pulmonary MTT was 41.2 ± 30.0/36.9 ± 24.2 mL/100 mL/min, 11.4 ± 9.7/10.4 ± 9.4 mL/100 mL, and 11.4 ± 4.3/14.9 ± 4.4 seconds, respectively. In general, higher bronchial BF than pulmonary BF was observed in NSCLC (P = 0.014). Using a tumoral volume cutoff of 3.5 cm, a significant difference in pulmonary PImax was found (P = 0.028). There was a significantly higher mean pulmonary BF in LCCs and SCCs compared with ACs (P = 0.018 and P = 0.044, respectively), whereas the mean bronchial BF was only significantly higher in LCCs compared with ACs (P = 0.024). Correspondingly, the PImax was significantly higher in LCCs and SCCs than in ACs (P = 0.001 for both). Differences between bronchial and pulmonary PImean and PImax among T stages and Union Internationale Contre le Cancer stages were not statistically significant (P values ranging from 0.691 to 0.753). The known dual blood supply of NSCLC, which depends on tumor

  7. Therapeutic strategies and genetic profile comparisons in small cell carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaoki; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Shoko; Kimura, Shingo; Irisuna, Fumiko; Ikeda, Kyoko; Kushitani, Kei; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Daisuke; Tsubokawa, Norifumi; Takeshima, Yukio; Okada, Morihito

    2017-12-12

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung are classified as variants of endocrine carcinoma and subdivided into pure or combined type. Clinical benefit of target therapy has not been established in these tumors. This study aimed to compare genetic and clinicopathological features between SCLC and LCNEC or pure and combined types, and explore the possibility of target therapy using next-generation sequencing. In 13 SCLC and 22 LCNEC cases, 72 point mutations, 19 deletions, and 3 insertions were detected. As therapeutically targetable variants, mutations in EGFR (L858R), KRAS (G12D, G12A, G12V), and PIK3CA (E545K) were detected in 5 cases. The case harboring EGFR mutation showed response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, there are no clinicopathological features associated with therapeutically targetable cases. And there was no significant genetic feature between SCLC and LCNEC or pure and combined types. In conclusion, although patients with SCLC and LCNEC may benefit from target therapy, they were not identifiable by clinicopathologic background. And there was not significant genetic difference between SCLC and LCNEC, including between pure and combined types. Classifying SCLC and LCNEC in same category is reasonable. However, distinguishing the pure type from combined type was not validated. Comprehensive genetic analysis should be performed to detect targetable variants in any type of SCLC and LCNEC.

  8. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Unknown Origin Arising in the Femoral Nerve Sheath.

    PubMed

    Candy, Nicholas; Young, Adam; Allinson, Kieren; Carr, Oliver; McMillen, Jason; Trivedi, Rikin

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin is a rare condition, usually presenting with lesions in the liver and/or lung. We present the first reported case of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin arising in the femoral nerve sheath. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated what was thought to be a schwannoma in the left femoral nerve sheath in the proximal femoral triangle, immediately inferior to the anterior inferior iliac spine. At the time of operation, the tumor capsule was invading surrounding tissue, as well as three trunks of the femoral nerve. The patient underwent a subtotal resection, preserving the integrity of the residual functioning femoral nerve trunks. Histologic evaluation determined that the tumor had features consistent with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary origin. The patient recovered well postoperatively, and subsequent radiologic evaluation failed to demonstrate a potential primary site. Unfortunately, the patient re-presented with disease progression and was subsequently referred to palliative care. We recommend that there is a definite role for surgery in the management of solitary neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetics of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: implications for the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Pea, Antonio; Hruban, Ralph H.; Wood, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a common and deadly neoplasm of the pancreas. Although the importance of genetic alterations in PanNETs has been known for many years, recent comprehensive sequencing studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of neuroendocrine tumorigenesis in the pancreas. These studies have identified specific cellular processes that are altered in PanNETs, highlighted alterations with prognostic implications, and pointed to pathways for targeted therapies. In this review, we will discuss the genetic alterations that play a key role in PanNET tumorigenesis, with a specific focus on those alterations with the potential to change the way patients with these neoplasms are diagnosed and treated. PMID:26413978

  10. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lung excision of non-small-cell lung cancer leaves cancer cells in residual lobe: cytological detection using pulmonary vein blood.

    PubMed

    Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Funaki, Soichiro; Shintani, Yasushi; Okumura, Meinosin

    2016-02-01

    Lung excision to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with a worse prognosis when compared with a lobectomy. Cancer relapse may be caused by tumour cells remaining in the residual lobe, the possibility of dislodged cancer cells in the residual lobe is assessed using pulmonary vein blood (PVB) from the resected lung. Twenty-eight patients with pathological stage I NSCLC who underwent lung excision followed by a lobectomy were evaluated according to the status of isolated tumour cells (ITCs) (origin of circulating tumour cells) in PVB from the resected lobe. Survival was also assessed according to the status of ITCs. The rate of ITC presence was 60.7% and depended on margin distance/tumour size (M/T) with a threshold of 1.0-30.8% (4/13) in M/T greater than or equal to 1.0 and 86.7% (13/15) in M/T smaller than 1.0 (P = 0.001). PVB-ITC status was no ITCs (N) in 11 (39.3%), only singular cells (S) in 13 (50.0%) and clustered cells (C) in 4 (14.3%). In addition, the survival status of patients with clustered cells was exclusively wrong. After pulmonary excision for lung cancer, tumour cells remain in the residual lobe and the morphology of which may indicate recurrence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of human pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in cell activation and migration in experimental silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xueting; Fang, Shencun; Liu, Haijun

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}). Phagocytosis of SiO{sub 2} in the lung initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration and subsequent fibrosis. Clinical evidence indicates that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO{sub 2} produces rapid and sustained inflammation that is characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which induces fibrosis. Pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 may play a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration. Methods and results: Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following results: 1) SiO{sub 2} treatment resultedmore » in the rapid and sustained induction of MCP-1 as well as the elevation of the CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) protein levels; 2) pretreatment of HPF-a with RS-102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, abolished the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell activation and migration in both 2D and 3D culture systems; and 3) RNA interference targeting CCR2 prevented the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell migration. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that the up-regulation of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 is involved in pulmonary fibroblast migration induced by SiO{sub 2}. CCR2 was also up-regulated in response to SiO{sub 2}, and this up-regulation facilitated the effect of MCP-1 on fibroblasts. Our study deciphered the link between fibroblast-derived MCP-1 and SiO{sub 2}-induced cell migration. This finding provides novel insight into the potential of MCP-1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis. - Highlights: • Role of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in experimental silicosis was studied. • SiO{sub 2} induced MCP-1 release from cultured human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF-a). • SiO{sub 2} directly activated HPF-a via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • SiO{sub 2} increased HPF-a migration in both 2D

  13. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (FIZZ1/RELMα) induces endothelial cell apoptosis and subsequent interleukin-4-dependent pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takimoto, Eiki; Zhang, Ailan; Weiner, Noah C.; Meuchel, Lucas W.; Berger, Alan E.; Cheadle, Chris; Johns, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure that leads to progressive right heart failure and ultimately death. Injury to endothelium and consequent wound repair cascades have been suggested to trigger pulmonary vascular remodeling, such as that observed during PH. The relationship between injury to endothelium and disease pathogenesis in this disorder remains poorly understood. We and others have shown that, in mice, hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF, also known as FIZZ1 or RELMα) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation and the development of PH. In this study, we dissected the mechanism by which HIMF and its human homolog resistin (hRETN) induce pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and subsequent lung inflammation-mediated PH, which exhibits many of the hallmarks of the human disease. Systemic administration of HIMF caused increases in EC apoptosis and interleukin (IL)-4-dependent vascular inflammatory marker expression in mouse lung during the early inflammation phase. In vitro, HIMF, hRETN, and IL-4 activated pulmonary microvascular ECs (PMVECs) by increasing angiopoietin-2 expression and induced PMVEC apoptosis. In addition, the conditioned medium from hRETN-treated ECs had elevated levels of endothelin-1 and caused significant increases in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Last, HIMF treatment caused development of PH that was characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and right heart failure in wild-type mice but not in IL-4 knockout mice. These data suggest that HIMF contributes to activation of vascular inflammation at least in part by inducing EC apoptosis in the lung. These events lead to subsequent PH. PMID:24793164

  14. Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    1987-07-01

    Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

  15. Protein S is protective in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Urawa, M; Kobayashi, T; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, C N; Fujimoto, H; Toda, M; Roeen, Z; Hinneh, J A; Yasuma, T; Takei, Y; Taguchi, O; Gabazza, E C

    2016-08-01

    Essentials Epithelial cell apoptosis is critical in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Protein S, a circulating anticoagulant, inhibited apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Overexpression of protein S in lung cells reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Intranasal therapy with exogenous protein S ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Background Pulmonary fibrosis is the terminal stage of interstitial lung diseases, some of them being incurable and of unknown etiology. Apoptosis plays a critical role in lung fibrogenesis. Protein S is a plasma anticoagulant with potent antiapoptotic activity. The role of protein S in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the clinical relevance of protein S and its protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Results The circulating level of protein S was measured in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and controls by the use of enzyme immunoassays. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced with bleomycin in transgenic mice overexpressing human protein S and wild-type mice, and exogenous protein S or vehicle was administered to wild-type mice; fibrosis was then compared in both models. Patients with pulmonary fibrosis had reduced circulating levels of protein S as compared with controls. Inflammatory changes, the levels of profibrotic cytokines, fibrosis score, hydroxyproline content in the lungs and oxygen desaturation were significantly reduced in protein S-transgenic mice as compared with wild-type mice. Wild-type mice treated with exogenous protein S showed significant decreases in the levels of inflammatory and profibrotic markers and fibrosis in the lungs as compared with untreated control mice. After bleomycin infusion, mice overexpressing human protein S showed significantly low caspase-3 activity, enhanced expression of antiapoptotic molecules and enhanced Akt and Axl kinase phosphorylation as compared with wild-type counterparts. Protein S also inhibited apoptosis of alveolar

  16. Optical studies of oxidative stress in pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanian, Zahra; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Eis, Annie; Kondouri, Ganesh; Ranji, Mahsa

    2015-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in facilitating signal transduction processes within the cell and modulating the injuries. However, the generation of ROS is tightly controlled both spatially and temporally within the cell, making the study of ROS dynamics particularly difficult. This study present a novel protocol to quantify the dynamic of the mitochondrial superoxide as a precursor of reactive oxygen species. To regulate the mitochondrial superoxide level, metabolic perturbation was induced by administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). The presented method was able to monitor and measure the superoxide production rate over time. Our results demonstrated that the metabolic inhibitor, potassium cyanide (KCN) induced a significant increase in the rate of superoxide production in mitochondria of fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cells (FPAEC). Presented method sets the stage to study different ROS mediated injuries in vitro.

