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Sample records for pulmonary paragonimiasis diagnosed

  1. Demographic characteristic and analysis of pulmonary paragonimiasis in patients attending RIMS, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Sunanda, Haorongbam; Shivalingaiah, Bhavya; Paley, Tamar; Asoka, Wangkheimayum

    2016-01-01

    Human infection by the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and South America. Transmission of the parasite to humans primarily occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked crabs. Clinical features of recently diagnosed pulmonary Paragonimiasis show that patients present with a variety of clinical and radiological findings, frequently mimics tuberculosis and lung cancer. Here in this study, we report a cross-sectional study of pulmonary paragonimiasis in our institute over a period of two year. it was observed that out of eleven cases, prevalence of paragonimiasis was almost equal among both the genders, with a mean age of 38.1 ± 16.96, affecting people from hills. Three patients were erroneously treated with antitubercular drugs without any relief. The association with eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and tissue[16] was seen in all the study subjects and majority patients had pleural fluid eosinophilia. Patients were diagnosed by serological test, Paragonimus ova in Sputum smear and Pleural fluid. All study subjects had excellent clinical responses to praziquantel given at dose of 25 mg/kg given orally 3 times daily for 3 consecutive days. There is a need to generate awareness among the clinicians and public regarding Paragonimiasis and to consider it in differential diagnosis of TB and carcinoma lung. Physicians should consider the possibility of paragonimiasis among patients who present with chest complaints with eosinophilia from the endemic regions.

  2. Demographic characteristic and analysis of pulmonary paragonimiasis in patients attending RIMS, Manipur

    PubMed Central

    Sunanda, Haorongbam; Shivalingaiah, Bhavya; Paley, Tamar; Asoka, Wangkheimayum

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human infection by the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and South America. Transmission of the parasite to humans primarily occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked crabs. Clinical features of recently diagnosed pulmonary Paragonimiasis show that patients present with a variety of clinical and radiological findings, frequently mimics tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: Here in this study, we report a cross-sectional study of pulmonary paragonimiasis in our institute over a period of two year. Results: it was observed that out of eleven cases, prevalence of paragonimiasis was almost equal among both the genders, with a mean age of 38.1 ± 16.96, affecting people from hills. Three patients were erroneously treated with antitubercular drugs without any relief. The association with eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and tissue[16] was seen in all the study subjects and majority patients had pleural fluid eosinophilia. Patients were diagnosed by serological test, Paragonimus ova in Sputum smear and Pleural fluid. All study subjects had excellent clinical responses to praziquantel given at dose of 25 mg/kg given orally 3 times daily for 3 consecutive days. Conclusions: There is a need to generate awareness among the clinicians and public regarding Paragonimiasis and to consider it in differential diagnosis of TB and carcinoma lung. Physicians should consider the possibility of paragonimiasis among patients who present with chest complaints with eosinophilia from the endemic regions. PMID:27051099

  3. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  4. Pulmonary paragonimiasis in an immigrant from Laos.

    PubMed

    Brown, R W; Clarke, R J; Denham, I; Trembath, P W

    A chest X-ray film, taken in a refugee camp in Thailand six months before a 25-year-old Laotian farmer arrived in Australia, demonstrated lesions which were assumed to be tubercular. Despite antituberculous chemotherapy, the lesions continued to grow. On the man's arrival in Australia, cytological examination of bronchial washings showed the presence of numerous Paragonimus ova, and the patient received treatment with praziquantel. Paragonimiasis should be suspected in a Southeast-Asian refugee who presents with a pulmonary lesion which is similar to that of tuberculosis.

  5. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  6. North American paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the context of global paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible.

  7. North American Paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the Context of Global Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Procop, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible. PMID:19597007

  8. Cutaneous paragonimiasis due to triploid Paragonimus westermani presenting as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by Paragonimus parasites. The lungs and pleura are the primary sites for the infection; however, ectopic infection can occur in other organs such as skin, liver and brain. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of ectopic paragonimiasis due to an ignorance of, and unfamiliarity with the disease. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous paragonimiasis diagnosed by histopathological analysis and serological testing. Case presentation A 39-year-old Chinese immigrant woman presented with a subcutaneous nodule in her left lower back. The nodule was initially suspected of lipoma and she was followed up on without any treatment. However, it gradually indurated and the nodule was resected surgically. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a polycystic lesion with inhomogeneous low or high intensity on T1- or T2-weighted images, respectively. The rim of the lesion was enhanced after contrast enhancement, but the inside did not show high-signal intensity. A histological analysis of the surgically resected specimen revealed variable-sized tubulo-cystic structures. The cyst wall showed a granulomatous change with scant eosinophilic infiltration. A number of parasite ova were observed in the necrotic tissue inside the cysts, and a parasite body with a presumed oral sucker and reproductive organ was also detected, suggesting a trematode infection. A subsequent serological examination showed a positive reaction of her serum to the Paragonimus westermani antigen. No abnormal findings were found on her chest computed tomography scan. The diagnosis of subcutaneous paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani was made. Conclusions We report a case presenting only as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule without any pleuropulmonary lesion, which was initially suspected of lipoma but denied by magnetic resonance imaging scan results. The case was subsequently diagnosed as subcutaneous paragonimiasis from the

  9. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis: The Detection of a Worm Migration Track as a Diagnostic Clue for Uncertain Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Akaba, Tomohiro; Takeyama, Kiyoshi; Toriyama, Midori; Kubo, Ayako; Mizobuchi, Rie; Yamada, Takeshi; Tagaya, Etsuko; Kondo, Mitsuko; Sakai, Shuji; Tamaoki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman with sustained right chest pain was referred to our hospital. She showed pleural effusion and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Thoracentesis revealed eosinophilic pleural effusion in which the smear, culture and cytological examinations were all negative. Although she had no notable dietary history, chest CT revealed linear opacities, which suggested the migration tracks of paragonimiasis. The diagnosis was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, which showed elevated Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus miyazakii antibody levels. After the initiation of praziquantel therapy, all clinical findings were promptly improved. The detection of a migration track may therefore be useful in the diagnosis of paragonimiasis.

  10. The Return of an Old Worm: Cerebral Paragonimiasis Presenting with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun Jung; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Chong, Sangjoon; Park, Sung-Hye; Cheon, Jung-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is caused by ingesting crustaceans, which are the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus. The involvement of the brain was a common presentation in Korea decades ago, but it becomes much less frequent in domestic medical practices. We observed a rare case of cerebral paragonimiasis manifesting with intracerebral hemorrhage. A 10-yr-old girl presented with sudden-onset dysarthria, right facial palsy and clumsiness of the right hand. Brain imaging showed acute intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal area. An occult vascular malformation or small arteriovenous malformation compressed by the hematoma was initially suspected. The lesion progressed for over 2 months until a delayed surgery was undertaken. Pathologic examination was consistent with cerebral paragonimiasis. After chemotherapy with praziquantel, the patient was monitored without neurological deficits or seizure attacks for 6 months. This case alerts practicing clinicians to the domestic transmission of a forgotten parasitic disease due to environmental changes. PMID:23166429

  11. Deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing: a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yixin; Feng, Xiaoyi; Chi, Wenhao; Li, Zhengyang; Duan, Wenzhe; Liu, Haiping; Liang, Wenhua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ping; He, Jianxing; Liu, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Deep learning techniques have recently emerged as promising decision supporting approaches to automatically analyze medical images for different clinical diagnosing purposes. Diagnosing of pulmonary nodules by using computer-assisted diagnosing has received considerable theoretical, computational, and empirical research work, and considerable methods have been developed for detection and classification of pulmonary nodules on different formats of images including chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography in the past five decades. The recent remarkable and significant progress in deep learning for pulmonary nodules achieved in both academia and the industry has demonstrated that deep learning techniques seem to be promising alternative decision support schemes to effectively tackle the central issues in pulmonary nodules diagnosing, including feature extraction, nodule detection, false-positive reduction, and benign-malignant classification for the huge volume of chest scan data. The main goal of this investigation is to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that a review is devoted exclusively to deep learning techniques for pulmonary nodules diagnosing.

  12. Deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing: a review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yixin; Feng, Xiaoyi; Chi, Wenhao; Li, Zhengyang; Duan, Wenzhe; Liu, Haiping; Liang, Wenhua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Deep learning techniques have recently emerged as promising decision supporting approaches to automatically analyze medical images for different clinical diagnosing purposes. Diagnosing of pulmonary nodules by using computer-assisted diagnosing has received considerable theoretical, computational, and empirical research work, and considerable methods have been developed for detection and classification of pulmonary nodules on different formats of images including chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography in the past five decades. The recent remarkable and significant progress in deep learning for pulmonary nodules achieved in both academia and the industry has demonstrated that deep learning techniques seem to be promising alternative decision support schemes to effectively tackle the central issues in pulmonary nodules diagnosing, including feature extraction, nodule detection, false-positive reduction, and benign-malignant classification for the huge volume of chest scan data. The main goal of this investigation is to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that a review is devoted exclusively to deep learning techniques for pulmonary nodules diagnosing. PMID:29780633

  13. Active detection of tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in the remote areas in North-Eastern India using cough as a simple indicator.

    PubMed

    Rekha Devi, Kangjam; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Deori, Rumi; Lego, Kabang; Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kumar Rajguru, Sanjib; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    One of the essential steps in targeting tuberculosis (TB) intervention is early diagnosis and treatment of patients by reducing the reservoir of infection in the community. In the North-Eastern (NE) region of India pulmonary TB and paragonimiasis are overlapping public health issues. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 remote villages from the two states Arunachal Pradesh (AP) and Assam to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and paragonimiasis cases using cough as a simple indicator. In AP, 2961 individuals aged five years and above were examined and 1108 (37·4%) were found to have cough for one week or more. Of the 417 individuals who provided sputum, 11 (2·64%) were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All these cases were yet undiagnosed, thus the prevalence of new smear positive TB in AP was 0·37%. In Assam on the other hand 331 (23·5%) subjects out of 1410 individuals who were examined had a cough for one week or more and of the 112 individuals who provided sputum, 13 (11·6%) were smear positive for AFB. The prevalence of new smear positive TB cases was 0·78% in Assam. Sero-positivity of paragonimiasis in coughers of AP was 7·6% (n = 1091), which was significantly higher (p < 0·01) as compared to that in Assam (1·2%, n = 321). The findings of the present study suggest that TB remains a major public health concern in the NE region of India especially in the remote places and there is need to strengthen early case detection of TB.

  14. Active detection of tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in the remote areas in North-Eastern India using cough as a simple indicator

    PubMed Central

    Rekha Devi, Kangjam; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Deori, Rumi; Lego, Kabang; Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kumar Rajguru, Sanjib; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    One of the essential steps in targeting tuberculosis (TB) intervention is early diagnosis and treatment of patients by reducing the reservoir of infection in the community. In the North-Eastern (NE) region of India pulmonary TB and paragonimiasis are overlapping public health issues. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 remote villages from the two states Arunachal Pradesh (AP) and Assam to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and paragonimiasis cases using cough as a simple indicator. In AP, 2961 individuals aged five years and above were examined and 1108 (37.4%) were found to have cough for one week or more. Of the 417 individuals who provided sputum, 11 (2.64%) were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All these cases were yet undiagnosed, thus the prevalence of new smear positive TB in AP was 0.37%. In Assam on the other hand 331 (23.5%) subjects out of 1410 individuals who were examined had a cough for one week or more and of the 112 individuals who provided sputum, 13 (11.6%) were smear positive for AFB. The prevalence of new smear positive TB cases was 0.78% in Assam. Sero-positivity of paragonimiasis in coughers of AP was 7.6% (n  =  1091), which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to that in Assam (1.2%, n  =  321). The findings of the present study suggest that TB remains a major public health concern in the NE region of India especially in the remote places and there is need to strengthen early case detection of TB. PMID:23683370

  15. Characteristic CT and MR imaging findings of cerebral paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Chen, Jing; Ju, Yan; You, Chao

    2016-06-01

    The early diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis (CP) is essential for a good prognosis. We seek to provide references for early diagnosis by analyzing the imaging characteristics of cerebral paragonimiasis. Images of 27 patients with CP (22 males and 5 females; median age 20.3 years; range: 4 to 47 years) were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent head computed tomography (CT) scans; 22 patients underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including contrast-enhanced MRI for 20 patients and diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) for 1 patient. The diagnosis was confirmed based on a positive antibody test using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for paragonimiasis in the serum. The most common imaging findings of CP were isodense or hypodense lesions combined with extensive hypodense areas of perilesional edema on CT scans and a large mass composed of multiple ring-shaped lesions with surrounding edema on MRI images. The conglomeration of multiple ring-shaped lesions (n=11 patients), "tunnel signs" (n=12 patients) and worm-eaten signs (n=5 patients) were characteristic of most CP images. In 14 patients, contrast-enhanced MRI showed varying degrees of contrast enhancement combined with adjacent meningeal enhancement (n=10). A large mass comprising multiple ring-shaped lesions of different sizes, "tunnel signs" and worm-eaten signs with surrounding edema are the most characteristic features of CP. Extensive invasions of the adjacent meninges and ventricular wall (19 patients), multiple intracerebral lesions, bilateral hemispheric involvement, and lesion migration are other noteworthy imaging characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cavitary mass lesion and recurrent pneumothoraces due to Paragonimus kellicotti infection: North American paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Elias A; Jessen, Robert; Sheck, David N; Procop, Gary W

    2003-08-01

    North American paragonimiasis is well described in omnivorous and carnivorous animals on this continent. Humans are rarely infected, largely because of dietary customs, but are at risk for infection if raw or undercooked crayfish are consumed. We describe a patient with a pleuropulmonary infection due to Paragonimus kellicotti that presented as recurrent pneumothoraces and a cavitary lesion. This is the first case of North American paragonimiasis in which the diagnosis was based on the morphology of the eggs present in histologic sections.

  17. Diagnosing pulmonary edema: lung ultrasound versus chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Jennifer L; Noble, Vicki E; Liteplo, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Diagnosing the underlying cause of acute dyspnea can be challenging. Lung ultrasound may help to identify pulmonary edema as a possible cause. To evaluate the ability of residents to recognize pulmonary edema on lung ultrasound using chest radiographs as a comparison standard. This is a prospective, blinded, observational study of a convenience sample of resident physicians in the Departments of Emergency Medicine (EM), Internal Medicine (IM), and Radiology. Residents were given a tutorial on interpreting pulmonary edema on both chest radiograph and lung ultrasound. They were then shown both ultrasounds and chest radiographs from 20 patients who had presented to the emergency department with dyspnea, 10 with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary edema, and 10 with alternative diagnoses. Cohen's κ values were calculated to describe the strength of the correlation between resident and gold standard interpretations. Participants included 20 EM, 20 IM, and 20 Radiology residents. The overall agreement with gold standard interpretation of pulmonary edema on lung ultrasound (74%, κ = 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.55) was superior to chest radiographs (58%, κ = 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.30) (P < 0.0001). EM residents interpreted lung ultrasounds more accurately than IM residents. Radiology residents interpreted chest radiographs more accurately than did EM and IM residents. Residents were able to more accurately identify pulmonary edema with lung ultrasound than with chest radiograph. Physicians with minimal exposure to lung ultrasound may be able to correctly recognize pulmonary edema on lung ultrasound.

  18. Paragonimiasis: a common cause of persistent pleural effusion in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Vidamaly, Sisoupanh; Choumlivong, Khamla; Keolouangkhot, Valy; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Strobel, Michel

    2009-10-01

    Southeast Asia is the major endemic area for paragonimiasis. Diagnosis relies on identification of ova in the sputum, pleural fluid or tissue specimen, or serology. Low awareness, however, frequently results in the disease being overlooked. We report nine cases presenting as primary, massive and protracted pleural effusions. All patients had evidence of Paragonimus spp. in the pleural fluid; one discharged an adult worm through a chest tube during treatment with praziquantel. In three cases, resolution of symptoms and pleural effusions could not be achieved, despite repeated fluid evacuation procedures and courses of praziquantel, which contradicts the widely accepted statement of paragonimiasis being self-limited and easy to cure. The disease should be considered in any case of elusive pleural effusion occurring in endemic areas.

  19. Endemic human paragonimiasis in Equatorial Guinea. Detection of the existence of endemic human paragonimiasis in Equatorial Guinea as a result of an integrated sanitary programme.

    PubMed

    Simarro, P P; Alamo, A; Sima, F O; Roche, J; Mir, M; Ndong, P

    1991-07-01

    Between February and April 1990 the first five cases of human paragonimiasis, tentatively due to Paragonimus africanus, have been detected in Equatorial Guinea, thanks to the normal activities of the National Schistosomiasis Project and its coordination with the National Tuberculosis Project.

  20. Number of Biopsies in Diagnosing Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wehrschuetz, M.; Wehrschuetz, E.; Portugaller, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the number of specimens to be obtained from pulmonary lesions to get the highest possible accuracy in histological work-up. Materials and methods: A retrospective evaluation (January 1999 to April 2004) covered 260 patients with thoracic lesions who underwent computer tomography (CT)-guided core-cut biopsy in coaxial technique. All biopsies were performed utilizing a 19 gauge introducer needle and a 20 gauge core-cut biopsy needle. In all, 669 usable biopsies were taken (from 1–5 biopsies in each setting). The specimens were marked sequentially and each biopsy was worked up histologicaly. The biopsy results were correlated to histology after surgery, clinical follow-up or autopsy. The number of biopsies was determined that is necessary to achieve the highest possible accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary lesions. Results: In 591 of 669 biopsies (88.3%), there were correct positive results. The overall accuracy was 87.4%. In 193 of 260 (74.2%) patients, a suspected malignancy was confirmed. In 50 of 260 (19.2%) patients, a benign lesion was correctly diagnosed. Seventeen (6.5%) patients were lost to follow-up. The first, second and third biopsies had cumulative accuracies of 63.6%, 89.2% and 91.5%, respectively (P < 0.02). More biopsies did not show any higher impact on accuracy. Conclusion: For the highest possible accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary lesions by CT-guided core-cut biopsy, at least three usable specimens are recommended to be taken. PMID:21157523

  1. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  2. Paragonimus and Paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes. PMID:24516264

  3. Where are we after 60 years of paragonimiasis research? A bibliometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Hernández-Pacherres, Arturo; Labán-Seminario, L Max; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2017-06-01

    Paragonimiasis is highly prevalent endemic food-borne disease in Southeast Asia and Latin America, and constitutes a major public health concern. A bibliometric analysis was performed about the worldwide scientific production of paragonimiasis. We browsed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) (1957-2015), Scopus (1976-2015), Medline/PubMed/GoPubMed® (1970-2015), ScIELO (1981-2014) and LILACS (1985-2011). All types of articles were included and categorized by year of publication, number, type of scientific article, city and institution of origin, international cooperation, scientific journal, impact factor, language of publication, authors and H index. In SCI-E, 1,028 manuscripts were recovered, while Japan (21.9%) and the USA (17.7%) were the countries with highest scientific production. In this database, Asian region studies received 5,454 citations (H index=32). In Scopus 2161 items were recovered, corresponding to 45.8% of Asian countries. Japan (18.2%) was the first with the University of Miyazaki (11.7% of the country); South Korea (9.5%) was second with the Seoul National University (11.2% of the country). In SciELO 29 items were found, with no contributions from the Asian region. In LILACS 1487 articles were found (22.9% covering Asia). Among the databases, the Journal of Parasitology (Impact factor=1.227) showed the highest number of manuscripts and "Agatsuma T", from Japan, was the author with most records. Japan and South Korea lead global scientific production on paragonimiasis. By contrast, in Latin America, production has been extremely low especially in the last five years.

  4. Analysis of Parasitic Diseases Diagnosed by Tissue Biopsy Specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul. PMID:20333293

  5. Where are we after 60 years of paragonimiasis research? A bibliometric assessment

    PubMed Central

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Hernández-Pacherres, Arturo; Labán-Seminario, L. Max; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A.; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Paragonimiasis is highly prevalent endemic foodborne disease in Southeast Asia and Latin America, and constitutes a major public health concern. A bibliometric analysis was performed about the worldwide scientific production of paragonimiasis. We browsed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) (1957–2015), Scopus (1976–2015), Medline/PubMed/GoPubMed® (1970–2015), ScIELO (1981–2014) and LILACS (1985- 2011). All types of articles were included and categorized by year of publication, number, type of scientific article, city and institution of origin, international cooperation, scientific journal, impact factor, language of publication, authors and H index. In SCI-E, 1,028 manuscripts were recovered, while Japan (21.9%) and the USA (17.7%) were the countries with highest scientific production. In this database, Asian region studies received 5,454 citations (H index=32). In Scopus 2161 items were recovered, corresponding to 45.8% of Asian countries. Japan (18.2%) was the first with the University of Miyazaki (11.7% of the country); South Korea (9.5%) was second with the Seoul National University (11.2% of the country). In SciELO 29 items were found, with no contributions from the Asian region. In LILACS 1487 articles were found (22.9% covering Asia). Among the databases, the Journal of Parasitology (Impact factor=1.227) showed the highest number of manuscripts and “Agatsuma T”, from Japan, was the author with most records. Japan and South Korea lead global scientific production on paragonimiasis. By contrast, in Latin America, production has been extremely low especially in the last five years. PMID:28603233

  6. Serological Studies of Neurologic Helminthic Infections in Rural Areas of Southwest Cameroon: Toxocariasis, Cysticercosis and Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Kouojip-Mabou, Alida; Nganou, Christ Nadège; Saijo, Yasuaki; Knapp, Jenny; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old) were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3%) with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%), 72 (42.8%), and 19 (11.3%) persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 25 (14.9%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. Conclusions/Significance Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early

  7. CT Pulmonary Angiography: Increasingly Diagnosing Less Severe Pulmonary Emboli

    PubMed Central

    Schissler, Andrew J.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Kulon, Michal E.; Pearson, Gregory D. N.; Green, Robert A.; Stetson, Peter D.; Brenner, David J.; D'Souza, Belinda; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Schluger, Neil W.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether the observed increase in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) utilization has resulted in increased detection of pulmonary emboli (PEs) with a less severe disease spectrum. Methods Trends in utilization, diagnostic yield, and disease severity were evaluated for 4,048 consecutive initial CTPAs performed in adult patients in the emergency department of a large urban academic medical center between 1/1/2004 and 10/31/2009. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings and peak serum troponin levels were evaluated to assess for the presence of PE-associated right ventricular (RV) abnormalities (dysfunction or dilatation) and myocardial injury, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results 268 CTPAs (6.6%) were positive for acute PE, and 3,780 (93.4%) demonstrated either no PE or chronic PE. There was a significant increase in the likelihood of undergoing CTPA per year during the study period (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.07, P<0.01). There was no significant change in the likelihood of having a CTPA diagnostic of an acute PE per year (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.95–1.11, P = 0.49). The likelihood of diagnosing a less severe PE on CTPA with no associated RV abnormalities or myocardial injury increased per year during the study period (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10–1.75, P = 0.01). Conclusions CTPA utilization has risen with no corresponding change in diagnostic yield, resulting in an increase in PE detection. There is a concurrent rise in the likelihood of diagnosing a less clinically severe spectrum of PEs. PMID:23776522

  8. EIF2AK4 Mutations in Patients Diagnosed With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Best, D Hunter; Sumner, Kelli L; Smith, Benjamin P; Damjanovich-Colmenares, Kristy; Nakayama, Ikue; Brown, Lynette M; Ha, Youna; Paul, Eleri; Morris, Ashley; Jama, Mohamed A; Dodson, Mark W; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Elliott, C Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Differentiating pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is important clinically. Mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) cause heritable PVOD and PCH, whereas mutations in other genes cause HPAH. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pathogenic EIF2AK4 mutations in patients diagnosed clinically with IPAH or HPAH. Sanger sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis were performed to detect mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene in 81 patients diagnosed at 30 North American medical centers with IPAH (n = 72) or HPAH (n = 9). BMPR2 mutation-negative patients (n = 67) were sequenced for mutations in four other genes (ACVRL1, ENG, CAV1, and KCNK3) known to cause HPAH. Patients negative for mutations in all known PAH genes (n = 66) were then sequenced for mutations in EIF2AK4. We assessed the pathogenicity of EIF2AK4 mutations and reviewed clinical characteristics of patients with pathogenic EIF2AK4 mutations. Pathogenic BMPR2 mutations were identified in 8 of 72 (11.1%) patients with IPAH and 6 of 9 (66.7%) patients with HPAH. A novel homozygous EIF2AK4 mutation (c.257+4A>C) was identified in 1 of 9 (11.1%) patients diagnosed with HPAH. The novel EIF2AK4 mutation (c.257+4A>C) was homozygous in two sisters with severe pulmonary hypertension. None of the 72 patients with IPAH had biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations. Pathogenic biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations are rarely identified in patients diagnosed with HPAH. Identification of pathogenic biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations can aid clinicians in differentiating HPAH from heritable PVOD or PCH. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary symptoms and diagnoses are associated with HIV in the MACS and WIHS cohorts.

    PubMed

    Gingo, Matthew R; Balasubramani, Goundappa K; Rice, Thomas B; Kingsley, Lawrence; Kleerup, Eric C; Detels, Roger; Seaberg, Eric C; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Holman, Susan; Huang, Laurence; Sutton, Sarah H; Bertolet, Marnie; Morris, Alison

    2014-04-30

    Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment. A pulmonary-specific questionnaire was administered yearly for three years to participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adjusted prevalence ratios for respiratory symptoms, testing, or diagnoses and adjusted incidence rate ratios for diagnoses in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected participants were determined. Risk factors for outcomes in HIV-infected individuals were modeled. Baseline pulmonary questionnaires were completed by 907 HIV-infected and 989 HIV-uninfected participants in the MACS cohort and by 1405 HIV-infected and 571 HIV-uninfected participants in the WIHS cohort. In MACS, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sleep apnea, and incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were more common in HIV-infected participants. In WIHS, wheezing and sleep apnea were more common in HIV-infected participants. Smoking (MACS and WIHS) and greater body mass index (WIHS) were associated with more respiratory symptoms and diagnoses. While sputum studies, bronchoscopies, and chest computed tomography scans were more likely to be performed in HIV-infected participants, pulmonary function tests were no more common in HIV-infected individuals. Respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected individuals were associated with history of pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, or use of HAART. A diagnosis of asthma or COPD was associated with previous pneumonia. In these two cohorts, HIV is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases including COPD and sleep apnea. Despite a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms

  10. Utility of PCR in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bennedsen, J; Thomsen, V O; Pfyffer, G E; Funke, G; Feldmann, K; Beneke, A; Jenkins, P A; Hegginbothom, M; Fahr, A; Hengstler, M; Cleator, G; Klapper, P; Wilkins, E G

    1996-06-01

    At present, the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis rests with microscopy. However, this technique is insensitive and many cases of pulmonary tuberculosis cannot be initially confirmed. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are extremely sensitive, but when they are applied to tuberculosis diagnosis, they have given variable results. Investigators at six centers in Europe compared a standardized PCR system (Amplicor; Roche) against conventional culture methods. Defined clinical information was collected. Discrepant samples were retested, and inhibition assays and backup amplification with a separate primer pair were performed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms were recovered from 654 (9.1%) of 7,194 samples and 293 (7.8%) of 3,738 patients. Four hundred fifty-two of the M. tuberculosis isolates from 204 patients were smear positive and culture positive. Among the culture-positive specimens, PCR had a sensitivity of 91.4% for smear-positive specimens and 60.9% for smear-negative specimens, with a specificity of 96.1%. Analysis of 254 PCR-positive, culture-negative specimens with discrepant results revealed that 130 were from patients with recently diagnosed tuberculosis and 94 represented a presumed laboratory error. Similar analysis of 118 PCR-negative, culture-positive specimens demonstrated that 27 discrepancies were due to presumed uneven aliquot distribution and 11 were due to presumed laboratory error; PCR inhibitors were detected in 8 specimens. Amplicor enables laboratories with little previous experience with nucleic acid amplification to perform PCR. Disease in more than 60% of the patients with tuberculosis with smear-negative, culture-positive specimens can be diagnosed at the time of admission, and potentially all patients with smear-positive specimens can immediately be confirmed as being infected with M. tuberculosis, leading to improved clinical management.

  11. Swimming-induced pulmonary oedema an uncommon condition diagnosed with POCUS ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Joaquín Valle; Chowdhury, Motiur; Borakati, Raju; Gankande, Upali

    2017-12-01

    Swimming Induced Pulmonary Edema, or SIPE, is an emerging condition occurring in otherwise healthy individuals during surface swimming or diving that is characterized by cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and hypoxemia. It is typically found in those who spend time in cold water exercise with heavy swimming and surface swimming, such as civilian training for iron Man, triathalon, and military training. We report the case of a highly trained young female swimmer in excellent cardiopulmonary health, who developed acute alveolar pulmonary oedema in an open water swimming training diagnosed in the emergency department using POCUS ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulmonary symptoms and diagnoses are associated with HIV in the MACS and WIHS cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment. Methods A pulmonary-specific questionnaire was administered yearly for three years to participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adjusted prevalence ratios for respiratory symptoms, testing, or diagnoses and adjusted incidence rate ratios for diagnoses in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected participants were determined. Risk factors for outcomes in HIV-infected individuals were modeled. Results Baseline pulmonary questionnaires were completed by 907 HIV-infected and 989 HIV-uninfected participants in the MACS cohort and by 1405 HIV-infected and 571 HIV-uninfected participants in the WIHS cohort. In MACS, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sleep apnea, and incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were more common in HIV-infected participants. In WIHS, wheezing and sleep apnea were more common in HIV-infected participants. Smoking (MACS and WIHS) and greater body mass index (WIHS) were associated with more respiratory symptoms and diagnoses. While sputum studies, bronchoscopies, and chest computed tomography scans were more likely to be performed in HIV-infected participants, pulmonary function tests were no more common in HIV-infected individuals. Respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected individuals were associated with history of pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, or use of HAART. A diagnosis of asthma or COPD was associated with previous pneumonia. Conclusions In these two cohorts, HIV is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases including COPD and sleep apnea. Despite a higher

  13. Systematic teaching method to enhance the effectiveness of training for paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Xilin; Huang, Fusheng; Xu, Wenyue

    2013-01-01

    The clinical symptoms of human paragonimiasis are complex and variable, and patients can easily be misdiagnosed. Pagumogonimus skrjabini is the species causing this disease found only in China. A 2002 epidemiological survey showed that the rate of paragonimiasis was 21·96% in the migration areas of the Three-Gorge Reservoir, Chongqing, China. Therefore, there is a need to train medical workers to treat individuals in these areas. The Third Military Medical University (TMMU) in Chongqing built a comprehensive and systematic teaching method, which included teaching students about the basic biology of the organism, guiding students to use appropriate diagnostic tests and participate in scientific research to develop diagnostic kits, and visiting endemic areas to provide on-site teaching. The use of on-site teaching is an innovative approach for training undergraduate medical students in human parasitology. Three improvements were implemented during the on-site teaching component of the program: (1) systematizing the learning process; (2) integrating formal knowledge with clinical experience; and (3) enhancing students' knowledge of medical ethics. Based on a survey, 95% of students believed that this systematic teaching system gave them a more comprehensive grasp of knowledge on P. skrjabini, and graduate students were able to provide early diagnosis of P. skrjabini cases in this remote region. Students also participated in the research and development of a P. skrjabini diagnostic kit, for which a patent has been applied, and during the on-site teaching process, data were collected for the government and health sector to assist in public-health planning and decision-making for this disease.

  14. [Pulmonary Mycobacterium Avium-Complex (MAC) Disease Differentially Diagnosed from Metastasis of Testicular Cancer : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohei; Teranishi, Jyn-Ichi; Yoneyama, Shuko; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Yumura, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Kondo, Keiichi; Uemura, Hiroji; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2017-01-01

    A 45 year-old-man was admitted to our hospital because of discomfort in his left scrotum. He had a left testicular tumor. We performed high orchiectomy and pathological findings revealed testicular cancer. He was treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Computed tomography showed a new mass in the left lung after 3 cycles of the chemotherapy. Because of its rapid growth, the tumor was thought to be a metastasis lesion of testicular cancer or pulmonary infection. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed an invasion of multinucleated giant cells and granuloma. The culture and polymerase chain reaction of the bronchial sputum were positive for myobacterium avium-complex (MAC). From these findings, the left lung tumor was diagnosed as pulmonary MAC disease. He received partial resection of the left lung and the lesion was diagnosed as granuloma. There was no recurrence of testicular cancer or pulmonary disease after the surgery.

  15. Comparisons of Prognosis between Surgically and Clinically Diagnosed Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Using Gap Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Dong Soon; Kim, Young Whan; Chung, Man Pyo; Uh, Soo Taek; Park, Choon Sik; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Shin, Jong Wook; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hwa; Jegal, Yangin; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Moo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although a multidisciplinary approach has become an important criterion for an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) diagnosis, lung biopsies remain crucial. However, the prognosis of patients with surgically diagnosed IPF (sIPF) is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prognosis of patients with clinically diagnosed IPF (cIPF) and sIPF. In this retrospective observational study, the Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group conducted a national survey to evaluate the clinical, physiological, radiological, and survival characteristics of patients with IPF from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. Patients were recruited from 54 universities and teaching hospitals across the Republic of Korea. IPF diagnoses were established according to the 2002 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society criteria (ERS) guideline. A total of 1685 patients with IPF (1027 cIPF and 658 sIPF) were enrolled. Patients with sIPF were significantly younger, predominantly female, and nonsmokers (all P < 0.001). sIPF group had significantly better initial pulmonary function. The proportion of computed tomography-based honeycomb findings of patients with cIPF was higher than in those with sIPF (P < 0.001). A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the sIPF group had a better prognosis (P = 0.001). A survival analysis showed that age, pulmonary function parameters, pulmonary oxygen tension, honeycombing change, and combined lung cancer had a significant influence on patient prognosis. However, there was no significant difference in prognosis between the cIPF and sIPF groups after adjusting for GAP (gender, age, physiology) stage. The patients with sIPF had better clinical features than those with cIPF. However, after adjusting for GAP stage, the sIPF group showed similar prognoses as the cIPF group. This study showed that after adjusting for GAP stage, the prognosis of patients with IPF is the same regardless of the diagnostic method used. PMID:26986154

  16. The characteristics of patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease diagnosed by bronchial lavage culture compared to those diagnosed by sputum culture.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Koichi; Naka, Megumi; Shuto, Saki; Harada, Yuka; Ikegami, Yumiko

    2017-09-01

    The utility of bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) disease has been reported; however, which patients require bronchoscopy remains unclear. Our objective was to identify the characteristics of the patients in whom bronchoscopy is needed for the diagnosis of MAC disease. Fifty-four patients with pulmonary MAC disease were divided into two groups according to established diagnostic criteria: 39 patients were diagnosed by sputum culture and 15 patients were diagnosed by bronchial lavage culture. We analysed the differences in demographic and clinical characteristics as well as microbiological and radiological data between the two groups. There were no significant differences in age, sex, smoking status, MAC species, underlying diseases, or steroid use. Significantly more patients diagnosed by sputum culture than bronchial lavage culture had a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli (79.5% vs. 0.0%, respectively; p < 0.001) and any symptoms (75.3% vs. 46.2%, respectively; p = 0.0059). No significant differences were found in the prevalence of each computed tomography finding, including nodules, air-space disease, bronchiectasis, and cavities. However, more patients diagnosed by sputum culture than bronchial lavage culture had abnormalities in the left upper division (48.7% vs. 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.017) and higher numbers of affected lobes (4.3 ± 1.4 vs. 3.3 ± 1.6, respectively; p = 0.034). If patients suspected of having pulmonary MAC disease have a negative sputum smear, no symptoms, no abnormal findings in the left upper division, or fewer affected lobes on computed tomography, bronchoscopy might be needed for the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  18. The accuracy of serum galactomannan assay in diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh, Shokooh Azam; Hoseinpoor Rafati, Ali; Ardalan, Maryam; Mansouri, Davood; Tabarsi, Payam; Pourpak, Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Galactomannan (GM) antigen is an aspergillus specific antigen that is released during the growth phase of invasive aspergillosis. We aimed to find the optimum cutoff and accuracy of serum Galactomannan assay in immunocompromised patients. Immunocompromised patients diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Mycosis Study Group (EORTC/MSG) with three levels of certainty proven, probable and possible, referred for GM antigen measurement at Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute (IAARI) from 2006 to 2009 and if they met the criteria were enrolled in this study. Totally 49 patients with IPA were enrolled in our study. According to EORTC/MSG, patients categorized into three levels of certainty: They were diagnosed as 'proven' invasive pulmonary aspergillosis 16(32.7%), 'probable' 18(36.7%) and 'possible' 15(30.6%). The most common host risk factor was solid tumors 17(34.7%). The accuracy of Galactomannan assay increased from 0.5 to 2 cutoffs. The optimum sensitivity and specificity obtained at the index cutoff of ≥1.5 for diagnosis of "proven" IPA; which were respectively, 69.2% and 72.2%. Other cutoffs had high variance between sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of IPA. The calculated cutoff gained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for detecting proven IPA was 1.5. Intermediate accuracy of serum GM test in conjunct with clinical findings would help early IPA detection among immunocompromised patients.