  17. ADRA2A is involved in neuro-endocrine regulation of bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Vid; Jurkovic Mlakar, Simona; Zupan, Janja; Komadina, Radko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2015-07-01

    Adrenergic stimulation is important for osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Previous research shows that this happens through β2-adrenergic receptor (AR), but there are conflicting evidence on presence and role of α2A-AR in bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of α2A-AR and its involvement in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone remodelling in humans. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate α2A-AR receptor presence and localization in bone cells. Functionality of rs553668 and rs1800544 single nucleotide polymorphism SNPs located in α2A-AR gene was analysed by qPCR expression on bone samples and luciferase reporter assay in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Using real-time PCR, genetic association study between rs553668 A>G and rs1800544 C>G SNPs and major bone markers was performed on 661 Slovenian patients with osteoporosis. α2A-AR is expressed in osteoblasts and lining cells but not in osteocytes. SNP rs553668 has a significant influence on α2A-AR mRNA level in human bone samples through the stability of mRNA. α2A-AR gene locus associates with important bone remodelling markers (BMD, CTX, Cathepsin K and pOC). The results of this study are providing comprehensive new evidence that α2A-AR is involved in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone turnover and development of osteoporosis. As shown by our results the neurological signalling is mediated through osteoblasts and result in bone resorption. Genetic study showed association of SNPs in α2A-AR gene locus with bone remodelling markers, identifying the individuals with higher risk of development of osteoporosis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. ADRA2A is involved in neuro-endocrine regulation of bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Mlakar, Vid; Jurkovic Mlakar, Simona; Zupan, Janja; Komadina, Radko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2015-01-01

    Adrenergic stimulation is important for osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Previous research shows that this happens through β2-adrenergic receptor (AR), but there are conflicting evidence on presence and role of α2A-AR in bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of α2A-AR and its involvement in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone remodelling in humans. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate α2A-AR receptor presence and localization in bone cells. Functionality of rs553668 and rs1800544 single nucleotide polymorphism SNPs located in α2A-AR gene was analysed by qPCR expression on bone samples and luciferase reporter assay in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Using real-time PCR, genetic association study between rs553668 A>G and rs1800544 C>G SNPs and major bone markers was performed on 661 Slovenian patients with osteoporosis. α2A-AR is expressed in osteoblasts and lining cells but not in osteocytes. SNP rs553668 has a significant influence on α2A-AR mRNA level in human bone samples through the stability of mRNA. α2A-AR gene locus associates with important bone remodelling markers (BMD, CTX, Cathepsin K and pOC). The results of this study are providing comprehensive new evidence that α2A-AR is involved in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone turnover and development of osteoporosis. As shown by our results the neurological signalling is mediated through osteoblasts and result in bone resorption. Genetic study showed association of SNPs in α2A-AR gene locus with bone remodelling markers, identifying the individuals with higher risk of development of osteoporosis. PMID:25818344

  19. Impairments of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakhno, Ludmila V.; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya.; Tikhonova, Marina A.; Nikonov, Sergey D.; Ostanin, Alexandr A.; Chernykh, Elena R.

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype and functional properties of antigen-presenting cells (APC), that is, circulating monocytes and generated in vitro macrophages and dendritic cells, were investigated in the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) differing in lymphocyte reactivity to M. tuberculosis antigens (PPD-reactive versus PPD-anergic patients). We revealed the distinct impairments in patient APC functions. For example, the monocyte dysfunctions were displayed by low CD86 and HLA-DR expression, 2-fold increase in CD14+CD16+ expression, the high numbers of IL-10-producing cells, and enhanced IL-10 and IL-6 production upon LPS-stimulation. The macrophages which were in vitro generated from peripheral blood monocytes under GM-CSF were characterized by Th1/Th2-balance shifting (downproduction of IFN-γ coupled with upproduction of IL-10) and by reducing of allostimulatory activity in mixed lymphocyte culture. The dendritic cells (generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes upon GM-CSF + IFN-α) were characterized by impaired maturation/activation, a lower level of IFN-γ production in conjunction with an enhanced capacity to produce IL-10 and IL-6, and a profound reduction of allostimulatory activity. The APC dysfunctions were found to be most prominent in PPD-anergic patients. The possible role of APC impairments in reducing the antigen-specific T-cell response to M. tuberculosis was discussed. PMID:26339660

  20. Laparoscopic resection of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors with special contribution of radionuclide imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shamiyeh, Andreas; Gabriel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The surgical treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) draws on experience and guidelines more than on prospective randomized trials. The incidence of NET is increasing in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of classifications introduced over the last decade may have led to difficulties in judging clinical relevance and determining the right surgical strategy. The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society have developed usable guidelines from the available literature. For more than 20 years laparoscopy has developed as the gold standard for various surgical indications. Nevertheless, few trials have compared open and laparoscopic surgery with regard to NET. This review summarizes the recent literature on surgery for NET and incorporates the evidence on laparoscopy for cancer which might be also applied for NET. PMID:25400444

  1. Case of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma showing an interesting tumorigenic pathway.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Ryo; Eizuka, Makoto; Fujita, Yasuko; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Koeda, Keisuke; Kosaka, Takashi; Yanai, Shunichi; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Sugai, Tamotsu

    2017-11-16

    Here, we report a case of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma showing an interesting tumorigenic pathway. A 57-year-old Japanese woman presented with epigastric tenderness, and distal gastrectomy was performed. In the surgical specimen, histologically, the tumor tissue was composed of three subtypes of tumor components showing different histological architecture and cellular atypia, diagnosed as neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G2, NET G3, and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) components. Immunohistochemically, the Ki-67-positive rates of NET G2, NET G3, and NEC components were 6.5%, 99.5% and 88.1%, respectively. Although allelic imbalance (AI) on chromosomes 1p, 3p, 8q, TP53, 18q and 22q was commonly found in all components, AI of 4p was found in NET G3 and NEC components (but not in the NET G2 component). In contrast, AIs of 5q and 9p were found in only the NEC component. Thus, we showed the progression from NET G2 to NEC, via NET G3, within the same tumor.

  2. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects against LPS-induced ARDS by inhibiting apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Li, Wen; Qi, Di; Wang, Daoxin

    2018-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogenous syndrome characterised by diffuse alveolar damage, with an increase in lung endothelial and epithelial permeability. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the most biologically active fraction of wolfberry, possesses antiapoptotic and antioxidative effects in distinct situations. In the present study, the protective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of LBP against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS were investigated in the mice and in the human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). The data indicated that pretreatment with LBP significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary oedema in vivo. LBP significantly reversed LPS-induced decrease in cell viability, increase in apoptosis and oxidative stress via inhibiting caspase-3 activation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro. Moreover, the scratch assay verified that LBP restored the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs) migration induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, LBP also significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation, and subsequently reversed the release of cytochrome c. These results showed the antiapoptosis and antioxidant LBP could partially protect against LPS-induced ARDS through promoting the ECs survival and scavenging ROS via inhibition of NF-κB signalling pathway. Thus, LBP could be potentially used for ARDS against pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary oedema.

  3. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-19

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met(5)]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met(5)]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  4. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  5. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  6. Ion Transport by Pulmonary Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Hollenhorst, Monika I.; Richter, Katrin; Fronius, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The lung surface of air-breathing vertebrates is formed by a continuous epithelium that is covered by a fluid layer. In the airways, this epithelium is largely pseudostratified consisting of diverse cell types such as ciliated cells, goblet cells, and undifferentiated basal cells, whereas the alveolar epithelium consists of alveolar type I and alveolar type II cells. Regulation and maintenance of the volume and viscosity of the fluid layer covering the epithelium is one of the most important functions of the epithelial barrier that forms the outer surface area of the lungs. Therefore, the epithelial cells are equipped with a wide variety of ion transport proteins, among which Na+, Cl−, and K+ channels have been identified to play a role in the regulation of the fluid layer. Malfunctions of pulmonary epithelial ion transport processes and, thus, impairment of the liquid balance in our lungs is associated with severe diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and pulmonary oedema. Due to the important role of pulmonary epithelial ion transport processes for proper lung function, the present paper summarizes the recent findings about composition, function, and ion transport properties of the airway epithelium as well as of the alveolar epithelium. PMID:22131798

  7. Clinical application of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT in diagnosing and monitoring of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyan; Li, Yi; Xu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jiangang; Zhang, Yingjian; Yu, Xianjun; Huang, Dan

    2018-06-20

    Our aim of this research was to determine the value of SPECT/CT with 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC for evaluation of the pancreatic masses which were suspected as neuroendocrine neoplasms and follow-up of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. We retrospectively analyzed 184 patients who performed 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT. All the patients were divided into two groups: one for assessment of diagnostic efficiency for pancreatic suspected masses (n = 140) and another for monitoring recurrence after surgery (n = 44). The image findings acquired at 2 h postinjection were compared to final diagnoses from pathological results and clinical follow-up. Then, the correlation between ratios of tumor-to-background (TBR) and tumor grade was analyzed. In group 1, 95/140 (67.9%) patients were confirmed as neuroendocrine neoplasms including 85 neuroendocrine tumors and 10 neuroendocrine carcinomas. Patient-based analysis showed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosing neuroendocrine neoplasms with SPECT/CT were 81.1, 84.4 and 82.1%. There was significant difference of TBRs among G1, G2 and G3 (F = 3.175, P = 0.048). In group 2, 22/44 (50.0%) patients occurred metastasis mainly in liver. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of monitoring recurrence were 87.0, 100 and 93.2%. 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT is a reliable method of diagnosing and monitoring of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, especially neuroendocrine tumors.

  8. Baicalin Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via the AKT/HIF-1α/p27-Associated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Pu, Zhichen; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Hu, Dongmei; Wang, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid compound purified from the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to possess various pharmacological actions. Previous studies have revealed that baicalin inhibits the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMCs) proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. However, the potential mechanism of baicalin in the regulation of PASMC proliferation and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases remains unexplored. To test the effects of baicalin on hypoxia, we used rats treated with or without baicalin (100 mg·kg−1 each rat) at the beginning of the third week after hypoxia. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), the weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV + S) ratio and the medial width of pulmonary arterioles were much higher in chronic hypoxia. However, baicalin treatment repressed the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV + S and attenuated the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling (PVSR) of pulmonary arterioles induced by chronic hypoxia. Additionally, baicalin (10 and 20 μmol·L−1) treatment suppressed the proliferation of PASMCs and attenuated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α) under hypoxia exposure. Meanwhile, baicalin reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction of p27 and increased AKT/protein kinase B phosphorylation p-AKT both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggested that baicalin could effectively attenuate PVSR and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24821539

  9. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Fukuchi, Rie; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-20

    The pulmonary insulin delivery characteristics of liposomes were examined. Aerosolized liposomes containing insulin were administered into rat lungs and the enhancing effect on insulin delivery was evaluated by changes of plasma glucose levels. Liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhanced pulmonary insulin delivery in rats, however, liposomes with dilauroyl, dimyristoyl, distearoyl or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine did not. Liposomes with DPPC also enhanced the in vitro permeation of FITC dextran (Mw 4400, FD-4) through the calu-3 cell monolayer by reducing the transepithelial electrical resistance and did not harm lung tissues in rats. These findings suggest that liposomes with DPPC enhance pulmonary insulin delivery by opening the epithelial cell space in the pulmonary mucosa not mucosal cell damage. Liposomes with DPPC could be useful as a pulmonary delivery system for peptide and protein drugs.

  10. Drug effects on neuroendocrine regulation; Proceedings of the International Symposium, Snowmass-at-Aspen, Colo., July 17-19, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, E. (Editor); Gispen, W. H.; Marks, B. H.; De Wied, D.

    1973-01-01

    Subjects related to the characterization of neuroendocrine systems are discussed, taking into account the need for the precise identification and rigorous description of their operations. Steroid effects on neuroendocrine system performance are considered along with biogenic amine effects on neuroendocrine systems and the influence of drugs of abuse on neuroendocrine behavior. Other topics explored include pituitary-adrenal influences on avoidance and approach behavior of the rat, the adrenocortical mediation of the effects of early life experiences, and the implication of noradrenaline in avoidance learning in the rat. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  11. The Hypoxic Response Contributes to Altered Gene Expression and Pre-Capillary Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Desai, Ankit A.; Saraf, Santosh; Miasniakova, Galina; Sergueeva, Adelina; Ammosova, Tatiana; Xu, Min; Nekhai, Sergei; Abbasi, Taimur; Casanova, Nancy G.; Steinberg, Martin H.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Sebastiani, Paola; Prchal, Josef T.; Kittles, Rick; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Machado, Roberto F.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2014-01-01

    Background We postulated that the hypoxic response in sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to altered gene expression and pulmonary hypertension, a complication associated with early mortality. Methods and Results To identify genes regulated by the hypoxic response and not other effects of chronic anemia, we compared expression variation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 SCD subjects with hemoglobin SS genotype and 15 Chuvash polycythemia subjects (VHLR200W homozygotes with constitutive up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factors in the absence of anemia or hypoxia). At 5% false discovery rate, 1040 genes exhibited >1.15 fold change in both conditions; 297 were up-regulated and 743 down-regulated including MAPK8 encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase important for apoptosis, T-cell differentiation and inflammatory responses. Association mapping with a focus on local regulatory polymorphisms in 61 SCD patients identified expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for 103 of these hypoxia response genes. In a University of Illinois SCD cohort the A allele of a MAPK8 eQTL, rs10857560, was associated with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15 mm Hg at right heart catheterization (allele frequency=0.66; OR=13.8, P=0.00036, n=238). This association was confirmed in an independent Walk-PHaSST cohort (allele frequency=0.65; OR=11.3, P=0.0025, n=519). The homozygous AA genotype of rs10857560 was associated with decreased MAPK8 expression and present in all 14 identified pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension cases among the combined 757 patients. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a prominent hypoxic transcription component in SCD and a MAPK8 eQTL associated with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24515990

  12. Molecular imaging in neuroendocrine tumors: molecular uptake mechanisms and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Klaas P; Neels, Oliver N; Kema, Ido P; Elsinga, Philip H; Links, Thera P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Jager, Pieter L

    2009-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors can originate almost everywhere in the body and consist of a great variety of subtypes. This paper focuses on molecular imaging methods using nuclear medicine techniques in neuroendocrine tumors, coupling molecular uptake mechanisms of radiotracers with clinical results. A non-systematic review is presented on receptor based and metabolic imaging methods. Receptor-based imaging covers the molecular backgrounds of somatostatin, vaso-intestinal peptide (VIP), bombesin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors and their link with nuclear imaging. Imaging methods based on specific metabolic properties include meta-iodo-benzylguanide (MIBG) and dimercapto-sulphuric acid (DMSA-V) scintigraphy as well as more modern positron emission tomography (PET)-based methods using radio-labeled analogues of amino acids, glucose, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine and tryptophan. Diagnostic sensitivities are presented for each imaging method and for each neuroendocrine tumor subtype. Finally, a Forest plot analysis of diagnostic performance is presented for each tumor type in order to provide a comprehensive overview for clinical use.

  13. Molecular characterization and differential gene induction of the neuroendocrine-specific genes neurotensin, neurotensin receptor, PC1, PC2, and 7B2 in the human ocular ciliary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ortego, J; Coca-Prados, M

    1997-11-01

    The ocular ciliary epithelium is a bilayer of neuroepithelial cells specialized in the secretion of aqueous humor fluid and the regulation of intraocular pressure. In this study, we report on the expression of the regulatory peptide neurotensin (NT) and a set of differentiated neuroendocrine markers including neurotensin receptors (NTrs), the prohormone convertases furin, PC1, and PC2, and the neuroendocrine polypeptide 7B2 in the ciliary epithelium. Using a human cell line, ODM-2, derived from the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, we demonstrate that (1) NT expression is highly activated by nerve growth factor, glucocorticoid, and activators of adenylate cyclase; (2) NTr expression is up-regulated by selective ligand-activated beta2-adrenergic receptor; and (3) PC1 and PC2 expression are up-regulated via distinct signaling transduction pathways. PC1 gene expression is activated by phorbol ester, and PC2 by the same inducers as those of NT expression. A radioimmunoassay for NT detected an NT-like immunoreactivity in human ciliary epithelium and ODM-2 cell extracts, in aqueous humor, and in conditioned culture medium. The results support the view that the entire ciliary epithelium functions as a neuroendocrine tissue, synthesizing, processing, and releasing NT into the aqueous humor where it may exert important physiological functions through autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms.

  14. Neuroendocrine changes upon exposure to predator odors.

    PubMed

    Hegab, Ibrahim M; Wei, Wanhong

    2014-05-28

    Predator odors are non-intrusive and naturalistic stressors of high ethological relevance in animals. Upon exposure to a predator or its associated cues, robust physiological and molecular anti-predator defensive strategies are elicited thereby allowing prey species to recognize, avoid and defend against a possible predation threat. In this review, we will discuss the nature of neuroendocrine stress responses upon exposure to predator odors. Predator odors can have a profound effect on the endocrine system, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and induction of stress hormones such as corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone. On a neural level, short-term exposure to predator odors leads to induction of the c-fos gene, while induction of ΔFosB in a different brain region is detected under chronic predation stress. Future research should aim to elucidate the relationships between neuroendocrine and behavioral outputs to gage the different levels of anti-predator responses in prey species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  16. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung: Current Challenges and Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Well-Differentiated Disease.

    PubMed

    Hendifar, Andrew E; Marchevsky, Alberto M; Tuli, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, most commonly originating from the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Lung NETs can be classified as well differentiated (low-grade typical carcinoids [TCs] and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoids [ACs]) and poorly differentiated (high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma or SCLC). The incidence of these tumors is increasing, but disease awareness remains low among thoracic specialists, who are often involved in the diagnosis and early treatment for these patients. An accurate and timely diagnosis can ensure the implementation of appropriate treatment and have a substantial impact on prognosis. However, lung NET classification and diagnosis, particularly for TCs/ACs, are complicated by several factors, including a variable natural history and nonspecific symptoms. Surgery remains the only curative option for TCs/ACs, but there is a lack of consensus between lung NET management guidelines regarding optimal treatment approaches in the unresectable/metastatic setting on account of the limited availability of high-level clinical evidence. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach to management of lung NETs is required to ensure a consistent and optimal level of care. RADIANT-4 is the first phase III trial involving a large subpopulation of patients with advanced well-differentiated lung NETs to report reductions in the risk for disease progression and death with everolimus over placebo. This led to the recent U.S. approval of everolimus-the first agent approved for advanced lung TCs/ACs. To further improve evidence-based care, additional randomized controlled trials in patients with lung carcinoids are needed. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulatory T cells and IL10 suppress pulmonary host defense during early-life exposure to radical containing combustion derived ultrafine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Saravia, Jordy; You, Dahui; Yadav, Nikki; Lee, Greg I; Shrestha, Bishwas; Cormier, Stephania A

    2017-01-13

    Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity. Here, we determine the mechanism of EPFR-induced immunosuppression and its impact on the immune response towards influenza infection. Neonatal mice (3 days old) were acutely exposed to DCB (combustion derived PM with chemisorbed EPFR) for seven consecutive days. Four days post-exposure (dpe), mice were infected with influenza virus. Pulmonary T cell phenotypes including regulatory T cells (Tregs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The role of IL10 in EPFR-induced exacerbation of influenza disease severity was determined by administering recombinant IL10 (rIL10) to wild type mice or by using IL10 deficient (IL10 -/- ) neonatal mice. Mice were assessed for morbidity by measuring percent weight change and pulmonary viral load. Neonatal mice exposed to EPFRs had a significant increase in pulmonary Tregs and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 following influenza infection, which coincided with decreased protective T cell responses to influenza infection at 6 dpi. Depletion of Tregs in EPFR-exposed neonatal mice resulted in increased protective, adaptive T cell responses, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs from EPFR-exposed neonates to air-exposed neonatal mice suppressed adaptive T cell responses towards influenza infection. Further, treatment with rIL10 could recapitulate EPFR-induced exacerbation of morbidity and pulmonary viral load compared to air exposed and influenza infected mice, whereas, EPFR-exposed IL10 -/- neonates exhibited

  18. Pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by a Th2 immune response

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Eleen; Emson, Claire; Guignabert, Christophe; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Louten, Jennifer; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Hogaboam, Cory; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Grunig, Ekkehard; Grunig, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vascular smooth muscle density is a common lesion seen in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly condition. Clinical correlation studies have suggested an immune pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial remodeling, but experimental proof has been lacking. We show that immunization and prolonged intermittent challenge via the airways with either of two different soluble antigens induced severe muscularization in small- to medium-sized pulmonary arteries. Depletion of CD4+ T cells, antigen-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) response, or the pathogenic Th2 cytokine interleukin 13 significantly ameliorated pulmonary arterial muscularization. The severity of pulmonary arterial muscularization was associated with increased numbers of epithelial cells and macrophages that expressed a smooth muscle cell mitogen, resistin-like molecule α, but surprisingly, there was no correlation with pulmonary hypertension. Our data are the first to provide experimental proof that the adaptive immune response to a soluble antigen is sufficient to cause severe pulmonary arterial muscularization, and support the clinical observations in pediatric patients and in companion animals that muscularization represents one of several injurious events to the pulmonary artery that may collectively contribute to PAH. PMID:18227220

  19. Place of surgical resection in the treatment strategy of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Gaujoux, Sébastien; Sauvanet, Alain; Belghiti, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are usually slow-growing neoplasms carrying an overall favorable prognosis. Surgery, from resection to transplantation, remains the only potential curative option for these patients, and should always be considered. Nevertheless, because of very few randomized controlled trials available, the optimal treatment for these patients remains controversial, especially regarding the place of surgery. We herein discuss the place of surgical resection in the treatment strategy in neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract.