  19. [USE OF QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube AND T-SPOT.TB FOR DIAGNOSING PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS].

    PubMed

    Okimoto, Niro; Kurihara, Takeyuki; Miyashita, Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the use of QFT-TB Gold in Tube and T-SPOT.TB in diagnosing patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. We evaluated 122 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (where chest X-ray showed consolidation or. tumor shadow in predilection sites of pulmonary tuberculosis and through contact investigation). QFT-TB Gold and T-SPOT.TB were performed for all the patients. The positive response rate and history of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients who showed positive results for the tests were evaluated. Ninteen patients showed positive results for QFT-TB Gold, and 9, for T-SPOT.TB. Four patients showed positive results for QFT-TB Gold, and 3, for T-SPOT.TB in 4 patients with active tuberculosis. The patients without active tuberculosis whose IGRAs were positive (old pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium cmplex, pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary sequestration, bronchiectasis) had a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The positive result rate of QFT?-TB Gold was higher than that of T-SPOT.TB in the subjects with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. We think that QFT-TB Gold reflected the past history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  20. Nanocarriers as pulmonary drug delivery systems to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Smola, Malgorzata; Vandamme, Thierry; Sokolowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of nanocarriers administered by pulmonary route to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases. Indeed, during the past 10 years, the removal of chlorofluorocarbon propellants from industrial and household products intended for the pulmonary route has lead to the developments of new alternative products. Amongst these ones, on one hand, a lot of attention has been focused to improve the bioavailability of marketed drugs intended for respiratory diseases and to develop new concepts for pulmonary administration of drugs and, on the other hand, to use the pulmonary route to administer drugs for systemic diseases. This has led to some marketed products through the last decade. Although the introduction of nanotechnology permitted to step over numerous problems and to improve the bioavailability of drugs, there are, however, unresolved delivery problems to be still addressed. These scientific and industrial innovations and challenges are discussed along this review together with an analysis of the current situation concerning the industrial developments. PMID:18488412

  1. CT measurement of central pulmonary arteries to diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PHTN): more reliable than valid?

    PubMed

    Terpenning, Silanath; Deng, Matthew; Hong-Zohlman, Susie N; Lin, Cheng Ting; Kligerman, Seth J; Jeudy, Jean; Ketai, Loren H

    2016-01-01

    reader's measurements were used to construct a separate receiver operating curve (ROC) to assess optimal MPA threshold. The ability of an MPA measurement threshold to correctly identify PAHTN was assessed using chi-squared. Chi-squared was also used to assess the effect of categorical comorbidities on false positive diagnosis. None of the demographic data or patients' factors (age, gender, height, weight, body surface area, and body mass index) were related to the size of MPAD. The distribution of the MPAD was normal in both groups. Based on prior literature, MPAD (≥3.15cm) was selected as the cutoff value to diagnose PAHTN. Review of ROCs did not suggest a superior cutoff value for any reader. Using this threshold per case interrater agreement was good, kappa values >0.65. Based on an average measurement for all three readers, MPAD was 82% sensitive and 62% specific for PAHTN. Limiting positive diagnosis to those subjects with both MPAD ≥3.15 and either enlarged RPA diameter (RPAD) or LPAD diminished sensitivity but did not improve specificity. Defining positive study as the presence of any dilated artery (MPAD, RPAD, or LPAD) increased sensitivity to 94% but decreased specificity to 27%. Comorbidities that might cause fluctuating mean pulmonary artery pressures could not be shown to account for false positive studies. The 29 true negative patients and 16 false positive patients did not differ in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea/home oxygen use or documented congestive heart failure/low ejection fraction. Previously proposed threshold of MPAD ≥3.15cm is likely optimal but is not specific for identifying patient with PAHTN. Interobserver differences in MPAD measurement do not account this inaccuracy. Incorporation or RPA and LPA measurement does not improve diagnostic accuracy of PAHTN, and assessment of comorbidities does not easily identify likely false positive cases. Diagnosis of PAHTN based solely on CT examinations of the chest may not be

  2. Comparisons of Prognosis between Surgically and Clinically Diagnosed Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Using Gap Model: A Korean National Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Dong Soon; Kim, Young Whan; Chung, Man Pyo; Uh, Soo Taek; Park, Choon Sik; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Shin, Jong Wook; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hwa; Jegal, Yangin; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Moo Suk

    2016-03-01

    Although a multidisciplinary approach has become an important criterion for an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) diagnosis, lung biopsies remain crucial. However, the prognosis of patients with surgically diagnosed IPF (sIPF) is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prognosis of patients with clinically diagnosed IPF (cIPF) and sIPF. In this retrospective observational study, the Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group conducted a national survey to evaluate the clinical, physiological, radiological, and survival characteristics of patients with IPF from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. Patients were recruited from 54 universities and teaching hospitals across the Republic of Korea. IPF diagnoses were established according to the 2002 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society criteria (ERS) guideline. A total of 1685 patients with IPF (1027 cIPF and 658 sIPF) were enrolled. Patients with sIPF were significantly younger, predominantly female, and nonsmokers (all P < 0.001). sIPF group had significantly better initial pulmonary function. The proportion of computed tomography-based honeycomb findings of patients with cIPF was higher than in those with sIPF (P < 0.001). A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the sIPF group had a better prognosis (P = 0.001). A survival analysis showed that age, pulmonary function parameters, pulmonary oxygen tension, honeycombing change, and combined lung cancer had a significant influence on patient prognosis. However, there was no significant difference in prognosis between the cIPF and sIPF groups after adjusting for GAP (gender, age, physiology) stage. The patients with sIPF had better clinical features than those with cIPF. However, after adjusting for GAP stage, the sIPF group showed similar prognoses as the cIPF group. This study showed that after adjusting for GAP stage, the prognosis of patients with IPF is the same regardless of the diagnostic method used.

  3. Prediction of quantitative intrathoracic fluid volume to diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Urooj, Shabana; Khan, M; Ansari, A Q; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Salhan, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a life-threatening disease that requires special attention in the area of research and clinical diagnosis. Computer-based techniques are rarely used to quantify the intrathoracic fluid volume (IFV) for diagnostic purposes. This paper discusses a software program developed to detect and diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW. The software runs on anthropometric dimensions and physiological parameters, mainly transthoracic electrical impedance (TEI). This technique is accurate and faster than existing manual techniques. The LabVIEW software was used to compute the parameters required to quantify IFV. An equation relating per cent control and IFV was obtained. The results of predicted TEI and measured TEI were compared with previously reported data to validate the developed program. It was found that the predicted values of TEI obtained from the computer-based technique were much closer to the measured values of TEI. Six new subjects were enrolled to measure and predict transthoracic impedance and hence to quantify IFV. A similar difference was also observed in the measured and predicted values of TEI for the new subjects.

  4. Outbreak of pulmonary histoplasmosis involving a group of four Polish travellers returning from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kajfasz, Piotr; Basiak, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Exploring caves is, without doubt, a very exciting adventure; however, it carries some dangers. Three of four travellers were admitted to hospital with lung changes after returning from Ecuador, successively. Epidemiological studies revealed that the travellers visited caves infested by bats, and had contact with bats' guano. They gave a history of fever, fatigue, myalgia, dry cough, and chest pain during the stay or just after returning from Ecuador. In two patients, symptoms persisted in mild nature. Chest X-ray films showed diffuse nodules (coin-like lesions) in the lungs in each case. Histoplasmosis was taken into consideration. Differential diagnosis included paragonimiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, and pulmonary infection of other causes. Direct examination of sputum was negative. Cultures were negative. Final diagnosis was made on epidemiological histories, as well as typical radiological changes, and was supported by positive tests for antibodies to Histoplasma capsulatum. Immunodiffusion test (ID), complement fixation test (CFTs), and Western blot test were positive. In two cases antifungal treatment was established. Ketoconazole followed by Itraconazole were used. Persons who are going to explore caves should be equipped with anti-dusk masks to prevent pulmonary histoplasmosis. The threat of Histoplasma capsulatum infection in bat-inhabited caves should be emphasized to travellers and also to physicians.

  5. Identifying individuals with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care electronic medical records: a retrospective chart abstraction study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theresa M; Tu, Karen; Wing, Laura L; Gershon, Andrea S

    2017-05-15

    Little is known about using electronic medical records to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to improve quality of care. Our objective was to develop electronic medical record algorithms that can accurately identify patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. A retrospective chart abstraction study was conducted on data from the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD ® ) housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Abstracted charts provided the reference standard based on available physician-diagnoses, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific medications, smoking history and pulmonary function testing. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease electronic medical record algorithms using combinations of terminology in the cumulative patient profile (CPP; problem list/past medical history), physician billing codes (chronic bronchitis/emphysema/other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and prescriptions, were tested against the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) were calculated. There were 364 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identified in a 5889 randomly sampled cohort aged ≥ 35 years (prevalence = 6.2%). The electronic medical record algorithm consisting of ≥ 3 physician billing codes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease per year; documentation in the CPP; tiotropium prescription; or ipratropium (or its formulations) prescription and a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease billing code had sensitivity of 76.9% (95% CI:72.2-81.2), specificity of 99.7% (99.5-99.8), PPV of 93.6% (90.3-96.1), and NPV of 98.5% (98.1-98.8). Electronic medical record algorithms can accurately identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care records. They can be used to enable further studies in practice patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management in primary care. NOVEL

  6. Diagnosing pulmonary embolisms: the clinician's point of view.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Alcaraz, A; Martínez, A López; Solano, F J Sotos

    Pulmonary thromboembolism is common and potentially severe. To ensure the correct approach to the diagnostic workup of pulmonary thromboembolism, it is essential to know the basic concepts governing the use of the different tests available. The diagnostic approach to pulmonary thromboembolism is an example of the application of the conditional probabilities of Bayes' theorem in daily practice. To interpret the available diagnostic tests correctly, it is necessary to analyze different concepts that are fundamental for decision making. Thus, it is necessary to know what the likelihood ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and decision thresholds mean. Whether to determine the D-dimer concentration or to do CT angiography or other imaging tests depends on their capacity to modify the pretest probability of having the disease to a posttest probability that is higher or lower than the thresholds for action. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic sequence of thromboembolic pulmonary disease, analyzing the main diagnostic tools (clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging tests), placing special emphasis on the principles that govern evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Impact of Emphysema Evaluated by High-Resolution Computed Tomography on Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed by Surgical Lung Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kohashi, Yasuo; Arai, Toru; Sugimoto, Chikatoshi; Tachibana, Kazunobu; Akira, Masanori; Kitaichi, Masanori; Hayashi, Seiji; Inoue, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of combined cases of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is unresolved partially because radiological differentiation between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia is difficult in coexisting emphysema cases. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical impact of emphysema on the survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). One hundred and seven patients with interstitial lung diseases were diagnosed by surgical lung biopsies between 2006 and 2012, and 47 patients were diagnosed with IPF through multidisciplinary discussion. Emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography scans was evaluated semiquantitatively by visual scoring. Eight out of the 47 IPF patients showed a higher emphysema score (>3) and were diagnosed to have IPF-emphysema. The median survival time of patients with IPF-emphysema (1,734 days) from the initial diagnosis was significantly shorter than that of patients with IPF alone (2,229 days) by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.007, log-rank test). Univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed that a higher total emphysema score (>3.0) was a significantly poor prognostic factor in addition to Krebs von den Lungen-6, surfactant protein-D, arterial oxygen tension, percent forced vital capacity, and percent diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (%DLCO). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses with the stepwise method showed that higher total emphysema score (>3) and %DLCO were significantly poor prognostic factors. The prognosis of IPF-emphysema was significantly worse than that of IPF alone. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism with computed tomography: imaging update.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Anand; Sayer, Charlie; Sheard, Sarah; Grubnic, Sisa; Nair, Arjun; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-05-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is recognized as a difficult diagnosis to make. It is potentially fatal if undiagnosed, yet increasing referral rates for imaging and falling diagnostic yields are topics which have attracted much attention. For patients in the emergency department with suspected pulmonary embolism, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the test of choice for most physicians, and hence radiology has a key role to play in the patient pathway. This review will outline key aspects of the recent literature regarding the following issues: patient selection for imaging, the optimization of CTPA image quality and dose, preferred pathways for pregnant patients and other subgroups, and the role of CTPA beyond diagnosis. The role of newer techniques such as dual-energy CT and single-photon emission-CT will also be discussed.

  9. Pulmonary Embolism as the Initial Presentation of Testicular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Ulutas, Ozkan; Ediz, Caner; Nizam, Ilknur; Kırıcı Berber, Nurcan; Unlu, Serkan; Koroglu, Reyhan; Koroglu, Mustafa; Akpolat, Nusret

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The risk of pulmonary embolism is well recognized as showing an increase in oncological patients. We report a case presenting with pulmonary embolism initially, which was then diagnosed with testicular cancer. Clinical Presentation and Intervention. A 25-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a complaint of dyspnoea. Thoracic tomography, lung ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and an increased D-dimer level revealed pulmonary embolism. For the aetiology of pulmonary embolism, a left orchiectomy was performed and the patient was diagnosed with a germinal cell tumour of the testicle. Conclusion. In this paper, we present a patient for whom pulmonary embolism was the initial presentation, and a germinal cell tumour was diagnosed later during the search for the aetiology. PMID:24383024

  10. Applying cybernetic technology to diagnose human pulmonary sounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Chou, Cheng-Han

    2014-06-01

    Chest auscultation is a crucial and efficient method for diagnosing lung disease; however, it is a subjective process that relies on physician experience and the ability to differentiate between various sound patterns. Because the physiological signals composed of heart sounds and pulmonary sounds (PSs) are greater than 120 Hz and the human ear is not sensitive to low frequencies, successfully making diagnostic classifications is difficult. To solve this problem, we constructed various PS recognition systems for classifying six PS classes: vesicular breath sounds, bronchial breath sounds, tracheal breath sounds, crackles, wheezes, and stridor sounds. First, we used a piezoelectric microphone and data acquisition card to acquire PS signals and perform signal preprocessing. A wavelet transform was used for feature extraction, and the PS signals were decomposed into frequency subbands. Using a statistical method, we extracted 17 features that were used as the input vectors of a neural network. We proposed a 2-stage classifier combined with a back-propagation (BP) neural network and learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network, which improves classification accuracy by using a haploid neural network. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve verifies the high performance level of the neural network. To expand traditional auscultation methods, we constructed various PS diagnostic systems that can correctly classify the six common PSs. The proposed device overcomes the lack of human sensitivity to low-frequency sounds and various PS waves, characteristic values, and a spectral analysis charts are provided to elucidate the design of the human-machine interface.

  11. Pulmonary Actinomyces graevenitzii infection presenting as organizing pneumonia diagnosed by PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yu; Iikura, Motoyasu; Horio, Yuko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2012-08-01

    We report what is believed to be the first case of pulmonary Actinomyces graevenitzii infection presenting as organizing pneumonia. Fever and night sweats developed in a 69-year-old male. The only abnormal laboratory data were an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level. On chest images, multiple consolidations with air bronchograms were seen in the bilateral lungs. Histological examination from lung biopsy revealed a pattern of organizing pneumonia with microabscesses, but definitive diagnosis was not obtained because culture from lung specimen was negative. A. graevenitzii was eventually identified in the lung biopsy specimen by detection of an Actinomyces-specific PCR product followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated with high-dose ampicillin intravenously for 1 month, followed by oral amoxicillin and clarithromycin for 6 months, and recovered. We suggest that actinomycosis can present as organizing pneumonia, and identification of infection by PCR analysis and rRNA gene sequencing is a useful strategy in cases that are difficult to diagnose.

  12. Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis and Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Neal F; Dodson, Mark W; Elliott, Charles Gregory

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH), two disorders that challenge clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists because they often mimic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The article reviews the features that differentiate PVOD and PCH from PAH. The article also describes the overlap of PVOD and PCH, highlighted by recent reports of families diagnosed with PVOD or PCH caused by EIF2AK4 mutations. In addition, the article outlines current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of PVOD and PCH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Eleci Vaz; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Sarmento, Muriel Bossle; Guazzelli, Pedro Arends; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Guerra, Vinicius André; Seligman, Renato; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods : This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results : On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions : Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients. PMID:26982039

  14. Coexistence of metastatic lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in the same cavity.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Minoru; Nakata, Masao; Oka, Mikio

    2005-10-01

    A 79-year-old woman who had a past history of chronic renal failure 10 years earlier, tongue cancer (T2N2M0) 3 years earlier, and tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes 6 months earlier was suddenly admitted with the complaint of right chest pain on April 6, 2004. Right pneumothorax and mild pleural effusion were observed on a chest radiograph. There was no improvement in the patients collapsed lung despite the insertion of a chest drainage tube into the pleural cavity. Three thin-walled cavitary lesions were noted in the right lobe of segment 1 on computed tomography, and the cause of her pneumothorax was thought to be air leakage from the largest cavitary lesion adjacent to the visceral pleura. Partial resection of the right lung by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was performed at the Department of Thoracic Surgery. Subsequently, it was determined that metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, corresponding to her tongue cancer, had invaded the visceral pleura adjacent to the largest cavitary lesion. Simultaneously, an epitheloid granuloma with caseating necrosis was observed adjacent to a partially thickened portion of this cavitary lesion. The epitheloid granuloma was found to be acid-fast bacilli-positive and a diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pulmonary tuberculosis was made. We report a rare case of the coexistence of metastatic lung cancer originating from tongue cancer and active pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in the same large cavitary lesion.

  15. Use of anti-tuberculosis drugs among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients in China: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Lv, Qing; Sato, Kaori D; Qu, Yan; Huan, Shitong; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Fei; Wang, Lixia

    2016-01-21

    China's national tuberculosis control program (NTP) provides free, first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs to pulmonary TB patients. This treatment regimen follows the World Health Organization's (WHO) guideline. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the current status of anti-TB drug use for newly diagnosed pulmonary TB inpatients treated in prefecture- and county-level designated hospitals. Three prefecture-level hospitals and nine county-level hospitals were selected for the study. All newly diagnosed pulmonary TB inpatient medical records from 2012 were reviewed and doubly examined by two national senior physicians. The rational use of anti-TB drugs was evaluated based on criteria in line with WHO's guideline. Of the 2,060 total treatment regimens for TB, 53.1 % were found to be rational (1093/2060). The percentages in prefecture-level and county-level hospitals were 50.3 % (761/1513) and 60.7 % (332/547), respectively. The difference between the two levels of hospitals was statistically significant (Chi-square value = 17.44, P < 0.01). The percentages of rational treatment regimens for first-time hospitalizations and for two or more hospitalizations were 59.5 % (983/1653) and 27.0 % (110/407), respectively, with a statistically significant difference (Chi-square value = 138.00, P < 0.01). The overall use of second-line drugs (SLD) was 54.9 % (1131/2060). The percentages for prefecture-level and county-level hospitals were 50.6 % (766/1513) and 66.7 % (365/547), respectively. A statistically significant difference was found (Chi-square value = 42.06, P < 0.01). The use of SLD for inpatients hospitalized once and inpatients hospitalized twice or more was 58.4 % (966/1653) and 40.5 % (165/407), respectively, with a statistically significant difference (Chi-square value = 42.26, P < 0.01). Half of inpatients might be treated with irrational regimens, and the use of SLD was more appropriately dispensed in city-level hospitals

  16. Pulmonary disease at autopsy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J M; Hannah, J B

    1988-08-01

    To characterize the postmortem pulmonary disease and analyze the effectiveness of antemortem diagnosis, we examined the clinical records and autopsy material from 54 patients who died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At autopsy, all patients had pulmonary disease. One or more specific diagnoses were made in 53, including opportunistic infection, nonopportunistic infection, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Multiple postmortem pulmonary diagnoses were established in 37. Respiratory failure was the most common cause of death. Of the 97 pulmonary disorders discovered at autopsy, only 31 were diagnosed before death. The frequency with which infections were diagnosed during life varied according to the organism, and was significantly higher for Pneumocystis carinii than for cytomegalovirus or bacterial agents. Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma was diagnosed in only 7% of patients with autopsy documentation. The yield of diagnostic procedures also varied according to the disease present. Sputum culture was relatively effective in detecting Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, fiber-optic bronchoscopy was extremely useful for diagnosing P Carinii, and one or more diagnoses were provided in 4 of 7 patients who underwent thoracotomy, but significant disease including cytomegalovirus infection and pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma was frequently missed. Although the spectrum of lung disease found at autopsy is similar to that observed during life, the frequency of some pathologic processes including cytomegalovirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma may be underrepresented in antemortem series.

  17. Pulmonary Disease at Autopsy in Patients With the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jeanne M.; Hannah, James B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the postmortem pulmonary disease and analyze the effectiveness of antemortem diagnosis, we examined the clinical records and autopsy material from 54 patients who died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At autopsy, all patients had pulmonary disease. One or more specific diagnoses were made in 53, including opportunistic infection, nonopportunistic infection, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Multiple postmortem pulmonary diagnoses were established in 37. Respiratory failure was the most common cause of death. Of the 97 pulmonary disorders discovered at autopsy, only 31 were diagnosed before death. The frequency with which infections were diagnosed during life varied according to the organism, and was significantly higher for Pneumocystis carinii than for cytomegalovirus or bacterial agents. Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma was diagnosed in only 7% of patients with autopsy documentation. The yield of diagnostic procedures also varied according to the disease present. Sputum culture was relatively effective in detecting Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, fiber-optic bronchoscopy was extremely useful for diagnosing P Carinii, and one or more diagnoses were provided in 4 of 7 patients who underwent thoracotomy, but significant disease including cytomegalovirus infection and pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma was frequently missed. Although the spectrum of lung disease found at autopsy is similar to that observed during life, the frequency of some pathologic processes including cytomegalovirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma may be underrepresented in antemortem series. PMID:3266812

  18. Total cavo-pulmonary connection without foreign material for asplenic heart associated with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Agematsu, Kouta; Naito, Yuji; Aoki, Mitsuru; Fujiwara, Tadashi

    2008-04-01

    The presented case was a 3-year-old boy diagnosed with asplenia (SLL), double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis, atrioventricular septal defect, hypoplastic left ventricle and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection was repaired by translocation of pulmonary artery to avoid pulmonary venous obstruction when Glenn anastomosis was performed. Total cavo-pulmonary connection was established by re-routing the inferior vena cava to pulmonary artery using the atrial septal remnant and the left atrium free wall flap.

  19. Profiling the erythrocyte membrane proteome isolated from patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Bruno M; Charro, Nuno; Blonder, Josip; Lopes, Carlos; Azevedo, Pilar; Bugalho de Almeida, António; Chan, King C; Prieto, DaRue A; Issaq, Haleem; Veenstra, Timothy D; Penque, Deborah

    2012-12-05

    Structural and metabolic alterations in erythrocytes play an important role in the pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Whether these dysfunctions are related to the modulation of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients diagnosed with COPD remains to be determined. Herein, a comparative proteomic profiling of the erythrocyte membrane fraction isolated from peripheral blood of smokers diagnosed with COPD and smokers with no COPD was performed using differential (16)O/(18)O stable isotope labeling. A total of 219 proteins were quantified as being significantly differentially expressed within the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of smokers with COPD and healthy smokers. Functional pathway analysis showed that the most enriched biofunctions were related to cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development, immune response, oxidative stress and cytoskeleton. Chorein (VPS13A), a cytoskeleton related protein whose defects had been associated with the presence of cell membrane deformation of circulating erythrocytes was found to be down-regulated in the membrane fraction of erythrocytes obtained from COPD patients. Methemoglobin reductase (CYB5R3) was also found to be underexpressed in these cells, suggesting that COPD patients may be at higher risk for developing methemoglobinemia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis in patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a prospective case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morell, Ferran; Villar, Ana; Montero, María-Ángeles; Muñoz, Xavier; Colby, Thomas V; Pipvath, Sudhakar; Cruz, María-Jesús; Raghu, Ganesh

    2013-11-01

    The clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be indistinguishable; the need to eliminate occult environmental factors known to cause pulmonary fibrosis in patients suspected to have IPF during diagnostic evaluation is evident. We aimed to investigate occult, putative causes in the environments of patients diagnosed with IPF using tests beyond those conventionally used. In this case-cohort study, 60 consecutive patients diagnosed with IPF on the basis of the 2000 American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) criteria were prospectively followed up every 4 months for 6 years between Jan 1, 2004, and Dec 31, 2009. At each visit a uniformly applied questionnaire was administered to these 60 patients to identify occult antigen exposure known to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Patients underwent specific IgG determination, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial challenge testing with suspected antigens, and re-review of histopathological features in existing and subsequently obtained surgical lung biopsy samples and from lung explants. Specimens obtained from suspected sources from the patient's environment were subjected to cultures in microbiology laboratory. These clinical data and discussions among pulmonologists and radiologists familiar with IPF were used to confirm the diagnosis in accordance with 2011 ATS, ERS, Japanese Respiratory Society, and Latin American Thoracic Association guidelines; 46 of the 60 patients had IPF according to the 2011 guidelines, and our analyses in this study were focused on these 46 patients. 20 of the 46 (43%, 95% CI 29-58) patients with IPF according to 2011 guidelines had a subsequent diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: nine patients had positive bronchial challenge testing (eight of whom were also IgG positive and six of these patients also had surgical lung biopsy showing a pattern consistent with chronic hypersensitivity

  1. Evaluation of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension for pulmonary endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Auger, William R.; Kerr, Kim M.; Kim, Nick H.; Fedullo, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension as a result of chronic thromboembolic disease (CTEPH) is potentially curable with pulmonary endarterectomy surgery. Consequently, correctly diagnosing patients with this type of pulmonary hypertension and evaluating these patients with the goal of establishing their candidacy for surgical intervention is of utmost importance. And as advancements in surgical techniques have allowed successful resection of segmental-level chronic thromboembolic disease, the number of CTEPH patients that are deemed suitable surgical candidates has expanded, making it even more important that the evaluation be conducted with greater precision. This article will review a diagnostic approach to patients with suspected chronic thromboembolic disease with an emphasis on the criteria considered in selecting patients for pulmonary endarterectomy surgery. PMID:22837856

  2. [Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xianliang; Zhu, Tengteng; Li, Jiang

    2018-05-28

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)/pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare form of pulmonary vascular disease that causes pulmonary arterial hypertension. The diagnosis of PVOD/PCH can be established by the combination of clinical features, physical examination, radiological findings, lung function, bronchoscopy and other resources. There is no established medical therapy for PVOD/PCH, and the only curative therapy for PVOD/PCH is lung transplantation. A girl with PVOD/PCH was diagnosed in the Second Xiangya Hospital. Combining the characteristics for this case with the relevant literature, we summarized the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment for the disease to raise doctors' awareness for this rare disease.

  3. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  4. Inapparent pulmonary vascular disease in an ex-heroin user

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Ludovico Maini, C.; Giuliano Bonetti, M.

    1986-04-01

    A severe pulmonary vascular derangement, usually reported in drug addicts, was diagnosed in a 28-year-old asymptomatic ex-heroin user by means of fortuitously performed pulmonary perfusion imaging. Neither physical findings nor pulmonary function tests, aroused suspicion of the diagnosis. A search for asymptomatic pulmonary vascular disease probably should be undertaken in drug addicts.

  5. Simultaneously diagnosed pulmonary thromboembolism and hemopericardium in a man with thoracic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Young; Seon, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, In-Sung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Lee, Sam-Gyu

    2012-05-01

    Simultaneous pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and hemopericardium is a rare but life-threatening condition. As hemopericardium is a contraindication to anticoagulation treatment, it is challenging to handle both conditions together. The objective of the study was to report a rare case of a man with thoracic spinal cord injury presenting with simultaneous PTE and hemopericardium. Case report. A 43-year-old man with incomplete T9 paraplegia (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale D) complained of fever one and a half months after spinal cord injury sustained in a fall. During evaluation of fever origin, chest computed tomography and transthoracic echocardiogram revealed simultaneous PTE and hemopericardium. After serial echocardiograms over 2 days demonstrated stability, intravenous heparin, and oral warfarin were administered and his medical status was observed closely. Ultimately, both conditions improved without significant complications. We report successful treatment of man with acute spinal cord injury who presented with simultaneously diagnosed PTE and hemopericardium, a rare complication involving two distinct and opposing pathological mechanisms and conflicting treatments.

  6. Diagnosis of Grave's disease with pulmonary hypertension on chest CT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, Hye Rin; Chun, Eun Ju; White, Charles S

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of chest CT findings to diagnose Grave's disease in pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively evaluated chest CT and the medical records of 13 patients with Grave's disease with (n=6) or without pulmonary hypertension (n=7) and in 17 control patients. Presence of iso-attenuation of diffusely enlarged thyroid glands compared with adjacent neck muscle on non-enhanced CT as a diagnostic clue of Grave's disease, and assessment of pulmonary hypertension on CT has high diagnostic accuracy. Chest CT has the potential to diagnose Grave's disease with pulmonary hypertension in the absence of other information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulmonary vascular anomalies: a review of clinical and radiological findings of cases presenting with different complaints in childhood.

    PubMed

    Nacaroğlu, Hikmet Tekin; Ünsal-Karkıner, Canan Şule; Bahçeci-Erdem, Semiha; Özdemir, Rahmi; Karkıner, Aytaç; Alper, Hüdaver; Can, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary vascular abnormalities arise from several etiologies. These anomalies are difficult to categorize and sorted into distinct classifications. Major pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be ranked as interruption of the main pulmonary artery or its absence, emergence of the left pulmonary artery in the right pulmonary artery, pulmonary venous drainage abnormalities, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). Some of the cases are asymptomatic and diagnosed by coincidence, whereas a few of them are diagnosed by typical findings in the newborn and infancy period, symptoms, and radiological appearances. Early diagnosis is important, since death may occur as a result of pulmonary and cardiac pathologies developed in patients with pulmonary vascular anomalies. In this case presentation, the clinical and radiological findings of patients that presented with different complaints and were diagnosed with pulmonary vascular anomalies were introduced.

  8. Pulmonary microvascular cytology can detect tumor cells of intravascular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Kagiyama, Naho; Saito, Hiroo; Sugita, Yutaka; Kojima, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for indistinct consciousness, progressive dyspnea, night sweats and fever of 2 weeks duration. Hypoxemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase were found. Computed tomography was negative except for a small bilateral pleural effusion. Chest perfusion scintigraphy showed inhomogeneous perfusion thought unlikely to be pulmonary artery thromboembolism. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma was suspected, and a pulmonary microvascular cytology specimen was obtained that contained numerous large lymphoma cells. Because the patient's condition was rapidly deteriorating, we started chemotherapy on the basis of the pulmonary microvascular cytology findings, and he improved. Later, atypical lymphocytes similar to those in the pulmonary microvascular cytology specimen were found in a bone marrow specimen. He was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Because lymphoma cells were found in the pulmonary microvasculature, intravascular lymphoma was also diagnosed. Pulmonary microvascular cytology was helpful to detect lymphoma cells in the pulmonary microvasculature.

  9. Ultrasound wall-sign in pulmonary echinococcosis (new application).

    PubMed

    El Fortia, M; El Gatit, A; Bendaoud, M

    2006-12-01

    We report our experience in diagnosing pulmonary cystic echinococcosis using an ultrasound sign related to the cystic wall. 40 patients with 46 cysts, suspected of pulmonary echinococcosis, based on plain chest radiographs and clinical findings, were examined by ultrasound over a 9-year period (1996 - 2004), and followed up until discharge. We applied our long experience with echinococcal cysts utilising the wall sign (WS) to diagnose pulmonary hydatid disease. All cysts were subject to surgical removal, and postoperative histopathology was the gold standard. There were 34 (74 %) unilocular and 12 (26 %) multivesicular echinococcal cysts. In the univesicular cysts, the WS was found in 20 cases (66.7 %) while it was present in all multivesicular cysts (100 %). Following surgical removal, echinococcosis was confirmed by histopathology in all cases. We conclude that a double layered border in univesicular and double layered internal septum in multivesicular pulmonary echinococcal cysts is a reliable indicator of pulmonary echinococcosis, with a specificity of 66 % and 100 %, respectively.

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Román, J Sánchez; Hernández, F J García; Palma, M J Castillo; Medina, C Ocaña

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is an idiopathic process or can be associated with another circumstances (connective tissue diseases, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, exposure to appetite suppressants or another drugs or infectious agents such as HIV). Most patients are diagnosed as the result of an evaluation of symptoms, whereas others are diagnosed incidentally or during screening of asymptomatic populations at risk. We reviews systematic screening for the approach to diagnosing pulmonary arterial hypertension. A diagnostic algorithm can guide the evaluation but it can be modified according to specific clinical circumstances. The number of therapeutic options has increased.in the last years. We reviews the use of calcium-channel blockers, prostacyclin (and analogues), endothelin-receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and the use of combination therapy, and provides specific recommendations about the actual treatment.

  11. Commercial air travel and in-flight pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas G; Chang, Rae W; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been shown that commercial air travel triggers hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and modestly increases pulmonary artery pressure in healthy passengers. There is large interindividual variation in hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity, and some passengers may be at risk of developing flight-induced pulmonary hypertension, with potentially dangerous consequences. This study sought to determine whether it is possible for a susceptible passenger to develop pulmonary hypertension in response to a routine commercial flight. Using in-flight echocardiography, a passenger was studied during a 6-h commercial flight from London to Dubai. The passenger was generally well and frequently traveled by air, but had been diagnosed with Chuvash polycythemia, a genetic condition that is associated with increased hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. Hematocrit had been normalized with regular venesection. During the flight, arterial oxygen saturation fell to a minimum of 96% and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) rapidly increased into the pulmonary hypertensive range. The in-flight increase in sPAP was 50%, reaching a peak of 45 mmHg. This study has established that an asymptomatic but susceptible passenger can rapidly develop in-flight pulmonary hypertension even during a medium-haul flight. Prospective passengers at risk from such responses, including those who have cardiopulmonary disease or increased hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity, could benefit from preflight evaluation with a hypoxia altitude simulation test combined with simultaneous echocardiography (HAST-echo). The use of in-flight supplementary oxygen should be considered for susceptible individuals, including all patients diagnosed with Chuvash polycythemia.

  12. Changing demographics, epidemiology, and survival of incident pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from the pulmonary hypertension registry of the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yi; Johnson, Martin K; Kiely, David G; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Gibbs, J Simon R; Howard, Luke S; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen K K; Corris, Paul A; Fisher, Andrew J; Lordan, James L; Gaine, Sean; Coghlan, J Gerry; Wort, S John; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Peacock, Andrew J

    2012-10-15

    Incident pulmonary arterial hypertension was underrepresented in most pulmonary hypertension registries and may have a different disease profile to prevalent disease. To determine the characteristics and outcome of a purely incident, treatment-naive cohort of idiopathic, heritable, and anorexigen-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension and to determine the changes in presentations and survival over the past decade in the United Kingdom and Ireland. All consecutive newly diagnosed patients from 2001 to 2009 were identified prospectively. A total of 482 patients (93% idiopathic, 5% heritable, and 2% anorexigen-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension) were diagnosed, giving rise to an estimated incidence of 1.1 cases per million per year and prevalence of 6.6 cases per million in 2009. Younger patients (age ≤ 50 yrs) had shorter duration of symptoms, fewer comorbidities, better functional and exercise capacity, higher percent diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, more severe hemodynamic impairment, but better survival compared with older patients. In comparison with the earlier cohorts, patients diagnosed in 2007-2009 were older, more obese, had lower percent diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide,(,) and more comorbidities, but better survival. Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) equation, REVEAL risk score, and Pulmonary Hypertension Connection Registry survival equation accurately predicted survival of our incident cohort at 1 year. This study highlights the influence of age on phenotypes of incident pulmonary arterial hypertension and has shown the changes in demographics and epidemiology over the past decade in a national setting. The results suggest that there may be two subtypes of patients: the younger subtype with more severe hemodynamic impairment but better survival, compared with the older subtype who has more comorbidities.

  13. [Pulmonary mass suspected as malignant tumour. Thoracic wall abscess and fistula after pulmonary segmental resection].

    PubMed

    Manner, H; Henrich, R; Manner, N; Pech, O; Nguyen-tat, M; Weckler, B; Ell, C

    2008-08-01

    A 31-year-old patient presented with chronic cough and thoracic pain. A pulmonary mass was seen on chest x-ray, and pulmonary segmental resection was done. Histopathologically, a pulmonary abscess cavity due to actinomycosis was found. Three months later, recurrence of actinomycosis at the thoracic wall was observed. Antibiotic therapy with penicillin was administered. Five months later, with the patient receiving continued antibiotic therapy, a thoracic wall abscess and fistula was diagnosed. Four weeks after abscess drainage and repeat intravenous antibiotic therapy, the patient was symptom-free and had remained symptom-free at 10 months of follow-up.

  14. Epidemiology, symptoms and treatment of paragonimiasis in Sin Ho district, Lai Chau province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    De, N V; Cong, L D; Kino, H; Son, D T; Vien, H V

    2000-01-01

    Sin Ho is a district of the northern mountainous province of Lai Chau, Vietnam, where the people have the habit of eating undercooked crabs. A study on paragoniamiasis carried out from 1994 to 1995 with 1,642 persons in this endemic area, showed that the rate of eating raw-crab was 72.5%. Crab examination (Ranguna kimboiensis) showed an infection rate of Paragonimus metacercaria of 98.1%. With 624 stool samples examined by Kato technique, the infection rate of Paragonimus in humans was 6.4%. With 338 sputum samples examined by direct and centrifuge methods, the infection rate of Paragonimus was 7.4%. Most of the patients were children (63.2%). The infection rate of Paragonimus in dogs was 18.2 - 33.3%. Adult worms, collected from the dogs in the field and from the cats in laboratory, were identified as Paragonimus heterotremus. The main symptoms of Paragonimus patients were cough and hemoptysis (92%), discontinuously developed (96%), without fever (94%), chest pain (70%), pleural effusion (26%), neurogical symptoms (8%), eosinophilia (88.9%), nodular ring shadows in the lungs, as shown by chest X-ray examination and more in lower lobe, (76.2%). Paragonimiasis patients were treated by (a) Praziquantel 25 mg/kg/day x 3 days; the cure rate was 68.8%. (b) Praziquantel 50 mg/kg/day x 3 days; the cure rate was 75%.

  15. Pulmonary toxocariasis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ranasuriya, G; Mian, A; Boujaoude, Z; Tsigrelis, C

    2014-06-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati. We report a patient with toxocariasis who presented with dyspnea, high-grade eosinophilia, and bilateral pulmonary nodules. To further characterize the pulmonary manifestations of toxocariasis, we have reviewed 11 previously published pulmonary toxocariasis cases. The most common pulmonary symptoms in our review were cough and dyspnea, and the most common finding on chest imaging was bilateral pulmonary nodules. Risk factors for Toxocara infection primarily included exposure to dogs. Most patients received albendazole and responded well. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose this otherwise preventable parasitic disease.

  16. [Epidemiologic and clinical study of paragonimosis in Cameroon. Results of niclofolan treatment].

    PubMed

    Ripert, C; Carrie, J; Ambroise-Thomas, P; Baecher, R; Kum, N P; Same-Ekobo, A

    1981-01-01

    Paragonimiasis does not occur only in the South West Province of Cameroon. Four foci exist in the country. They are the well known focus in the Mount Kupe area, the Mbam focus, the Nyong focus and the Ntem focus. All of them are located in the rainforest within the distribution area of Potadoma. This disease, characterized by the presence of eggs in sputum and feces, has often been confused with tuberculosis. In the villages where paragonimiasis is diagnosed by means of parasitological techniques circulating antibodies, revealed with a P. westermani antigen (ELISA), are often found in blood specimens taken from inhabitants. Teen agers suffer the most from the disease and females more often than males. Women and children are traditionally concerned with crabs fishing and they eat them after partly raw. Crabs of the genus Sudanautes contain the infective metacercariae. Paragonimiasis is enzootic and the civet cat V. civetta seems to be the main natural definitive host in Cameroon. Niclofolan given orally in a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight showed a 100% cure rate. Side reactions are mild and transient.

  17. Pulmonary vein stenosis in patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prosnitz, Aaron R; Leopold, Jane; Irons, Mira; Jenkins, Kathy; Roberts, Amy E

    2017-07-01

    To describe a group of children with co-incident pulmonary vein stenosis and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and to generate hypotheses as to the shared pathogenesis of these disorders. Retrospective case series. Five subjects in a pulmonary vein stenosis cohort of 170 subjects were diagnosed with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome soon after birth. All five cases were diagnosed with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome within 6 weeks of life, with no family history of either disorder. All cases had pathologically elevated 7-dehydrocholesterol levels and two of the five cases had previously reported pathogenic 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase mutations. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome severity scores ranged from mild to classical (2-7). Gestational age at birth ranged from 35 to 39 weeks. Four of the cases were male by karyotype. Pulmonary vein stenosis was diagnosed in all cases within 2 months of life, earlier than most published cohorts. All cases progressed to bilateral disease and three cases developed atresia of at least one vein. Despite catheter and surgical interventions, all subjects' pulmonary vein stenosis rapidly recurred and progressed. Three of the subjects died, at 2 months, 3 months, and 11 months. Survival at 16 months after diagnosis was 43%. Patients with pulmonary vein stenosis who have a suggestive syndromic presentation should be screened for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with easily obtainable serum sterol tests. Echocardiograms should be obtained in all newly diagnosed patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, with a low threshold for repeating the study if new respiratory symptoms of uncertain etiology arise. Further studies into the pathophysiology of pulmonary vein stenosis should consider the role of cholesterol-based signaling pathways in the promotion of intimal proliferation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intention to Quit Smoking and Associated Factors in Smokers Newly Diagnosed with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Aryanpur, Mahshid; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Hosseini, Mostafa; Jamaati, Hmidreza; Tabarsi, Payam; Soori, Hamid; Heydari, Gholam Reza; Kazempour-Dizaji, Mehdi; Emami, Habib; Mozafarian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that smoking, as a modifiable risk factor, can affect tuberculosis (TB) in different aspects such as enhancing development of TB infection, activation of latent TB and its related mortality. Since willingness to quit smoking is a critical stage, which may lead to quit attempts, being aware of smokers' intention to quit and the related predictors can provide considerable advantages. In this cross-sectional study, subjects were recruited via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Sampling was performed during 2012-2014 among pulmonary TB (PTB) patients referred to health centers in Tehran implementing the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) strategy and a TB referral center. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22 and the factors influencing quit intention were assessed using bivariate regression and multiple logistic regression models. In this study 1,127 newly diagnosed PTB patients were studied; from which 284 patients (22%) were current smokers. When diagnosed with TB, 59 (23.8%) smokers quit smoking. Among the remaining 189 (76.2%) patients who continued smoking, 52.4% had intention to quit. In the final multiple logistic regression model, living in urban areas (OR=8.81, P=0.003), having an office job (OR= 7.34, P=0.001), being single (OR=4.89, P=0.016) and a one unit increase in the motivation degree (OR=2.60, P<0.001) were found to increase the intention to quit smoking. The study found that PTB patients who continued smoking had remarkable intention to quit. Thus, it is recommended that smoking cessation interventions should be started at the time of TB diagnosis. Understanding the associated factors can guide the consultants to predict patients' intention to quit and select the most proper management to facilitate smoking cessation for each patient.

  19. Innate Cellular Immunity in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients and During Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Edem, Victory Fabian; Arinola, Ganiyu Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte migration (LM) and intracellular killing aspects of the innate immune response play important roles in protection against and containment and cure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and thus may be exploited as immunotherapeutic targets to improve the management and treatment outcomes of patients with tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess LM and mediators of intracellular killing in patients with TB at the time of diagnosis and during anti-TB chemotherapy and compare them with apparently healthy controls. We recruited 24 patients who were newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 20 apparently healthy individuals. Blood was drawn from patients with TB at the time of diagnosis, and after 2, 4, and 6 months of anti-TB chemotherapy and control. In vitro percentage LM (%LM) upon stimulation with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, percentage nitroblue tetrazolium (%NBT) reduction, plasma concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in both groups. Percentage NBT was significantly reduced in patients with TB at 2 months of anti-TB chemotherapy compared with patients at diagnosis and in healthy controls, whereas %LM was significantly increased in patients at 4 months of anti-TB chemotherapy compared with patients at diagnosis and controls. Mean plasma H2O2 and NO were significantly reduced in patients at diagnosis and throughout the period of anti-TB chemotherapy compared with the control group. Significant decreases were demonstrated in mean plasma H2O2 and NO in patients at 2 and 4 months of anti-TB chemotherapy, respectively, compared with patients at diagnosis. There was significant positive correlation between %NBT with plasma H2O2 and NO, but %LM was negatively correlated with plasma H2O2 in this group. The intracellular killing aspect of innate cellular immunity is deficient in patients with TB, especially 2 to 4 months after commencement of treatment. Therefore, measures (eg, arginine supplementation

  20. A case of septic pulmonary embolism associated with renal abscess mimicking pulmonary metastases of renal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jo Sung; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Han Jo; Jang, Si-Hyong; Lee, Jeong Won

    2014-05-01

    We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with acute febrile symptom who had multiple pulmonary nodules and a renal mass. She underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to find a hidden malignancy and the cause of her fever. FDG PET/CT images demonstrated a renal mass and multiple lung nodules with intense FDG uptake, which was suspicious of a renal malignancy with multiple pulmonary metastatic lesions. CT-guided biopsies of the pulmonary and renal lesions only showed chronic inflammatory infiltrates without evidence of malignancy. She was diagnosed with septic pulmonary embolism from a renal abscess. One month after antibiotic treatment, the follow-up chest and abdomen CT showed improvement of the lung and renal lesions. This is the first case demonstrating the FDG PET/CT finding of septic pulmonary embolism associated with renal abscess in the published literature.

  1. Comparison of computed tomography pulmonary angiography and point-of-care tests for pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Goggs, R; Chan, D L; Benigni, L; Hirst, C; Kellett-Gregory, L; Fuentes, V L

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of CT pulmonary angiography for identification of naturally occurring pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs using predefined diagnostic criteria and to assess the ability of echocardiography, cardiac troponins, D-dimers and kaolin-activated thromboelastography to predict the presence of pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs. Twelve dogs with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and evidence of respiratory distress were prospectively evaluated. Dogs were sedated immediately before CT pulmonary angiography using intravenous butorphanol. Spiral CT pulmonary angiography was performed with a 16 detector-row CT scanner using a pressure injector to infuse contrast media through peripheral intravenous catheters. Pulmonary thromboembolism was diagnosed using predefined criteria. Contemporaneous tests included echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, kaolin-activated thromboelastography, D-dimers and cardiac troponins. Based on predefined criteria, four dogs were classified as pulmonary thromboembolism positive, three dogs were suspected to have pulmonary thromboembolism and the remaining five dogs had negative scans. The four dogs identified with pulmonary thromboembolism all had discrete filling defects in main or lobar pulmonary arteries. None of the contemporaneous tests was discriminant for pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosis, although the small sample size was limiting. CT pulmonary angiography can be successfully performed in dogs under sedation, even in at-risk patients with respiratory distress and can both confirm and rule out pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Lung Ultrasonography to Diagnose Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Chen, Shui-Wen; Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    This study explored the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for diagnosing transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). Ultrasound was performed by one export. Patients were placed in a supine, lateral recumbent, or prone position. The probe was placed perpendicular or parallel to the ribs, and each region of the lung was scanned. The scan results were compared with conventional chest radiographic results. A total of 1,358 infants were included in this study. We identified 412 cases without pulmonary diseases, 228 TTN cases, 358 respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) cases, 85 meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) cases, 215 infectious pneumonia cases, and 60 other cases. The primary ultrasonic characteristic of TTN was pulmonary edema. "White lung" or a "compact B-line" were only observed in severe cases, whereas TTN primarily presented as pulmonary interstitial syndrome or "double lung point." Furthermore, double lung point could appear during the recovery period of severe TTN or RDS, MAS, and pneumonia. Lung consolidation with air bronchograms was not observed in TTN patients. The results showed that white lung or a compact B-line exhibited a sensitivity of 33.8% and a specificity of 91.3% in diagnosing TTN, whereas double lung point exhibited a sensitivity of 45.6% and a specificity of 94.8% in diagnosing severe TTN. Pulmonary edema, alveolar-interstitial syndrome, double lung point, white lung, and compact B-line are the primary ultrasound characteristics of TTN. Ultrasonic diagnosis of TTN based on these findings is accurate and reliable. TTN can be ruled out in the presence of lung consolidation with air bronchograms. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension is associated with a free radical-mediated reduction in pulmonary nitric oxide bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Damian M; Dehnert, Christoph; Luks, Andrew M; Menold, Elmar; Castell, Christian; Schendler, Guido; Faoro, Vitalie; Gutowski, Mariusz; Evans, Kevin A; Taudorf, Sarah; James, Philip E; McEneny, J; Young, Ian S; Swenson, Erik R; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Bärtsch, Peter; Berger, Marc M

    2010-01-01

    High altitude (HA)-induced pulmonary hypertension may be due to a free radical-mediated reduction in pulmonary nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. We hypothesised that the increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) at HA would be associated with a net transpulmonary output of free radicals and corresponding loss of bioactive NO metabolites. Twenty-six mountaineers provided central venous and radial arterial samples at low altitude (LA) and following active ascent to 4559 m (HA). PASP was determined by Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary blood flow by inert gas re-breathing, and vasoactive exchange via the Fick principle. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) were diagnosed using clinical questionnaires and chest radiography. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, ozone-based chemiluminescence and ELISA were employed for plasma detection of the ascorbate free radical (A·−), NO metabolites and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Fourteen subjects were diagnosed with AMS and three of four HAPE-susceptible subjects developed HAPE. Ascent decreased the arterio-central venous concentration difference (a-cvD) resulting in a net transpulmonary loss of ascorbate, α-tocopherol and bioactive NO metabolites (P < 0.05 vs. LA). This was accompanied by an increased a-cvD and net output of A·− and lipid hydroperoxides (P < 0.05 vs. sea level, SL) that correlated against the rise in PASP (r= 0.56–0.62, P < 0.05) and arterial 3-NT (r= 0.48–0.63, P < 0.05) that was more pronounced in HAPE. These findings suggest that increased PASP and vascular resistance observed at HA are associated with a free radical-mediated reduction in pulmonary NO bioavailability. PMID:20876202

  4. Are all pulmonary hypoplasias the same? A comparison of pulmonary outcomes in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele and congenital lung malformation.

    PubMed

    Akinkuotu, Adesola C; Sheikh, Fariha; Cass, Darrell L; Zamora, Irving J; Lee, Timothy C; Cassady, Christopher I; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Williams, Jennifer L; Ruano, Rodrigo; Welty, Stephen E; Olutoye, Oluyinka O

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH), omphaloceles, and congenital lung malformations (CLM) may have pulmonary hypoplasia and experience respiratory insufficiency. We hypothesize that given equivalent lung volumes, the degree of respiratory insufficiency will be comparable regardless of the etiology. Records of all fetuses with CDH, omphalocele, and CLM between January 2000 and June 2013 were reviewed. MRI-based observed-to-expected total fetal lung volumes (O/E-TFLV) were calculated. An analysis of outcomes in patients with O/E-TFLV between 40% and 60%, the most inclusive range, was performed. 285 patients were evaluated (161, CDH; 24, omphalocele; 100, CLM). Fetuses with CDH had the smallest mean O/E-TFLV. CDH patients were intubated for longer and had a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension. Fifty-six patients with the three diagnoses had an O/E-TFLV of 40%-60%. The need for ECMO, supplemental oxygen at 30days of life, and 6-month mortality were similar among groups. CDH patients had a significantly longer duration of intubation and higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension than the other two diagnoses. Given equivalent lung volumes (40%-60% of expected), CDH patients require more pulmonary support initially than omphalocele and CLM patients. In addition to lung volumes, disease-specific factors, such as pulmonary hypertension in CDH, also contribute to pulmonary morbidity and overall outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bronchoscopic modalities to diagnose sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Benzaquen, Sadia; Aragaki-Nakahodo, Alejandro Adolfo

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have investigated different bronchoscopic techniques to obtain tissue diagnosis in patients with suspected sarcoidosis when the diagnosis cannot be based on clinicoradiographic findings alone. In this review, we will describe the most recent and relevant evidence from different bronchoscopic modalities to diagnose sarcoidosis. Despite multiple available bronchoscopic modalities to procure tissue samples to diagnose sarcoidosis, the vast majority of evidence favors endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration to diagnose Scadding stages 1 and 2 sarcoidosis. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy is a new technique that is mainly used to aid in the diagnosis of undifferentiated interstitial lung disease; however, we will discuss its potential use in sarcoidosis. This review illustrates the limited information about the different bronchoscopic techniques to aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. However, it demonstrates that the combination of available bronchoscopic techniques increases the diagnostic yield for suspected sarcoidosis.

  6. Increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients with appendectomy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, S-W; Lin, C-L; Liao, K-F; Tsai, S-M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between appendectomy and pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. We designed a case-control study by analyzing the database from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. In total, we found 11,366 individuals (aged 20 years and older) with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis as the case group and 45,464 individuals without pulmonary tuberculosis as the control group from 1998 to 2011. The case group and the control group were matched on sex, age, and index year of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. Using the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model, we measured the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis associated with appendectomy and other comorbidities. After controlling for covariables, the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model disclosed that the OR of pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.4 in appendectomized patients (95 % CI = 1.13, 1.75) when compared to individuals without appendectomy. In further analysis, comorbidity with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR = 4.63, 95 % CI = 3.21, 6.68), pneumoconiosis (OR = 7.80, 95 % CI = 1.43, 42.5), chronic kidney diseases (OR = 5.65, 95 % CI = 1.79, 17.8), or diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI = 1.30, 3.44) increased the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in appendectomized patients. Individuals with appendectomy are at a 1.4-fold increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. Comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumoconiosis, chronic kidney diseases, and diabetes mellitus, enhance the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. A Case of Atypical Skull Base Osteomyelitis with Septic Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Jung; Weon, Young Cheol; Cha, Hee Jeong; Kim, Sun Young; Seo, Kwang Won; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is difficult to diagnose when a patient presents with multiple cranial nerve palsies but no obvious infectious focus. There is no report about SBO with septic pulmonary embolism. A 51-yr-old man presented to our hospital with headache, hoarseness, dysphagia, frequent choking, fever, cough, and sputum production. He was diagnosed of having masked mastoiditis complicated by SBO with multiple cranial nerve palsies, sigmoid sinus thrombosis, and septic pulmonary embolism. We successfully treated him with antibiotics and anticoagulants alone, with no surgical intervention. His neurologic deficits were completely recovered. Decrease of pulmonary nodules and thrombus in the sinus was evident on the follow-up imaging one month later. In selected cases of intracranial complications of SBO and septic pulmonary embolism, secondary to mastoiditis with early response to antibiotic therapy, conservative treatment may be considered and surgical intervention may be withheld. PMID:21738354

  8. Developing a complex intervention for the outpatient management of incidentally diagnosed pulmonary embolism in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Palmer, June; Bozas, George; Stephens, Andrew; Johnson, Miriam; Avery, Ged; O'Toole, Lorcan; Maraveyas, Anthony

    2013-06-27

    Most patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) spend 5-7 days in hospital even though only 4.5% will develop serious complications during this time. In particular, the group of patients with incidentally diagnosed PE (i-PE) includes many patients with low risk features potentially ideal for outpatient management; however the evidence for their optimal management is lacking hence relative practices may vary considerably. We describe the development process, components, links and function of a nurse-led service for the management of patients with i-PE, developed in accordance to the UK Medical Research Council complex intervention guidance. Phase 0 (Theoretical underpinning): The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) was selected for patient risk assessment and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline for the management of PE in cancer patients (2007) was selected as quality measure. Historical registry and audit data from our centre regarding i-PE incidence and management for the period between 2006 and 2009 illustrating the then current practices were reviewed. Phase 1 (Modelling): Modelling of the pathway included the following: a) Identification of training needs, planning and implementation of training schemes and development of transferable competencies and training materials. b) Mapping patient pathways and flow and c) Production of key documentation and Standard Operating Procedures for the delivery of the service. Phase 2 (Implementation and testing of the intervention): During the initial 12 months of implementation, remedial action was taken to address identified deficiencies regarding patient referral to the pathway, compliance with treatment protocol, patient follow up, selection challenges from the use of PESI in cancer patients and challenges regarding the "first-pass" identification of i-PE. We have developed and piloted a complex intervention to manage cancer patients with incidental PE in an outpatient setting. Adherence to evidence

  9. Pulmonary contusions after blunt chest trauma: clinical significance and evaluation of patient management.

    PubMed

    Požgain, Z; Kristek, D; Lovrić, I; Kondža, G; Jelavić, M; Kocur, J; Danilović, M

    2017-11-22

    A pulmonary contusion is an entity defined as alveolar haemorrhage and pulmonary parenchymal destruction after blunt chest trauma. According to the literature, most pulmonary contusions can only be seen on a chest CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patients with pulmonary contusions, as well as their management, considering diagnostic and therapeutic options related to their outcomes, since we assumed, based on everyday clinical practice, that an 'overdiagnosing' and 'overtreatment' attitude towards this injury could be present. The research was a retrospective study including 5042 patients admitted to the Department of Traumatology in the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek, during a 3-year period. The medical data of the patients who suffered pulmonary contusion were evaluated considering significant characteristics, known risk factors, procedures undergone, and outcomes. During the 3-year period, 2% of all the admitted patients were diagnosed with a pulmonary contusion. In 54% of the cases, the patient suffered polytraumatic injuries. The pulmonary contusion was an isolated injury in 7% of the patients. In 31% of the cases, there was no liquidothorax or pneumothorax (isolated pulmonary contusion). In 89% of the patients the pulmonary contusion was diagnosed using a CT scan. In 68% of the patients there were no interventions regarding the thorax; thoracocentesis was performed in 25% of the cases, and pleural punction in 14% of the cases. 25% of the patients developed respiratory insufficiency and 16% required mechanical ventilation. Regarding isolated pulmonary contusions, respiratory insufficiency was present in 8% of the cases. We suggest that a pulmonary contusion seen on CT only has limited clinical significance and that the use of CT scans in diagnosing and follow-up of these patients should be re-evaluated. Further prospective and randomised studies should be conducted and the patients should be clinically evaluated, with the administration of

  10. Formation of multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Gilberto Toshikawa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Fujihara, Satomi; Silva, Luigi Ferreira e; Cruz, Lorena de Britto Pereira; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Koyama, Roberta Vilela Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is one of the extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and can be due to the disease itself or secondary to the medications used in order to treat it. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and developed multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide. PMID:26176527

  11. Pulmonary manifestations of rheumatologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cidon, Michal; Bansal, Manvi; Hartl, Dominik

    2017-06-01

    The present review intends to provide an overview of the diversity and complexity of pulmonary manifestations of rheumatologic diseases and gaps in knowledge to effectively manage them. Diffuse lung disease in children with rheumatologic diseases represents a heterogeneous group of autoimmune disorders. Despite their significant morbidity and mortality, we have limited understanding about their pathogenesis. Here, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology and current management approach of these disorders, highlighting tools which assist with diagnosis, risk stratification and therapy. In this context, we address the need to develop a standardized approach to diagnose at-risk patients with rheumatologic disease and to predict their progression and the need to develop robust studies which evaluate the factors and interventions that influence pulmonary disease outcome. Diffuse lung disease in children with rheumatologic diseases represents a heterogeneous group of severe autoimmune disorders. By adopting a collaborative research approach among multicenters to help diagnose, risk stratify, and understand disease progression, effective management decisions can be optimized to improve clinical outcome.

  12. Measuring the Prevalence of Diagnosed Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the United States Using Data From the 2012-2014 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Colleen N.; Blumberg, Stephen J.; Vahratian, Anjel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study, measuring the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), examined (1) whether a single survey question asking explicitly about diagnosed COPD is sufficient to identify US adults with COPD and (2) how this measure compares with estimating COPD prevalence using survey questions on diagnosed emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis and all 3 survey questions together. Methods: We used data from the 2012-2014 National Health Interview Survey to examine different measures of prevalence among 7211 US adults who reported a diagnosed respiratory condition (ie, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD). Results: We estimated a significantly higher prevalence of COPD by using a measure accounting for all 3 diagnoses (6.1%; 95% CI, 5.9%-6.3%) than by using a measure of COPD diagnosis only (3.0%; 95% CI, 2.8%-3.1%) or a measure of emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis diagnoses (4.7%; 95% CI, 4.6%-4.9%). This pattern was significant among all subgroups examined except for non-Hispanic Asian adults. The percentage difference between measures of COPD was larger among certain subgroups (adults aged 18-39, Hispanic adults, and never smokers); additional analyses showed that this difference resulted from a large proportion of adults in these subgroups reporting a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis only. Conclusions: With the use of self- or patient-reported health survey data such as the National Health Interview Survey, it is recommended that a measure asking respondents only about COPD diagnosis is not adequate for estimating the prevalence of COPD. Instead, a measure accounting for diagnoses of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD may be a better measure. Additional analyses should explore the reliability and validation of survey questions related to COPD, with special attention toward questions on chronic bronchitis. PMID:28135423

  13. Aggressive Renal Angiomyolipoma in a Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis Resulting in Pulmonary Tumor Embolus and Pulmonary Infarction.

    PubMed

    Mettler, John; Al-Katib, Sayf

    2018-06-07

    Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is the most commonly encountered mesenchymal tumor of the kidney which can present spontaneously or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex. Rarely, renal AMLs may demonstrate aggressive features such as renal vein invasion. This common entity and its uncommon complications are diagnosed based on physical examination and computed tomography results. Here we report imaging findings of a renal AML with renal vein and inferior vena cava invasion resulting in pulmonary tumor embolus and pulmonary infarction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [The association of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis and hiatal hernia: a simple coincidence? (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sauret, J; Casán, P

    1980-03-25

    Gastroesophageal diseases with reflux can cause numerous pulmonary complications (bronchospasm crisis, bronchitis, pneumonias, lung abscesses). These manifestations are very frequent in the hiatal hernias and in some series have reached up to 46 percent of the cases studied. Recently it has been suggested that microaspirations, repeated over a long period of time, may cause an alteration of the pulmonary interstitium and the consecutive development of a clinical and roentgenologic picture similar to pulmonary fibrosis. The aspirations are produced more frequently at night, favoured by the lying down position and because of it the patients present attacks of nocturnal cough. In this paper, two patients who presented the association of pulmonary fibrosis and hiatal hernia with esophageal relux are described. The first case was diagnosed early; he had minimal radiographic anomalies and the disappearance of the respiratory symptomatology was achieved by means of the medical treatment of the esophageal reflux. The second case was in a very advanced stage with severe respiratory insufficiency and gastrointestinal manifestations of many years' evolution. Both patients had been diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although there is no experimental proof of the "reflux-fibrosis" theory, we think that this possibility should be kept in mind before diagnosing the interstitial pulmonary pattern as idiopathic, especially in the cases of only slight radiographic and functional involvement susceptible to improvement with correction of the esophageal reflux.

  15. [Gemstone computed tomography in the evaluation of material distribution in pulmonary parenchyma for pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Lü, Lei; Wu, Hua-wei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ji-wei

    2011-12-06

    To present our initial experiences with pulmonary high-definition multidetector computed tomography (HDCT) in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (AVTE) to evaluate their corresponding clinical manifestations. Since December 2009 to March 2010, 23 AVTE patients underwent HDCT at our hospital. Pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed based on the 3D-reconstructed images of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The post processed data were collected by spectral imaging system software to detect the iodine distribution maps. Perfusion defects, calculated as the values of iodine content, were compared with those of normal lung parenchymal perfusion in the absence of PE. Among them, 14 AVTE patients were definitely diagnosed with PE. Prior to anticoagulant therapy, their values of iodine content in defective perfusion area were significantly lower than those in normal perfusion area. After a 3-month anticoagulant therapy, the values of iodine content for the defective perfusion area increased significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the values of iodine content for segmental/subsegmental filling defect area and clinical risk score of DVT (r = 2.68, P > 0.05). But there was a significant negative correlation between the values of iodine content for segmental/subsegmental filling defection area and clinical probability score of PE (r = 0.78, P < 0.05). HDCT is a promising modality of visualizing pulmonary microvasculature as a correlative manifestation of regional perfusion. PE results in hypoperfusion with decreased values of iodine content in affected lung parenchyma. Hemodynamic changes in affected areas correlate with the severity of clinical manifestations of PE.

  16. CT and PET-CT of a Dog with Multiple Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Jisun; KWON, Seong Young; CENA, Rohani; PARK, Seungjo; OH, Juyeon; OUI, Heejin; CHO, Kyoung-Oh; MIN, Jung-Joon; CHOI, Jihye

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 10-year-old, intact female Yorkshire terrier had multiple pulmonary nodules on thoracic radiography and ultrasonography with no lesions elsewhere. Computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were performed to identify metastasis and undetected primary tumors. On CT examination, pulmonary nodules had a hypoattenuating center with thin peripheral enhancement, suggesting ischemic or necrotizing lesion. In PET-CT at 47 min after intravenous injection of 11.1 MBq/kg of FDG, the maximum standardized uptake value of each pulmonary nodule was about from 3.8 to 6.4. There were no abnormal lesions except for four pulmonary nodules on the CT and PET-CT. Primary lung tumor was tentatively diagnosed, and palliative therapy using 2 mg/kg tramadol and 2.2 mg/kg carprofen twice per day was applied. After the dog’s euthanasia due to deteriorated clinical signs and poor prognosis, undifferentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma was diagnosed through histopathologic and immunochemistry examination. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study of CT and PET-CT features of canine pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In this case, multiple pulmonary adenocarcinoma could be determined on the basis of FDG PET-CT through screening the obvious distant metastasis and/or lymph node invasions and excluding unknown primary tumors. PMID:24389742

  17. Telemedicine to support coping resources in home-living patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Patients' experiences.

    PubMed

    Vatnøy, Torunn K; Thygesen, Elin; Dale, Bjørg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The way in which telemedicine contributes to promote coping and independence might be undervalued in the development of telemedicine solutions and the implementation of telemedicine interventions. This study explored how home-living patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experienced follow-up using telemedicine, and the extent to which the implemented technology was able to support and improve the patients' coping resources and independence. Methods A qualitative approach with individual semi-structured interviews was used. Ten patients diagnosed with COPD participated. The data were transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis method was used, including analyses of the manifest and latent content of the texts. Results The participants' positive attitude to handling and understanding the technology and the positive and negative feelings related to use the technology derived the theme: "The telemedicine solution is experienced as comprehensible and manageable and provides meaning in daily life". The importance of telemedicine services that provided trust and confidence, the intervention's impact on independence and self-management and the intervention's ability to support integrity and meaning in life, derived the theme: "The telemedicine intervention contributes to stress reduction caused by illness burden and facilitates living as normally as possible". Discussion The impact of a telemedicine intervention might be influenced by the experience of a technological solution that requires little effort to deal with, while it must also provide meaning in life. Furthermore, the telenurses' expertise and the intervention's flexibility, i.e. possibilities for individual adaption, might promote coping to facilitate living as normally as possible despite illness.

  18. Generalised lymphangiectasia: pulmonary presentation in an adult.

    PubMed Central

    White, J. E.; Veale, D.; Fishwick, D.; Mitchell, L.; Corris, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    A 25 year old man presented with dyspnoea and was found to have generalised, but predominantly pulmonary, lymphangiectasis without gastrointestinal symptoms. This is an unusual presentation of a disorder previously diagnosed only in childhood. Images PMID:8882089

  19. Diagnostic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Broekhuizen, B D L; Sachs, A P E; Hoes, A W; Verheij, T J M; Moons, K G M

    2012-01-01

    Detection of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms is recommended; however, diagnosing COPD is difficult because a single gold standard is not available. The aim of this article is to review and interpret the existing evidence, theories and consensus on the individual parts of the diagnostic work-up for COPD. Relevant articles are discussed under the subheadings: history taking, physical examination, spirometry and additional lung function assessment. Wheezing, cough, phlegm and breathlessness on exertion are suggestive signs for COPD. The diagnostic value of the physical examination is limited, except for auscultated pulmonary wheezing or reduced breath sounds, increasing the probability of COPD. Spirometric airflow obstruction after bronchodilation, defined as a lowered ratio of the forced volume in one second to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC ratio), is a prerequisite, but can only confirm COPD in combination with suggestive symptoms. Different thresholds are being recommended to define low FEV1/FVC, including a fixed threshold, and one varying with gender and age; however, the way physicians interpret these thresholds in their assessment is not well known. Body plethysmography allows a more complete assessment of pulmonary function, providing results on the total lung capacity and the residual volume and is indicated when conventional spirometry results are inconclusive. Chest radiography has no diagnostic value for COPD but is useful to exclude alternative diagnoses such as heart failure or lung cancer. Extensive history taking is of key importance in diagnosing COPD.

  20. Obstructive lung disease as a complication in post pulmonary TB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, A. P.; Pandia, P.; Eyanoer, P.; Tina, D.; Pratama, R.; Fresia, A.; Tamara; Silvanna

    2018-03-01

    The case of post TB is a problem that arises in the community. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function. Therefore, we evaluated impaired pulmonary function in subjects with diagnosed prior pulmonary TB. A Case Series study, pulmonary function test was performed in subjects with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis; aged ≥18 years were included. Exclusion criteria was a subject who had asthma, obesity, abnormal thorax and smoking history. We measured FEV1 and FVC to evaluate pulmonary function. Airflow obstruction was FEV1/FVC%<75 and restriction was FVC<80% according to Indonesia’s pneumomobile project. This study was obtained from 23 patients with post pulmonary TB, 5 subjects (23%) had airflow obstruction with FEV1/FVC% value <75%, 15 subjects (71.4%) had abnormalities restriction with FVC value <80% and 3 subjects (5.6%) had normal lung function. Obstructive lung disease is one of the complications of impaired lung function in post pulmonary TB.

  1. [Echocardiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Not a routine method but useful in the diagnosis of simultaneous hemodynamic disorders].

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1998-08-19

    Echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism as illustrated by three case reports is discussed in the article. Acute pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by demonstration of right heart strain in one case, of long vermiform thrombi floating in the right atrium in another, and in the third case by demonstration of a long thrombus lodged in the foramen ovale, astride the atrial septum, and with its ends floating in either atrium. Thus, as echocardiography enables pulmonary embolism to be diagnosed by demonstration either of right heart strain or of intracardial thrombi, it is a useful diagnostic tool in cases of haemodynamic compromise, though it does not detect minor pulmonary embolism.