  20. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, Harald J.J.; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzymemore » inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.« less

  1. Diacetyl Induces Amphiregulin Shedding in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and in Experimental Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jesse; Fischer, Bernard M.; Voynow, Judith A.; Kummarapurugu, Apparao B.; Zhang, Helen L.; Nugent, Julia L.; Beasley, Robert F.; Martinu, Tereza; Gwinn, William M.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Diacetyl (DA), a component of artificial butter flavoring, has been linked to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), a disease of airway epithelial injury and airway fibrosis. The epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, amphiregulin (AREG), has been implicated in other types of epithelial injury and lung fibrosis. We investigated the effects of DA directly on the pulmonary epithelium, and we hypothesized that DA exposure would result in epithelial cell shedding of AREG. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that DA increases AREG by the pulmonary epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and by multiple independent primary human airway epithelial donors grown under physiologically relevant conditions at the air–liquid interface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AREG shedding occurs through a TNF-α–converting enzyme (TACE)-dependent mechanism via inhibition of TACE activity in epithelial cells using the small molecule inhibitor, TNF-α protease inhibitor-1, as well as TACE-specific small inhibitor RNA. Finally, we demonstrate supportive in vivo results showing increased AREG transcript and protein levels in the lungs of rodents with DA-induced BO. In summary, our novel in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that further study of AREG is warranted in the pathogenesis of DA-induced BO. PMID:24816162

  2. The neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis-like pathway mediated by circulating haemocytes in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Jiang, Qiufen; Wang, Lingling; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of host. In this study, a neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes was characterized in the oyster Crassostrea gigas Once invaded pathogen was recognized by the host, the nervous system would temporally release neurotransmitters to modulate the immune response. Instead of acting passively, oyster haemocytes were able to mediate neuronal immunomodulation promptly by controlling the expression of specific neurotransmitter receptors on cell surface and modulating their binding sensitivities, thus regulating intracellular concentration of Ca 2+ This neural immunomodulation mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes could influence cellular immunity in oyster by affecting mRNA expression level of TNF genes, and humoral immunity by affecting the activities of key immune-related enzymes. In summary, though simple in structure, the 'nervous-haemocyte' NIA-like pathway regulates both cellular and humoral immunity in oyster, meaning a world to the effective immune regulation of the NEI network. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells on pulmonary myeloid cells following neonatal hyperoxic lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Rubaie, Ali; Wise, Andrea F; Sozo, Foula; De Matteo, Robert; Samuel, Chrishan S; Harding, Richard; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2018-06-08

    Exposure to high levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) after birth leads to lung injury. Our aims were to investigate the modulation of myeloid cell sub-populations and the reduction of fibrosis in the lungs following administration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia. Newborn mice were exposed to 90% O 2 (hyperoxia) or 21% O 2 (normoxia) from postnatal days 0-4. A sub-group of hyperoxia mice were injected intratracheally with 2.5X10 5 hMSCs. Using flow cytometry we assessed pulmonary immune cells at postnatal days 0, 4, 7 and 14. The following markers were chosen to identify these cells: CD45 + (leukocytes), Ly6C + Ly6G + (granulocytes), CD11b + CD11c + (macrophages); macrophage polarisation was assessed by F4/80 and CD206 expression. hMSCs expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and firefly luciferase (fluc) were administered via the trachea at day 4. Lung macrophages in all groups were profiled using next generation sequencing (NGS) to assess alterations in macrophage phenotype. Pulmonary collagen deposition and morphometry were assessed at days 14 and 56 respectively. At day 4, hyperoxia increased the number of pulmonary Ly6C + Ly6G + granulocytes and F4/80 low CD206 low macrophages but decreased F4/80 high CD206 high macrophages. At days 7 and 14, hyperoxia increased numbers of CD45 + leukocytes, CD11b + CD11c + alveolar macrophages and F4/80 low CD206 low macrophages but decreased F4/80 high CD206 high macrophages. hMSCs administration ameliorated these effects of hyperoxia, notably reducing numbers of CD11b + CD11c + and F4/80 low CD206 low macrophages; in contrast, F4/80 high CD206 high macrophages were increased. Genes characteristic of anti-inflammatory 'M2' macrophages (Arg1, Stat6, Retnla, Mrc1, Il27ra, Chil3, and Il12b) were up-regulated, and pro-inflammatory 'M1' macrophages (Cd86, Stat1, Socs3, Slamf1, Tnf, Fcgr1, Il12b, Il6, Il1b, and Il27ra) were downregulated in isolated lung macrophages from hyperoxia

  4. [Late onset, non-infectious pulmonary complications after haematological stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Bergeron, A; Feuillet, S; Meignin, V; Socie, G; Tazi, A

    2008-02-01

    Non infectious pulmonary complications which frequently occur in the late follow-up of haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients account for an increase in mortality and morbidity. Different histological entities have been described among which bronchiolitis obliterans is the most common. Because of the absence of prospective epidemiological studies and the difficulties in obtaining surgical lung biopsies from these frail patients little is known about these conditions. Although their pathogenesis is poorly understood they probably result from a chronic pulmonary graft versus host disease (GVHD). The introduction of or increase in systemic immunosuppressive treatment, usually indicated for controlling extra-thoracic manifestations of GVHD, may lead to the resolution of an organising pneumonia but is usually ineffective in the treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans. Current prospective cohort studies together with randomised prospective studies evaluating more targeted treatments should help determine the frequency, the risk factors and the precise characteristics of the different entities of late non-infectious pulmonary diseases following HSCT and should also improve their management. Furthermore, the recent demonstration of lung abnormalities in animal models of chronic GVHD, similar to those observed in humans, should allow a better understanding of the pathogenesis. The prevalence of these diseases is increasing throughout the world. More precise analysis, the identification of risk factors and study of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved should allow better understanding and management than at present.

  5. The Role of Immune and Inflammatory Cells in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Omkar; Winkler, Julia; Minasyan, Maksym; Herzog, Erica L.

    2018-01-01

    The contribution of the immune system to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains poorly understood. While most sources agree that IPF does not result from a primary immunopathogenic mechanism, evidence gleaned from animal modeling and human studies suggests that innate and adaptive immune processes can orchestrate existing fibrotic responses. This review will synthesize the available data regarding the complex role of professional immune cells in IPF. The role of innate immune populations such as monocytes, macrophages, myeloid suppressor cells, and innate lymphoid cells will be discussed, as will the activation of these cells via pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from invading or commensural microbes, and danger-associated molecular patterns derived from injured cells and tissues. The contribution of adaptive immune responses driven by T-helper cells and B cells will be reviewed as well. Each form of immune activation will be discussed in the context of its relationship to environmental and genetic factors, disease outcomes, and potential therapies. We conclude with discussion of unanswered questions and opportunities for future study in this area. PMID:29616220

  6. Connexin-43 upregulation in micrometastases and tumor vasculature and its role in tumor cell attachment to pulmonary endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Elzarrad, M Khair; Haroon, Abu; Willecke, Klaus; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Gillespie, Mark N; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr

    2008-01-01

    Background The modulation of gap junctional communication between tumor cells and between tumor and vascular endothelial cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis is complex. The notion of a role for loss of gap junctional intercellular communication in tumorigenesis and metastasis has been controversial. While some of the stages of tumorigenesis and metastasis, such as uncontrolled cell division and cellular detachment, would necessitate the loss of intercellular junctions, other stages, such as intravasation, endothelial attachment, and vascularization, likely require increased cell-cell contact. We hypothesized that, in this multi-stage scheme, connexin-43 is centrally involved as a cell adhesion molecule mediating metastatic tumor attachment to the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Tumor cell attachment to pulmonary vasculature, tumor growth, and connexin-43 expression was studied in metastatic lung tumor sections obtained after tail-vein injection into nude mice of syngeneic breast cancer cell lines, overexpressing wild type connexin-43 or dominant-negatively mutated connexin-43 proteins. High-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis was performed using a connexin-43 monoclonal antibody. Calcein Orange Red AM dye transfer by fluorescence imaging was used to evaluate the gap junction function. Results Adhesion of breast cancer cells to the pulmonary endothelium increased with cancer cells overexpressing connexin-43 and markedly decreased with cells expressing dominant-negative connexin-43. Upregulation of connexin-43 was observed in tumor cell-endothelial cell contact areas in vitro and in vivo, and in areas of intratumor blood vessels and in micrometastatic foci. Conclusion Connexin-43 facilitates metastatic 'homing' by increasing adhesion of cancer cells to the lung endothelial cells. The marked upregulation of connexin-43 in tumor cell-endothelial cell contact areas, whether in preexisting 'homing' vessels or in newly formed tumor

  7. Connexin-43 upregulation in micrometastases and tumor vasculature and its role in tumor cell attachment to pulmonary endothelium.

    PubMed

    Elzarrad, M Khair; Haroon, Abu; Willecke, Klaus; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Gillespie, Mark N; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr

    2008-07-22

    The modulation of gap junctional communication between tumor cells and between tumor and vascular endothelial cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis is complex. The notion of a role for loss of gap junctional intercellular communication in tumorigenesis and metastasis has been controversial. While some of the stages of tumorigenesis and metastasis, such as uncontrolled cell division and cellular detachment, would necessitate the loss of intercellular junctions, other stages, such as intravasation, endothelial attachment, and vascularization, likely require increased cell-cell contact. We hypothesized that, in this multi-stage scheme, connexin-43 is centrally involved as a cell adhesion molecule mediating metastatic tumor attachment to the pulmonary endothelium. Tumor cell attachment to pulmonary vasculature, tumor growth, and connexin-43 expression was studied in metastatic lung tumor sections obtained after tail-vein injection into nude mice of syngeneic breast cancer cell lines, overexpressing wild type connexin-43 or dominant-negatively mutated connexin-43 proteins. High-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis was performed using a connexin-43 monoclonal antibody. Calcein Orange Red AM dye transfer by fluorescence imaging was used to evaluate the gap junction function. Adhesion of breast cancer cells to the pulmonary endothelium increased with cancer cells overexpressing connexin-43 and markedly decreased with cells expressing dominant-negative connexin-43. Upregulation of connexin-43 was observed in tumor cell-endothelial cell contact areas in vitro and in vivo, and in areas of intratumor blood vessels and in micrometastatic foci. Connexin-43 facilitates metastatic 'homing' by increasing adhesion of cancer cells to the lung endothelial cells. The marked upregulation of connexin-43 in tumor cell-endothelial cell contact areas, whether in preexisting 'homing' vessels or in newly formed tumor vessels, suggests that connexin-43 can

  8. Differential expression and prognostic value of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kaemmerer, Daniel; Reimann, Christiane; Specht, Elisa; Wirtz, Ralph M; Sayeg, Manal; Baum, Richard P; Schulz, Stefan; Lupp, Amelie

    2015-02-20

    For many tumors, the overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with increased malignancy and poor patient outcomes. However, comprehensive data for neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung are still lacking. CXCR4 expression was evaluated in a panel of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (BP-NEN) comprising typical carcinoids (n = 26), atypical carcinoids (n = 30), and small cell lung cancers (SCLC, n = 34). Samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the novel monoclonal rabbit anti-human CXCR4 antibody UMB-2 and by qRT-PCR. The expression was correlated with clinical data and overall patient survival. CXCR4 was predominantly localized at the plasma membrane of the tumor cells. CXCR4 was expressed with a high intensity in almost all of the 30 SCLC samples. In contrast, it was detected infrequently and with low intensity in the typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid samples. There was a significant correlation between the immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR data. Additionally, there was a significant negative relationship between CXCR4 expression and overall survival. With increasing malignancy, BP-NEN clearly differ in the extent of CXCR4 expression. As in other tumor entities, CXCR4 overexpression significantly correlates with negative patient outcome. Due to its particular high expression rate in SCLC, CXCR4 may serve as a promising new target for diagnostic and pharmacological intervention as well as for peptide receptor-based radionuclide therapy.

  9. The nature of neuroendocrine abnormalities in depression: a controversial issue in contemporary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    von Zerssen, D; Berger, M; Dose, M; Doerr, P; Krieg, C; Bossert, S; Riemann, D; Pirke, K M; Dolhofer, R; Müller, O A

    1986-01-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities in depression have been regarded, by many authors, as relatively specific markers of nosological subtypes of the disorder, e.g. primary vs. secondary, endogenous vs. non-endogenous or unipolar vs. bipolar depression. They should reflect the same changes in central neurotransmitters (e.g. noradrenergic insufficiency and/or cholinergic hyperactivity) that were hypothesized as the cause of clinical symptoms. This view is challenged on the basis of our own neuroendocrine investigations in 317 psychiatric patients and 103 normal controls. According to these studies the abnormalities are nosologically rather unspecific. They are induced by a large variety of factors, e.g. emotional stress associated with the clinical symptomatology, weight loss due to malnutrition as a consequence of reduced appetite, medication and drug withdrawal. Stress-induced hypercortisolism appears to be the most common abnormality that may trigger other neuroendocrine dysfunctions, such as a blunted TSH response to TRH. Differences in neuroendocrine abnormalities of depressives are probably due to variations in the manifold factors influencing the hormonal axes involved, to temporal changes in hormonal patterns (e.g. one abnormality triggering another) and to individual differences in the basic activity and the responsiveness of the various axes.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Renal Denervation on Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Qingyan, Zhao; Xuejun, Jiang; Yanhong, Tang; Zixuan, Dai; Xiaozhan, Wang; Xule, Wang; Zongwen, Guo; Wei, Hu; Shengbo, Yu; Congxin, Huang

    2015-07-01

    Activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that renal denervation decreases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity and inhibits the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty-two beagles were randomized into 3 groups. The dogs' pulmonary dynamics were measured before and 8 weeks after injection of 0.1mL/kg dimethylformamide (control dogs) or 2mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs). Eight weeks after injection, neurohormone levels and pulmonary tissue morphology were measured. Levels of plasma angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were significantly increased after 8 weeks in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs and were higher in the lung tissues of these dogs than in those of the control and renal denervation dogs (mean [standard deviation] angiotensin II: 65 [9.8] vs 38 [6.7], 46 [8.1]; endothelin-1: 96 [10.3] vs 54 [6.2], 67 [9.4]; P < .01). Dehydromonocrotaline increased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (16 [3.4] mmHg vs 33 [7.3] mmHg; P < .01), and renal denervation prevented this increase. Pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation was higher in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs than in the control and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs. Renal denervation attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension. The effect of renal denervation may contribute to decreased neurohormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae; Kim, Sang-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.

  12. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26508947

  13. In situ analysis of lung antigen-presenting cells during murine pulmonary infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza-González, Alexander; García-Romo, Gina S; Aguilar-León, Diana; Calderon-Amador, Juana; Hurtado-Ortiz, Raquel; Orozco-Estevez, Hector; Lambrecht, Bart N; Estrada-García, Iris; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2004-01-01

    Scarce information exists about the role of lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in vivo during pulmonary tuberculosis. As APCs activate cellular immunity, following intratracheal inoculation with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we assessed in situ lung APC recruitment, distribution, granuloma involvement, morphology and mycobacterial burden by using MHC-CII, CD14, scavenger receptor class A (SRA), the murine dendritic cell (DC)-restricted marker CD11c and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. CD11c+ DC and CD14+ cell recruitment into lungs appeared by day 14, continuing until day 60. MHC-CII+ cells increased since day 7, persisting until day 60. Thus, virulent mycobacteria delays (14–21 days) lung APC recruitment compared to model antigens and nonvirulent bacilli (24–48 h). Regarding granuloma constitution, highly bacillary CD14+ and SRA+ cells were centrally located. MHC-CII+ cells were more peripheral, with less mycobacteria. CD11c+ cells were heterogeneously distributed within granulomas, with scarce bacilli. When labelling lung suspensions for MHC-CII and classifying cells as macrophages or DC, then staining for Ziehl–Neelsen, a remarkable segregation was found regarding bacillary burden. Most macrophage-like cells contained numerous bacilli, while DC had no or scarce mycobacteria. This implies differential APC contributions in situ during pulmonary tuberculosis regarding mycobacterial uptake, granuloma involvement and perhaps bacillary growth. PMID:15255967

  14. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Induces Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Aljubran, Salman A.; Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Bao, Huynh; Mohapatra, Shyam M.; Lockey, Richard; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a progressively devastating disease characterized by excessive proliferation of the Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells (PASMCs). Studies suggest that PAH and cancers share an apoptosis-resistant state featuring excessive cell proliferation. The proliferation of cancer cells is mediated by increased expression of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of target genes. However, the role of EZH2 in PAH has not been studied. In this study, it is hypothesized that EZH2 could play a role in the proliferation of PASMCs. Methods In the present study, the expression patterns of EZH2 were investigated in normal and hypertensive mouse PASMCs. The effects of EZH2 overexpression on the proliferation of human PASMCs were tested. PASMCs were transfected with EZH2 or GFP using nucleofector system. After transfection, the cells were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C. Proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis of PASMCs was determined using annexin V staining and cell migration was tested by wound healing assay. Results EZH2 protein expression in mouse PASMCs were correlated with an increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH). The overexpression of EZH2 in human PASMCs enhances proliferation, migration, and decrease in the rate of apoptosis when compared to GFP-transfected cells. In the G2/M phase of the EZH2 transfected cells, there was a 3.5 fold increase in proliferation, while there was a significant decrease in the rate of apoptosis of PASMCs, when compared to control. Conclusion These findings suggest that EZH2 plays a role in the migration and proliferation of PASMCs, which is a major hallmark in PAH. It also suggests that EZH2 could play a role in the development of PAH and can serve as a potential target for new therapies for PAH. PMID:22662197

  15. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging in the evaluation of pancreatic masses which are potential neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Jin, Xiaona; Huo, Li; Zhu, Zhaohui; Xing, Haiqun; Li, Fang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of the findings and the diagnoses of Tc-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide scan (Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging) in patients with pancreatic masses which were potential neuroendocrine tumors. Records of total 20 patients with pancreatic masses were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had been revealed by abdominal contrast CT and possibility of neuroendocrine tumors could not be excluded by CT imaging before Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging was performed at 1 and 4 hours post-tracer injection, and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were also acquired. The image findings were compared to final diagnoses which were made from pathological examination. Among all 20 pancreatic masses evaluated, there were 16 malignant lesions which included 1 ductal adenocarcinoma and 15 neuroendocrine tumors. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging identified 14 of 15 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and excluded 4 of 5 lesions which were not neuroendocrine tumors. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was therefore 93.3% (14 of 15), 80% (4 of 5), and 90.0% (18 of 20), respectively, in our patient population. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging provides reasonable accuracy in the evaluation pancreatic mass suspected to be neuroendocrine tumors.

  16. Lineage Analysis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    undergo pneunomectomy followed one week later by intravenous injection of monocrotaline pyrrole . The fate of GFP-expressing cells of endothelial lineage...pneumonectomy followed one week later by jugular vein injection of monocrotaline pyrrole in dimethyl formamide. Expression of smooth muscle alpha actin in...cells. We induced experimental pulmonary hypertension in SM22 Cre x mT/mG mice, by injecting monocrotaline pyrrole into the pulmonary circulation of

  17. POLYBROMINATED DEPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS NEUROENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS OF VASOPRESSIN RELEASE: EFFECTS DURING PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVATION IN VITRO AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neuropeptide, vasopressin (VP) is synthesized in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) located within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus. VP has multiple functions including maintenance of body fluid homeostasis, cardiovasc...

  18. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase directs cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jarrod W; Tian, Liping; Heresi, Gustavo A; Farver, Carol F; Asosingh, Kewal; Comhair, Suzy A A; Aulak, Kulwant S; Dweik, Raed A

    2015-04-07

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a cardiopulmonary disease characterized by cellular proliferation and vascular remodeling. A more recently recognized characteristic of the disease is the dysregulation of glucose metabolism. The primary link between altered glucose metabolism and cell proliferation in IPAH has not been elucidated. We aimed to determine the relationship between glucose metabolism and smooth muscle cell proliferation in IPAH. Human IPAH and control patient lung tissues and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were used to analyze a specific pathway of glucose metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. We measured the levels of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine hydrolase in control and IPAH cells and tissues. Our data suggest that the activation of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway directly increased OGT levels and activity, triggering changes in glycosylation and PASMC proliferation. Partial knockdown of OGT in IPAH PASMCs resulted in reduced global O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification levels and abrogated PASMC proliferation. The increased proliferation observed in IPAH PASMCs was directly impacted by proteolytic activation of the cell cycle regulator, host cell factor-1. Our data demonstrate that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux is increased in IPAH and drives OGT-facilitated PASMC proliferation through specific proteolysis and direct activation of host cell factor-1. These findings establish a novel regulatory role for OGT in IPAH, shed a new light on our understanding of the disease pathobiology, and provide opportunities to design novel therapeutic strategies for IPAH. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Pulmonary Retention of Adipose Stromal Cells Following Intravenous Delivery Is Markedly Altered in the Presence of ARDS.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Cook, Todd; Poirier, Christophe; Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie; Petrache, Irina; March, Keith L; Bogatcheva, Natalia V

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been shown to effectively prevent lung injury in several preclinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since MSC therapy is tested in clinical trials for ARDS, there is an increased need to define the dynamics of cell trafficking and organ-specific accumulation. We examined how the presence of ARDS changes retention and organ-specific distribution of intravenously delivered MSCs isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue [adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)]. This type of cell therapy was previously shown to ameliorate ARDS pathology. ARDS was triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) aspiration, 4 h after which 300,000 murine CRE + ADSCs were delivered intravenously. The distribution of ADSCs in the lungs and other organs was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genomic DNA. As anticipated, the majority of delivered ADSCs accumulated in the lungs of both control and LPS-challenged mice, with minor amounts distributed to the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and brain. Interestingly, within 2 h following ADSC administration, LPS-challenged lungs retained significantly lower levels of ADSCs compared to control lungs (∼7% vs. 15% of the original dose, respectively), whereas the liver, kidney, spleen, and brain of ARDS-affected animals retained significantly higher numbers of ADSCs compared to control animals. In contrast, 48 h later, only LPS-challenged lungs continued to retain ADSCs (∼3% of the original dose), whereas the lungs of control animals and nonpulmonary organs in either control or ARDS mice had no detectable levels of ADSCs. Our data suggest that the pulmonary microenvironment during ARDS may lessen the pulmonary capillary occlusion by MSCs immediately following cell delivery while facilitating pulmonary retention of the cells.