  2. The development of a pseudo-chamber after balloon pulmonary angioplasty: long-term complications of balloon pulmonary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hisashi; Kise, Hiroaki; Toda, Takako; Hoshiai, Minako

    2016-11-01

    We experienced a rare complication where extravasation developed a pseudo-chamber long after the balloon pulmonary angioplasty for supravalvular pulmonary stenosis. A 3-month-old girl was diagnosed with an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. She underwent the Takeuchi procedure at 10 months of age. During the follow-up, the supravalvular pulmonary stenosis deteriorated, and was treated by balloon pulmonary angioplasty with the double balloon technique catheter at 6 years of age. Angiography at the main pulmonary artery showed a small amount of extravasation contrast medium after the procedure. Follow-up echocardiography showed a diminished extravasation hemorrhage. Twelve years later, right ventricular enlargement due to pulmonary regurgitation had been observed on echocardiography. In addition, abnormal echo free space was detected at the left posterior of the left atrium. Enhanced computed tomography clearly demonstrated there was an orifice and extent of the pseudo-chamber. Surgical findings revealed a large tear just distal to the coronary tunnel. We speculated that extravasation blood was limited in the perivascular area early after the procedure but eventually reached the non-adhesive oblique pericardial sinus with age. Consequently, pulmonary to oblique pericardial sinus communication was established and looked like a pseudo-chamber long after the procedure. In conclusion, even if extravasation seems to be limited immediately after the balloon pulmonary angioplasty, it could expand for non-adhesive space and could develop a huge blood space like chamber. Long-term careful observation should be necessary for extravasation of pulmonary artery even with surgical adhesion.

  3. Surgical treatment of late-diagnosed bronchial foreign body aspiration: a report of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hao; Hu, Xuefei; Jiang, Gening

    2014-07-01

    Late-diagnosed bronchial foreign bodies can lead to irreversible changes in the bronchi and the lungs. To date, few reports are available concerning surgical treatment for this condition. The present report summarizes clinicopathological features and surgical treatment options for late-diagnosed bronchial foreign body aspiration. Clinical data of 23 patients who underwent surgical treatment for late-diagnosed bronchial foreign body aspiration in our hospital from 1980 to 2010 were reviewed. The patients included 17 male and six female patients, aged 6 to 66 years. To remove the foreign body, bronchotomy was performed in six patients and pulmonary resection in 17 patients. Foreign bodies were located on the right side in 17 cases and on the left side in six cases. The majority of the foreign bodies were of food origin. Postoperative bronchopleural fistula occurred in two patients. One patient died of renal failure subsequent to lung infections. Detailed history, awareness of potential foreign body aspiration and thorough bronchoscopic examination are helpful to avoid pulmonary resection. However, the latter is necessary in patients with the associated substantial lung lesions to prevent these from progressing into serious lung infections such as pulmonary suppuration or empyema. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  5. Bronchiectasis in infants and preschool children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis after newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Stick, Stephen M; Brennan, Siobhain; Murray, Conor; Douglas, Tonia; von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S; Garratt, Luke W; Gangell, Catherine L; De Klerk, Nicholas; Linnane, Barry; Ranganathan, Sarath; Robinson, Phillip; Robertson, Colin; Sly, Peter D

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of bronchiectasis in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed after newborn screening (NBS) and the relationship of bronchiectasis to pulmonary inflammation and infection. Children were diagnosed with CF after NBS. Computed tomography and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed with anesthesia (n = 96). Scans were analyzed for the presence and extent of abnormalities. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was 22% and increased with age (P = .001). Factors associated with bronchiectasis included absolute neutrophil count (P = .03), neutrophil elastase concentration (P = .001), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection (P = .03). Pulmonary abnormalities are common in infants and young children with CF and relate to neutrophilic inflammation and infection with P. aeruginosa. Current models of care for infants with CF fail to prevent respiratory sequelae. Bronchiectasis is a clinically relevant endpoint that could be used for intervention trials that commence soon after CF is diagnosed after NBS.

  6. Developing a complex intervention for the outpatient management of incidentally diagnosed pulmonary embolism in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) spend 5–7 days in hospital even though only 4.5% will develop serious complications during this time. In particular, the group of patients with incidentally diagnosed PE (i-PE) includes many patients with low risk features potentially ideal for outpatient management; however the evidence for their optimal management is lacking hence relative practices may vary considerably. We describe the development process, components, links and function of a nurse-led service for the management of patients with i-PE, developed in accordance to the UK Medical Research Council complex intervention guidance. Methods Phase 0 (Theoretical underpinning): The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) was selected for patient risk assessment and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline for the management of PE in cancer patients (2007) was selected as quality measure. Historical registry and audit data from our centre regarding i-PE incidence and management for the period between 2006 and 2009 illustrating the then current practices were reviewed. Phase 1 (Modelling): Modelling of the pathway included the following: a) Identification of training needs, planning and implementation of training schemes and development of transferable competencies and training materials. b) Mapping patient pathways and flow and c) Production of key documentation and Standard Operating Procedures for the delivery of the service. Results Phase 2 (Implementation and testing of the intervention): During the initial 12 months of implementation, remedial action was taken to address identified deficiencies regarding patient referral to the pathway, compliance with treatment protocol, patient follow up, selection challenges from the use of PESI in cancer patients and challenges regarding the “first-pass” identification of i-PE. Conclusion We have developed and piloted a complex intervention to manage cancer patients with incidental PE

  7. Computed tomography of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in adults.

    PubMed

    Haramati, Linda B; Moche, Ilana E; Rivera, Vivian T; Patel, Pavni V; Heyneman, Laura; McAdams, H Page; Issenberg, Henry J; White, Charles S

    2003-01-01

    To systematically describe the imaging features and clinical correlates of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) in adults. Twenty-nine adults with a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection on CT were retrospectively identified. There were 19 women and 10 men, with a mean age of 53 (range: 19-83) years. Four cases were identified by review of 1825 consecutive chest CT reports from July 2000-July 2001, and 25 cases were culled from chest radiology teaching files at 3 institutions. Inclusion criteria were availability of CT images and medical charts. Chest radiographs (25 of 29 cases) were reviewed for mediastinal contour abnormalities, heart size, and pulmonary vascular pattern. Chest CT scans were reviewed for location, size, and drainage site of the anomalous vein; presence or absence of a pulmonary vein in the normal location; cardiac size and configuration; and pulmonary vasculature. Charts were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary and cardiovascular disease, history of congenital heart disease, and results of other cardiac imaging. The prevalence of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection was 0.2% (4 of 1825 chest CT reports). Seventy-nine percent (23 of 29 patients) had an anomalous left upper lobe vein connecting to a persistent left vertical vein, only 5% (1 of 23 patients) of whom had a left upper lobe vein in the normal location. Seventeen percent (5 of 29 patients) had an anomalous right upper lobe vein draining into the superior vena cava, 60% (3 of 5 patients) of whom also had a right upper lobe pulmonary vein in the normal location. One patient (3%) had an anomalous right lower lobe vein draining into the suprahepatic inferior vena cava. Chest radiographic findings were abnormal left mediastinal contour in 64% (15 of 25 patients), abnormal right mediastinal contour in 8% (2 of 25 patients), and cardiomegaly in 24% (6 of 25 patients). Computed tomography findings were cardiomegaly in 48% (14 of

  8. Lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray in diagnosing postoperative pulmonary complications following cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Touw, H R; Parlevliet, K L; Beerepoot, M; Schober, P; Vonk, A; Twisk, J W; Elbers, P W; Boer, C; Tuinman, P R

    2018-03-12

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are common after cardiothoracic surgery and are associated with adverse outcomes. The ability to detect postoperative pulmonary complications using chest X-rays is limited, and this technique requires radiation exposure. Little is known about the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and we therefore aimed to compare lung ultrasound with chest X-ray to detect postoperative pulmonary complications in this group of patients. We performed this prospective, observational, single-centre study in a tertiary intensive care unit treating adult patients who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. We recorded chest X-ray findings upon admission and on postoperative days 2 and 3, as well as rates of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications that required therapy according to the treating physician as part of their standard clinical practice. Lung ultrasound was performed by an independent researcher at the time of chest X-ray. We compared lung ultrasound with chest X-ray for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications. We also assessed inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound, and the time to perform both imaging techniques. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the time to detection of clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications by both modalities. We recruited a total of 177 patients in whom both lung ultrasound and chest X-ray imaging were performed. Lung ultrasound identified 159 (90%) postoperative pulmonary complications on the day of admission compared with 107 (61%) identified with chest X-ray (p < 0.001). Lung ultrasound identified 11 out of 17 patients (65%) and chest X-ray 7 out of 17 patients (41%) with clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications (p < 0.001). The

  9. Dornase Alfa for Non-Cystic Fibrosis Pediatric Pulmonary Atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Thornby, Krisy-Ann; Johnson, Ashley; Axtell, Samantha

    2014-08-01

    To review the literature evaluating the efficacy of dornase alfa for non-cystic fibrosis pediatric patients with pulmonary atelectasis. Articles were retrieved after a search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946 to April 2014), and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-April 2014) was performed using the terms dornase alfa, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease, pulmonary, persistent, and atelectasis. Other relevant articles referenced from the MEDLINE search were also utilized. Data sources were limited to English language clinical trials and case studies including only children; 8 clinical trials and 12 case reports met the criteria. Dornase alfa is used as an off-label treatment option for pulmonary atelectasis because limited treatment modalities exist after conventional therapy has failed. We evaluated 8 clinical trials and 12 case reports involving this pediatric population with varying primary diagnoses. The majority of patients experienced improvement in atelectasis, suggesting benefit after receiving treatment with dornase alfa. However, the outcomes were possibly confounded by those receiving combination therapies, varying primary diagnoses, and varying end points evaluated. Dornase alfa was overall well tolerated, with only a few patients experiencing worsening atelectasis posttreatment. Dornase alfa may be considered as a therapeutic option in non-cystic fibrosis pediatric patients with pulmonary atelectasis, who require treatment intervention when conventional therapy is unsuccessful. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: review of Turkish reports.

    PubMed Central

    Ucan, E S; Keyf, A I; Aydilek, R; Yalcin, Z; Sebit, S; Kudu, M; Ok, U

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disorder, only 173 cases having been reported worldwide. Fifty two cases from Turkey are reported, 49 of which have previously been described only in Turkish publications. The mean age of the patients was 27 (SD 12) years, 34 were male, and 10 were symptomless. In 40 of the 52 cases diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. Nineteen cases were diagnosed in siblings. This high rate suggests that pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a familial disease, which, though rare, is for unknown reasons most common in Turkey. Images PMID:8493634

  11. Imaging of pulmonary emphysema: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masashi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nitta, Norihisa; Takazakura, Ryutaro; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Murakami, Yoko; Otani, Hideji; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘emphysema’ is generally used in a morphological sense, and therefore imaging modalities have an important role in diagnosing this disease. In particular, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a reliable tool for demonstrating the pathology of emphysema, even in subtle changes within secondary pulmonary lobules. Generally, pulmonary emphysema is classified into three types related to the lobular anatomy: centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. In this pictorial review, we discuss the radiological – pathological correlation in each type of pulmonary emphysema. HRCT of early centrilobular emphysema shows an evenly distributed centrilobular tiny areas of low attenuation with ill-defined borders. With enlargement of the dilated airspace, the surrounding lung parenchyma is compressed, which enables observation of a clear border between the emphysematous area and the normal lung. Because the disease progresses from the centrilobular portion, normal lung parenchyma in the perilobular portion tends to be preserved, even in a case of far-advanced pulmonary emphysema. In panlobular emphysema, HRCT shows either panlobular low attenuation or ill-defined diffuse low attenuation of the lung. Paraseptal emphysema is characterized by subpleural well-defined cystic spaces. Recent topics related to imaging of pulmonary emphysema will also be discussed, including morphometry of the airway in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, combined pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema, and bronchogenic carcinoma associated with bullous lung disease. PMID:18686729

  12. [The different manifestations of pulmonary aspergillosis: multidetector computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    Koren Fernández, L; Alonso Charterina, S; Alcalá-Galiano Rubio, A; Sánchez Nistal, M A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a fungal infection usually caused by inhaling Aspergillus fumigatus spores. However, when we talk about aspergillosis, we normally refer to the spectrum of clinical and radiological findings that depend directly on the patient's immune status, on the prior existence of lung disease, and on the virulence of the infective organism. There are four types of pulmonary aspergillosis (aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive aspergillosis), and each type has its own distinct radiologic findings. We review the signs of pulmonary aspergillosis on multidetector computed tomography and we correlate them with patients' symptoms and immune responses. Likewise, we discuss the differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in visualizing and defining fetal pulmonary venous connections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Gu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The use of low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in assessing and defining pulmonary venous connections was investigated. Study A included 260 fetuses at gestational ages ranging from 18 to 36 weeks. Pulmonary veins were assessed by performing two-dimensional B-mode imaging, color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI), and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler. A score of 1 was assigned if one pulmonary vein was visualized, 2 if two pulmonary veins were visualized, 3 if three pulmonary veins were visualized, and 4 if four pulmonary veins were visualized. The detection rate between Exam-1 and Exam-2 (intra-observer variability) and between Exam-1 and Exam-3 (inter-observer variability) was compared. In study B, five cases with abnormal pulmonary venous connection were diagnosed and compared to their anatomical examination. In study A, there was a significant difference between CDFI and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler for the four pulmonary veins observed (P < 0.05). The detection rate of each pulmonary vein when employing low-frequency high-definition power Doppler was higher than that when employing two-dimensional B-mode imaging or CDFI. There was no significant difference between the intra- and inter-observer variabilities using low-frequency high-definition power Doppler display of pulmonary veins (P > 0.05). The coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-2 was 0.844, and the coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-3 was 0.821. In study B, one case of total anomalous pulmonary venous return and four cases of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return were diagnosed by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler and confirmed by autopsy. The assessment of pulmonary venous connections by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler is advantageous. Pulmonary venous anatomy can and should be monitored during fetal heart examination.

  14. Utility and prevalence of imaging for underlying cancer in unprovoked pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Homewood, R; Medford, A R

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines state that patients over 40 years of age with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism should be offered limited screening for possible cancer and considered for intensive screening (abdomino-pelvic computed tomography and mammography), despite no evidence for the latter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility and cost of intensive screening in routine clinical practice. Methods All patients diagnosed with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism between January 2014 and June 2014 in a single large UK teaching hospital were included. The information management department searched for patients with an International Classification of Diseases 10 discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and limited to 'acute pulmonary embolism with/without cor pulmonale'. Only patients with unprovoked pulmonary embolism were included. Patients with chronic medical conditions predisposing to pulmonary embolism were excluded. NHS costs were obtained from the Trust Finance Department. These costs were used to generate the costs of limited versus intensive screening, and then scaled up using adult population census information and assuming the same incidence of idiopathic pulmonary embolism to estimate the annual NHS cost of intensive screening. Results Ninety-two patients were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, and 25 met the inclusion criteria. Clinical examination was often incomplete (84%). Limited screening was often missed (urinalysis 100%, serum calcium 64%). Intensive screening was performed in the majority of cases (68%, all abdomino-pelvic computed tomography with no cancer detected) with an £88 excess cost per patient. Conclusion Intensive screening in first unprovoked pulmonary embolism has a low yield, is costly and should not replace thorough clinical examination and basic screening.

  15. A rare case of ethambutol induced pulmonary eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Ankan; Sengupta, Amitabha; Jash, Debraj

    2013-01-01

    Antitubercular drug (ATD) induced eosinophilic lung disease is a rare phenomenon. It usually occurs due to isoniazid and para amino salicylic acid. A 34-year-male of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis, on antitubercular drugs (rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide) for last 3 weeks, presented with generalized arthralgia and maculopapular rash for last 2 weeks and shortness of breath for last 1 week. Chest X-ray and High resolution computerized tomographic scan thorax showed bilateral peripheral airspace opacification. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 51% eosinophils of total cellularity (1200/cmm) confirming the diagnosis of pulmonary eosinophilia. ATD was stopped for 2 weeks and then reintroduced one by one. Patient again developed similar kind of symptoms with reintroduction of ethambutol. According to criteria for drug induced pulmonary eosinophilia, he was diagnosed as a case of ethambutol induced pulmonary eosinophilia. PMID:24250213

  16. Associations between thoracic radiographic changes and severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension diagnosed in 60 dogs via Doppler echocardiography: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dustin S; Marolf, Angela J; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; Randall, Elissa K; Bachand, Annette M

    2017-07-01

    Doppler echocardiography is a noninvasive method for estimating and grading pulmonary arterial hypertension. No current literature associates significance of radiographic findings with severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that the number and conspicuity of radiographic findings suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension would be greater based on the severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Dogs with pulmonary arterial hypertension and normal control dogs were included in this retrospective, case control study. Three radiologists blinded to echocardiographic results scored thoracic radiographs for right ventricular and main pulmonary artery enlargement and pulmonary lobar artery enlargement, tortuosity, and blunting by multiple methods. Presence or absence of each finding was scored in an additive fashion and averaged for each grade of pulmonary arterial hypertension severity. Seventy-one dogs (60 dogs with pulmonary arterial hypertension and 11 control dogs) of which some had multiple studies were included: 20 mild, 21 moderate, 25 severe, and 11 absent pulmonary arterial hypertension. The following radiographic findings were significantly associated with increasing pulmonary arterial hypertension severity: right ventricular enlargement by "reverse D" and "3/5-2/5 cardiac ratio" methods, main pulmonary artery enlargement, and caudal lobar artery enlargement by the "3rd rib" method. Mean scores for severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and normal dogs were significantly different (P-value < 0.0001). Mean scores between different pulmonary arterial hypertension grades increased with severity but were not statistically significant. Individually and in combination, radiographic findings performed poorly in differentiating severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Findings indicated that thoracic radiographs should be utilized in conjunction with Doppler echocardiography in a complete diagnostic work-up for dogs with suspected

  17. Impaired systemic oxygen extraction in treated exercise pulmonary hypertension: a new engine in an old car?

    PubMed

    Faria-Urbina, Mariana; Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Segrera, Sergio A; Lawler, Laurie; Waxman, Aaron B; Systrom, David M

    2018-01-01

    Ambrisentan in 22 patients with pulmonary hypertension diagnosed during exercise (ePH) improved pulmonary hemodynamics; however, there was only a trend toward increased maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) secondary to decreased maximum exercise systemic oxygen extraction (Ca-vO 2 ). We speculate that improved pulmonary hemodynamics at maximum exercise "unmasked" a pre-existing skeletal muscle abnormality.

  18. Tomographic findings of acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    de Souza Giassi, Karina; Costa, Andre Nathan; Apanavicius, Andre; Teixeira, Fernando Bin; Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar; Helito, Alfredo Salim; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib

    2014-11-25

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human zoonosis, and is generally benign in most of the individuals. Pulmonary involvement is common in immunocompromised subjects, but very rare in immunocompetents and there are scarce reports of tomographic findings in the literature. The aim of the study is to describe three immunocompetent patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis and their respective thoracic tomographic findings. Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. From 2009 to 2013, three patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute toxoplasmosis. The patients were two female and one male, and were 38, 56 and 36 years old. Similarly they presented a two-week febrile illness and progressive dyspnea before admission. Laboratory tests demonstrated lymphocytosis, slight changes in liver enzymes and high inflammatory markers. Tomographic findings were bilateral smooth septal and peribronchovascular thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (100%), atelectasis (33%), random nodules (33%), lymph node enlargement (33%) and pleural effusion (66%). All the patients improved their symptoms after treatment, and complete resolution of tomographic findings were found in the followup. These cases provide a unique description of the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tomographic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasma pneumonia manifests with fever, dyspnea and a non-productive cough that may result in respiratory failure. In animal models, changes were described as interstitial pneumonitis with focal infiltrates of neutrophils that can finally evolve into a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage with focal necrosis. The tomographic findings are characterized as ground glass opacities, smooth septal and marked peribronchovascular thickening; and may mimic pulmonary congestion

  19. Primary pulmonary lymphoma mimicking a refractory lung abscess: A case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Funayama, Yuki; Imai, Yukihiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    The current study presents a case of primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) mimicking refractory lung abscess that was diagnosed at autopsy. An 80-year-old male with clinically inapparent aspiration presented with a large cavitated mass and pleural effusion. A lung abscess and empyema was diagnosed, therefore, antibiotics were administered and the pleural effusion was drained. Various examinations, including a biopsy, yielded no specific diagnosis. The lesion was considered inoperable due to the poor general condition of the patient. Subsequently, the mass that had been diagnosed as a refractory lung abscess became enlarged and a repeat biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient succumbed to sudden respiratory failure, and the final diagnosis of PPL was confirmed at autopsy. PPL is a rare disease that accounts for 0.45% of all pulmonary malignant tumors and is difficult to diagnose in inoperable cases. Therefore, patients with PPL who do not undergo surgery can be misdiagnosed and consequently treated inappropriately. PPL should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of a refractory lung abscess.

  20. Pulmonary hypertension due to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ñamendys-Silva, S.A.; Santos-Martínez, L.E.; Pulido, T.; Rivero-Sigarroa, E.; Baltazar-Torres, J.A.; Domínguez-Cherit, G.; Sandoval, J.

    2014-01-01

    Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ARDS and an in situ pulmonary artery catheter for hemodynamic monitoring were studied. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was >25 mmHg at rest with a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or left atrial pressure <15 mmHg. During the study period, 30 of 402 critically ill patients (7.46%) who were admitted to the ICU fulfilled the criteria for ARDS. Of the 30 patients with ARDS, 14 met the criteria for pulmonary hypertension, a prevalence of 46.6% (95% CI; 28-66%). The most common cause of ARDS was pneumonia (56.3%). The overall mortality was 36.6% and was similar in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Differences in patients' hemodynamic profiles were influenced by the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The levels of positive end-expiratory pressure and peak pressure were higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and the PaCO2 was higher in those who died. The level of airway pressure seemed to influence the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Survival was determined by the severity of organ failure at admission to the intensive care unit. PMID:25118626

  1. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  2. Thoracoscopic Surgery for Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection with Dual Drainage.

    PubMed

    Fuchigami, Tai; Gabe, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Nishioka, Masahiko; Akashige, Toru; Nagata, Nobuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We report our technique for thoracoscopic surgery for a 15-year-old female (body weight, 59 kg) diagnosed with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with dual drainage. A large anomalous right lower pulmonary vein (RLPV) was drained into the inferior vena cava and left atrium, along with thoracoscopic ligation and clipping of RLPV and some anomalous hepatic veins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Pooja R; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-09-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period.

  4. Genotypic, Phenotypic and Clinical Validation of GeneXpert in Extra-Pulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Urvashi B.; Pandey, Pooja; Mehta, Girija; Bhatnagar, Anuj K.; Mohan, Anant; Goyal, Vinay; Ahuja, Vineet; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Samantaray, Jyotish C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Newer molecular diagnostics have brought paradigm shift in early diagnosis of tuberculosis [TB]. WHO recommended use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF [Xpert] for Extra-pulmonary [EP] TB; critics have since questioned its efficiency. Methods The present study was designed to assess the performance of GeneXpert in 761 extra-pulmonary and 384 pulmonary specimens from patients clinically suspected of TB and compare with Phenotypic, Genotypic and Composite reference standards [CRS]. Results Comparison of GeneXpert results to CRS, demonstrated sensitivity of 100% and 90.68%, specificity of 100% and 99.62% for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary samples. On comparison with culture, sensitivity for Rifampicin [Rif] resistance detection was 87.5% and 81.82% respectively, while specificity was 100% for both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. On comparison to sequencing of rpoB gene [Rif resistance determining region, RRDR], sensitivity was respectively 93.33% and 90% while specificity was 100% in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. GeneXpert assay missed 533CCG mutation in one sputum and dual mutation [517 & 519] in one pus sample, detected by sequencing. Sequencing picked dual mutation [529, 530] in a sputum sample sensitive to Rif, demonstrating, not all RRDR mutations lead to resistance. Conclusions Current study reports observations in a patient care setting in a high burden region, from a large collection of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary samples and puts to rest questions regarding sensitivity, specificity, detection of infrequent mutations and mutations responsible for low-level Rif resistance by GeneXpert. Improvements in the assay could offer further improvement in sensitivity of detection in different patient samples; nevertheless it may be difficult to improve sensitivity of Rif resistance detection if only one gene is targeted. Assay specificity was high both for TB detection and Rif resistance detection. Despite a few misses, the assay offers major boost to early

  5. Right atrial myxoma mistaken for recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, D; Lamont, D

    1997-01-01

    A 69 year old man was admitted for investigation of right sided pleuritic chest pain and dyspnoea, both of which began suddenly four days before admission. Acute pulmonary embolism was diagnosed. Six months after discharge while on warfarin he died. Necropsy found a 50 mm diameter myxoid tumour arising on the right atrial side of the interatrial septum. This lesion may have been discovered earlier by echocardiography although there were no clear indications for this investigation. Presentation was that of recurrent pulmonary embolism with no obvious source or cause of thrombosis. Patients who are thought to have idiopathic pulmonary embolism should undergo early echocardiography to exclude the rare but treatable diseases of the right heart that may be responsible

 Keywords: atrial myxoma PMID:9415015

  6. Diagnosis of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, M; Steffenson, S

    1997-02-01

    Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the many manifestations of AIDS. There are no specific tests for its early diagnosis. Because its symptoms may be similar to tuberculosis, it may be diagnosed incorrectly and treated as such. Consequently, by the time of the correct diagnosis, valuable time will have been lost for effective medical care that could positively impact prognosis. The discussion in this case study is focused on pulmonary KS with an interest in improving premorbid diagnosis that may lead to an earlier recognition and better treatment of the disease.

  7. Cough Due to TB and Other Chronic Infections: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Field, Stephen K; Escalante, Patricio; Fisher, Dina A; Ireland, Belinda; Irwin, Richard S

    2018-02-01

    clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, no published comparative studies addressed whether the rate of cough resolution is a reliable determinant of the response to treatment or whether the rate of cough resolution was faster in the absence of cavitary lung disease. All studies on cough prevalence in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, fungal lung disease, and paragonimiasis were of poor quality and were excluded from the evidence review. On the basis of relatively few studies of fair to good quality, we conclude that most individuals at high risk and household contacts with cough ≥ 2 weeks do not have pulmonary TB, but we suggest screening them regardless of cough duration. In PLWHIV, the addition of the other WHO-endorsed symptoms increases the diagnostic sensitivity of cough. Earlier screening of patients with cough will help diagnose pulmonary TB sooner but will increase the cost of screening. The addition of ACF to PCF will increase the number of pulmonary TB cases identified. Screening asymptomatic individuals is cost-effective only in groups with a very high TB prevalence. Data are insufficient to determine whether cough resolution is delayed in individuals with cavitary lung disease or in those for whom treatment fails because of drug resistance, poor adherence, and/or drug malabsorption compared with results in other individuals with pulmonary TB. Cough is common in patients with lung infections due to MAC, other nontuberculous mycobacteria, fungal diseases, and paragonimiasis. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Advantage of impulse oscillometry over spirometry to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and monitor pulmonary responses to bronchodilators: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Constantine; Saadeh, Charles; Cross, Blake; Gaylor, Michael; Griffith, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was a comparative analysis of sensitivity of impulse oscillometry and spirometry techniques for use in a mixed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group for assessing disease severity and inhalation therapy. A total of 30 patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were monitored by impulse oscillometry, followed by spirometry. Lung function was measured at baseline after bronchodilation and at follow-up (3-18 months). The impulse oscillometry parameters were resistance in the small and large airways at 5 Hz (R5), resistance in the large airways at 15 Hz (R15), and lung reactance (area under the curve X; AX). After the bronchodilator therapy, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) readings evaluated by spirometry were unaffected at baseline and at follow-up, while impulse oscillometry detected an immediate improvement in lung function, in terms of AX (p = 0.043). All impulse oscillometry parameters significantly improved at follow-up, with a decrease in AX by 37% (p = 0.0008), R5 by 20% (p = 0.0011), and R15 by 12% (p = 0.0097). Impulse oscillometry parameters demonstrated greater sensitivity compared with spirometry for monitoring reversibility of airway obstruction and the effect of maintenance therapy. Impulse oscillometry may facilitate early treatment dose optimization and personalized medicine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  9. Pulmonary tuberculosis and disease-related pulmonary apical fibrosis in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Huei-Huang; Lin, Meng-Chih; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Wang, Chin-Man; Wu, Yeong-Jian Jan; Chen, Ji-Yih

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the etiological association and clinical characteristics of apical pulmonary fibrosis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We reviewed medical records of 2136 consecutive patients diagnosed with AS at a tertiary medical center. Clinical and radiographic characteristics were analyzed for evidence of apical lung fibrosis on chest radiographs. Of 2136 patients with AS, 63 (2.9%) developed apical lung fibrosis, of which chronic infections were the cause in 41 and AS inflammation predisposed the fibrosis in 22 patients. Tuberculosis (TB) infection was considered to be the cause of apical lung fibrosis in 40 patients (63.5%) including 19 with bacteriologically-proven TB and 21 with chest radiographs suggestive of TB. Two were identified as having non-TB mycobacterial infection and one as Aspergillus infection. Lung cavity lesion appeared to be a crucial differentiator (p = 0.009, odds ratio 7.4, 95% CI 1.5-36.0) between TB infection and AS inflammation-induced apical fibrosis. Our study suggests that TB, instead of Aspergillus, is the most common pulmonary infection in patients with AS presenting with apical lung fibrosis. AS-associated apical lung fibrosis may mimic pulmonary TB infection. Thus, bacteriological survey and serial radiological followup of lung fibrocavitary lesions are critical for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Mark; Li, Jinghong; Amirrezvani, Ali; Riker, David

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary giant cell carcinoma is a rare subtype of sarcomatoid carcinoma. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare condition in which gelatinous material accumulates within the peritoneal cavity. It is believed PMP arises from a primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasm that perforates the gut, causing mucinous ascites. There are sporadic reports of PMP associated with neoplasms of other organs, rarely the lung. Here, we report on a 60-year-old woman with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with PMP. She presented with progressive dyspnea and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed moderately dense ascites without an obvious mass. Chest computed tomography revealed a large, solitary right lower-lobe lung mass. She underwent transbronchial fine-needle aspiration of the mass, and was diagnosed with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma. The ascites showed scattered malignant cells in a background of mucin, confirming PMP. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with PMP.

  11. [A statement the Polish Cardiac Society Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation on screening for CTEPH patients after acute pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurzyna, Marcin; Kopeć, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Piotr; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kamiński, Karol; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Mularek-Kubzdela, Tatiana; Mroczek, Ewa; Biederman, Andrzej; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Torbicki, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Both pharmacological and invasive treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is now available in Poland and the awareness of the disease among physicians is growing. Thus, the Polish Cardiac Society's Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation in cooperation with independent experts in this field, have launched the statement on algorithm to guide a CTEPH diagnosis in patients with previous acute pulmonary embolism (APE). In Poland, every year this disease affects about 250 patients. CTEPH should be suspected in individuals after APE with dyspnea, despite at least 3 months period of effective anticoagulation, particularly when specified risk factors are present. Echocardiography is a main screening tool. The authors suggest that a diagnostic process of patients with significant clinical suspicion of CTEPH and right ventricle overload in echocardiography should be performed in reference centres. The document contains a list of Polish centres diagnosing patients with suspected CTEPH. Pulmonary scintigraphy is a safe and highly sensitive screening test for CTEPH. Multi-detector computed tomography with precise detection of thromboembolic residues in pulmonary circulation is important for planning of pulmonary endarterectomy. Right heart catheterisation definitely confirms the presence of pulmonary hypertension and direct pulmonary angiography allows for identification of lesions suitable for thromboendarterectomy or pulmonary balloon angioplasty. In this document a diagnostic algorithm in patients with suspected CTEPH is also proposed. With individualised sequential diagnostic strategy each patient can be finally qualified for a particular mode of therapy by dedicated CTEPH Heart Team. Moreover the document contains short information for the primary care physician about the management of patients after APE.

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Caro-Domínguez, Pablo; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman; Manson, David E

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children.

  13. Pulmonary physiology during pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C G

    1992-04-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism produces a number of pathophysiologic derangements of pulmonary function. Foremost among these alterations is increased pulmonary vascular resistance. For patients without preexistent cardiopulmonary disease, increased pulmonary vascular resistance is directly related to the degree of vascular obstruction demonstrated on the pulmonary arteriogram. Vasoconstriction, either reflexly or biochemically mediated, may contribute to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Acute pulmonary thromboembolism also disturbs matching of ventilation and blood flow. Consequently, some lung units are overventilated relative to perfusion (increased dead space), while other lung units are underventilated relative to perfusion (venous admixture). True right-to-left shunting of mixed venous blood can occur through the lungs (intrapulmonary shunt) or across the atrial septum (intracardiac shunt). In addition, abnormalities of pulmonary gas exchange (carbon monoxide transfer), pulmonary compliance and airway resistance, and ventilatory control may accompany pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy can reverse the hemodynamic derangements of acute pulmonary thromboembolism more rapidly than anticoagulant therapy. Limited data suggest a sustained benefit of thrombolytic treatment on the pathophysiologic alterations of pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary gas exchange produced by acute pulmonary emboli.

  14. Pulmonary atelectasis: a frequent alternative diagnosis in patients undergoing CT-PA for suspected pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Lin; Gupta, Ekta; Haramati, Linda B

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of atelectasis as an alternative diagnosis in patients who underwent computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CT-PA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), and to contrast the pathophysiology of pulmonary atelectasis and PE, both of which are associated with dyspnea and hypoxemia. We retrospectively identified 144 consecutive emergency department patients (n=49) and inpatients (n=95) admitted between July 2001 and June 2002 who were evaluated with CT-PA for suspected PE. There were 98 women and 46 men with a mean age of 58 years (range 27-95 years). Each CT report was reviewed for PE, the words "atelectasis," "collapse," and/or "volume loss," findings known to predispose to atelectasis, and alternative diagnoses. CT scans of those with PE and those with atelectasis were reviewed. Each case was categorized into one of three groups, as follows: group 1, PE; group 2, atelectasis of three or more segments and no PE; group 3, neither PE nor atelectasis. PaO2 was documented, when available (n=115), with PaO2 >100 mmHg recorded as 100 mmHg. Reports for group 3 were reviewed for alternative diagnoses. Thirteen percent of the study population (19/144, group 1) had PE, and two of them had concomitant atelectasis; mean PaO2 was 69 mmHg (range 38-100 mmHg). Nineteen percent of the study population (27/144, group 2) had atelectasis of three or more segments without PE; mean PaO2 was 73 mmHg (range 45-100 mmHg). Sixty-eight percent of the study population (98/144, group 3) had neither PE nor atelectasis; mean PaO2 was 79 mmHg (range 36-100 mmHg). There was a significant difference in the PaO2 between groups 1 and 3 (Student's t-test), with group 2 intermediate. Seventy percent of group 2 (19/27) had at least one finding predisposing to atelectasis: central bronchial abnormality (n=6), moderate or larger pleural effusion (n=11), pleural mass, pneumothorax, elevated hemidiaphragm, and severe kyphosis (the last four all n=1

  15. Diagnostic delay of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with aspiration pneumonia: Two case reports and a mini-review from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Makoto; Sone, Kazuki; Kagawa, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Ryota; Sato, Hidefumi; Kunieda, Takefumi; Muramatsu, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing active tuberculosis in elderly patients presents problems due to nonspecific symptoms and complications such as aspiration pneumonia. The current study presents two cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates associated with aspiration pneumonia. The two elderly patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome as a result of aspiration pneumonia. The diagnoses of pulmonary tuberculosis were delayed in both cases, as the patients were diagnosed with active tuberculosis following discharge from hospital. The sputum test for acid-fast bacillus at the time of administration was smear-negative/culture-positive in these patients. They were treated with isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol, and nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis from these patients was not reported. The number of elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia is predicted to increase rapidly, and aspiration pneumonia combined with pulmonary tuberculosis is a major medical and healthcare concern in Japan. The present study concludes that physicians should always consider the complication of pulmonary tuberculosis when treating pneumonia patients, in particular in treating elderly patients with pulmonary infiltrates. PMID:27446284

  16. Knowledge, care-seeking behavior, and factors associated with patient delay among newly-diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, 2010.