  20. Pulmonary physiology during pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C G

    1992-04-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism produces a number of pathophysiologic derangements of pulmonary function. Foremost among these alterations is increased pulmonary vascular resistance. For patients without preexistent cardiopulmonary disease, increased pulmonary vascular resistance is directly related to the degree of vascular obstruction demonstrated on the pulmonary arteriogram. Vasoconstriction, either reflexly or biochemically mediated, may contribute to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Acute pulmonary thromboembolism also disturbs matching of ventilation and blood flow. Consequently, some lung units are overventilated relative to perfusion (increased dead space), while other lung units are underventilated relative to perfusion (venous admixture). True right-to-left shunting of mixed venous blood can occur through the lungs (intrapulmonary shunt) or across the atrial septum (intracardiac shunt). In addition, abnormalities of pulmonary gas exchange (carbon monoxide transfer), pulmonary compliance and airway resistance, and ventilatory control may accompany pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy can reverse the hemodynamic derangements of acute pulmonary thromboembolism more rapidly than anticoagulant therapy. Limited data suggest a sustained benefit of thrombolytic treatment on the pathophysiologic alterations of pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary gas exchange produced by acute pulmonary emboli.

  1. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    -lymphocytes and natural killer cells are decreased with post-flight conditions. Of the lymphokines, interleukin-2 production, lymphocyte responsiveness, and the activity of natural killer cells are consistently reduced post-flight. Limited head-down tilt (HDT) data suggest it is an effective simulation model for microgravity investigations. Neuroendocrine and pharmacological countermeasures are virtually nonexistent arid should become high priority items for future research. Although exercise has the potential to be an effective countermeasure for various neuroen-docrine-immune responses in microgravity, this concept must be tested before flights to Mars are scheduled.

  2. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. [A rare pulmonary benign bi-phasic tumor: a case report of pulmonary adenofibroma and literature review].

    PubMed

    Mei, F; Zhao, T T; Gao, F; Zheng, J

    2017-12-18

    Pulmonary adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign primary tumor of the lung, with characteristic bi-phasic differential pattern. They are usually sub-pleural solid pulmonary nodules with clear margins. The tumor is composed of glands and peri-gland stroma. The glands are often quite simple, forming long and narrow tubules, with uniformly monolayer lining cells. Combined papillary or phyllodes structures were reported in some cases. The stromal cells are spindle-shaped and look mild, mixed with the collagen bands. Up till now, only a few cases of pulmonary adenofibroma have been reported all over the world. And because of the limited recognition, this tumor is easily misinterpreted as malignancy in frozen section or biopsy specimens. We reported a new case of pulmonary adenofibroma. The mass peripherally located in the left lobe of the lung, found by chance in a 74-year-old woman. The patient underwent a wedge resection of the left lung by the thoracoscope, because of the slowly gradual enlargement of the mass annually. An oval grayish-white nodule was sub-pleural located in the specimen, with solid and rubbery texture, but without a distinct capsule. Two distinct components of simple glands and mild spindle cell stroma were found to mix together uniformly under the microscope. Collagen bands of various widths evenly surrounded each stromal cell. A few small coarse papillae or phyllodes structures were randomly distributed in some area. The immunohistochemical staining pattern of the glandular cells was accordant with typeIIalveolar epithelium. Stromal cells were positive with CD34, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), CD99 and estrogen receptor (ER), while S-100, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and all the mesothe-lium markers were negative. The patient was disease free after the surgery, although the follow-up time was only one year. Besides the new case above, we also reviewed all the reported cases, and tentatively discussed the probable histological origin of pulmonary

  4. Pulmonary veins in the normal lung and pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James M.; Bethea, Brian; Liu, Xiang; Gandjeva, Aneta; Mammen, Pradeep P. A.; Stacher, Elvira; Gandjeva, Marina R.; Parish, Elisabeth; Perez, Mario; Smith, Lynelle; Graham, Brian B.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of pulmonary veins in normal lung physiology and the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD), pulmonary veins remain largely understudied. Difficult to identify histologically, lung venous endothelium or smooth muscle cells display no unique characteristic functional and structural markers that distinguish them from pulmonary arteries. To address these challenges, we undertook a search for unique molecular markers in pulmonary veins. In addition, we addressed the expression pattern of a candidate molecular marker and analyzed the structural pattern of vascular remodeling of pulmonary veins in a rodent model of PH-LHD and in lung tissue of patients with PH-LHD obtained at time of placement on a left ventricular assist device. We detected urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression preferentially in normal pulmonary veins of mice, rats, and human lungs. Expression of uPAR remained elevated in pulmonary veins of rats with PH-LHD; however, we also detected induction of uPAR expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries. These findings were validated in lungs of patients with PH-LHD. In selected patients with sequential lung biopsy at the time of removal of the left ventricular assist device, we present early data suggesting improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and venous remodeling, indicating potential regression of venous remodeling in response to assist device treatment. Our data indicate that remodeling of pulmonary veins is an integral part of PH-LHD and that pulmonary veins share some key features present in remodeled yet not normotensive pulmonary arteries. PMID:24039255

  5. Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sze Ting; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Singh, Aviral; Baum, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/computed tomography using 68 Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs is the mainstay for the evaluation of receptor status in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). This translates towards better therapy options, with increasing evidence of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) as the treatment of choice for advanced or progressive NETs. There are benefits in progression-free and overall survival as well as a significant improvement in clinical condition. In patients with progressive NETs, fractionated, personalized PRRT results in good therapeutic responses with no significant severe hematological and/or renal toxicity, thus improving quality of life.

  6. Structure and composition of pulmonary arteries, capillaries and veins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The pulmonary vasculature is comprised of three anatomic compartments connected in series: the arterial tree, an extensive capillary bed, and the venular tree. Although in general this vasculature is thin-walled, structure is nonetheless complex. Contributions to structure (and thus potentially to function) from cells other than endothelial and smooth muscle cells as well as those from the extracellular matrix should be considered. This review is multifaceted, bringing together information regarding 1) classification of pulmonary vessels, 2) branching geometry in the pulmonary vascular tree, 3) a quantitative view of structure based on morphometry of the vascular wall, 4) the relationship of nerves, a variety of interstitial cells, matrix proteins, and striated myocytes to smooth muscle and endothelium in the vascular wall, 5) heterogeneity within cell populations and between vascular compartments, 6) homo- and heterotypic cell-cell junctional complexes, and 7) the relation of the pulmonary vasculature to that of airways. These issues for pulmonary vascular structure are compared, when data is available, across species from human to mouse and shrew. Data from studies utilizing vascular casting, light and electron microscopy, as well as models developed from those data, are discussed. Finally, the need for rigorous quantitative approaches to study of vascular structure in lung is highlighted. PMID:23606929

  7. Human fetal ductal plate revisited. I. ductal plate expresses NCAM, KIT, MET, PDGFRA, and neuroendocrine antigens (NSE, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD56).

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms of ductal plate (DP) development and differentiation (DD) in human fetal livers (HFLs) are unclear. The author immunohistochemically investigated expressions of NCAM, KIT, KIT, PDGFRA, and neuroendocrine antigens in 32 HFLs. The processes of human intrahepatic bile duct (IBD) DD could be categorized into four stages: DP, remodeling DP, remodeled DP, and mature IBD. NCAM was always expressed in DP and remodeling DP, but not in remodeled DP and mature IBD. The biliary elements were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, 8, 18, and 19. The hepatoblasts were positive for CK8 and CD18, but negative for CK7 and CK19; however, periportal hepatoblasts showed biliary-type CKs (CK7 and CK19). NCAM was always expressed in DP and remodeling DP, but not in remodeled DP and mature IBD. KIT was occasionally (12/32 cases) expressed in DP and remodeling DP, but not in remodeled DP and mature IBD. NCAM expression was also seen in some hepatoblasts and hematopoietic cells and neurons. KIT was also expressed in some hepatoblasts, hematopoietic cells, and mast cells. MET and PDGFRA were strongly expressed in DP, remodeling DP, remodeled DP, and mature IBD. MET and PDGFRA were also strongly expressed in hepatoblasts and hematopoietic cells. MET and PDGFRA were not expressed in portal mesenchyme, portal veins, sinusoids, and hepatic veins. DP showed immunoreactive chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and CD56. Expressions of chromogranin and CD56 were infrequently seen in remodeling DP. No expressions of these four neuroendocrine antigens were seen in remodeled DP and mature IBD. The nerve fibers were consistently positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, NSE, and CD56 in the portal mesenchyme in the stages of remodeling DP, remodeled DP, and mature IBDs. The data suggest that NCAM, KIT/stem cell factor-signaling, NSE, hepatocyte growth factor/MET signaling, PDGFα/PDGFRA signaling, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD56 play important roles in DD

  8. Granulomatous inflammation of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some neoplasms are associated with granulomatous inflammation. Granuloma formation in tumor tissue is caused by the cytokines derived from either the main tumor or other cells surrounding the tumor. In other instances, granulomatous inflammation is observed in the lymph nodes draining a tumor. This has been recognized as a sarcoid-like reaction. Herein, we report of a 75-year-old man with pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), where granulomatous inflammation was observed extensively at the primary site. The carcinoma seemed to partly regress. In the regressing area, tumor cell debris was surrounded by granuloma. In contrast, no granuloma was identified in the dissected regional lymph nodes. To the best of our knowledge, such a case of SCC had not been described thus far. More case studies are required to determine whether tumor-related granuloma is the main cause of regression or whether it is just a secondary phenomenon caused by the attack and destruction of the tumor by lymphocytes.