    PubMed

    Biya, Oladayo; Gidado, Saheed; Abraham, Ajibola; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Suleman, Idris; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Early treatment of Tuberculosis (TB) cases is important for reducing transmission, morbidity and mortality associated with TB. In 2007, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria recorded low TB case detection rate (CDR) of 9% which implied that many TB cases were undetected. We assessed the knowledge, care-seeking behavior, and factors associated with patient delay among pulmonary TB patients in FCT. We enrolled 160 newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB patients in six directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) hospitals in FCT in a cross-sectional study. We used a structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic variables, knowledge of TB, and care-seeking behavior. Patient delay was defined as > 4 weeks between onset of cough and first hospital contact. Mean age was 32.8 years (± 9 years). Sixty two percent were males. Forty seven percent first sought care in a government hospital, 26% with a patent medicine vendor and 22% in a private hospital. Forty one percent had unsatisfactory knowledge of TB. Forty two percent had patient delay. Having unsatisfactory knowledge of TB (p = 0.046) and multiple care-seeking (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with patient delay. After controlling for travel time and age, multiple care-seeking was independently associated with patient delay (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.09-4.35). Failure to immediately seek care in DOTS centers and having unsatisfactory knowledge of TB are factors contributing to patient delay. Strategies that promote early care-seeking in DOTS centers and sustained awareness on TB should be implemented in FCT.

  17. The Clinical Severity of Patients Diagnosed With an In-Hospital Pulmonary Embolism Following Modern, Elective Joint Arthroplasty Is Unrelated to the Location of Emboli in the Pulmonary Vasculature.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Della Valle, Alejandro; Blanes Perez, Alvaro; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Saboeiro, Gregory R; Konin, Gabrielle P; Endo, Yoshimi; Sharrock, Nigel E; Salvati, Eduardo A

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE), it is generally believed that patients with centrally located emboli will have worse clinical symptoms than those with segmental or subsegmental ones. We studied if a relationship exists between the clinical severity at the time of PE diagnosis and the location of the emboli within the pulmonary vasculature. All 269 patients who developed an in-hospital, computed tomography pulmonary angiography-proved, PE following elective total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty in our institution were studied. The clinical severity of the PE was calculated using the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) that classifies patients in 5 classes (class 5: most severe). All computed tomography pulmonary angiographies were re-reviewed to determine the location of the emboli within the pulmonary vasculature (central, segmental, or subsegmental-unilateral or bilateral). The association between PESI and the PE location was examined. The most proximal location of the emboli was central in 62, segmental in 139, and subsegmental in 68. There were 180 unilateral and 89 bilateral PE patients. There was no association between the PESI and the location of the emboli within the pulmonary vasculature (P = .32). Patients with bilateral or unilateral lung involvement had similar PESI (P = .78). The PESI, a recognized, validated predictor of mortality after PE was similar in patients with central, segmental, or subsegmental PE; and in patients with unilateral or bilateral lung involvement. The present study may aid clinicians while assessing and discussing the severity of PE symptoms with patients at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diabetes Mellitus among Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients in Tribal Odisha: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Manjareeka, Magna; Palo, Subrata Kumar; Swain, Subhashisa; Pati, Sandipana; Pati, Sanghamitra

    2016-10-01

    The association between Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Tuberculosis (TB) poses a strong public health challenge. Tribal ethnics possess a different propensity towards infectious and haematological diseases which may influence the inter-relationship of DM and TB and thus merit separate attention. To investigate the prevalence of diabetes in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients of tribal ethnicity in Odisha. A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 9 months at four designated TB microscopic centres in a tribal district (Malkangiri) of Odisha. A total of 110 tribal adults newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB were examined for Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) level. Diagnosis of DM and Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) were based on cut-off value of FBS recommended by the WHO. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 22.0. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG are found to be 13.9% and 8.9%, respectively. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the mean ages of the TB only (45.9 years) and TB-DM co-morbidity patients (53.8 years). No significant association was found between gender and diabetes. Clinical characteristics of TB were similar in TB and TB-DM co-morbidity patients. The prevalence of high FBS was found to be higher in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients of tribal ethnicity thus indicating the need for intensified bidirectional screening. Further studies should be undertaken towards the risk profiling of diabetes and other lifestyle diseases in this population.

  19. Primary pulmonary plasmacytoma with diffuse alveolar consolidation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Taheri, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Forouzan; Karbasi, Mehrdad; Seyfollahi, Leila; Kahkoei, Shahram; Ghadiany, Mojtaba; Fayazi, Nader; Mansouri, Davood

    2010-06-13

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that tend to develop in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues including the sinonasal or nasopharyngeal regions. Primary plasmacytoma of the lung is exceedingly rare and often presents as a solitary mass or nodule in mid-lung or hilar areas and diagnosed after resection. Herein, we report a case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma that presented with diffuse alveolar consolidation and diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy.

  20. [Asymmetric negative pressure pulmonary edema after acute upper airway obstruction: case report].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Aldo José

    2002-06-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema after acute upper airway obstruction is a well-described event, though infrequently diagnosed and reported. This report aimed at presenting a case of upper airway obstruction negative pressure pulmonary edema following acute upper airway obstruction characterized by pulmonary edema asymmetry, being more prominent in the right lung. A 4-year-old boy, 17 kg, phisical status ASA I submitted to combined tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy and turbinate cauterization under general anesthesia with sevoflurane/nitrous oxide/O2. Surgery duration was 90 minutes without complications. During anesthetic recovery and spontaneously breathing, patient reacted to tracheal tube, which was removed. Following, ventilatory efforts resulted in chest wall retraction without apparent air movement, being impossible to ventilate him with facial mask. Symptoms evolved to severe hypoxemia (50% SpO2) requiring reintubation. At this point, it was observed that the lung was stiffer and there were bilateral rales characterizing pulmonary edema. A chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral infiltrates, right upper lobe atelectasis and marked pulmonary edema asymmetry (right greater than left). Patient was mechanically ventilated with PEEP for 20 hours when he was extubated. There was a progressive pulmonary edema improvement and patient was discharged 48 hours later. Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a rare event with high morbidity risk. It is often not diagnosed and requires from the anesthesiologist an updated knowledge and adequate management. It is usually bilateral, rarely unilateral, and exceptionally asymmetric as in this case. Most cases are treated by mechanical ventilation with PEEP or CPAP without any other therapy. The prognosis is favorable, with most cases recovering within the first 24 hours.

  1. A Case of Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Fistulas Between Multiple Systemic Arteries and the Right Pulmonary Artery in an Adult Discovered for Occulted Dyspnoea.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Feng; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Kuang, Tu-Guang; Liu, Min; Ma, Zhan-Hong; Li, Yi-Dan; Yang, Yuan-Hua

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be caused by a fistula between the systemic and pulmonary arteries. Here, we report a case of PH due to multiple fistulas between systemic arteries and the right pulmonary artery where the ventilation/perfusion scan showed no perfusion in the right lung. A 32-year-old male patient was hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. After treatment with antibiotics, the pneumonia was alleviated but dyspnoea persisted. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed using right heart catheterisation, which detected the mean pulmonary artery pressure as 37mmHg. The anomalies were confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT scan (CT pulmonary angiography), systemic arterial angiography and pulmonary angiography. Following embolisation of the largest fistula, the haemodynamics and oxygen dynamics did not improve, and even worsened to some extent. After supportive therapy including diuretics and oxygen, the patient's dyspnoea, WHO function class and right heart function by transthoracic echocardiography all improved during follow-up. Pulmonary hypertension can be present even when the right lung perfusion is lost. Closure of fistulas by embolisation, when those fistulas act as the proliferating vessels, may be harmful. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis of secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia in congenital heart disease: a novel role for chest ultrasound and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christopher Z; Bhamare, Tanmay Anant; Gazzaz, Tamadhir; Manson, David; Humpl, Tilman; Seed, Mike

    2017-10-01

    Secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia is a complication of congenital heart disease that results from chronic pulmonary venous obstruction. We aimed to evaluate the performance of chest ultrasound (US) in diagnosing secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia and to review the clinical course of children with secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia. Chest US was performed on 26 children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection or cor triatriatum in a prospective observational study. Thirteen children had pulmonary venous obstruction (62% male; median age: 17 days old, range: 1-430 days old) and 13 children did not have obstruction (62% male; median age: 72 days old, range: 4-333 days old). US features of secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia were documented and diagnostic performance was determined. Clinical course of patients with secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia was reviewed. Eleven of 13 (84.6%) patients in the obstructed group had a clinical and/or biopsy diagnosis of secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia. Statistically significant chest US criteria for diagnosis were presence of irregular lung surface (likelihood ratio [LR] 6.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-25.1), subpleural cystic appearing structures (LR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2-10.7), and combination of subpleural cystic appearing structures and surface irregularity together (LR 10.9, 95% CI 1.6-75.0). Seven of 11 (63.6%) patients with secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia died during follow-up, the majority due to cardiopulmonary failure or complications. Chest US is an accurate and reproducible bedside method for diagnosing secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia in patients with pulmonary venous obstruction. These patients may have worse prognoses.

  3. Pediatric Pulmonary Hemorrhage vs. Extrapulmonary Bleeding in the Differential Diagnosis of Hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Klin, Baruch; Rosenfeld, Noa; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Hemoptysis is an important symptom which causes a major concern, and warrants immediate diagnostic attention. The authors compared a group of patients with pediatric pulmonary hemorrhage with pediatric patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary bleeding focusing on differences in etiology, outcome and differential diagnosis of hemoptysis. We performed the retrospective analysis of medical charts of 134 pediatric patients admitted to the Emergency Department because of pulmonary and extrapulmonary hemorrhage and were diagnosed with suspected hemoptysis or developed hemoptysis (ICD10-CM code R04.2). The cases with pulmonary hemorrhage (Group 1) were compared with cases of extrapulmonary bleeding (Group 2) using the Fisher Exact test or Pearson's χ 2 test for categorical variables. The t-test was used to assess differences between continuous variables of the patients in the two groups. Bloody cough was the presenting symptom in 73.9% of cases. 30 patients had pulmonary hemorrhage (Group 1), while 104 patients had extrapulmonary bleeding (Group 2). The underlying causes of bleeding in Group 2 included epistaxis, inflammatory diseases of nasopharynx and larynx, foreign bodies, gingivitis, and hypertrophy of adenoids. Mortality rate was 10% in Group 1, whereas Group 2 did not have any mortality outcomes during the observation period. Etiologycal factors were significantly different between hemoptysis and extrapulmonary bleeding in children. Our research suggested that pulmonary and extrapulmonary bleeding are two conditions that differ significantly and cannot be unified under one diagnostic code. It is important to differentiate between focal and diffuse cases, and between pulmonary and extrapulmonary hemorrhage due to the diversity of clinical courses and outcomes.

  4. The Differential Diagnosis of Pulmonary Blastomycosis Using Case Vignettes: A Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR) Study

    PubMed Central

    Baumgardner, Dennis J.; Temte, Jonathan L.; Gutowski, Erin; Agger, William A.; Bailey, Howard; Burmester, James K.; Banerjee, Indrani

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary blastomycosis is an uncommon but serious fungal infection endemic in Wisconsin. Clinician awareness of the protean presentations of this disease may reduce diagnostic delay. This study addressed the diagnostic accuracy of physicians responding to case vignettes of pulmonary blastomycosis and the primary care differential diagnosis of this disease. Methods Eight pulmonary blastomycosis cases were developed from case files. From these, 2 vignettes were randomly selected and mailed to primary care physicians in the Wisconsin Network for Health Research. Respondents were asked to list the 3 most likely diagnoses for each case. Results Respondents listed Blastomycosis as the most likely diagnosis for 37/227 (16%) case vignettes, and 1 of the 3 most likely diagnoses for 43/227 (19%). When vignettes included patient activity in counties with an annual incidence rate of blastomycosis greater than 2/100,000, compared to counties with lower incidence rates, diagnosis was more accurate (28/61 [46%] vs 15/166 [9%]; P < 0.001). Physicians with practice locations in counties with annual blastomycosis incidence rates >2/100,000 listed blastomycosis more commonly than physicians from other counties (16/36 [44%] vs 27/177 [15%]; P < 0.001). This difference in accurate diagnosis remained significant in a multivariate model of practice demographics. Based on responses to the vignettes, pneumonia, cancer, non-infectious pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis emerged as the most-frequently noted diagnosis in the differential diagnosis of blastomycosis. Conclusion Blastomycosis was not listed as 1 of 3 primary diagnoses in a majority of cases when Wisconsin primary care physicians considered case vignettes of actual pulmonary blastomycosis cases. Diagnosis was more accurate if the patient vignette listed exposure to a higher incidence county, or if the physician practiced in a higher incidence county. In Wisconsin, failure to include blastomycosis in the differential

  5. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Neonatal Arterial Switch Surgery for Correction of Transposition of the Great Arteries.

    PubMed

    Domínguez Manzano, Paula; Mendoza Soto, Alberto; Román Barba, Violeta; Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Galindo Izquierdo, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are few reports of the appearance of pulmonary arterial hypertension following arterial switch surgery in the neonatal period to correct transposition of the great arteries. We assessed the frequency and clinical pattern of this complication in our series of patients. Our database was reviewed to select patients with transposition of the great arteries corrected by neonatal arterial switch at our hospital and who developed pulmonary hypertension over time. We identified 2 (1.3%) patients with transposition of the great arteries successfully repaired in the first week of life who later experienced pulmonary arterial hypertension. The first patient was a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 8 months who did not respond to medical treatment and required lung transplantation. The anatomic pathology findings were consistent with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. The second patient was a 24-month-old boy diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 13 months who did not respond to medical therapy. Pulmonary hypertension is a rare but very severe complication that should be investigated in all patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone neonatal arterial switch, in order to start early aggressive therapy for affected patients, given the poor therapeutic response and poor prognosis involved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Anomalous pulmonary venous return in a pregnant woman identified by cardiac magnetic resonance].

    PubMed

    Souto, Fernanda Maria; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Barreto, Ana Terra Fonseca; Souto, Maria Júlia Silveira; Russo, Maria Amélia; de Mendonça, José Teles; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; Gonçalves, Luiz Flávio Galvão

    2014-06-01

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return (APVR) is a rare cardiac anomaly defined as one or more pulmonary veins draining into a structure other than the left atrium, with venous return directly or indirectly to the right atrium. The most common form is partial APVR, in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into systemic veins or into the right atrium. We report the case of a woman diagnosed with partial APVR by magnetic resonance imaging during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Restenosis after balloon valvuloplasty in a dog with pulmonary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sunahara, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Aoki, Takuma; Sugahara, Gou; Shirota, Kinji

    2015-01-01

    A two-month-old female Chihuahua was diagnosed as severe pulmonary valvular stenosis (PS). Although balloon valvuloplasty (BV) was successfully performed, restenosis was observed 19 months after the procedure. Euthanasia was chosen due to low output syndrome during the surgical repair attempted when the dog was 5 years old. Postmortem examination revealed markedly thickened pulmonary valve due to the increase of extracellular matrix which might be produced by increased α smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts. The thickening of the valve was associated with restriction of the valve's motion, resulting in restenosis in the present case. This is the first case report documented histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of the restenotic pulmonary valve in dogs with PS after BV.

  8. Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure due to severe hypernatremic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Chiwane, Saurabh; Ahmed, Tageldin M; Bauerfeld, Christian P; Chauhan, Monika

    2017-07-01

    Neonates are at risk of developing hypernatremic dehydration and its associated complications, such as stroke, dural sinus thrombosis and renal vein thrombosis. Pulmonary hypertension has not been described as a complication of hypernatremia. We report a case of a seven-day-old neonate with severe hypernatremic dehydration who went on to develop pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure needing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Normal or high anion gap metabolic acidosis commonly accompanies hypernatremic dehydration. The presence of acidosis and/or hypoxia can delay the normal drop in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) after birth, causing pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure. A high index of suspicion is paramount to diagnose pulmonary hypertension and aggressive correction of the acidosis and hypoxia is needed. In the presence of severe right ventricular failure, ECMO can be used as a bridge to recovery while underlying metabolic derangements are being corrected.

  9. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, Allard T; Chelu, Raluca G; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Demulier, Laurent; Devos, Daniel; Nieman, Koen; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Loeys, Bart L; van Hagen, Iris M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence, anatomy, associations and clinical impact of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with Turner syndrome. All Turner patients who presented at our Turner clinic, between January 2007 and October 2015 were included in this study and underwent ECG, echocardiography and advanced imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance or computed tomography as part of their regular clinical workup. All imaging was re-evaluated and detailed anatomy was described. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return was diagnosed in 24 (25%) out of 96 Turner patients included and 14 (58%) of these 24 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return had not been reported previously. Right atrial or ventricular dilatation was present in 11 (46%) of 24 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return patients. When studied with advanced imaging modalities and looked for with specific attention, PAPVR is found in 1 out of 4 Turner patients. Half of these patients had right atrial and/or ventricular dilatation. Evaluation of pulmonary venous return should be included in the standard protocol in all Turner patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Primary Pulmonary Plasmacytoma with Diffuse Alveolar Consolidation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Taheri, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Forouzan; Karbasi, Mehrdad; Seyfollahi, Leila; Kahkoei, Shahram; Ghadiany, Mojtaba; Fayazi, Nader; Mansouri, Davood

    2010-01-01

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that tend to develop in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues including the sinonasal or nasopharyngeal regions. Primary plasmacytoma of the lung is exceedingly rare and often presents as a solitary mass or nodule in mid-lung or hilar areas and diagnosed after resection. Herein, we report a case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma that presented with diffuse alveolar consolidation and diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy. PMID:21151727

  11. Pulmonary Hypertension and Other Potentially Fatal Pulmonary Complications in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yukiko; Weiss, Jennifer E.; Haroldson, Kathryn L.; Lee, Tzielan; Punaro, Marilynn; Oliveira, Sheila; Rabinovich, Egla; Riebschleger, Meredith; Antón, Jordi; Blier, Peter R.; Gerloni, Valeria; Hazen, Melissa M; Kessler, Elizabeth; Onel, Karen; Passo, Murray H; Rennebohm, Robert M; Wallace, Carol A; Woo, Patricia; Wulffraat, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA) is characterized by fevers, rash and arthritis, for which IL1 and IL6 inhibitors appear effective. Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and alveolar proteinosis (AP) have been recently reported in sJIA patients with increased frequency. Our aim was to characterize and compare these cases to a larger cohort of sJIA patients. Methods sJIA patients who developed PAH, ILD and/or AP were identified through an electronic listserv, and their demographic, sJIA and pulmonary disease characteristics, and medication exposure information were collected. These features were compared to a cohort of sJIA patients enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry. Results Patients (N=25) were significantly (p<0.05) more likely than the CARRA registry cohort (N=389) to be female, have more systemic features, and to have been exposed to an IL-1 inhibitor, tocilizumab, infliximab, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide. Eighty% were diagnosed after 2004. Twenty (80%) patients had MAS during their disease course and 15 (60%) had MAS at pulmonary diagnosis. Sixteen patients had PAH, 5 AP and 7 ILD. Seventeen (68%) patients were taking or recently (≤1 month) discontinued a biologic agent at pulmonary symptom onset; 12 (48%) were taking anti-IL1 therapy (primarily anakinra). Seventeen (68%) patients died at a mean of 8.8 months from pulmonary diagnosis. Conclusions PAH, AP and ILD are under-recognized complications of sJIA which are frequently fatal. These may be the result of severe uncontrolled systemic disease activity, and may be influenced by medication exposure. PMID:23139240

  12. Pulmonary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma: Report a Case and Review of CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn Ah; Han, Joungho; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Jhingook; Kwon, O Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    A pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare tumor that is considered to be a cystic variant of mucin-producing lung adenocarcinoma. We present a case of pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a 54-year-old woman. Chest CT scans showed a 4.3-cm-sized, lobulated, well-defined, and homogeneous mass in the right middle lobe with peripheral stippled calcifications that demonstrated low-attenuation with no enhancement after contrast administration; 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT demonstrated mild heterogeneous FDG uptake. The mass was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with mucin production by transbronchial lung biopsy. Right middle lobectomy was performed, and the pathologic examination disclosed a pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:23483761

  13. Diagnoses of Early and Late Readmissions after Hospitalization for Pneumonia. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sjoding, Michael W.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pneumonia is a frequent cause of hospitalization, yet drivers of post-pneumonia morbidity remain poorly characterized. Causes of hospital readmissions may elucidate important sources of morbidity and are of particular interest given the U.S. Hospital Readmission Reductions Program. Objectives: To review the primary diagnoses of early (≤30 d) and late (≥31 d) readmissions after pneumonia hospitalization. Methods: Systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases. We identified original research studies of adults aged 18 years or older, hospitalized for pneumonia, and for whom cause-specific readmission rates were reported. Two authors abstracted study results and assessed study quality. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 1,243 citations identified, 12 met eligibility criteria. Included studies were conducted in the United States, Spain, Canada, Croatia, and Sweden. All-cause 30-day readmission rates ranged from 16.8 to 20.1% across administrative studies; the weighted average for the studies using chart review was 11.6% (15.6% in United States–based studies). Pneumonia, heart failure/cardiovascular causes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/pulmonary causes are the most common reasons for early readmission after pneumonia hospitalization. Although it was the single most common cause for readmission, pneumonia accounted for only 17.9 to 29.4% of all 30-day readmissions in administrative studies and a weighted average of 23.0% in chart review studies. After accounting for study population, there was no clear difference in findings between claims-based versus chart-review studies. Few studies assessed readmissions beyond 30 days, although the limited available data suggest similar primary diagnoses for early and late readmissions. No studies assessed whether reasons for readmission were similar to patients’ reasons for healthcare use before hospitalization. Conclusions: Pneumonia, heart failure/cardiovascular disease, and chronic

  14. [Right branch pulmonary artery stenosis with supravalvar aortic stenosis as a complication of Lecompte maneuver for tetralogy of Fallot associated with absent pulmonary valve].

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Shoji; Kaga, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Yukiyo; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kamiya, Kentaro; Sakakibara, Kenji; Katsu, Masatake

    2015-05-01

    The patient was diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot associated with absent pulmonary valve syndrome and a low birth weight of 1,912 g. He suffered from respiratory distress on day 14 and received non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. At 5 months of age and 4.1 kg, he underwent intracardiac repair including right ventricular outflow repair with a monocusp patch, patch closure of the ventricular septum defect and right pulmonary transposition to the anterior of the ascending aorta following the Lecompte maneuver for airway decompression. He was subsequently discharged to home and exhibited an uneventful clinical course with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for 5 months postoperatively. However, right pulmonary artery and supra-aortic stenosis was noted 2 years after the operation. Computed tomography (CT) and angiography showed ascending aorta strangulation by the right pulmonary artery with right ventricular outflow regurgitation. Right pulmonary artery reconstruction using polytetrafluoroethylene graft interposition and repeat right ventricular outflow repair with bicuspid hand-sewn valves was therefore performed;the postoperative course was uneventful. Pre- and post-operative management using non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and airway decompression with pulmonary artery translocation is a useful strategy in patients exhibiting symptomatic tetralogy of Fallot associated with absent pulmonary valve syndrome in the neonatal period.

  15. Hantavirus Fever without Pulmonary Syndrome in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions. PMID:23836565

  16. Hantavirus fever without pulmonary syndrome in Panama.

    PubMed

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions.

  17. Pulmonary arterial dissection in a post-partum patient with patent ductus arteriosus: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Mehmet; Arslan, Uğur; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Aksakal, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial dissection is an uncommon but usually a deadly complication of chronic pulmonary hypertension. A 26-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinics with sudden dyspnea and chest discomfort one hour after giving birth to twins by vaginal delivery. An echocardiography was performed with a pre-diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. However, echocardiographic examination revealed a dilated main pulmonary artery and a dissection flap extending from main pulmonary artery to left pulmonary artery. In summary, in this report, we described a very rare case of pulmonary artery dissection in a pregnant patient with a previously un-diagnosed patent ductus arteriosus without an obvious rise in pulmonary artery pressure and reviewed the relevant literature. PMID:25717357

  18. Pulmonary arterial dissection in a post-partum patient with patent ductus arteriosus: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mehmet; Arslan, Uğur; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Aksakal, Aytekin

    2015-02-26

    Pulmonary arterial dissection is an uncommon but usually a deadly complication of chronic pulmonary hypertension. A 26-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinics with sudden dyspnea and chest discomfort one hour after giving birth to twins by vaginal delivery. An echocardiography was performed with a pre-diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. However, echocardiographic examination revealed a dilated main pulmonary artery and a dissection flap extending from main pulmonary artery to left pulmonary artery. In summary, in this report, we described a very rare case of pulmonary artery dissection in a pregnant patient with a previously un-diagnosed patent ductus arteriosus without an obvious rise in pulmonary artery pressure and reviewed the relevant literature.

  19. Slide tracheoplasty outcomes in children with congenital pulmonary malformations.

    PubMed

    DeMarcantonio, Michael A; Hart, Catherine K; Yang, Christina J; Tabangin, Meredith; Rutter, Michael J; Bryant, Roosevelt; Manning, Peter B; de Alarcón, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Evaluate and compare surgical outcomes of slide tracheoplasty for the treatment of congenital tracheal stenosis in children with and without pulmonary malformations. Retrospective chart review at a tertiary care pediatric medical center. We identified patients with tracheal stenosis who underwent slide tracheoplasty from 2001 to 2014, and a subset of these patients who were diagnosed with congenital pulmonary malformations. Hospital course and preoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. One hundred thirty patients (18 with pulmonary malformations, 112 with normal pulmonary anatomy) were included. Pulmonary malformations included unilateral pulmonary agenesis (61%) and hypoplasia (39%). Children with pulmonary malformations had a greater median age compared to their normal lung anatomy counterparts. Preoperatively, patients with pulmonary malformations more frequently required preoperative mechanical ventilation (55.6% vs. 21.3%, P = .007), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (11% vs. 0.9%, P = .05), and tracheostomy (22.2% vs. 3.6%, P = .01). Postoperatively, patients with pulmonary malformations more frequently required mechanical ventilation >48 hours (78% vs. 37%, P =.005) and ECMO use (11% vs. 0.9%, P = .05). Pulmonary malformation patients and children with normal anatomy did not differ in terms of postoperative tracheostomy (16.7% vs. 4.4%, P > .05), dehiscence (6% vs. 0%, P > .05%), restenosis (11% vs. 6%, P > .05) or postoperative figure 8 deformity (6% vs. 3%, P > .05). Mortality, however, was significantly increased (22.2% vs. 3.6%, P = .01) in children with pulmonary malformations. Although slide tracheoplasty can be successfully performed in patients with abnormal pulmonary anatomy, surgeons and families should anticipate a more difficult postoperative course, with possible associated prolonged mechanical ventilation, ECMO use, and higher mortality than in children with tracheal stenosis alone. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1283-1287, 2017

  20. Incidence of Pulmonary Disease in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-30

    were conducted according to the principles set forth in the National Institute of Health Publication No. 80·23, Guide for the Care and Use of...Multi- Market . This was used as the study group and was cross referenced by the SAMMC HCO for the ICD-9 codes of pulmonary diagnoses (See table 1 ). The

  1. Cocaine-induced pulmonary changes: HRCT findings *

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Renata Rocha; Zanetti, Gláucia; Souza, Arthur Soares; de Souza, Luciana Soares; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate HRCT scans of the chest in 22 patients with cocaine-induced pulmonary disease. Methods: We included patients between 19 and 52 years of age. The HRCT scans were evaluated by two radiologists independently, discordant results being resolved by consensus. The inclusion criterion was an HRCT scan showing abnormalities that were temporally related to cocaine use, with no other apparent causal factors. Results: In 8 patients (36.4%), the clinical and tomographic findings were consistent with "crack lung", those cases being studied separately. The major HRCT findings in that subgroup of patients included ground-glass opacities, in 100% of the cases; consolidations, in 50%; and the halo sign, in 25%. In 12.5% of the cases, smooth septal thickening, paraseptal emphysema, centrilobular nodules, and the tree-in-bud pattern were identified. Among the remaining 14 patients (63.6%), barotrauma was identified in 3 cases, presenting as pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hemopneumothorax, respectively. Talcosis, characterized as perihilar conglomerate masses, architectural distortion, and emphysema, was diagnosed in 3 patients. Other patterns were found less frequently: organizing pneumonia and bullous emphysema, in 2 patients each; and pulmonary infarction, septic embolism, eosinophilic pneumonia, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema, in 1 patient each. Conclusions: Pulmonary changes induced by cocaine use are varied and nonspecific. The diagnostic suspicion of cocaine-induced pulmonary disease depends, in most of the cases, on a careful drawing of correlations between clinical and radiological findings. PMID:26398752

  2. Transthoracic lung ultrasound in normal dogs and dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Pariaut, Romain; Pate, Julie; Saelinger, Carley; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 ± 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 ± 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P < 0.0001). In severe cases, B lines increased in number and became confluent. The locations of B line artifacts appeared consistent with locations of edema on radiographs. Findings from the current study supported the use of thoracic ultrasonography and detection of B lines as techniques for diagnosing cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Pulmonary embolism after arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: An autopsy case report

    PubMed Central

    Hatamaru, Keiichi; Azuma, Shunjiro; Akamatsu, Takuji; Seta, Takeshi; Urai, Shunji; Uenoyama, Yoshito; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Ono, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of pulmonary lipiodol embolism with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 77-year-old man who was diagnosed with a huge HCC was admitted for TACE. Immediately after the procedure, this patient experienced severe dyspnea. We suspected that his symptoms were associated with a pulmonary lipiodol embolism after TACE, and we began intensive treatment. However, his condition did not improve, and he died on the following day. A subsequent autopsy revealed that the cause of death was ARDS due to pulmonary lipiodol embolism. No cases have been previously reported for which an autopsy was performed to explain the most probable mechanism of pulmonary lipiodol embolism; thus, ours is the first report for such a rare case. PMID:25632211

  4. Pulmonary embolism after arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: an autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Hatamaru, Keiichi; Azuma, Shunjiro; Akamatsu, Takuji; Seta, Takeshi; Urai, Shunji; Uenoyama, Yoshito; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Ono, Kazuo

    2015-01-28

    We report an extremely rare case of pulmonary lipiodol embolism with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 77-year-old man who was diagnosed with a huge HCC was admitted for TACE. Immediately after the procedure, this patient experienced severe dyspnea. We suspected that his symptoms were associated with a pulmonary lipiodol embolism after TACE, and we began intensive treatment. However, his condition did not improve, and he died on the following day. A subsequent autopsy revealed that the cause of death was ARDS due to pulmonary lipiodol embolism. No cases have been previously reported for which an autopsy was performed to explain the most probable mechanism of pulmonary lipiodol embolism; thus, ours is the first report for such a rare case.

  5. Total anomalous systemic with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Gopakumar; Gajjar, Trushar; Desai, Neelam

    2013-12-01

    A 9-year-old girl with cyanosis, dyspnea, and grade II clubbing was diagnosed by contrast transthoracic echocardiography and angiocardiography to have an anomalous connection of the venae cavae to the physiologic left atrium with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Successful surgical correction was achieved, and the patient's recovery was uneventful.

  6. Dirofilaria, visceral larva migrans, and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Chitkara, R K; Sarinas, P S

    1997-06-01

    Helminthic infections are prevalent worldwide. The intestinal ascarid, Toxocara, the animal filarial parasite, Dirofilaria, and the human filarial parasite, Wuchereria or Brugia, produce an array of pulmonary disease in humans. Infections are common in temperate, tropical, and subtropical regions of the world. Pulmonary dirofilariasis is essentially an asymptomatic disease. Most cases are diagnosed accidentally after thoracotomy for a solitary pulmonary nodule presumed to be lung cancer. Clinical manifestations of toxocariasis or visceral larva migrans (VLM) are the result of allergic and inflammatory responses of the host, and manifest with airway reactivity, acute pneumonia, and persistent eosinophilia. VLM is a self-limited disease and specific treatment is rarely necessary. In acute cases, a short course of steroids reduces morbidity and mortality but preventive measures are more important in curbing toxocara infection. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is the result of immunologic hyperresponsiveness to the human filarial antigen and eosinophils play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Airway hyperreactivity, extreme eosinophilia, and pulmonary physiologic impairment are the characteristic features. Treatment of TPE with diethylcarbamazine results in dramatic amelioration of symptoms. However, low grade inflammation persists in a significant number of patients and can lead to chronic interstitial lung disease. Mass treatment of patients in certain endemic areas has been effective in eliminating TPE.

  7. Acromegaly in a patient with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor: case report and review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Krug, Sebastian; Boch, Michael; Rexin, Peter; Pfestroff, Andreas; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick; Rinke, Anja

    2016-06-27

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. In these tumors, paraneoplastic syndromes have been described to drive the course of the disease, among them acromegaly induced by paraneoplastic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We report the case of a 43 years old patient initially diagnosed with acromegaly accompanied by weight gain and acral enlargement. Subsequently, further diagnostic work-up identified a solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Laboratory tests revealed markedly increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) without GHRH elevation in the absence of pituitary pathologies confirming the paraneoplastic origin of clinical presentation with acromegaly. Curative surgery was performed leading to normalization of the elevated hormone levels and improvement of the clinical symptoms. Immunohistochemically, a typical carcinoid (TC) was seen with low proliferation index and abundant IGF-1 expression. The association of acromegaly and pulmonary NET has only rarely been reported. We present an individual case of paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion in a patient with pulmonary NET. Based on their rarity, the knowledge of paraneoplastic syndromes occurring in patients with pulmonary NET such as acromegaly due to paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion is mandatory to adequately diagnose and treat these patients.

  8. Use of a Valved-Conduit for Exclusion of the Infected Portion in the Prosthetic Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joonho; Lee, Cheol Joo; Lim, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Ho; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever and hemoptysis. After evaluation of the fever focus, he was diagnosed with pulmonary valve infective endocarditis. Thus pulmonary valve replacement and antibiotics therapy were performed and discharged. He was brought to the emergency unit presenting with a high fever (>39℃) and general weakness 6 months after the initial operation. The echocardiography revealed prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis. Therefore, redo-pulmonary valve replacement using valved conduit was performed in the Rastelli fashion because of the risk of pulmonary arterial wall injury and recurrent endocarditis from the remnant inflammatory tissue. We report here on the successful surgical treatment of prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis with an alternative surgical method. PMID:23772409

  9. Extrapulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis and comparison of routine laboratory and clinical data to pulmonary involvement.

    PubMed

    Zurkova, Monika; Kolek, Vitezslav; Tomankova, Tereza; Kriegova, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Patients with pulmonary and pulmonary plus extrapulmonary sarcoidosis differ in symptom severity and health status impairment. To date there is no information on differences in clinical and laboratory parameters between these phenotypes and limited information on extrapulmonary involvement in Czech sarcoidosis patients exists. We therefore compared clinical data (age, gender, organ involvement, lung function tests) and laboratory data (blood counts, bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) cellular profile, serum levels of CRP, SACE, sIL-2R, neopterin) between patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis (n=107) and those with pulmonary plus extrapulmonary sarcoidosis (n=54). Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 33% of patients, mostly affecting lymph nodes and skin and having hypercalciuria. There was no difference in the prevalence of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis between genders. Patients with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis were older and mostly non-smokers when compared to those with limited pulmonary form. X-ray Stage I and erythema nodosum were less frequent in extrapulmonary disease. Serum levels of CRP, SACE, sIL-2R and neopterin and BAL cellular profile did not differ between both phenotypes. We observed lower platelets, FEV1, VC, and BAL CD19+ in females with extrapulmonary involvement than in those with pulmonary disease. Affected lymph nodes, skin and hypercalciuria were the most common in sarcoidosis patients with extrapulmonary involvement. Pulmonary sarcoidosis did not differ in clinical and routine laboratory parameters from pulmonary plus extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. Observation of low platelets, VC, FEV1 and BAL CD19+ in females with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis needs further verification in larger cohort.

  10. Lung Cancer in Patients With Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A Descriptive Study in a Spanish Series.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Karina; Perez-Rodas, Nancy; García-Olivé, Ignasi; Guasch-Arriaga, Ignasi; Centeno, Carmen; Serra, Pere; Becker-Lejuez, Caroline; Sanz-Santos, José; Andreo García, Felip; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Information on the association of lung cancer (LC) and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is limited and derived almost exclusively from series in Asian populations. The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of LC on survival in CPFE patients and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A retrospective study was performed with data from patients with CFPE and IPF diagnosed in our hospital over a period of 5 years. Sixty-six patients were included, 29 with CPFE and 37 with IPF. Nine had a diagnosis of LC (6 with CPFE and 3 with IPF). Six patients (67%) received palliative treatment even though 3 of them were diagnosed atstage i-ii. Overall mortality did not differ significantly between groups; however, in patients with LC, survival was significantly lower compared to those without LC (P=.044). The most frequent cause of death was respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary fibrosis exacerbation (44%). In a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of death among patients with LC compared to patients without LC was 6.20 (P=.037, 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 34.48). Lung cancer reduces survival in both entities. The diagnostic and therapeutic management of LC is hampered by the increased risk of complications after any treatment modality, even after palliative treatment. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Postoperative Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, SJ Singh; Kulshrestha, A

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pulmonary edema is a well-known postoperative complication caused as a result of numerous etiological factors which can be easily detected by a careful surveillance during postoperative period. However, there are no preoperative and intraoperative criteria which can successfully establish the possibilities for development of postoperative pulmonary edema. The aims were to review the possible etiologic and diagnostic challenges in timely detection of postoperative pulmonary edema and to discuss the various management strategies for prevention of this postoperative complication so as to decrease morbidity and mortality. The various search engines for preparation of this manuscript were used which included Entrez (including Pubmed and Pubmed Central), NIH.gov, Medknow.com, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, Scopus, Science Direct, MedHelp.org, yahoo.com and google.com. Manual search was carried out and various text books and journals of anesthesia and critical care medicine were also searched. From the information gathered, it was observed that postoperative cardiogenic pulmonary edema in patients with serious cardiovascular diseases is most common followed by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema which can be due to fluid overload in the postoperative period or it can be negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE). NPPE is an important clinical entity in immediate post-extubation period and occurs due to acute upper airway obstruction and creation of acute negative intrathoracic pressure. NPPE carries a good prognosis if promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated with or without mechanical ventilation. PMID:23439791

  12. Hospital costs of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Fanikos, John; Rao, Amanda; Seger, Andrew C; Carter, Danielle; Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism places a heavy economic burden on health care systems, but the components of hospital cost have not been elucidated. We evaluated hospitalized patients with the primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Our goal was to determine the total and component costs associated with their hospital care. We included patients hospitalized at Brigham and Women's Hospital from September 2003 to May 2010. Patient demographics, characteristics, comorbidities, interventions, and treatments were obtained from the electronic medical record. Costs were obtained using the hospital's accounting software and categorized into the areas providing direct patient supplies or care. We identified 991 hospitalized patients with acute pulmonary embolism. In-hospital mortality was 4.2%, and 90-day mortality after hospital discharge was 13.8%. The median length of hospital stay was 3 days, and the mean length of hospital stay was 4 days. The mean total hospitalization cost per patient was $8764. Nursing costs, which included room and board, were $5102. Pharmacy ($966) and radiology ($963) costs were similar. Pharmacy costs ($966) were dominated by the use of low-molecular-weight heparin ($232). Radiology costs ($963) were dominated by the use of diagnostic imaging examinations ($672). During the observation period, an average of 160 patients with pulmonary embolism were admitted each year, requiring an annual hospital expense ranging from $884,814 to $1,866,489. Pulmonary embolism has a high case fatality rate and remains an expensive illness to diagnose and treat. Nursing costs comprise the largest component of costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Late Diagnosed Left Coronary to the Pulmonary Artery Large Fistulae: An Interesting and Incidental Cath Lab Finding

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Pedro H. M. Craveiro; Abreu-Silva, Érlon O.; Coura, Fernando Barbiero; Rios, Gleyson Moraes; Potério, Daniel Izzet

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Most of them are discovered as incidental findings during coronary angiographic studies or at autopsies. A coronary artery fistulae involve a communication between a coronary artery and a chamber of the heart or any segment of the systemic or pulmonary circulation. We present herein the case of a 67-year-old man with a recent history of exertional angina and dyspnea to usual daily activities whose coronary angiogram revealed an interesting and incidental coronary-pulmonary artery large fistulae. PMID:28053791

  14. Late Diagnosed Left Coronary to the Pulmonary Artery Large Fistulae: An Interesting and Incidental Cath Lab Finding.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Danillo P; de Melo, Pedro H M Craveiro; Abreu-Silva, Érlon O; Coura, Fernando Barbiero; Rios, Gleyson Moraes; Potério, Daniel Izzet

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Most of them are discovered as incidental findings during coronary angiographic studies or at autopsies. A coronary artery fistulae involve a communication between a coronary artery and a chamber of the heart or any segment of the systemic or pulmonary circulation. We present herein the case of a 67-year-old man with a recent history of exertional angina and dyspnea to usual daily activities whose coronary angiogram revealed an interesting and incidental coronary-pulmonary artery large fistulae.

  15. CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous pleurisy in diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, In Jae; Kim, Joo Hee

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and TB pleurisy in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and to evaluate the effect of duration of DM on radiologic findings of pulmonary TB and TB pleurisy. Ninety-three consecutive patients diagnosed as active pulmonary TB with underlying DM were enrolled in our study. As a control group, 100 pulmonary TB patients without DM were randomly selected. TB patients with DM were subdivided into two subgroups depending on diabetes duration of ≥10 years or <10 years. Medical records and CT scans of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and compared. Bilateral pulmonary involvement (odds ratio [OR]=2.39, P = 0.003), involvement of all lobes (OR=2.79, P = 0.013), and lymph node enlargement (OR=1.98, P = 0.022) were significantly more frequent CT findings among TB patients with DM compared with the controls. There were no statistically significant differences in CT findings of pulmonary TB depending on the duration of DM. Bilateral pulmonary involvement, involvement of all lobes, and lymph node enlargement are significantly more common CT findings in TB patients with underlying DM than in patients without DM. Familiarity with the CT findings may be helpful to suggest prompt diagnosis of pulmonary TB in DM patients.

  16. [Pulmonary thromboembolism. Therapy recommendations of the practice guidelines of the Mexican Society of Cardiology].

    PubMed

    Jerjes-Sánchez, Carlos; Ramírez-Rivera, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence and incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is very high, and in many cases, remains undiagnosed. In developed countries, it's the third cause of cardiovascular mortality, a fact that is also observed in developing countries. Within the clinical spectrum, PTE is regarded as minor and massive, in between a sub-massive PET, which is characterized by normal arterial pressure, or even hypotension, with compensated systemic perfusion and right ventricle dysfunction (RVD), with presence or not or positive biomarkers. When there is no evidence of severe pulmonary hypertension, or RVD, anticoagulation therapy stands as the pharmacological approach. When RVD is observed, pulmonary reperfusion is advised. According to the guidelines and recommendations for stratification, diagnose, and treatment of PTE, from the Pulmonary Circulation Chapter of the Mexican Society of Cardiology, evidence is established between physiopathology and the degree of vascular pulmonary obstruction.

  17. Diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in an aging population in Shanghai, China: Prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheyuan; Guo, Juntao; Huang, Ying; Cai, Enmao; Zhang, Xia; Pan, Qichao; Yuan, Zheng'an; Shen, Xin

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the difference of clinical characteristics and outcomes between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without diabetes mellitus in an aging population in Shanghai, China. This is a retrospective population-based study. 201 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Changning District, Shanghai during 2007-2008 were included. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected. Determination of diabetes mellitus was based on the medical records before pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 19.9% (40/201). Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus were more likely to be old (≥50, OR=5.23, 95% CI=2.07-13.25), to have pulmonary cavities (OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.31-6.98), to be sputum smear positive (OR=2.90, 95% CI=1.12-7.51), and to have extension of anti-tuberculosis treatment duration (OR=2.68, 95% CI 1.17-6.14). Besides, they had a higher 2nd month sputum smear positive proportion (OR=2.97, 95% CI 1.22-7.22) and a higher 5-year recurrence rate (OR=5.87, 95% CI 1.26-27.40). High prevalence, severe clinical characteristics and poor outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus highlight the necessity of early bi-directional screening and co-management of these two diseases in Shanghai, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changed terms for drug payment influenced GPs' diagnoses and prescribing practice for inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Dalbak, Lene G; Rognstad, Sture; Melbye, Hasse; Straand, Jørund

    2013-06-01

    Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICS) are first-line anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma, but not in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To restrict ICS use in COPD to cases of severe disease, new terms for reimbursement of drug costs were introduced in Norway in 2006, requiring a diagnosis of COPD to be verified by spirometry. To describe how GPs' diagnoses and treatment of patients who used ICS before 2006 changed after a reassessment of the patients that included spirometry. From the shared electronic patient record system in one group practice, patients ≥ 50 years prescribed ICS (including in combination with long-acting beta2-agonists) during the previous year were identified and invited to a tailored consultation including spirometry to assure the quality of diagnosis and treatment. GPs' diagnoses and ICS prescribing patterns after this reassessment were recorded, retrospectively. Of 164 patients identified, 112 were included. Post-bronchodilator spirometry showed airflow limitation indicating COPD in 55 patients. Of the 57 remaining patients, five had a positive reversibility test. The number of patients diagnosed with asthma increased (from 25 to 62) after the reassessment. A diagnosis of COPD was also more frequently used, whereas fewer patients had other pulmonary diagnoses. ICS was discontinued in 31 patients; 20 with mild to moderate COPD and 11 with normal spirometry. Altered reimbursement terms for ICS changed GPs' diagnostic practice in a way that made the diagnoses better fit with the treatment given, but over-diagnosis of asthma could not be excluded. Spirometry was useful for identifying ICS overuse.

  19. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation without X-ray fluoroscopy to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Asano, Fumihiro; Ishida, Takashi; Shinagawa, Naofumi; Sukoh, Noriaki; Anzai, Masaki; Kanazawa, Kenya; Tsuzuku, Akifumi; Morita, Satoshi

    2017-12-11

    Transbronchial biopsy for peripheral pulmonary lesions is generally performed under X-ray fluoroscopy. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN) is a method in which virtual images of the bronchial route to the lesion are produced based on CT images obtained before VBN, and the bronchoscope is guided using these virtual images, improving the diagnostic yield of peripheral pulmonary lesions. VBN has the possibility of eliminating the need for X-ray fluoroscopy in the bronchoscopic diagnosis of peripheral lesions. To determine whether VBN can be a substitute for X-ray fluoroscopy, a randomized multicenter trial (non-inferiority trial) was performed in VBN and X-ray fluoroscopy (XRF) -assisted groups. The non-inferiority margin in the VBN-assisted group compared with the XRF-assisted group was set at 15%. The subjects consisted of 140 patients with peripheral pulmonary lesions with a mean diameter > 3 cm. In the VBN-assisted group, the bronchoscope was guided to the lesion using a VBN system without X-ray fluoroscopy. In the XRF-assisted group, the same bronchoscope was guided to the lesion under X-ray fluoroscopy. Subsequently, in both groups, the lesion was visualized using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS/GS), and biopsy was performed. In this serial procedure, X-ray fluoroscopy was not used in the VBNA group. The subjects of analysis consisted of 129 patients. The diagnostic yield was 76.9% (50/65) in the VBN-assisted group and 85.9% (55/64) in the XRF-assisted group. The difference in the diagnostic yield between the two groups was -9.0% (95% confidence interval: -22.3% ~ 4.3%). The non-inferiority of the VBN-assisted group could not be confirmed. The rate of visualizing lesions by EBUS was 95.4% (62/65) in the VBN-assisted group and 96.9% (62/64) in the XRF-assisted group, being high in both groups. On EBUS/GS, a bronchoscope and biopsy instruments may be guided to the lesions using VBN without X-ray fluoroscopy, but X-ray fluoroscopy is

  20. Clinical use of exhaled volatile organic compounds in pulmonary diseases: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the potential of exhaled biomarkers, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), to improve accurate diagnoses and management decisions in pulmonary diseases. The objective of this manuscript is to systematically review the current knowledge on exhaled VOCs with respect to their potential clinical use in asthma, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), and respiratory tract infections. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane database, and reference lists of retrieved studies. Controlled, clinical, English-language studies exploring the diagnostic and monitoring value of VOCs in asthma, COPD, CF, lung cancer and respiratory tract infections were included. Data on study design, setting, participant characteristics, VOCs techniques, and outcome measures were extracted. Seventy-three studies were included, counting in total 3,952 patients and 2,973 healthy controls. The collection and analysis of exhaled VOCs is non-invasive and could be easily applied in the broad range of patients, including subjects with severe disease and children. Various research groups demonstrated that VOCs profiles could accurately distinguish patients with a pulmonary disease from healthy controls. Pulmonary diseases seem to be characterized by a disease specific breath-print, as distinct profiles were found in patients with dissimilar diseases. The heterogeneity of studies challenged the inter-laboratory comparability. In conclusion, profiles of VOCs are potentially able to accurately diagnose various pulmonary diseases. Despite these promising findings, multiple challenges such as further standardization and validation of the diverse techniques need to be mastered before VOCs can be applied into clinical practice. PMID:23259710

  1. Utility of computed tomography in assessment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to biomass smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Bora, Aydin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ekin, Selami; Gunbatar, Hulya; Arisoy, Ahmet; Avcu, Serhat; Ozbay, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of main pulmonary artery diameter quantification by thoracic computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension seconder to biomass smoke exposure. Material/Methods One hundred and four women subjects with biomass smoke exposure and 20 healthy women subjects were enrolled in the prospective study. The correlation between echocardiographic estimation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure and the main pulmonary artery diameter of the cases were studied. Results The main pulmonary artery diameter was 26.9±5.1 in the control subjects and 37.1±6.4 in subjects with biomass smoke exposure. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 22.7±12.4 in the control subjects and 57.3±22 in subjects with biomass smoke exposure. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Systolic pulmonary artery pressure was significantly correlated with the main pulmonary artery diameter (r=0.614, p<0.01). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that a value of 29 mm of the main pulmonary artery diameter differentiated between pulmonary hypertension and non-pulmonary hypertension patients. The sensitivity of the measurement to diagnose pulmonary hypertension was 91% and specificity was 80%. Conclusions Our results indicate that main pulmonary artery diameter measurements by SCT may suggest presence of pulmonary hypertension in biomass smoke exposed women. PMID:24618994

  2. Reconstruction of the pulmonary posterior wall using in situ autologous tissue for the treatment of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chengming; Yang, Yifeng; Xiong, Lian; Yin, Ni; Wu, Qin; Tang, Mi; Yang, Jinfu

    2017-02-23

    To evaluate the early and mid-term results of pulmonary trunk reconstruction using a technique in which autogenous tissue is preserved in situ in pulmonary atresia patients with a ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD). The pulmonary artery was reconstructed using autogenous tissue that had been preserved in situ and a bovine jugular venous patch in 24 patients who were diagnosed with PA-VSD (the observation group). The traditional operation using a bovine jugular venous conduit was performed in 40 other cases of PA-VSD (the control group). In the observation group, all patients survived and recovered successfully without complications. Follow-up echocardiography 2-10 years after the procedure showed that the reconstructed right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and pulmonary artery were patent, showing no evidence of flow obstruction. Only mild regurgitation of the bovine jugular vein valve was observed. In the control group, early postoperative death occurred in two cases. Another two patients had obstruction of the anastomotic stoma and underwent conduit replacement surgery within 2 weeks of the initial procedure. During the 2-10 years of follow-up care, six patients presented with valvular stenosis of the BJVC, with a pressure gradient of more than 50 mmHg. The technique for preserving autogenous tissue to reconstruct the pulmonary posterior wall is a satisfactory method for treating PA-VSD.

  3. Transbronchial biopsies safely diagnose amyloid lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Praveen; Keyes, Colleen M.; Hankinson, Elizabeth A.; O’Hara, Carl J.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Berk, John L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58–92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies. Methods We identified patients referred to the Amyloidosis Center at Boston Medical Center with lung amyloidosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsies (TBBX). Amyloid typing was determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry. Standard end organ assessments, including pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest tomography (CT) imaging, and extra-thoracic biopsies established the extent of disease. Results Twenty-five (21.7%) of 115 patients with lung amyloidosis were diagnosed by TBBX. PFT classified 33.3% with restrictive physiology, 28.6% with obstructive disease, and 9.5% mixed physiology; 9.5% exhibited isolated diffusion defects while 19% had normal pulmonary testing. Two view chest or CT imaging identified focal opacities in 52% of cases and diffuse interstitial disease in 48%. Amyloid type and disease extent included 68% systemic AL disease, 16% localized (lung limited) AL disease, 12% ATTR disease, and 4% AA amyloidosis. Fluoroscopy was not used during biopsy. No procedure complications were reported. Conclusions Our case series of 25 patients supports the use of bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies for diagnosis of parenchymal lung amyloidosis. Normal PFTs do not rule out the histologic presence of amyloid lung disease. PMID:28393574

  4. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  5. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Risk Factors and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Medrek, Sarah; Safdar, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) occurs when thromboemboli travel to the pulmonary vasculature, fail to resolve, and cause elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. Untreated, this disease leads to progressive right heart failure and death. It develops in approximately 1% to 5% of patients who suffer an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and has an overall incidence of 3 to 30 per million in the general population. While it is not entirely evident why most but not all people are able to clear this clot burden, there are known risk factors for the development of CTEPH. These include signs of right heart strain at the time of incident PE, inherited coagulopathies, inflammatory conditions, hypothyroidism, and a history of splenectomy. Since CTEPH can be treated both surgically and medically, it is critical to understand the pathophysiology of the disease so affected patients can be identified and diagnosed appropriately.

  6. Long-term pulmonary disease among Swiss childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kasteler, Rahel; Weiss, Annette; Schindler, Matthias; Sommer, Grit; Latzin, Philipp; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Ammann, Roland A; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases are potentially severe late complications of childhood cancer treatment that increase mortality risk among survivors. This nationwide study assesses the prevalence and incidence of pulmonary diseases in long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and their siblings, and quantifies treatment-related risks. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we studied CCS who were diagnosed between 1976 and 2005 and alive at least 5 years after diagnosis. We compared prevalence of self-reported pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, chest wall abnormalities, lung fibrosis, emphysema) between CCS and their siblings, calculated cumulative incidence of pulmonary diseases using the Kaplan-Meier method, and determined risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. CCS reported more pneumonias (10% vs. 7%, P = 0.020) and chest wall abnormalities (2% vs. 0.4%, P = 0.003) than siblings. Treatment with busulfan was associated with prevalence of pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-14.9), and thoracic surgery was associated with chest wall abnormalities and lung fibrosis (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.7 and OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.7-26.6). Cumulative incidence of any pulmonary disease after 35 years of follow-up was 21%. For pneumonia, the highest cumulative incidence was seen in CCS treated with both pulmotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the thorax (23%). This nationwide study in CCS found an increased risk for pulmonary diseases, especially pneumonia, while still young, which indicates that CCS need long-term pulmonary follow-up. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. International spinal cord injury pulmonary function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Donovan, W; Karlsson, A-K; Mueller, G; Perkash, I; Sheel, A William; Wecht, J; Schilero, G J

    2012-06-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population. International. The SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set was developed by an international working group. The initial data set document was revised on the basis of suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations and societies and individual reviewers. In addition, the data set was posted for 2 months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. The final International SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set contains questions on the pulmonary conditions diagnosed before spinal cord lesion,if available, to be obtained only once; smoking history; pulmonary complications and conditions after the spinal cord lesion, which may be collected at any time. These data include information on pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea. Current utilization of ventilator assistance including mechanical ventilation, diaphragmatic pacing, phrenic nerve stimulation and Bi-level positive airway pressure can be reported, as well as results from pulmonary function testing includes: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk).

  8. Cardiomyopathy Induced by Pulmonary Sequestration in a 50-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Shaun; Comp, Robert A.; Grace, R. Randal

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old black man presented at the emergency department with midsternal, nonradiating chest pressure and chronic dyspnea on exertion. Four years before the current admission, he had been diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at another facility. After our complete evaluation, we suspected that his symptoms arose from left-to-left shunting in association with pulmonary sequestration, a congenital malformation. Our preliminary diagnosis of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed by normalization of the patient's ventricular size and function after lobectomy. To our knowledge, this patient is the oldest on record to present with cardiomyopathy consequent to pulmonary sequestration. His case is highly unusual because of his age and the rapid resolution of his symptoms after lobectomy. We believe that pulmonary sequestration should be included in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25873803

  9. Relapsed hepatoblastoma confined to the lung is effectively treated with pulmonary metastasectomy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Geller, James I; Ma, Irene T; Chavan, Rishikesh S; Masand, Prakash M; Towbin, Alexander J; Chintagumpala, Murali; Nuchtern, Jed G; Tiao, Greg M; Thompson, Patrick A; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A

    2016-04-01

    In children diagnosed with hepatoblastoma (HB), the lungs are the most common site of metastasis at both initial presentation and relapse. Previous studies have encouraged pulmonary metastasectomy to achieve a disease-free state after resection of the primary hepatic lesion. However, there is no consensus about how to manage recurrent pulmonary metastasis. A retrospective, multi-institutional review was performed from 2005 to 2014 to identify HB patients ≤18years of age who had disease recurrence associated with pulmonary metastases alone. Ten patients between the ages of 8 and 33months were identified. Pulmonary metastatic recurrence was detected by measuring alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and/or with CT scans of the chest. All patients subsequently underwent pulmonary metastasectomy without post-operative complications. At last follow-up, 8 patients were alive and had normal AFP levels. The 8 survivors had a median follow-up from therapy completion of 18.5months. Two patients who presented with extrapulmonary recurrence subsequently died of treatment refractory disease. This review supports surgical resection as a safe and, in the context of multimodal therapy, efficacious approach to manage HB patients who present with isolated pulmonary relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of effect of Withania somnifera as an adjuvant to DOTS in patients of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rai, Jaswant; Kajal, N C; Devi, Pushpa

    2018-07-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn.) a rejuvenative herb has long been used as an immunomodulator in Indian subcontinent. As immunity plays an important role in pathogenesis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB), so role of W. somnifera as an adjuvant has been studied on selected parameter. A randomized, double-blind placebo-control study was conducted in two groups of 60 newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients on Directly Observed Treatment - short course (DOTS) regime. W. somnifera root extract or placebo capsules were given as add-on therapy for duration of 12 weeks. Effects on sputum conversion, Hemoglobin (Hb), body weight, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), RBC counts, WBC counts, CD4 and CD8 counts, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), serum uric acid and HRQL (Health Related Quality of Life) Index scores were studied. At the end of 8 weeks, sputum conversion was seen in 86.6% patients in study group and 76.6% in placebo group. At the end of 12 weeks a highly significant increase was seen in both CD4 and CD8 counts in study group. A raised SGOT and SGPT levels (>35IU/L) were observed in 16.6% and 33.3% patients in study group; 43.33% and 53.33% in the placebo group of patients. Elevated serum uric acid levels (>6mg/dl) were observed in 20% and 33.33% in study and placebo group respectively. Average gain in HRQL score was better in patients of study group. Use of W. somnifera as an adjuvant in conjunction with anti-TB drugs used as DOTS showed a favorable effect on symptoms and immunological parameters in patients with pulmonary TB. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulmonary thromboembolism on unenhanced postmortem computed tomography: Feasibility and findings.

    PubMed

    Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Held, Ulrike; Ruder, Thomas D; Ross, Steffen G; Schweitzer, Wolf; Fornaro, Juergen; Franckenberg, Sabine; Thali, Michael J; Flach, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diagnosing fatal pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) with unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Twelve cases with autopsy confirmed PTE and matched controls (n=19) were retrospectively examined for PTE signs on PMCT. The following variables were evaluated: edema of the lower extremities (areal and Hounsfield Unit measurements) and observer dependent patterns of the morphology of the sedimentation in the pulmonary arteries and trunk. The median absolute difference between the areal measurements of the right and left lower leg and thigh and the attenuation of the popliteal adipose tissue did not differ significantly between the groups. In contrast, the categorical assessment of soft tissue edema in the lower extremities was significantly different. A statistically significant difference could also be found in the shape of the vascular content within the pulmonary trunk and arteries. PTE may be assessed on unenhanced PMCT using diagnostic clues such as a distinct pattern of the pulmonary artery content and the presence of perivascular edema in the lower extremities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transesophageal Echocardiographic Assessment of Pulmonary Artery-to-Ascending Aorta Ratio for the Detection of Pulmonary Hypertension in Cardiac Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Narendra Kumar, Karthik; Singh, Naveen G; P S, Nagaraja; Patil, Thimmangouda A; N, Manjunath

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate if the main pulmonary artery (mPA)-to-ascending aorta (AscAo), (mPA:AscAo) ratio could serve as a screening tool in identifying pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). A prospective observational study. Tertiary care center, university hospital. Fifty-four adult patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (OPCAB). mPA and AscAo transverse diameters were measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and the mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) were recorded simultaneously using a pulmonary artery catheter. mPA:AscAo ratio demonstrated significant linear correlation with mPAP measured by pulmonary artery catheterization (ie, r = 0.61, confidence interval [CI] = 0.5352-0.6736, p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curves were performed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of mPA:AscAo ratio ≥1 for diagnosing PAH (mPAP ≥25 mmHg). Area under the curve for mPA:AscAo ratio was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.869-0.936, p < 0.0001), with a sensitivity of 84.27%, specificity of 83.92%, positive-predictive value of 87.6% and negative-predictive value of 81.1% for a mPAP ≥25 mmHg. The ratio of mPA:AscAo is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method that can be obtained through TEE, which guides the clinician to screen patients with PAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of newly diagnosed COPD patients treated with triple inhaled therapy by general practitioners: a real world Italian study.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Santus, Pierachille; Terraneo, Silvia; Peruzzi, Elena; Muscianisi, Elisa; Ripellino, Claudio; Pegoraro, Valeria

    2017-09-07

    Factors predicting prescriptions of triple therapy were investigated in a large group of general practitioners in Italy. In the population treated by identified general practitioners, a cohort of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was extracted from IMS Health Longitudinal Database during the period 2010-2013. From the diagnosis, 1-year follow-up was evaluated. Thirty-two thousand forty-six newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were evaluated (57.7% male, mean age 67 years). During 2 years prior to diagnosis less than 13% of patients were requested with a pulmonology evaluation and less than 5% with a spirometry; 65.1% cases were prescribed with a respiratory drug, which in 9.6% of cases was inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β 2 -agonist fixed-dose combination. Two thousand and twenty eight patients (6.3% of the newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients) were treated with triple therapy during the first year of follow-up, whose 858 (42.3%) starting immediately, and 762 (37.6%) following an initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β 2 -agonist fixed-dose combination. Being older, being requested with pulmonologist evaluation or spirometry, being prescribed with a inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β 2 -agonist fixed-dose combination at diagnosis resulted independent predictors of triple therapy use. ENSURING CORRECT PRESCRIPTIONS FOR EARLY-STAGE DISEASE: An improved education program for doctors promoting correct use of medication for chronic lung disease is needed in Italy. Current guidelines state that inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) should be reserved for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it appears that doctors do not always follow this advice. Fabiano Di Marco, at San Paolo Hospital-Università degli Studi di Milano, and co-workers analyzed data from 32,046 COPD patients newly-diagnosed by family doctors in Italy between 2010 and

  15. Hypolobocera guayaquilensis (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae): A New Crab Intermediate Host of Paragonimus mexicanus in Manabí Province, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopina, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Rendon, Melina; Takagi, Hidekazu; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2018-01-01

    To determine that Paragonimus sp. is actively transmitted in a tropical area of the Pacific region of Ecuador where human cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis have recently been documented, a total of 75 freshwater crabs were collected from 2 different streams in the Pedernales area of Manabí Province, Ecuador. All collected crabs were identified as Hypolobocera guayaquilensis based on morphological characteristics of the male gonopods. The hepatopancreas of each crab was examined by compressing it between 2 glass plates followed by observation under a stereomicroscope. Excysted Paragonimus metacercariae were detected in 39 (52.0%) crabs and their densities varied from 1 to 32 per infected crab. There was a positive relationship between crab size and metacercarial density. Sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene of the Paragonimus metacercariae obtained in this study were identical to those of Paragonimus mexicanus deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank database. Thus, the present study is the first to confirm that the crab species H. guayaquilensis is the second intermediate host of P. mexicanus in Manabí Province, Ecuador. Because this crab might be the possible source of human infections in this area, residents should pay attention to improper crab-eating habits related with a neglected parasitic disease, i.e., paragonimiasis. PMID:29742874

  16. Pulmonary and mediastinal metastases of a vaccination-site sarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Rudmann, D G; Van Alstine, W G; Doddy, F; Sandusky, G E; Barkdull, T; Janovitz, E B

    1996-07-01

    Sarcomas at vaccination sites in cats were first reported in 1992. Recent retrospective studies have confirmed an association between these vaccination-site sarcomas (VSS) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and/ or rabies vaccines. In most cases, VSS are locally invasive fibrosarcomas that tend to recur but rarely metastasize. We report the mediastinal and pulmonary metastases of a VSS in a FeLV-and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative, 8-year-old, domestic short-haired cat. The primary sarcoma was removed from an interscapular vaccination site and diagnosed as a VSS 3 months prior to radiographic lesions suggestive of pulmonary and mediastinal metastases. At necropsy, there were multiple pulmonary and mediastinal nodules that histologically and ultrastructurally were fibrosarcomas, cytomorphologically similar to the VSS. In addition, immunohistochemical staining patterns of the VSS and metastatic sites were consistent with that described for VSS. Recent reports of pulmonary and mediastinal metastases of interscapular VSS emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of these tumors.

  17. Strategies to promote adherence to treatment by pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Suwankeeree, Wongduan; Picheansathian, Wilawan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to review and synthesise the best available research evidence that investigates the effectiveness of strategies to promote adherence to treatment by patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The search sought to find published and unpublished studies. The search covered articles published from 1990 to 2010 in English and Thai. The database search included Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Science Direct, Current Content Connect, Thai Nursing Research Database, Thai thesis database, Digital Library of Thailand Research Fund, Research of National Research Council of Thailand and Database of Office of Higher Education Commission. Studies were additionally identified from reference lists of all studies retrieved. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials that explored different strategies to promote adherence to TB treatment of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB and also included quasiexperimental studies. Two of the investigators independently assessed the studies and then extracted and summarised data from eligible studies. Extracted data were entered into Review Manager software and analysed. A total of 7972 newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients participated in 10 randomised controlled trials and eight quasiexperimental studies. The studies reported on the effectiveness of a number of specific interventions to improve adherence to TB treatment among newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients. These interventions included directly observed treatment (DOT) coupled with alternative patient supervision options, case management with DOT, short-course directly observed treatment, the intensive triad-model programme and an intervention package aimed at improved counselling and communication, decentralisation of treatment, patient choice of a DOT supporter and reinforcement of supervision activities. This review found evidence of beneficial effects

  18. Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: Masquerading as Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Frigault, Jonathan; Lafrenière-Bessi, Valérie; Perron, Jean; Bédard, Élisabeth; Philippon, François; Poirier, Paul; Larose, Éric; Jacques, Frédéric

    2018-03-09

    Diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy 8 years earlier, a 45-year-old female suffered sudden cardiac death. Following resuscitation, the patient was diagnosed with an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and underwent a successful coronary repair. The management of a patient with clinical features of cardiomyopathy is reviewed. Anomalous left coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare but potentially lethal congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 300,000 live births 1 . Infants may have clinical features of myocardial ischemia and congestive heart failure 2 . Most surgically untreated patients die within the first year of life 3 . Although rare in teenagers and adults, this syndrome can cause sudden cardiac death 3 . ALCAPA that becomes clinically significant in the peripartum period and that is misdiagnosed for a postpartum cardiomyopathy, such as presented herein, is a very rare occurrence. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension Complicates the Care of Infants with Omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Shandee; Baerg, Joanne; Deming, Douglas; St Peter, Shawn D; Hopper, Andrew; Goff, Donna A

    2017-01-01

    Omphalocele is one of the most common abdominal wall defects. Many newborn infants born with omphalocele present with significant respiratory distress at birth, requiring mechanical ventilatory support, and have clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Little information exists on the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension in this cohort of infants. To describe the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension among infants with omphalocele. This is a multicenter retrospective chart review of demographic data and clinical characteristics of infants with omphalocele admitted to the neonatal intensive care units of Loma Linda University Children's Hospital and Children's Mercy Hospital between 1994 and 2011. Echocardiogram images were reviewed for pulmonary hypertension, and statistical analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 32/56 (57%) infants with omphalocele. Compared to infants without pulmonary hypertension, infants with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have a liver-containing defect (16/32 [50%] vs. 5/24 [21%], p = 0.03), require intubation at birth (18/32 [56%] vs. 6/24 [17%], p = 0.03), and die during initial hospitalization (12/32 [38%] vs. 2/24 [8%], p = 0.01). The majority of infants with omphalocele have evidence of pulmonary hypertension which is associated with increased mortality. Echocardiograms to screen for pulmonary hypertension should be obtained at ≥2 days of life in infants with omphalocele, especially in those with liver within the omphalocele sac and/or in those infants who require intubation at birth to screen for pulmonary hypertension. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva aestiva).