  9. 60 YEARS OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: The structure of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus: the neuroanatomical legacy of Geoffrey Harris.

    PubMed

    Watts, Alan G

    2015-08-01

    In November 1955, Geoffrey Harris published a paper based on the Christian A Herter Lecture he had given earlier that year at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, USA. The paper reviewed the contemporary research that was starting to explain how the hypothalamus controlled the pituitary gland. In the process of doing so, Harris introduced a set of properties that helped define the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. They included: i) three criteria that putative releasing factors for adenohypophysial hormones would have to fulfill; ii) an analogy between the representation of body parts in the sensory and motor cortices and the spatial localization of neuroendocrine function in the hypothalamus; and iii) the idea that neuroendocrine neurons are motor neurons and the pituitary stalk functions as a Sherringtonian final common pathway through which the impact of sensory and emotional events on neuroendocrine neurons must pass in order to control pituitary hormone release. Were these properties a sign that the major neuroscientific discoveries that were being made in the early 1950s were beginning to influence neuroendocrinology? This Thematic Review discusses two main points: the context and significance of Harris's Herter Lecture for how our understanding of neuroendocrine anatomy (particularly as it relates to the control of the adenohypophysis) has developed since 1955; and, within this framework, how novel and powerful techniques are currently taking our understanding of the structure of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus to new levels. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Successful management with CHOP for pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hatoya, Singo; Kumagai, Daijiro; Takeda, Seiko; Yamamoto, Emi; Nakanishi, Masako; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Sugiura, Kikuya; Sasai, Hiroshi; Yamate, Jyoji; Inaba, Toshio

    2011-04-01

    A 3-year-old, spayed female miniature dachshund was presented for vomiting and anorexia. Thoracic radiographs and CT scan revealed abnormal pulmonary opacities at bilateral caudal lobe. Cytological analysis of the pulmonary mass revealed the presence of large lymphohistiocytic cells and small lymphocytes with occasional neutrophils and plasma cells. An open lung biopsy was performed and a diagnosis of pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) was made. The dog was administered CHOP based therapy (modified UW-25), and it survived for 1,022 days after admission. Immunohistochemistry revealed pulmonary lesions consisted of many CD79a positive B cells aggregation and proliferation with prominent angiocentric pattern. This was the first case of canine pulmonary LYG managed by CHOP chemotherapy.

  11. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine (including carcinoid) tumours (NETs)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A; Ardill, J; Bax, N; Breen, D J; Caplin, M E; Corrie, P; Davar, J; Davies, A H; Lewington, V; Meyer, T; Newell-Price, J; Poston, G; Reed, N; Rockall, A; Steward, W; Thakker, R V; Toubanakis, C; Valle, J; Verbeke, C; Grossman, A B

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines update previous guidance published in 2005. They have been revised by a group who are members of the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society with endorsement from the clinical committees of the British Society of Gastroenterology, the Society for Endocrinology, the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (and its Surgical Specialty Associations), the British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology and others. The authorship represents leaders of the various groups in the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society, but a large amount of work has been carried out by other specialists, many of whom attended a guidelines conference in May 2009. We have attempted to represent this work in the acknowledgements section. Over the past few years, there have been advances in the management of neuroendocrine tumours, which have included clearer characterisation, more specific and therapeutically relevant diagnosis, and improved treatments. However, there remain few randomised trials in the field and the disease is uncommon, hence all evidence must be considered weak in comparison with other more common cancers. PMID:22052063

  12. Combining neuroendocrine inhibitors in heart failure: reflections on safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jneid, Hani; Moukarbel, George V; Dawson, Bart; Hajjar, Roger J; Francis, Gary S

    2007-12-01

    Neuroendocrine activation in heart failure has become the major target of pharmacotherapy for this growing epidemic. Agents targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems have shown cardiovascular and survival benefits in clinical trials. Beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors remain the mainstream initial therapy. The benefits of aldosterone antagonists have been demonstrated in advanced heart failure (spironolactone) and after myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure (eplerenone). Emerging clinical evidence demonstrated that angiotensin receptor blockers may be a reasonable alternative to ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure (candesartan) and following myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction (valsartan). Angiotensin receptor blockers (candesartan) also provided incremental benefits when added to ACE inhibitors in chronic heart failure. Thus, combining neuroendocrine inhibitors in heart failure appears both biologically plausible and evidence-based. However, this approach raised concerns about side effects, such as hypotension, renal insufficiency, hyperkalemia, and others. Close follow-up and implementation of evidence-based medicine (ie, using agents and doses proven beneficial in clinical trials) should therefore be undertaken when combining neuroendocrine inhibitors.

  13. Von Hippel–Lindau and myotonic dystrophy of Steinert along with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and renal clear cell carcinomal neoplasm: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Addeo, A.; Bini, R.; Viora, T.; Bonaccorsi, L.; Leli, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Myotonic dystrophy of Steinert, DM1, is the most common adult muscular dystrophy and generally is not associated to development on multiple site neoplasm. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome that is associated to tumors such as hemangioblastoma of the retina or central nervous system, clear-cell renal carcinoma (RCC) and endocrine tumors, most commonly pheochromocytoma and non-secretory pancreatic islet cell cancers. No data exist in literature describing the coexistence of both DM1 and VHL. PRESENTATION OF CASE Herein we report a case of renal and pancreatic neoplasm in a young adult female affected by DM1 and VHL simultaneously. DISCUSSION DM1 is due to an unstable trinucleotide (CTG) expansion in the 30 antranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene, located on chromosome 19q13.3. Several molecular mechanisms thought to be determining the classical DM phenotype have been shown. VHL disease is characterized by marked phenotypic variability and the most common tumors are hemangioblastomas of the retina or central nervous system, clear-cell renal carcinoma (RCC) and endocrine tumors, most commonly pheochromocytoma and non-secretory pancreatic islet cell cancers. The pancreatic manifestations seen in patients with VHL disease are divided into 2 categories: pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) as solid tumors, and cystic lesions, including a simple cyst and serous cystadenoma. The surgical approach for these cistic lesions is to consider as golden standard. Blansfield has proposed 3 criteria to predict metastatic disease of PNET in patients with VHL disease: (1) tumor size greater than or equal to 3 cm; (2) presence of a mutation in exon 3; and (3) tumor doubling time less than 500 d. If the patient has none of these criteria the patient could be followed with physical examination and radiological surveillance on a 2/3 years base.4 If the patient has 1 criterion, the patient

  14. Pulmonary alveolar type I cell population consists of two distinct subtypes that differ in cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanjie; Tang, Zan; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jiao; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chengwei; Li, Juan; Dai, Huaping; Wang, Fengchao; Cai, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar type I (AT1) cells cover more than 95% of alveolar surface and are essential for the air–blood barrier function of lungs. AT1 cells have been shown to retain developmental plasticity during alveolar regeneration. However, the development and heterogeneity of AT1 cells remain largely unknown. Here, we conducted a single-cell RNA-seq analysis to characterize postnatal AT1 cell development and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (Igfbp2) as a genetic marker specifically expressed in postnatal AT1 cells. The portion of AT1 cells expressing Igfbp2 increases during alveologenesis and in post pneumonectomy (PNX) newly formed alveoli. We found that the adult AT1 cell population contains both Hopx+Igfbp2+ and Hopx+Igfbp2− AT1 cells, which have distinct cell fates during alveolar regeneration. Using an Igfbp2-CreER mouse model, we demonstrate that Hopx+Igfbp2+ AT1 cells represent terminally differentiated AT1 cells that are not able to transdifferentiate into AT2 cells during post-PNX alveolar regeneration. Our study provides tools and insights that will guide future investigations into the molecular and cellular mechanism or mechanisms underlying AT1 cell fate during lung development and regeneration. PMID:29463737

  15. The neuroendocrine basis of sex differences in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy affects people of all ages and both genders. Sex differences are well known in epilepsy. Seizure susceptibility and the incidence of epilepsy are generally higher in men than women. In addition, there are gender-specific epilepsies such as catamenial epilepsy, a neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are most often clustered around the perimenstrual or periovulatory period in adult women with epilepsy. Changes in seizure sensitivity are also evident at puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. Sex differences in seizure susceptibility and resistance to antiseizure drugs can be studied in experimental models. An improved understanding of the neuroendocrine basis of sex differences or resistance to protective drugs is essential to develop targeted therapies for sex-specific seizure conditions. This article provides a brief overview of the current status of sex differences in seizure susceptibility and the potential mechanisms underlying the gender differences in seizure sensitivity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Arrest of B16 Melanoma Cells in the Mouse Pulmonary Microcirculation Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Dependent Nitric Oxide Release that Is Cytotoxic to the Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hongming; Orr, F.William; Jensen, Derrek; Wang, Hui Helen; McIntosh, Alan R.; Hasinoff, Brian B.; Nance, Dwight M.; Pylypas, Susan; Qi, Ke; Song, Chun; Muschel, Ruth J.; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr

    2003-01-01

    Metastatic cancer cells seed the lung via blood vessels. Because endothelial cells generate nitric oxide (NO) in response to shear stress, we postulated that the arrest of cancer cells in the pulmonary microcirculation causes the release of NO in the lung. After intravenous injection of B16F1 melanoma cells, pulmonary NO increased sevenfold throughout 20 minutes and approached basal levels by 4 hours. NO induction was blocked by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and was not observed in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-deficient mice. NO production, visualized ex vivo with the fluorescent NO probe diaminofluorescein diacetate, increased rapidly at the site of tumor cell arrest, and continued to increase throughout 20 minutes. Arrested tumor cells underwent apoptosis with apoptotic counts more than threefold over baseline at 8 and 48 hours. Neither the NO signals nor increased apoptosis were seen in eNOS knockout mice or mice pretreated with L-NAME. At 48 hours, 83% of the arrested cells had cleared from the lungs of wild-type mice but only ∼55% of the cells cleared from eNOS-deficient or L-NAME pretreated mice. eNOS knockout and L-NAME-treated mice had twofold to fivefold more metastases than wild-type mice, measured by the number of surface nodules or by histomorphometry. We conclude that tumor cell arrest in the pulmonary microcirculation induces eNOS-dependent NO release by the endothelium adjacent to the arrested tumor cells and that NO is one factor that causes tumor cell apoptosis, clearance from the lung, and inhibition of metastasis. PMID:12547699

  17. Repetitive intradermal bleomycin injections evoke T-helper cell 2 cytokine-driven pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijendra; Kasam, Rajesh K; Sontake, Vishwaraj; Wynn, Thomas A; Madala, Satish K

    2017-11-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are major T-helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, using a novel repetitive intradermal bleomycin model in which mice develop extensive lung fibrosis and a progressive decline in lung function compared with saline-treated control mice, we investigated profibrotic functions of Th2 cytokines. To determine the role of IL-13 signaling in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, wild-type, IL-13, and IL-4Rα-deficient mice were treated with bleomycin, and lungs were assessed for changes in lung function and pulmonary fibrosis. Histological staining and lung function measurements demonstrated that collagen deposition and lung function decline were attenuated in mice deficient in either IL-13 or IL-4Rα-driven signaling compared with wild-type mice treated with bleomycin. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that IL-13 and IL-4Rα-driven signaling are involved in excessive migration of macrophages and fibroblasts. Notably, our findings demonstrated that IL-13-driven migration involves increased phospho-focal adhesion kinase signaling and F-actin polymerization. Importantly, in vivo findings demonstrated that IL-13 augments matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP9 activity that has also been shown to increase migration and invasiveness of fibroblasts in the lungs during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for Th2-cytokine signaling that includes excessive migration and protease activity involved in severe fibrotic lung disease.