    PubMed

    Amann, Olga; Kik, Marja J L; Passon-Vastenburg, Maartje H A C; Westerhof, Ineke; Lumeij, Johannes T; Schoemaker, Nico J

    2007-03-01

    A 30-yr-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazon aestiva aestiva) was presented to the clinic with a history of sneezing more often during the last 2 mo. Physical examination revealed only a mild nasal discharge. Complete hematologic and plasma biochemical examination showed no abnormalities. Computerized tomography (CT) of the complete bird showed generalized lung alterations consistent with lung fibrosis. Two lung biopsies were taken. The results of the histologic examination of the biopsies confirmed the tentative CT diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis diagnosed by means of a lung biopsy in an avian species. The histologic characteristics are discussed and compared with those of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jason S.; Fallon, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension are two pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease. The pathophysiology underlying each disorder is distinct, but patients with either condition may be limited by dyspnea. A careful evaluation of concomitant symptoms, the physical examination, pulmonary function testing and arterial blood gas analysis, and echocardiographic, imaging, and hemodynamic studies is crucial to establishing (and distinguishing) these diagnoses. Our understanding of the pathobiology, natural history, and treatment of these disorders has advanced considerably over the past decade; however, the presence of either still increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with underlying liver disease. There is no effective medical treatment for hepatopulmonary syndrome. Although liver transplantation can resolve hepatopulmonary syndrome, there appears to be worse survival even with transplantation. Liver transplantation poses a very high risk of death in those with significant portopulmonary hypertension, where targeted medical therapies may improve functional status and allow successful transplantation in a small number of select patients. PMID:23155142

  2. Apatinib for the treatment of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhipeng; Wang, Hanying; Jiang, Hanliang; Chen, Enguo; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Xinyou

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (P-EHE) is a rare tumor, with no established standard treatment. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) has been reported in some P-EHE patients. Apatinib, a new small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that specifically targets VEGFR-2, has therapeutic benefits in some advanced tumors. However, its efficacy in P-EHE cases has not been reported. Patient concerns: Herein, we presented a 44-year-old man with recurrent hemoptysis for approximately 9 years. Diagnoses: After hospitalization, relevant examinations were conducted. The disease was subsequently diagnosed as P-EHE. Interventions: The patient underwent pulmonary lobectomy, but subsequently developed multiple metastases. Within the tumor, CD31, CK, and Vimentin were found to be positive, while CD34 was negative. Apatinib was initially administered 250 mg daily doses and after 1 month was increased to 500 mg daily. Outcomes: He showed noticeable symptomatic improvements and positive imaging changes in the first month of treatment. However, the disease progressed in the following month, despite the increased apatinib dose. Lessons: Apatinib is possibly a new treatment for P-EHE. However, further clinical trials are necessary to confirm an effective dose and the efficacy and safety of apatinib in P-EHE treatment. PMID:29137048

  3. Pulmonary artery dissection in eight dogs with patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Scansen, Brian A; Simpson, Elaine M; López-Alvarez, Jordi; Thomas, William P; Bright, Janice M; Eason, Bryan D; Rush, John E; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; Green, Henry W; Cunningham, Suzanne M; Visser, Lance C; Kent, Agnieszka M; Schober, Karsten E

    2015-06-01

    To describe a series of dogs with pulmonary artery dissection and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Eight dogs. Retrospective case series. Pulmonary artery dissection was diagnosed in 8 dogs, 3 were Weimaraners. Four dogs presented in left-sided congestive heart failure, 4 presented for murmur evaluation and without clinical signs, and 1 presented in right-sided congestive heart failure. In 7 dogs the dissection was first documented concurrent with a diagnosis of uncorrected PDA. In the other dog, with pulmonary valve stenosis and PDA, the dissection was observed on autopsy examination 17 months after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and ductal closure. Median age at presentation for the 7 dogs with antemortem diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was 3.5 years (range, 1.5-4 years). Three dogs had the PDA surgically ligated, 2 dogs did not undergo PDA closure, 1 dog failed transcatheter occlusion of the PDA with subsequent surgical ligation, 1 dog underwent successful transcatheter device occlusion of the PDA, and 1 dog had the PDA closed by transcatheter coil delivery 17 months prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection. The 2 dogs that did not have the PDA closed died 1 and 3 years after diagnosis due to heart failure. Pulmonary artery dissection is a potential complication of PDA in dogs, the Weimaraner breed may be at increased risk, presentation is often in mature dogs, and closure of the PDA can be performed and appears to improve outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples.

  5. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... together all groups are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH ... information, go to "Types of Pulmonary Hypertension." ) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension ( ...

  6. Heart Failure in a Preterm Infant. Case Report and Echocardiographic Clues for the Diagnostic Approach to Pulmonary Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Moises; Segado-Arenas, Antonio; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is an unusual cause of heart failure in infants. We report a preterm newborn with signs of congestive heart failure supposed secondary to a ductus arteriosus that was finally diagnosed as a coexistent extralobar pulmonary sequestration. In this case, Doppler echocardiography was essential for diagnosis, revealing an abnormal systemic arterial supply to the sequestered lung and abnormal venous drainage. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension from magnetic resonance imaging-based computational models and decision tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Lungu, Angela; Swift, Andrew J; Capener, David; Kiely, David; Hose, Rod; Wild, Jim M

    2016-06-01

    Accurately identifying patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using noninvasive methods is challenging, and right heart catheterization (RHC) is the gold standard. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as an alternative to echocardiography and RHC in the assessment of cardiac function and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with suspected PH. The aim of this study was to assess whether machine learning using computational modeling techniques and image-based metrics of PH can improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in PH. Seventy-two patients with suspected PH attending a referral center underwent RHC and MRI within 48 hours. Fifty-seven patients were diagnosed with PH, and 15 had no PH. A number of functional and structural cardiac and cardiovascular markers derived from 2 mathematical models and also solely from MRI of the main pulmonary artery and heart were integrated into a classification algorithm to investigate the diagnostic utility of the combination of the individual markers. A physiological marker based on the quantification of wave reflection in the pulmonary artery was shown to perform best individually, but optimal diagnostic performance was found by the combination of several image-based markers. Classifier results, validated using leave-one-out cross validation, demonstrated that combining computation-derived metrics reflecting hemodynamic changes in the pulmonary vasculature with measurement of right ventricular morphology and function, in a decision support algorithm, provides a method to noninvasively diagnose PH with high accuracy (92%). The high diagnostic accuracy of these MRI-based model parameters may reduce the need for RHC in patients with suspected PH.

  8. Quantitative computed tomography measurements of emphysema for diagnosing asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mengshuang; Wang, Wei; Dou, Shuang; Cui, Liwei; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) are controversial. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not exist in typical asthma patients. Emphysema in patients with asthma suggests the coexistence of COPD. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) allows repeated evaluation of emphysema noninvasively. We investigated the value of quantitative CT measurements of emphysema in the diagnosis of ACOS. Methods This study included 404 participants; 151 asthma patients, 125 COPD patients, and 128 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests and a high-resolution CT scan. Emphysema measurements were taken with an Airway Inspector software. The asthma patients were divided into high and low emphysema index (EI) groups based on the percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units. The characteristics of asthma patients with high EI were compared with those having low EI or COPD. Results The normal value of percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units in Chinese aged >40 years was 2.79%±2.37%. COPD patients indicated more severe emphysema and more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema than asthma patients or controls. Thirty-two (21.2%) of the 151 asthma patients had high EI. Compared with asthma patients with low EI, those with high EI were significantly older, more likely to be male, had more pack-years of smoking, had more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema, and had greater airflow limitation. There were no significant differences in sex ratios, pack-years of smoking, airflow limitation, or emphysema distribution between asthma patients with high EI and COPD patients. A greater number of acute exacerbations were seen in asthma patients with high EI compared with those with low EI or COPD. Conclusion Asthma patients with high EI fulfill the features of ACOS, as described in the Global Initiative for Asthma and Global

  9. Validation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnoses in healthcare databases: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Rimland, Joseph M; Abraha, Iosief; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Cozzolino, Francesco; Orso, Massimiliano; Cherubini, Antonio; Dell'Aquila, Giuseppina; Chiatti, Carlos; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Montedori, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare databases are useful sources to investigate the epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), to assess longitudinal outcomes in patients with COPD, and to develop disease management strategies. However, in order to constitute a reliable source for research, healthcare databases need to be validated. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of codes related to COPD diagnoses in healthcare databases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases will be searched using appropriate search strategies. Studies that evaluated the validity of COPD codes (such as the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision and 10th Revision system; the Real codes system or the International Classification of Primary Care) in healthcare databases will be included. Inclusion criteria will be: (1) the presence of a reference standard case definition for COPD; (2) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, positive predictive values, etc); and (3) the use of a healthcare database (including administrative claims databases, electronic healthcare databases or COPD registries) as a data source. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will assess quality using a checklist based on the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy (STARD) criteria. This systematic review protocol has been produced in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Ethics approval is not required. Results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results from this systematic review will be used for outcome research on COPD and will serve as a guide to identify appropriate case definitions of COPD, and reference standards, for researchers involved in validating healthcare databases. CRD42015029204. Published by the BMJ

  10. The Critical Role of Pulmonary Arterial Compliance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Kurt W.; Pritzker, Marc R.; Scandurra, John; Volmers, Karl; Weir, E. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-compliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload and eventually right ventricular failure. Evidence suggests that decreased pulmonary arterial compliance is a cause rather than a consequence of distal small vessel proliferative vasculopathy. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases early in the disease process even when pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are normal, potentially enabling early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in high-risk populations. With the recognition of the prognostic importance of pulmonary arterial compliance, its impact on right ventricular function, and its contributory role in the development and progression of distal small-vessel proliferative vasculopathy, pulmonary arterial compliance is an attractive target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26848601

  11. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Hernández-González, Ignacio; Escribano-Subías, Pilar

    2017-03-22

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension which is part, together with pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis, of the special designation (subgroup 1') within pulmonary hypertension group 1 in the latest classification of the pulmonary hypertension World Symposium. Recent discovery that gene mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) are responsible for inherited forms of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease has changed the role of genetic testing, acquiring relevant importance in the diagnosis of these patients. Despite the advances in genetic, cellular and molecular basis knowledge in the last decade, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease remains as a rare aetiology of pulmonary hypertension without any effective medical treatment approved and poor outcomes. This document aims to review the advances occurred in the understanding of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in the last years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Pulmonary oxalosis with necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Khabir, Abdelmajid; Makni, Salwa; Ayadi, Lobna; Boudawara, Tahia; Frikha, Imed; Sahnoun, Youssef; Jlidi, Rachid

    2002-04-01

    Pulmonary oxalosis is a very rare pseudotumoral lesion; it is often secondary to an aspergillus infection. Oxalic acid (C(2)H(2)O(4)) is a mycotoxin released by Aspergillus niger and sometimes by several other fungi, including A flavus and A fumigatus. We report a case of a 69 year old man, with previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis, followed for recurrent hemoptysis. On the chest radiography, the right upper lobe lung showed a cavitary lesion with thick and irregular walls and a dense material that suggested a pulmonary aspergilloma. Microscopically, it was a pulmonary oxalosis associated with chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis. Our aim is to discuss the epidemiological characteristics, the diagnosis and the histogenesis of this unusual lesion.

  13. Outcomes of Percutaneous Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus Accompanied With Unilateral Absence of Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yankun; Zheng, Hong; Xu, Zhongying; Zhang, Gejun; Jin, Jinglin; Hu, Haibo; Tian, Tao; Zhou, Xianliang

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have reported the outcomes of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in patients with unilateral absence of pulmonary artery (UAPA). This study aimed to evaluate the symptomatology, diagnosis and therapy, especially the transcatheter closure of PDA in patients with PDA associated with UAPA. Patients diagnosed with PDA and UAPA were retrospectively enrolled from August 2010 through January 2016. Clinical data, treatment and follow-up information were evaluated. Thirteen patients (6 males and 7 females) were diagnosed with PDA associated with UAPA. Percutaneous closure was successfully conducted in 6 patients successfully. The median age was 7 years (7 months to 37 years). The mean diameter of the PDA and occluders were 4.7 ± 1.8mm (2-7mm) and 11.3 ± 3.9mm (6-14mm), respectively. The mean pulmonary artery pressure was 41.5 ± 13.5mmHg (25-62mmHg). The diameter of PDA has no relationship with the degree of pulmonary artery pressure (r = 0.239, P = 0.648). In 4 patients, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure decreased significantly after closure with 69.0 ± 10.7 versus 48.0 ± 11.3mmHg (P = 0.146), and also the mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 54.5 ± 5.7 mm Hg versus 30.5 ± 3.9mmHg (P = 0.04). In all, 1 patient had a trace residual shunt, which disappeared within 24 hours. In appropriate patients with PDA associated with UAPA, transcatheter closure of PDA has the potential to improve the pulmonary artery hypertension. Further follow-up is required to monitor the long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Challenges with diagnosing and investigating suspected active tuberculosis disease in military trainees.

    PubMed

    Chang, David; Webber, Bryant J; Hetrick, Steven M; Owen, Jerry B; Blasi, Audra A; Steele, Bernadette M; Yun, Heather C

    2017-08-01

    Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016, a total of 14 U.S. and international military personnel in training at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, were hospitalized due to suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); of these, five personnel were diagnosed with active TB disease. Only one TB case had pulmonary symptoms, but these symptoms were not suggestive of TB. The incidence rate in the training population was 1.89 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 0.81, 4.42), with a higher rate when restricted to international military students attending the Defense Language Institute English Language Center. No instances of TB transmission were identified. The variety of atypical presentations and their resulting diagnostic and public health challenges prompted this retrospective review of all hospitalized cases. This case series highlights both the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion when TB is being considered in close congregate settings as well as the risk of overreliance on acid-fast bacilli staining and nucleic acid amplification testing for ruling out active pulmonary disease in young, otherwise healthy trainees. Practical solutions are suggested.

  15. [Functional respiratory evolution in two patients with emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Arce, Santiago C; Molinari, Luciana; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2009-01-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a frequently under-diagnosed condition. Isolated pulmonary function tests (PFT) can give rise to misinterpretations. We have found no reports on these patients' spirometric progression. We describe two cases of CPFE, showing long-term functional evolution to have a more accurate understanding of current spirometric values. The most relevant findings are: 1) spirometry with discrete functional alterations in the presence of a marked dyspnea and the need, in one patient, for chronic oxygen therapy; and 2) functional evolution reflecting "pseudonormalisation" of the initial obstructive spirometric pattern, possibly as a result of fibrosis development. A mild obstructive defect in a patient with chronic airflow limitation and marked impairment of his/her clinical status and functional class should alert on the possibility of associated pulmonary fibrosis. A computed tomography (CT) and previous PFTs will allow a better understanding of this condition.

  16. Progressive ventilation inhomogeneity in infants with cystic fibrosis after pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Shannon J; Ranganathan, Sarath; Park, Judy; Turkovic, Lidija; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Skoric, Billy; Ramsey, Kathryn A; Rosenow, Tim; Banton, Georgia L; Berry, Luke; Stick, Stephen M; Hall, Graham L

    2015-12-01

    Measures of ventilation distribution are promising for monitoring early lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study describes the cross-sectional and longitudinal impacts of pulmonary inflammation and infection on ventilation homogeneity in infants with CF.Infants diagnosed with CF underwent multiple breath washout (MBW) testing and bronchoalveolar lavage at three time points during the first 2 years of life.Measures were obtained for 108 infants on 156 occasions. Infants with a significant pulmonary infection at the time of MBW showed increases in lung clearance index (LCI) of 0.400 units (95% CI 0.150-0.648; p=0.002). The impact was long lasting, with previous pulmonary infection leading to increased ventilation inhomogeneity over time compared to those who remained free of infection (p<0.05). Infection with Haemophilus influenzae was particularly detrimental to the longitudinal lung function in young children with CF where LCI was increased by 1.069 units for each year of life (95% CI 0.484-1.612; p<0.001).Pulmonary infection during the first year of life is detrimental to later lung function. Therefore, strategies aimed at prevention, surveillance and eradication of pulmonary pathogens are paramount to preserve lung function in infants with CF. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  17. Clinical characteristics and computed tomography findings of pulmonary toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Masahiko; Norose, Kazumi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Kaiume, Hiroko; Takeda, Wataru; Kirihara, Takehiko; Kurihara, Taro; Sato, Keijiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kuraishi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahide; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-12-01

    The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties associated with early diagnosis and the rapidly progressive deterioration of multiorgan function. In our institution, we identified nine cases of toxoplasmosis, representing incidences of 2.2 and 19.6 % among all HSCT recipients and seropositive HSCT recipients, respectively. Of the patients with toxoplasmosis, six had pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) findings revealed centrilobular, patchy ground-glass opacities (n = 3), diffuse ground-glass opacities (n = 2), ground-glass opacities with septal thickening (n = 1), and marked pleural effusion (n = 1). All cases died, except for one with suspected pulmonary toxoplasmosis who was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction assay 2 days after the onset of symptoms. In pulmonary toxoplasmosis, CT findings are non-specific and may mimic pulmonary congestion, atypical pneumonia, viral pneumonitis, and bronchopneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for overcoming this serious infectious complication. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered during differential diagnosis in a recipient with otherwise unexplained signs of infection and CT findings with ground-glass opacities, regardless of the distribution.

  18. Spontaneous Regression of Pulmonary Nodules Presenting as Epstein-Barr Virus-related Atypical Infectious Mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Jun; Awaguni, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Makino, Shigeru; Maruyama, Rikken; Inaba, Tohru; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary nodules associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related atypical infectious mononucleosis have rarely been described. A 12-year-old Japanese boy, upon admission, revealed multiple small round nodules (a total of 7 nodules in 4 to 8 mm size) in the lungs on computed tomography. The hemorrhagic pharyngeal tonsils with hot signals on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography were biopsied revealing the presence of EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER)-positive cells; however, no lymphoma was noted. The patient was diagnosed as having atypical EBV-infectious mononucleosis associated with primary EBV infection. Pulmonary nodules markedly reduced in numbers and sizes spontaneously over a 2-year period. Differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in childhood should include atypical EBV infection.

  19. Diagnostic approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: a report from the real world

    PubMed Central

    Saro, G; Campo, J; Hernandez, M; Anta, M; Olmos, J; Gonzalez-Macias, J; Riancho, J

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in a university hospital. A retrospective case record review of 251 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism was carried out according to a standard protocol, which looked at the utilisation of imaging techniques and compared clinical diagnoses with a standardised diagnosis established according to current recommendations. Isotopic lung scan was the most commonly used technique (73%), followed by leg vein sonography (36%) and contrast venography (31%). Lung arteriography was done in only 7% of patients. Among the 205 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PE, 115 (56%) would be diagnosed as having PE according to the standard criteria, 84 (41%) would be unclassified, and six (3%) would not be regarded as having PE. Among patients who were diagnosed as having PE and received anticoagulant therapy, 32% did not have the diagnosis confirmed by an imaging technique. Most of these had a non-diagnostic lung scan which, despite evidence to the contrary, seemed to be interpreted as confirmation of PE. We conclude that clinicians do not seem to follow current recommendations when approaching patients with suspected PE. In particular, there is an over-reliance on lung scans, and the significance of non-diagnostic scans was often misinterpreted. Arteriography was underused. These results emphasise the need to take measures to implement practice guidelines and to explore the usefulness of newer non-invasive techniques.


Keywords: pulmonary embolism; diagnosis; lung scan; imaging techniques; audit PMID:10533633

  20. Pulmonary Toxocariasis: Initial and Follow-Up CT Findings in 63 Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyung Won

    2015-06-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the characteristic radiologic findings of pulmonary toxocariasis on initial and follow-up chest CT. Between June 2010 and May 2014, 63 patients with serologically proven, clinically diagnosed pulmonary toxocariasis and chest CT examinations performed within 2 months of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for toxocariasis were identified. Two chest radiologists retrospectively analyzed the chest CT examinations in consensus; they focused on the distribution, location, number, and internal characteristics of the pulmonary lesions. The pulmonary lesions tended to involve three or more lobes (49% [31/63]) on the initial CT; predominance of the abnormalities in a subpleural location (81% [51/63]) and in the lower lung zone (98% [62/63]) was noted. The number of pulmonary lesions per patient were from two to five (46% [29/63]), more than five (32% [20/63]), or one (22% [14/63]). The radiologic findings of pulmonary toxocariasis could be categorized into four different patterns: ground-glass opacities (GGOs), solid nodules, consolidations, and linear opacities. The most common pattern was ill-defined GGOs with or without solid portions (84% [53/63]). The solid nodule and patchy consolidation patterns were found in 29% (18/63) and 21% (13/63) of patients, respectively. In addition, linear opacities (1-2 mm thick and 8-25 mm long) were present in 19% of patients (12/63); this finding is a subtle, yet novel, finding. On follow-up CT, the pulmonary lesions had either disappeared or migrated; when they had migrated, they revealed radiologic manifestations similar to the findings on the initial CT. Pulmonary toxocariasis manifested as multiple lesions in four radiologic patterns with subpleural and lower lung predominance on initial and follow-up CT. A linear opacity may be one of many clues in the diagnosis of pulmonary toxocariasis on CT.

  1. Tag Array gene chip rapid diagnosis anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis -a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjie; Cheng, Peng; Lyu, Jingtong; Zhang, Zehua; Xu, Jianzhong

    2018-05-01

    We developed a Tag Array chip for detecting first- and second-line anti tuberculosis drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis and compared the analytical performance of the gene chip to that of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). From November 2011 to April 2016.234 consecutive culture-confirmed, clinically and imaging diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from Southwest Hospital, Chongqing were enrolled into the study. Specimens collected during sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the pulmonary tuberculosis patients were subjected to M. tuberculosis species identification and drug-resistance detection by the Tag Array gene chip, and evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of chip. A total of 186 patients was diagnosed drug-resistant tuberculosis. The detection of rifampicin (RFP), isoniazid (INH), fluoroquinolones (FQS), streptomycin (SM) resistance genes was highly sensitive and specific: however, for detection of amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CPM), Kanamycin (KM), specificity was higher, but sensitivity was lower. Sensitivity for the detection of a mutation in the eis promoter region could be improved. The detection sensitivity of the EMB resistance gene was low, therefore it is easy to miss a diagnosis of EMB drug resistance, but its specificity was high. Tag Array chip can achieve rapid, accurate and high-throughput detection of tuberculosis resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis, which has important clinical significance and feasibility. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Pulmonary decompression sickness at altitude: early symptoms and circulating gas emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balldin, Ulf I.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Webb, James T.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary altitude decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition. 'Chokes' which are characterized by the triad of substernal pain, cough, and dyspnea, are considered to be associated with severe accumulation of gas bubbles in the pulmonary capillaries and may rapidly develop into a life-threatening medical emergency. This study was aimed at characterizing early symptomatology and the appearance of venous gas emboli (VGE). METHODS: Symptoms of simulated-altitude DCS and VGE (with echo-imaging ultrasound) were analyzed in 468 subjects who participated in 22 high altitude hypobaric chamber research protocols from 1983 to 2001 at Brooks Air Force Base, TX. RESULTS: Of 2525 subject-exposures to simulated altitude, 1030 (41%) had symptoms of DCS. Only 29 of those included DCS-related pulmonary symptoms. Of these, only 3 subjects had all three pulmonary symptoms of chokes; 9 subjects had two of the pulmonary symptoms; and 17 subjects had only one. Of the 29 subject-exposures with pulmonary symptoms, 27 had VGE and 21 had severe VGE. The mean onset times of VGE and symptoms in the 29 subject-exposures were 42 +/- 30 min and 109 +/- 61 min, respectively. In 15 subjects, the symptoms disappeared during recompression to ground level followed by 2 h of oxygen breathing. In the remaining 14 cases, the symptoms disappeared with immediate hyperbaric oxygen treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary altitude DCS or chokes is confirmed to be a rare condition. Our data showed that when diagnosed early, recompression to ground level pressure and/or hyperbaric oxygen treatment was 100% successful in resolving the symptoms.

  3. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): results from an international prospective registry.

    PubMed

    Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Delcroix, Marion; Lang, Irene; Mayer, Eckhard; Jansa, Pavel; Ambroz, David; Treacy, Carmen; D'Armini, Andrea M; Morsolini, Marco; Snijder, Repke; Bresser, Paul; Torbicki, Adam; Kristensen, Bent; Lewczuk, Jerzy; Simkova, Iveta; Barberà, Joan A; de Perrot, Marc; Hoeper, Marius M; Gaine, Sean; Speich, Rudolf; Gomez-Sanchez, Miguel A; Kovacs, Gabor; Hamid, Abdul Monem; Jaïs, Xavier; Simonneau, Gérald

    2011-11-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is often a sequel of venous thromboembolism with fatal natural history; however, many cases can be cured by pulmonary endarterectomy. The clinical characteristics and current management of patients enrolled in an international CTEPH registry was investigated. The international registry included 679 newly diagnosed (≤6 months) consecutive patients with CTEPH, from February 2007 until January 2009. Diagnosis was confirmed by right heart catheterization, ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy, computerized tomography, and/or pulmonary angiography. At diagnosis, a median of 14.1 months had passed since first symptoms; 427 patients (62.9%) were considered operable, 247 (36.4%) nonoperable, and 5 (0.7%) had no operability data; 386 patients (56.8%, ranging from 12.0%- 60.9% across countries) underwent surgery. Operable patients did not differ from nonoperable patients relative to symptoms, New York Heart Association class, and hemodynamics. A history of acute pulmonary embolism was reported for 74.8% of patients (77.5% operable, 70.0% nonoperable). Associated conditions included thrombophilic disorder in 31.9% (37.1% operable, 23.5% nonoperable) and splenectomy in 3.4% of patients (1.9% operable, 5.7% nonoperable). At the time of CTEPH diagnosis, 37.7% of patients initiated at least 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted therapy (28.3% operable, 53.8% nonoperable). Pulmonary endarterectomy was performed with a 4.7% documented mortality rate. Despite similarities in clinical presentation, operable and nonoperable CTEPH patients may have distinct associated medical conditions. Operability rates vary considerably across countries, and a substantial number of patients (operable and nonoperable) receive off-label pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted treatments.

  4. The Successful Treatment of Pulmonary Pleomorphic Carcinoma with Pembrolizumab: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoko; Miura, Tamaki; Horiuchi, Hajime; Usui, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinomas are rare malignant tumors, and no standard treatments have been established. We herein report the successful treatment of a patient with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma with pembrolizumab. A 51-year-old man who was a current smoker presented to our hospital due to dyspnea and hemosputum. Chest X-ray showed right-sided pneumothorax with pleural effusion; chest tube drainage was therefore performed. Computed tomography after chest tube drainage showed a cavitary nodule in the right upper lobe and right hilar and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Surgery was performed for the diagnosis and treatment. He was eventually diagnosed with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma corresponding to clinical stage IVB (cT2aN2M1c [PLE, ADR, HEP]). The giant cells strongly expressed programmed death ligand-1, and the tumor proportion score was more than 50%. Therefore, pembrolizumab was introduced as the first-line therapy. After 3 cycles of pembrolizumab, his right hilar and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pleural dissemination notably decreased. Pembrolizumab might be an effective therapy for pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma. PMID:28878661

  5. Primary lung cancer coexisting with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Y; Varol, U; Unlu, M; Kayaalp, I; Ayranci, A; Dereli, M S; Guclu, S Z

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity is a clinical problem that presents a challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of both diseases. To clarify the clinical and survival characteristics of cases with both lung cancer and active pulmonary TB. From 2008 to 2013, 3350 TB patients admitted to the TB Department of the Chest Diseases Hospital of Izmir, Turkey, were evaluated. In 38 (1.1%) male patients, lung cancer and TB were found to coexist. Almost all of the patients were diagnosed at Stage III (n = 14, 36.8%) or IV (n = 17, 44.7%) lung cancer, whereas four (10.6%) had Stage II and three (7.9%) had Stage I disease. Squamous cell lung cancer was the predominant histology (n = 23, 60.7%). The median overall survival among patients was 13.4 months (95%CI 8.09-18.8). One-year survival rates for patients with Stages I, II, III and IV were respectively 100%, 75%, 57% and 40%. The present study demonstrates that lung cancer combined with active pulmonary TB most frequently presents as squamous cell carcinoma, with a male predominance. The overall survival of lung cancer patients did not change even with concomitant active TB.

  6. Costs and benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Farias, Catharinne C; Resqueti, Vanessa; Dias, Fernando A L; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Fregonezi, Guilherme A F

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the costs and benefits of a simple aerobic walking program for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This was a blinded randomized controlled clinical trial that recruited 72 patients diagnosed with COPD, 40 of whom were included in the study and divided into two groups [control group (CG) and pulmonary rehabilitation group (GPR)]. We assessed pulmonary function, distance covered during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), body composition, and level of activities of daily living (ADLs) before and after an 8-week walking program. The financial costs were calculated according to the pricing table of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). Only 34 of the 40 patients remained in the final sample; 16 in the CG and 18 in the GPR (FEV1: 50.9 ± 14% predicted and FEV1: 56 ± 0.5% predicted, respectively). The intervention group exhibited improvements in the 6MWT, sensation of dyspnea and fatigue, work performed, BODE index (p<0.01), HRQOL, ADL level (p<0.001), and lower limb strength (p<0.05). The final mean cost per patient for the GPR was R$ 148.75 (~US$ 75.00) and no patient significantly exceeded this value. However, 2 patients in the CG did exceed this value, incurring a cost of R$ 689.15 (~US$ 345.00). Aerobic walking demonstrated significant clinical benefits in a cost-efficient manner in patients with COPD.

  7. Pulmonary endarterectomy outputs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Pérez Vela, Jose Luís; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Muñoz Guijosa, Christian; Velázquez, María Teresa; Alonso Chaterina, Sergio; Hernández González, Ignacio; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2017-07-07

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; extremely high pulmonary vascular resistance constitutes a risk factor for hospital mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients with very severe pulmonary hypertension. Since February 1996, we performed 160 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. We divided the patient population in 2 groups: group 1, which included 40 patients with pulmonary vascular resistance≥1090dyn/sec/cm -5 , and group 2, which included the remaining 120 patients. Hospital mortality (15 vs. 2.5%), reperfusion pulmonary edema (33 vs. 14%) and heart failure (23 vs. 3.3%) were all higher in group 1; however, after one year of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic conditions of both groups. Survival rate after 5 years was 77% in group 1 and 92% in group 2 (P=.033). After the learning curve including the 46 first patients, there was no difference in hospital mortality (3.8 vs. 2.3%) or survival rate after 5 years (96.2% in group 1 and 96.2% in group 2). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is linked to significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, these patients benefit the same from the procedure in the mid-/long-term. In our experience, after the learning curve, this surgery is safe in severe pulmonary hypertension and no level of pulmonary vascular resistance should be an absolute counter-indication for this surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Fixed-dose combinations of drugs versus single-drug formulations for treating pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Carmen R; Rigau Comas, David; Valderrama Rodríguez, Angélica; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Parker, Lucy Anne; Caylà, Joan; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background People who are newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) typically receive a standard first-line treatment regimen that consists of two months of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol followed by four months of isoniazid and rifampicin. Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of these drugs are widely recommended. Objectives To compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of anti-tuberculosis regimens given as fixed-dose combinations compared to single-drug formulations for treating people with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 11 2015); MEDLINE (1966 to 20 November 2015); EMBASE (1980 to 20 November 2015); LILACS (1982 to 20 November 2015); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials; and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), without language restrictions, up to 20 November 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared the use of FDCs with single-drug formulations in adults (aged 15 years or more) newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, and assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We attempted to assess the effect of treatment for time-to-event measures with hazard ratios and their 95% CIs. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' assessment tool to determine the risk of bias in included trials. We used the fixed-effect model when there was little heterogeneity and the random-effects model with moderate heterogeneity. We used an I² statistic value of 75% or greater to denote significant heterogeneity, in which case we did not perform a

  9. Whole lung lavage with intermittent double lung ventilation. A modified technique for managing pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Raees; Iqbal, Mobeen; Kashef, Sayed H; Almomatten, Mohammed I

    2005-01-01

    Whole lung lavage is still the most effective treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. We report a 21-year-old male diagnosed with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by open lung biopsy and who underwent whole lung lavage with a modified technique. He showed significant improvement in clinical and functional parameters. The technique of intermittent double lung ventilation during lavage procedure keeps the oxygen saturation in acceptable limits in patients at risk for severe hypoxemia and allows the procedure to be completed in a single setting.

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension in Central Australia: A Community-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Haji, Kawa; Wong, Christopher X; Chandra, Nikhil; Truong, Helen; Corkill, Wendy; Kaethner, Alex; Naing, Pyi; Abeyaratne, Asanga; Brady, Stephen J; Kangaharan, Nadarajah

    2018-03-06

    The burden of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in Central Australia has not been previously studied. Our aim is to characterise the prevalence, clinical classification, and long-term survival of individuals with PHT in Central Australia. A community-based cohort study of all individuals diagnosed with PHT in Central Australia between 2005 and 2016 was undertaken. We estimated PHT prevalence using population data, describe clinical PHT classification, and characterised long-term survival using Kaplan-Meier approaches. A total of 183 patients were identified (mean age 52±16years, 63% female). Of these individuals, 149 (81.4%) were of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) descent. The prevalence per 100,000 of any PHT was significantly higher In ATSI (723 [95% CI 608-839] compared to non-ATSI individuals (126 [95% CI 84-168], p<0.001). Furthermore, ATSI individuals were diagnosed at younger ages compared to non-ATSI individuals (49±15 vs 64±16years, p<0.001). Median estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) was higher in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) compared to other causes (62 [IQR 54-69] vs 50 [IQR 44-58] mmHg, p<0.01). The median survival rate from diagnosis was 9 years (IQR 7.2-13.2). Age and ePASP were significant predictors of mortality (HR 1.05 [95% CI 1.02-1.07] and HR 1.56 [95% 1.00-2.42] respectively). In this community based study, we found a high burden of PHT in Central Australia. The prevalence of PHT is greater in ATSI individuals and is diagnosed at younger ages compared to non-ATSI individuals. Together with other cardiovascular diseases, PHT may be in-part contributing to the gap in life expectancy between ATSI and non-ATSI individuals. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A 50-year-old woman with haemoptysis, cough and tachypnea: cholesterol pneumonia accompanying with pulmonary artery hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengxi; Zhang, Nuofu; Zhou, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Gu, Yingying; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunli

    2017-03-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon disease caused by the presence of lipid in the alveoli. Here we described a case of a 50-year-old woman with haemoptysis, cough and tachypnea, who was diagnosed with cholesterol pneumonia accompanying with pulmonary artery hypertension. The extremely high pulmonary artery pressure achieved, in this case, is alarming and should alert the physicians that the cholesterol pneumonia may be one of the underlying causes of pulmonary artery hypertension. After a treatment of methylprednisolone, her clinical symptoms were significantly improved, which suggested that steroid might be a promising therapeutic for patients with cholesterol pneumonia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Integrating Omics Technologies to Study Pulmonary Physiology and Pathology at the Systems Level

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ravi Ramesh; Davé, Vrushank

    2014-01-01

    Assimilation and integration of “omics” technologies, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has readily altered the landscape of medical research in the last decade. The vast and complex nature of omics data can only be interpreted by linking molecular information at the organismic level, forming the foundation of systems biology. Research in pulmonary biology/medicine has necessitated integration of omics, network, systems and computational biology data to differentially diagnose, interpret, and prognosticate pulmonary diseases, facilitating improvement in therapy and treatment modalities. This review describes how to leverage this emerging technology in understanding pulmonary diseases at the systems level –called a “systomic” approach. Considering the operational wholeness of cellular and organ systems, diseased genome, proteome, and the metabolome needs to be conceptualized at the systems level to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. Currently available omics technology and resources require a certain degree of training and proficiency in addition to dedicated hardware and applications, making them relatively less user friendly for the pulmonary biologist and clinicians. Herein, we discuss the various strategies, computational tools and approaches required to study pulmonary diseases at the systems level for biomedical scientists and clinical researchers. PMID:24802001

  13. Retrospective analysis of co-occurrence of congenital aortic stenosis and pulmonary artery stenosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kander, M; Pasławska, U; Staszczyk, M; Cepiel, A; Pasławski, R; Mazur, G; Noszczyk-Nowak, A

    2015-01-01

    The study has focused on the retrospective analysis of cases of coexisting congenital aortic stenosis (AS) and pulmonary artery stenosis (PS) in dogs. The research included 5463 dogs which were referred for cardiological examination (including clinical examination, ECG and echocardiography) between 2004 and 2014. Aortic stenosis and PS stenosis were detected in 31 dogs. This complex defect was the most commonly diagnosed in Boxers - 7 dogs, other breeds were represented by: 4 cross-breed dogs, 2 Bichon Maltais, 3 Miniature Pinschers, 2 Bernese Mountain Dogs, 2 French Bulldogs, and individuals of following breeds: Bichon Frise, Bull Terrier, Czech Wolfdog, German Shepherd, Hairless Chinese Crested Dog, Miniature Schnauzer, Pug, Rottweiler, Samoyed, West Highland White Terrier and Yorkshire Terrier. In all the dogs, the murmurs could be heard, graded from 2 to 5 (on a scale of 1-6). Besides, in 9 cases other congenital defects were diagnosed: patent ductus arteriosus, mitral valve dysplasia, pulmonary or aortic valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve dysplasia, ventricular or atrial septal defect. The majority of the dogs suffered from pulmonary valvular stenosis (1 dog had supravalvular pulmonary artery stenosis) and subvalvular aortic stenosis (2 dogs had valvular aortic stenosis). Conclusions and clinical relevance - co-occurrence of AS and PS is the most common complex congenital heart defect. Boxer breed was predisposed to this complex defect. It was found that coexisting AS and PS is more common in male dogs and the degree of PS and AS was mostly similar.