  18. Airway epithelial stem cells and the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Randell, Scott H

    2006-11-01

    Characteristic pathologic changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include an increased fractional volume of bronchiolar epithelial cells, fibrous thickening of the airway wall, and luminal inflammatory mucus exudates, which are positively correlated with airflow limitation and disease severity. The mechanisms driving general epithelial expansion, mucous secretory cell hyperplasia, and mucus accumulation must relate to the effects of initial toxic exposures on patterns of epithelial stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, eventually resulting in a self-perpetuating, and difficult to reverse, cycle of injury and repair. In this review, current concepts in stem cell biology and progenitor-progeny relationships related to COPD are discussed, focusing on the factors, pathways, and mechanisms leading to mucous secretory cell hyperplasia and mucus accumulation in the airways. A better understanding of alterations in airway epithelial phenotype in COPD will provide a logical basis for novel therapeutic approaches.

  19. Upregulated Copper Transporters in Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zimnicka, Adriana M.; Tang, Haiyang; Guo, Qiang; Kuhr, Frank K.; Oh, Myung-Jin; Wan, Jun; Chen, Jiwang; Smith, Kimberly A.; Fraidenburg, Dustin R.; Choudhury, Moumita S. R.; Levitan, Irena; Machado, Roberto F.; Kaplan, Jack H.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular remodeling and increased arterial wall stiffness are two major causes for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients and animals with pulmonary hypertension. Cellular copper (Cu) plays an important role in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling; increased Cu in vascular smooth muscle cells has been demonstrated to be associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension in animal experiments. In this study, we show that the Cu-uptake transporter 1, CTR1, and the Cu-efflux pump, ATP7A, were both upregulated in the lung tissues and pulmonary arteries of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia also significantly increased expression and activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a Cu-dependent enzyme that causes crosslinks of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. In vitro experiments show that exposure to hypoxia or treatment with cobalt (CoCl2) also increased protein expression of CTR1, ATP7A, and LOX in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In PASMC exposed to hypoxia or treated with CoCl2, we also confirmed that the Cu transport is increased using 64Cu uptake assays. Furthermore, hypoxia increased both cell migration and proliferation in a Cu-dependent manner. Downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) with siRNA significantly attenuated hypoxia-mediated upregulation of CTR1 mRNA. In summary, the data from this study indicate that increased Cu transportation due to upregulated CTR1 and ATP7A in pulmonary arteries and PASMC contributes to the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. The increased Cu uptake and elevated ATP7A also facilitate the increase in LOX activity and thus the increase in crosslink of extracellular matrix, and eventually leading to the increase in pulmonary arterial stiffness. PMID:24614111

  20. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Atypical Radiologic Presentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramandeep; Calhoun, Sean; Shin, Minchul; Katz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An atypical radiographic presentation of a rare non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor as seen on US, CT and MRI is described. Radiographic-pathologic correlation via gross autopsy specimens and immuno-histochemical staining demonstrates the pancreas to be markedly enlarged with extensive calcifications and numerous tiny cysts secondary to diffuse neoplastic infiltration without a focal mass.

  1. Quantitative intravital two-photon excitation microscopy reveals absence of pulmonary vaso-occlusion in unchallenged Sickle Cell Disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Bennewitz, Margaret F; Watkins, Simon C; Sundd, Prithu

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that leads to red blood cell (RBC) sickling, hemolysis and the upregulation of adhesion molecules on sickle RBCs. Chronic hemolysis in SCD results in a hyper-inflammatory state characterized by activation of circulating leukocytes, platelets and endothelial cells even in the absence of a crisis. A crisis in SCD is often triggered by an inflammatory stimulus and can lead to the acute chest syndrome (ACS), which is a type of lung injury and a leading cause of mortality among SCD patients. Although it is believed that pulmonary vaso-occlusion could be the phenomenon contributing to the development of ACS, the role of vaso-occlusion in ACS remains elusive. Intravital imaging of the cremaster microcirculation in SCD mice has been instrumental in establishing the role of neutrophil-RBC-endothelium interactions in systemic vaso-occlusion; however, such studies, although warranted, have never been done in the pulmonary microcirculation of SCD mice. Here, we show that two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy can be used to perform quantitative analysis of neutrophil and RBC trafficking in the pulmonary microcirculation of SCD mice. We provide the experimental approach that enables microscopic observations under physiological conditions and use it to show that RBC and neutrophil trafficking is comparable in SCD and control mice in the absence of an inflammatory stimulus. The intravital imaging scheme proposed in this study can be useful in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanism of pulmonary vaso-occlusion in SCD mice following an inflammatory stimulus. PMID:25995970

  2. Gene Therapy by Targeted Adenovirus-mediated Knockdown of Pulmonary Endothelial Tph1 Attenuates Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Morecroft, Ian; White, Katie; Caruso, Paola; Nilsen, Margaret; Loughlin, Lynn; Alba, Raul; Reynolds, Paul N; Danilov, Sergei M; Baker, Andrew H; MacLean, Margaret R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is produced by pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) via tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1). Pathologically, serotonin acts on underlying pulmonary arterial cells, contributing to vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The effects of hypoxia on PAEC-Tph1 activity are unknown. We investigated the potential of a gene therapy approach to PAH using selective inhibition of PAEC-Tph1 in vivo in a hypoxic model of PAH. We exposed cultured bovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (bPASMCs) to conditioned media from human PAECs (hPAECs) before and after hypoxic exposure. Serotonin levels were increased in hypoxic PAEC media. Conditioned media evoked bPASMC proliferation, which was greater with hypoxic PAEC media, via a serotonin-dependent mechanism. In vivo, adenoviral vectors targeted to PAECs (utilizing bispecific antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as the selective targeting system) were used to deliver small hairpin Tph1 RNA sequences in rats. Hypoxic rats developed PAH and increased lung Tph1. PAEC-Tph1 expression and development of PAH were attenuated by our PAEC-Tph1 gene knockdown strategy. These results demonstrate that hypoxia induces Tph1 activity and selective knockdown of PAEC-Tph1 attenuates hypoxia-induced PAH in rats. Further investigation of pulmonary endothelial-specific Tph1 inhibition via gene interventions is warranted. PMID:22525513

  3. Pulmonary Embolism as the Initial Presentation of Testicular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Ulutas, Ozkan; Ediz, Caner; Nizam, Ilknur; Kırıcı Berber, Nurcan; Unlu, Serkan; Koroglu, Reyhan; Koroglu, Mustafa; Akpolat, Nusret

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The risk of pulmonary embolism is well recognized as showing an increase in oncological patients. We report a case presenting with pulmonary embolism initially, which was then diagnosed with testicular cancer. Clinical Presentation and Intervention. A 25-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a complaint of dyspnoea. Thoracic tomography, lung ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and an increased D-dimer level revealed pulmonary embolism. For the aetiology of pulmonary embolism, a left orchiectomy was performed and the patient was diagnosed with a germinal cell tumour of the testicle. Conclusion. In this paper, we present a patient for whom pulmonary embolism was the initial presentation, and a germinal cell tumour was diagnosed later during the search for the aetiology. PMID:24383024

  4. Abnormal pulmonary function and associated risk factors in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Arteta, Manuel; Campbell, Andrew; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rana, Sohail; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Ensing, Gregory; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Darbari, Deepika; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Castro, Oswaldo L.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary changes develop in children with sickle cell disease, but reports conflict as to the type of change that predominates. We prospectively performed spirometry, plethysmography and lung diffusing capacity in 146 children aged 7–20 years with hemoglobin SS or Sβ0-thalassemia. Nineteen percent of the patients had obstructive physiology as defined according to guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. In addition, 9% had restrictive physiology and 11% had abnormal but not categorized physiology. Increasing age, patient- or family-reported history of asthma or wheezing, and higher lactate dehydrogenase concentration were independent predictors of obstruction as reflected in lower FEV1/FVC. In conclusion, abnormal pulmonary function, most often obstructive, is common in children with hemoglobin SS and Sβ0-thalassemia. Full pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with hemoglobin SS or Sβ0 thalassemia, especially with history of asthma or wheezing and accentuated elevations in hemolytic markers. PMID:24309610

  5. Stent Implantation for Malignant Pulmonary Artery Stenosis in a Metastasizing Non-Small Cell Bronchial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, A., E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.c; Koch, S.; Meier, U. R.

    2008-07-15

    A 58-year-old patient with recently diagnosed non-small cell bronchial carcinoma was referred to us with increasing shortness of breath and orthopnea by her family practitioner. To exclude the possibility of a pulmonary embolism, contrast medium-enhanced angio-CT of the thorax was performed. This showed a large mediastinal tumor, which, on the one hand, infiltrated and occluded the left upper lobe bronchus and, on the other, constricted the left pulmonary artery over a considerable part of its length. In view of the palliative situation and massively increasing dyspnea, balloon dilatation of the obstructed left pulmonary artery followed by stent placement was performed.more » This resulted in an immediate improvement of the symptoms. The originally strongly oxygen-dependent and heavily dyspneic patient could be relieved of the external supply of oxygen and was able to sleep normally without additional medication within 24 h. The patient was able ambulate freely within 2 days, with a markedly improved quality of life.« less

  6. Role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine responses to inflammation.

    PubMed

    De Laurentiis, Andrea; Araujo, Hugo A; Rettori, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    A few years ago the endocannabinoid system has been recognized as a major neuromodulatory system whose main functions are to exert and maintain the body homeostasis. Several different endocannabinoids are synthesized in a broad class of cell types, including those in the brain and the immune system; they bind to cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors, having profound effects on a variety of behavioral, neuroendocrine and autonomic functions. The coordinated neural, immune, behavioral and endocrine responses to inflammation are orchestrated to provide an important defense against infections and help homeostasis restoration in the body. These responses are executed and controlled mainly by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Also, the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system is essential for survival and plays a role recovering the homeostasis under a variety of stress conditions, including inflammation and infection. Since the endocannabinoid system components are present at sites in