  14. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

  15. [Recurrent pulmonary infection and oral mucosal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Kuang, Fei-Mei; Tang, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Min; Yang, Ming-Hua; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yu, Yan; Cao, Li-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    An 8-year-old girl who had experienced intermittent cough and fever over a 3 year period, was admitted after experiencing a recurrence for one month. One year ago the patient experienced a recurrent oral mucosal ulcer. Physical examination showed vitiligo in the skin of the upper right back. Routine blood tests and immune function tests performed in other hospitals had shown normal results. Multiple lung CT scans showed pulmonary infection. The patient had recurrent fever and cough and persistent presence of some lesions after anti-infective therapy. The antitubercular therapy was ineffective. Routine blood tests after admission showed agranulocytosis. Gene detection was performed and she was diagnosed with dyskeratosis congenita caused by homozygous mutation in RTEL1. Patients with dyskeratosis congenita with RTEL1 gene mutation tend to develop pulmonary complications. Since RTEL1 gene sequence is highly variable with many mutation sites and patterns and can be inherited via autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, this disease often has various clinical manifestations, which may lead to missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. For children with unexplained recurrent pulmonary infection, examinations of the oral cavity, skin, and nails and toes should be taken and routine blood tests should be performed to exclude dyskeratosis congenita. There are no specific therapies for dyskeratosis congenita at present, and when bone marrow failure and pulmonary failure occur, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation are the only therapies. Androgen and its derivatives are effective in some patients. Drugs targeting the telomere may be promising for patients with dyskeratosis congenita.

  16. The pulmonary histopathology of anti-KS transfer RNA synthetase syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Frank; Aggarwal, Rohit; Bi, David; Gibson, Kevin; Oddis, Chester; Yousem, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of the antisynthetase syndromes (AS) has been poorly defined, although some frequently present with pulmonary manifestations. The anti-KS anti-asparaginyl-transfer RNA synthetase syndrome is one in which pulmonary interstitial lung disease is almost always present and yet the histopathologic spectrum is not well described. To define the morphologic manifestations of pulmonary disease in those patients with anti-KS antiasparaginyl syndrome. We reviewed the connective tissue disorder registry of the University of Pittsburgh and identified those patients with anti-KS autoantibodies who presented with interstitial lung disease and had surgical lung biopsies. The 5 patients with anti-KS antisynthetase syndrome were usually women presenting with dyspnea and without myositis, but with mechanic's hands (60%) and Raynaud phenomenon (40%). They most often presented with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern of fibrosis (80%), with the final patient displaying organizing pneumonia. Pulmonary interstitial lung disease is a common presentation in patients with the anti-KS-antisynthetase syndrome, who are often women with rather subtle or subclinical connective tissue disease, whereas the literature emphasizes the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern often diagnosed clinically. Usual interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns of interstitial injury need to be added to this clinical differential diagnosis.

  17. [Lung Abscess Diagnosed as Adenocarcinoma by Needle Biopsy;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Shomura, Shin; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yada, Masaki; Kondo, Chiaki

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of lung abscess misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma based on cytologic findings of the sample obtained from needle biopsy. A 45-year-old man consulted our hospital because of fever, wet cough and an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray film. A chest computed tomography revealed gradually enlarging pulmonary mass in the left S6 infiltrating the S5. A diagnosis of lung cancer was suspected and surgery was performed. Pathological findings of the specimen showed atypical cells with a large nucleus and a gross papillary neoplasm by needle biopsy. The patient underwent left lower lobectomy and partial resection of upper lobe with standard nodal dissection. The final diagnosis was a lung abscess with pneumonia without evidence of malignancy. When an indeterminate pulmonary tumor must be diagnosed during an operation, we should perform partial resection if possible.

  18. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The majority of the tumors (13 of 17) arose in patients with pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multidetector computed tomography shows reverse cardiac remodeling after double lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mandich Crovetto, D; Alonso Charterina, S; Jiménez López-Guarch, C; Pont Vilalta, M; Pérez Núñez, M; de Pablo Gafas, A; Escribano Subías, P

    2016-01-01

    To use multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to evaluate the structural changes in the right heart and pulmonary arteries that occur in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension treated by double lung transplantation. This was a retrospective study of 21 consecutive patients diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension who underwent double lung transplantation at our center between 2010 and 2014. We analyzed the last MDCT study done before lung transplantation and the first MDCT study done after lung transplantation. We recorded the following variables: diameter of the pulmonary artery trunk, ratio of the diameter of the pulmonary artery trunk to the diameter of the ascending aorta, diameter of the right ventricle, ratio of the diameter of the left ventricle to the diameter of the right ventricle, and eccentricity index. Statistical analysis consisted of the comparison of the means of the variables recorded. In all cases analyzed, the MDCT study done a mean of 24±14 days after double lung transplantation showed a significant reduction in the size of the right heart chambers, with improved indices of ventricular interdependency index, and reduction in the size of the pulmonary artery trunk (p<0.001 for all the variables analyzed). Patients with pulmonary hypertension treated by double lung transplantation present early reverse remodeling of the changes in the structures of the right heart and pulmonary arterial tree. MDCT is useful for detecting these changes. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory pharmacotherapy use in patients newly diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a primary care setting in the UK: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Keele E; Shukla, Amit; Muellerova, Hana; Davis, Kourtney J

    2014-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyze the prescribing practices of general practitioners treating patients with newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to assess characteristics associated with initial pharmacotherapy. Patients were identified in the General Practice Research Database, a population-based UK electronic medical record (EMR) with data from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Patient characteristics, prescribed COPD pharmacotherapies (≤12 months before diagnosis and within 3 months following diagnosis), co-morbidities, hospitalizations, and events indicative of a possible COPD exacerbation (≤12 months before diagnosis) were analyzed in 7881 patients with newly diagnosed COPD. Most patients (64.4%) were prescribed COPD pharmacotherapy in the 12 months before diagnosis. Following diagnosis, COPD pharmacotherapy was prescribed within 3 months in 85.0% of patients. Short-acting bronchodilators alone (22.9%) or inhaled corticosteroids + long-acting beta-2 agonists (ICS+LABA, 22.1%) were prescribed most frequently. Compared with other pharmacotherapies, the prevalence of severe airflow limitation was highest in patients prescribed ICS+LABA+long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA). Moderate-to-severe dyspnea was identified most frequently in patients prescribed a LAMA-containing regimen. Patients prescribed an ICS-containing regimen had a higher prevalence of asthma or possible exacerbations recorded in the EMR than those not prescribed ICS. In conclusion, pharmacotherapy prescribed at initial COPD diagnosis varied by disease severity indicators as assessed by airflow limitation, dyspnea, history of asthma, and possible exacerbations. Frequent prescription of COPD pharmacotherapies before the first-recorded COPD diagnosis indicates a delay between obstructive lung disease presentation in primary care practice and assignment of a medical diagnosis.

  1. Pulmonary Morbidity in Infancy after Exposure to Chorioamnionitis in Late Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Karen M; Jobe, Alan H; Fenchel, Matthew; Hardie, William D; Gisslen, Tate; Young, Lisa R; Chougnet, Claire A; Davis, Stephanie D; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2016-06-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an important cause of preterm birth, but its impact on postnatal outcomes is understudied. To evaluate whether fetal exposure to inflammation is associated with adverse pulmonary outcomes at 6 to 12 months' chronological age in infants born moderate to late preterm. Infants born between 32 and 36 weeks' gestational age were prospectively recruited (N = 184). Chorioamnionitis was diagnosed by placenta and umbilical cord histology. Select cytokines were measured in samples of cord blood. Validated pulmonary questionnaires were administered (n = 184), and infant pulmonary function testing was performed (n = 69) between 6 and 12 months' chronological age by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique. A total of 25% of participants had chorioamnionitis. Although infant pulmonary function testing variables were lower in infants born preterm compared with historical normative data for term infants, there were no differences between infants with chorioamnionitis (n = 20) and those without (n = 49). Boys and black infants had lower infant pulmonary function testing measurements than girls and white infants, respectively. Chorioamnionitis exposure was associated independently with wheeze (odds ratio [OR], 2.08) and respiratory-related physician visits (OR, 3.18) in the first year of life. Infants exposed to severe chorioamnionitis had increased levels of cord blood IL-6 and greater pulmonary morbidity at age 6 to 12 months than those exposed to mild chorioamnionitis. Elevated IL-6 was associated with significantly more respiratory problems (OR, 3.23). In infants born moderate or late preterm, elevated cord blood IL-6 and exposure to histologically identified chorioamnionitis was associated with respiratory morbidity during infancy without significant changes in infant pulmonary function testing measurements. Black compared with white and boy compared with girl infants had lower infant pulmonary function testing

  2. Pulmonary Morbidity in Infancy after Exposure to Chorioamnionitis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Karen M.; Jobe, Alan H.; Fenchel, Matthew; Hardie, William D.; Gisslen, Tate; Young, Lisa R.; Chougnet, Claire A.; Davis, Stephanie D.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Chorioamnionitis is an important cause of preterm birth, but its impact on postnatal outcomes is understudied. Objectives: To evaluate whether fetal exposure to inflammation is associated with adverse pulmonary outcomes at 6 to 12 months’ chronological age in infants born moderate to late preterm. Methods: Infants born between 32 and 36 weeks’ gestational age were prospectively recruited (N = 184). Chorioamnionitis was diagnosed by placenta and umbilical cord histology. Select cytokines were measured in samples of cord blood. Validated pulmonary questionnaires were administered (n = 184), and infant pulmonary function testing was performed (n = 69) between 6 and 12 months’ chronological age by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 25% of participants had chorioamnionitis. Although infant pulmonary function testing variables were lower in infants born preterm compared with historical normative data for term infants, there were no differences between infants with chorioamnionitis (n = 20) and those without (n = 49). Boys and black infants had lower infant pulmonary function testing measurements than girls and white infants, respectively. Chorioamnionitis exposure was associated independently with wheeze (odds ratio [OR], 2.08) and respiratory-related physician visits (OR, 3.18) in the first year of life. Infants exposed to severe chorioamnionitis had increased levels of cord blood IL-6 and greater pulmonary morbidity at age 6 to 12 months than those exposed to mild chorioamnionitis. Elevated IL-6 was associated with significantly more respiratory problems (OR, 3.23). Conclusions: In infants born moderate or late preterm, elevated cord blood IL-6 and exposure to histologically identified chorioamnionitis was associated with respiratory morbidity during infancy without significant changes in infant pulmonary function testing measurements. Black compared with white

  3. The impact of a history of asthma on long-term outcomes of people with newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A population study.

    PubMed

    Kendzerska, Tetyana; To, Teresa M; Aaron, Shawn D; Lougheed, M Diane; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; FitzGerald, J Mark; Gershon, Andrea S

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that has developed from airway remodeling due to asthma, as compared with other COPD phenotypes. We compared long-term health outcomes of individuals with COPD with and without a history of asthma in a population-based cohort study. All individuals with physician-diagnosed COPD between the ages 40 and 55 years from 2009 and 2011 were identified and followed until March 2013 through provincial health administrative data (Ontario, Canada). The exposure was a history of asthma at least 2 years before the diagnosis of COPD to ensure it preceded COPD. The hazards of COPD-, respiratory-, and cardiovascular (CV)-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality were compared between groups using a Cox regression model controlling for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and level of health care. Among 9053 patients with COPD, 2717 (30%) had a history of asthma. Over a median of 2.9 years, 712 (8%) individuals had a first COPD hospitalization, 964 (11%) a first respiratory-related and 342 (4%) a first CV-related hospitalization, and 556 (6%) died. Controlling for confounding, a history of asthma was significantly associated with COPD and respiratory-related hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.29-1.82] and hazard ratio, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.14-1.88], respectively), but not with CV-related hospitalizations or all-cause mortality. Additional analyses confirmed that these findings were not likely a result of unmeasured confounding or misclassification. Middle-aged individuals with physician-diagnosed COPD and a history of asthma had a higher hazard of hospitalizations due to COPD and other respiratory diseases than did those without. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-immigration screening process and pulmonary tuberculosis among Ethiopian migrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Mor, Z; Lerman, Y; Leventhal, A

    2008-08-01

    More than 75,000 displaced Ethiopians have moved to Israel. Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Ethiopia is 44 times higher than in Israel (344 versus 8 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). The aims of the present retrospective cohort study were to evaluate the pre-immigration screening process initiated in 2001 on pulmonary TB (PTB) morbidity and to assess its cost-effectiveness. Ethiopian immigrants who were screened before departure (study group) were compared with those who were screened after arrival (comparison group). Between 1998 and 2005, 24,051 Ethiopian immigrants arrived in Israel. PTB was diagnosed in 332 (1.4%) immigrants, an incidence density of 325 patients per 100,000 person-yrs. PTB cumulative incidence was lower in the study group than in the comparison group: 711 compared with 1,746 patients per 100,000 immigrants, respectively (rate ratio 0.4). PTB was detected significantly earlier in the study group than in the comparison group: 193 versus 487 days after entry, respectively. Disease incidence declined significantly during the first 2 yrs following immigration. A 5-yr predictive model indicated that 98 individuals would be free of PTB, saving US$91,055 on annual treatment cost, due to screening. The pre-immigration screening process reduced pulmonary tuberculosis incidence in subsequent years following immigration. Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed earlier in the screened group than in the comparison group and the process was found to be both cost-beneficial and cost-effective.

  5. Lung lobar collapse as the first manifestation of pulmonary epithelioid haemangioendothelioma diagnosed with fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Seedahmed, Elfateh; Bachuwa, Ghassan; Congdon, Douglas

    2016-10-24

    Pulmonary epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (PEH) is a rare tumour of endothelial origin that usually occurs in the lung and liver. It usually presents as bilateral multiple nodular lesions. We report a middle-aged woman with a unique presentation of PEH with lung lobar collapse. The diagnosis was made with fibreoptic bronchoscopy rather than video-assisted thoracoscopy. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of rare conditions that can present as lung lobar collapse. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. The Intersection of Pulmonary Hypertension and Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Frost, Adaani E

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complication and marker of disease severity in many parenchymal lung diseases. It also is a frequent complication of portal hypertension and negatively impacts survival with liver transplant. Pulmonary hypertension is frequently diagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis, and it has recently been demonstrated to adversely affect posttransplant outcome in this patient population even though the mechanism of PH is substantially different from that associated with liver disease. The presence of PH in patients with heart failure is frequent, and the necessity for PH therapy prior to heart transplant has evolved in the last decade. We review the frequency of and risk factors for PH in recipients of and candidates for lung, liver, heart, and renal transplants as well as the impact of this diagnosis on posttransplant outcomes.

  7. The Relationship of Bone Mineral Density in Men with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Classified According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Combined Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Sakurai-Iesato, Yoriko; Kawata, Naoko; Tada, Yuji; Iesato, Ken; Matsuura, Yukiko; Yahaba, Misuzu; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikari, Jun; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Kasahara, Yasunori; West, James; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men. Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category. Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV 1 % predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], p<0.05). Conclusion Reduced BMD was associated with airflow limitation, extent of radiographic findings, and a poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis.

  8. The Relationship of Bone Mineral Density in Men with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Classified According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Combined Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai-Iesato, Yoriko; Kawata, Naoko; Tada, Yuji; Iesato, Ken; Matsuura, Yukiko; Yahaba, Misuzu; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikari, Jun; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Kasahara, Yasunori; West, James; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men. Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category. Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV1% predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], p<0.05). Conclusion Reduced BMD was associated with airflow limitation, extent of radiographic findings, and a poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis. PMID:28717072

  9. Non-smoking Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Attributed to Occupational Exposure to Silica Dust.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Toyoshima, Mikio; Kamiya, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yutaro; Baba, Satoshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    An 85-year-old, never-smoking man presented with exertional dyspnea. He had been exposed to silica dust in the work place. Chest computed tomography revealed bronchial wall thickening without emphysema. A pulmonary function test showed airflow obstruction without impaired gas transfer. Airway hyperresponsiveness and reversibility were not evident. A transbronchial lung biopsy showed findings suggestive of mineral dust exposure, such as fibrosis and slight pigmentation of bronchioles. He was diagnosed with non-smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to occupational exposure to silica dust. His symptoms were improved using an inhaled long-acting bronchodilator. The clinical characteristics of non-smoking COPD are discussed in this report.

  10. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  11. Prevalence of Candida co-infection in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kali, Arunava; Charles, Mv Pravin; Noyal, Mariya Joseph; Sivaraman, Umadevi; Kumar, Shailesh; Easow, Joshy M

    2013-01-01

    Candida species are emerging as a potentially pathogenic fungus in patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases. The synergistic growth promoting association of Candida and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has raised increased concern for studying the various Candida spp . and its significance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients during current years. This study was undertaken with the objective of discovering the prevalence of co-infection caused by different Candida species in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. A total of 75 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed by sputum Ziehl-Neelsen staining were included in the study. Candida co-infection was confirmed using the Kahanpaa et al. criteria. Candida species were identified using gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, morphology on cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and HiCrome Candida Agar. Candida co-infection was observed in 30 (40%) of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Candida albicans was the most common isolate observed in 50% of the patients with co-infection, followed by C. tropicalis (20%) and C. glabrata (20%). Candida co-infection was found in 62.5% of female patients, while it was observed in only 29.4% of the male patients (P value 0.0133). Mean ± SD age of the patients with C. glabrata infection was 65.83 ± 3.19, while the mean ± SD age of the patients with other Candida infections was 43.25 ± 20.44 (P value 0.0138). Many patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have co-infection with Candida spp. The prevalence of non-albicans Candida species is increasing and may be associated with inadequate response to anti-tubercular drugs. C. glabrata infection has a strong association with old age.

  12. Correlation of pulmonary function and usual interstitial pneumonia computed tomography patterns in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Arcadu, Antonella; Byrne, Suzanne C; Pirina, Pietro; Hartman, Thomas E; Bartholmai, Brian J; Moua, Teng

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about presenting 'inconsistent' or 'possible' usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) computed tomography (CT) patterns advancing to 'consistent' UIP as disease progresses in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We hypothesized that if 'consistent' UIP represented more advanced disease, such a pattern on presentation should also correlate with more severe pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities. Consecutive IPF patients (2005-2013) diagnosed by international criteria with baseline PFT and CT were included. Presenting CTs were assessed by three expert radiologists for consensus UIP pattern ('consistent', 'possible', and 'inconsistent'). Approximation of individual and combined interstitial abnormalities was also performed with correlation of interstitial abnormalities and UIP CT pattern made with PFT findings and survival. Three-hundred and fifty patients (70% male) were included with a mean age of 68.3 years. Mean percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) and diffusion capacity (DLCO%) was 64% and 45.5% respectively. Older age and male gender correlated more with 'consistent' UIP CT pattern. FVC% was not associated with any UIP pattern but did correlate with total volume of radiologist assessed interstitial abnormalities. DLCO% was lower in those with 'consistent' UIP pattern. A 'consistent' UIP CT pattern was also not independently predictive of survival after correction for age, gender, FVC%, and DLCO%. PFT findings appear to correlate with extent of radiologic disease but not specific morphologic patterns. Whether such UIP patterns represent different stages of disease severity or radiologic progression is not supported by coinciding pulmonary function decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Costs and benefits of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Catharinne C.; Resqueti, Vanessa; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Fregonezi, Guilherme A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study evaluated the costs and benefits of a simple aerobic walking program for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method This was a blinded randomized controlled clinical trial that recruited 72 patients diagnosed with COPD, 40 of whom were included in the study and divided into two groups [control group (CG) and pulmonary rehabilitation group (GPR)]. We assessed pulmonary function, distance covered during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), body composition, and level of activities of daily living (ADLs) before and after an 8-week walking program. The financial costs were calculated according to the pricing table of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). Results Only 34 of the 40 patients remained in the final sample; 16 in the CG and 18 in the GPR (FEV1: 50.9±14% predicted and FEV1: 56±0.5% predicted, respectively). The intervention group exhibited improvements in the 6MWT, sensation of dyspnea and fatigue, work performed, BODE index (p<0.01), HRQOL, ADL level (p<0.001), and lower limb strength (p<0.05). The final mean cost per patient for the GPR was R$ 148.75 (~US$ 75.00) and no patient significantly exceeded this value. However, 2 patients in the CG did exceed this value, incurring a cost of R$ 689.15 (~US$ 345.00). Conclusion Aerobic walking demonstrated significant clinical benefits in a cost-efficient manner in patients with COPD. PMID:24838809

  14. Warfarin and bosentan interaction in a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to bilateral pulmonary emboli.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Mikayla L; Saxena, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    Bosentan is an endothelin-receptor antagonist that reportedly induces both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C9 enzymes, which are also involved in warfarin metabolism. We present a case report describing a probable drug interaction between warfarin and bosentan in a patient with pulmonary hypertension. A 52-year-old black female (weight, 77 kg) diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension secondary to bilateral pulmonary emboli had a stable international normalized ratio (INR; target range, 2-3) with a weekly warfarin dose of 52.5 mg for 2 months before the initiation of bosentan therapy. Other concurrent medications included telmisartan/ hydrochlorothiazide 40/12.5 mg once daily and a daily multivitamin (which contained no vitamin K). Three weeks after starting bosentan 62.5 mg BID, a therapeutic INR concentration was reached with a weekly warfarin dose 14% higher (an increase of 7.5 mg/wk) than her weekly warfarin dose before initiation of bosentan. After a brief discontinuation (7 days) and retitration of bosentan and warfarin, the final weekly warfarin dose (75 mg/wk) was 43% greater (an increase of 22.5 mg/wk) than the previously stable dose, which enabled the patient to reach her therapeutic INR goal range of 2 to 3. Bosentan has CYP3A4- and CYP2C9-inducing properties and is therefore likely to cause decreased concentrations of warfarin. We describe here a probable drug interaction between bosentan and warfarin that resulted in a 43% increase in warfarin dose to maintain the patient's therapeutic INR.

  15. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  16. The value of initial cavitation to predict re-treatment with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiusheng; Yin, Yongmei; Kuai, Shougang; Yan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, YingYing; Shan, Zhongbao; Gu, Lan; Pei, Hao; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-06

    Pulmonary cavitation is the classic hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and is the site of very high mycobacterial burden associated with antimycobacterial drug resistance and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between re-treatment PTB and initial pulmonary cavitation coordinated with other clinical factors. We conducted a case-control study of 291 newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary TB in The Infectious Hospital of Wuxi from Dec 2009 to Dec 2011 with complete follow-up information until December 31st of 2014. 68 patients were followed-up with PTB re-treatment; the rest of the PTB patients (n = 223) had completed anti-TB treatment, and cured without re-treatment were selected as controls. The univariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR) 1.885, 95 % CI 1.170-3.035, P = 0.009] and the multivariable analysis (HR 2.242, 95 % CI 1.294-3.882, P = 0.004) demonstrated that the initial pulmonary cavitation was a prognostic predictor for TB re-treatment. Additionally, the re-treatment rates in PTB patients with cavitation and no-cavitation were 27.1 and 15.5 %, respectively, with significant difference (log-rank test; P = 0.010). Other factors, age of ≥60 and history of smoking, were also prognostic variables. Initial pulmonary cavitation of chest X-ray was a significant predictor for PTB re-treatment.

  17. Prevalence of pulmonary edema among the deceased cases with acute Methadone poisoning: A report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Naeini, Seyed Amir Hossein Madani; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Methadone poisoning is common in our society, mainly in drug addicts. One of its lethal complications is pulmonary edema. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary edema in the deceased cases with methadone poisoning and its possible relationship with some medical variables. In this cross-sectional study which was done in 2014, we have investigated the deceased patients with methadone toxicity who underwent autopsy at Isfahan Forensic Medicine Department (Iran). All variables including age, gender, and autopsy findings were recorded and analyzed. Demographic characteristics and medical complications of the patients were compared between the patients with or without pulmonary edema in the autopsy findings. There were 64 cases who died with methadone poisoning during the 1-year study period. The average age of cases (±standard deviation) was 32.1 ± 10.29 years, among which 92.2% were male. Based on the autopsy findings, 64.1% were diagnosed with pulmonary edema. There was no statistically significant relationship between pulmonary edema and age, gender, history of addiction, and hepatic or cardiovascular complications. Pulmonary edema is a common finding in deceased methadone poisoning cases and must be considered and ruled out in patients with acute methadone toxicity.

  18. Reversal of reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by main pulmonary arterial distension.

    PubMed

    Juratsch, C E; Grover, R F; Rose, C E; Reeves, J T; Walby, W F; Laks, M M

    1985-04-01

    Distension of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) induces pulmonary hypertension, most probably by neurogenic reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction, although constriction of the pulmonary vessels has not actually been demonstrated. In previous studies in dogs with increased pulmonary vascular resistance produced by airway hypoxia, exogenous arachidonic acid has led to the production of pulmonary vasodilator prostaglandins. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the effect of arachidonic acid in seven intact anesthetized dogs after pulmonary vascular resistance was increased by MPA distention. After steady-state pulmonary hypertension was established, arachidonic acid (1.0 mg/min) was infused into the right ventricle for 16 min; 15-20 min later a 16-mg bolus of arachidonic acid was injected. MPA distension was maintained throughout the study. Although the infusion of arachidonic acid significantly lowered the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance induced by MPA distension, the pulmonary vascular resistance returned to control levels only after the bolus injection of arachidonic acid. Notably, the bolus injection caused a biphasic response which first increased the pulmonary vascular resistance transiently before lowering it to control levels. In dogs with resting levels of pulmonary vascular resistance, administration of arachidonic acid in the same manner did not alter the pulmonary vascular resistance. It is concluded that MPA distension does indeed cause reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be reversed by vasodilator metabolites of arachidonic acid. Even though this reflex may help maintain high pulmonary vascular resistance in the fetus, its function in the adult is obscure.

  19. Pulmonary embolism during and after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stone, Sarah E; Morris, Timothy A

    2005-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The clinical evaluation alone is insufficient for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease, and the normal pregnant state makes this evaluation even more challenging. Objective testing is the mainstay of diagnosis, including compression ultrasound, impedance plethysmography, ventilation-perfusion scanning, computed tomography scanning, and pulmonary angiography. All of these tests can be safety performed during pregnancy. If deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is diagnosed, anticoagulation should be initiated. Either (unfractionated) heparin or low molecular weight heparin is an acceptable treatment for acute venous thromboembolic disease. Both have risks and benefits, but both can be used safely during pregnancy. Intravenous heparin is the treatment of choice surrounding delivery due to its short half life. Because of the risk of adverse effects on the fetus, warfarin is not generally used during pregnancy. Unstable pulmonary embolism is difficult to treat during pregnancy, as there are minimal data regarding the safety and efficacy of thrombolytic therapy, inferior vena cava filters, and embolectomy during pregnancy. Case reports and case series suggest that thrombolytic therapy may be associated with lower risks of fetal loss than embolectomy. Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and the puerperal period. Objective testing is critical to establish the diagnosis and can be safely performed during pregnancy. Anticoagulation with heparin is the mainstay of therapy during the pregnancy, but patients may be transitioned to warfarin after delivery.

  20. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    MedlinePlus

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  1. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease can benefit as well. What is Pulmonary Rehabilitation? Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education and exercise that helps you manage your breathing ...

  2. Pulmonary MRA: differentiation of pulmonary embolism from truncation artefact.

    PubMed

    Bannas, Peter; Schiebler, Mark L; Motosugi, Utaroh; François, Christopher J; Reeder, Scott B; Nagle, Scott K

    2014-08-01

    Truncation artefact (Gibbs ringing) causes central signal drop within vessels in pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) that can be mistaken for emboli, reducing diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE). We propose a quantitative approach to differentiate truncation artefact from PE. Twenty-eight patients who underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for suspected PE were recruited for pulmonary MRA. Signal intensity drops within pulmonary arteries that persisted on both arterial-phase and delayed-phase MRA were identified. The percent signal loss between the vessel lumen and central drop was measured. CTA served as the reference standard for presence of pulmonary emboli. A total of 65 signal intensity drops were identified on MRA. Of these, 48 (74%) were artefacts and 17 (26%) were PE, as confirmed by CTA. Truncation artefacts had a significantly lower median signal drop than PE on both arterial-phase (26% [range 12-58%] vs. 85% [range 53-91%]) and delayed-phase MRA (26% [range 11-55%] vs. 77% [range 47-89%]), p < 0.0001 for both. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed a threshold value of 51% (arterial phase) and 47% signal drop (delayed phase) to differentiate between truncation artefact and PE with 100% sensitivity and greater than 90% specificity. Quantitative signal drop is an objective tool to help differentiate truncation artefact and pulmonary embolism in pulmonary MRA. • Inexperienced readers may mistake truncation artefacts for emboli on pulmonary MRA • Pulmonary emboli have non-uniform signal drop • 51% (arterial phase) and 47% (delayed phase) cut-off differentiates truncation artefact from PE • Quantitative signal drop measurement enables more accurate pulmonary embolism diagnosis with MRA.

  3. Chest X-ray and chest CT findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Irai Luis; Schuhmacher Neto, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Pereira, Marisa; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: "tuberculosis"; "transplants"; "transplantation"; "mycobacterium"; and "lung". The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publication, that met the selection criteria in their title, abstract, or body of text. Articles with no data on chest CT or chest X-ray findings were excluded, as were those not related to solid organ transplantation or pulmonary tuberculosis. We selected 29 articles involving a collective total of 219 patients. The largest samples were in studies conducted in Brazil and South Korea (78 and 35 patients, respectively). The imaging findings were subdivided into five common patterns. The imaging findings varied depending on the transplanted organ in these patients. In liver and lung transplant recipients, the most common pattern was the classic one for pulmonary tuberculosis (cavitation and "tree-in-bud" nodules), which is similar to the findings for pulmonary tuberculosis in the general population. The proportion of cases showing a miliary pattern and lymph node enlargement, which is most similar to the pattern seen in patients coinfected with tuberculosis and HIV, was highest among the kidney transplant recipients. Further studies evaluating clinical data, such as immunosuppression regimens, are needed in order to improve understanding of the distribution of these imaging patterns in this population.

  4. Mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm following pulmonary artery banding.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R V; Roughneen, P T; de Leval, M R

    1994-01-01

    A neonate with situs inversus, transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, criss-cross ventricles and hypoplastic right ventricle underwent pulmonary artery banding at the age of 7 days. The course was complicated by septicaemia and subsequently the development of an aneurysm of the pulmonary artery. Serratia marcessans was grown from the band site. The pulmonary artery aneurysm was resected and the pulmonary artery was repaired. The literature is reviewed with the emphasis on diagnosis, natural history and surgical management.

  5. [Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy].

    PubMed

    Lausberg, H F; Tscholl, D; Schäfers, H-J

    2004-08-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with concomitant right heart failure may develop as a sequela of acute pulmonary embolism with organization instead of thrombolysis of intravascular clots. Medical therapy aims at prevention of recurrent embolism by anticoagulation and vascular remodelling using vasodilator therapy. Lung transplantation or combined heart-lung transplantation is associated with unsatisfactory long-term results and comorbidity and therefore remains justified only in selected patients. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy allows specific treatment of intravascular obstruction. This closed endarterectomy of the pulmonary arteries requires deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and can be performed with a perioperative mortality of less than 10%. The procedure significantly decreases pulmonary vascular resistance and often normalizes pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange. Postoperatively the patients' clinical condition improves and the majority have normal exercise capacity and activity.

  6. [Pneumothorax Caused by Multiple Pulmonary Metastases of a Uterine Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Shomura, Shin; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yada, Masaki; Kondo, Chiaki

    2017-09-01

    A 53-year-old woman who had undergone hystero-oophorectomy for uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma in our hospital 9 months previously was referred to our hospital because of bilateral pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography scan on admission revealed multiple thin-walled cavity nodules in both lung and a bilateral pneumothorax, suggesting pulmonary metastases of the uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma. We surgically treated the pneumothorax and diagnosed the nodules as metastatic lesions. They were pathologically diagnosed as metastatic uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma.

  7. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma presenting as multiple cystic pulmonary nodules: a case report.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yeong Hun; Jeon, So Yeon; Lee, Yoon Chae; Chung, Myung Ja; Park, Seung Yong; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, So Ri

    2017-09-12

    Benign metastatic leiomyoma (BML) is an extremely rare disease. Although uterine leiomyomas are benign histologically, they can metastasize to distant sites. While the incidence is very low, the lung is the organ most frequently affected by BML. Pulmonary BML usually presents as numerous well-defined nodules of various sizes, while the cavitary or cystic features in the nodules are rarely observed on radiologic images. A 52-year-old woman complained of cough and dyspnea for one month. She had been previously diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma and had undergone total hysterectomy about 14 years prior. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) images showed that there were multiple cystic nodules of various sizes in both lungs. Pathologic examination revealed that the pulmonary nodule had complex branching glandular structures lined by a single layer of simple cuboidal to columnar epithelium that was surrounded by abundant spindle cells. Additional immunohistochemistry data suggested that pulmonary nodule diagnosis was BML-associated uterine leiomyoma. In this report, we introduce an interesting case of pulmonary BML that presented as a combination of various kinds of nodules including simple round nodules, simple cysts, and cysts with a solid portion, which are very rare radiologic features of BML in lung. In addition, when the patient is a woman of reproductive age, physicians should meticulously review the gynecological history and suspect BML when there are various cystic pulmonary lesions.

  8. Pulmonary edema in meningococcal septicemia associated with reduced epithelial chloride transport.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen; Barton, Paul; Gaillard, Erol; Newland, Paul; Diver, Michael; Southern, Kevin W

    2006-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that meningococcal septicemia-related pulmonary edema is associated with a systemic abnormality of epithelial sodium and chloride transport and to investigate an association with hormones regulating Na transport. Prospective observational study. The 24-bed pediatric intensive care unit and pediatric wards of Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital. Consecutive children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and pediatric wards with a diagnosis of meningococcal septicemia and children (controls) with noninfectious critical illness receiving ventilatory support in the pediatric intensive care unit. We measured sweat and saliva electrolytes, renal electrolyte excretion, nasal potential difference, and aldosterone, thyroxine, and cortisol levels. Pulmonary edema was diagnosed by chest radiography and its severity quantified by calculation of ventilation index at admission and duration of mechanical ventilation. We recruited 17 patients with severe meningococcal septicemia (nine patients with pulmonary edema), 14 patients with mild meningococcal septicemia, and 20 controls. Sweat and saliva Na and Cl concentrations and renal Na excretion were significantly (p < .05) higher in patients with pulmonary edema compared with controls. Nasal potential difference and amiloride response in patients with pulmonary edema were not significantly different to controls, but response to a low Cl solution was reduced in the nasal airway of patients with pulmonary edema (p < .05). Sweat and saliva chloride concentrations correlated significantly and better with ventilation index and duration of ventilation than sodium concentrations. Aldosterone, thyroxine, and cortisol levels were not significantly different between groups. We have confirmed that meningococcal septicemia-related pulmonary edema is associated with reduced systemic sodium and chloride transport. Features of reduced Cl transport were most closely associated with markers of respiratory compromise

  9. Severe pulmonary edema following hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Fan, Danfeng; Lv, Yan; Hu, Huijun; Pan, Shuyi

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary edema following hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy is a rare clinical phenomenon. This case report describes such a patient - a 56-year-old woman who suffered from severe pulmonary edema after HBO₂ therapy for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Patient experienced ecphysesis and dyspnea suddenly after HBO₂ therapy (100% oxygen at 0.25 MPa, for 60 minutes with a five-minute air break and decompression at 0.01 MPa/minute). Post therapy her heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR) and oxygen saturation (SO₂) were 140 bpm, 60/40 mmHg, 38 bpm and 84%, respectively. Diagnoses of acute pulmonary edema and shock were made. Various treatments including antishock, tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation for respiratory support, a diuretic, dexamethasone, asthma relief, and acidosis correction were administered. Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) indicated significant pulmonary edema. Due to active treatment, the patient showed gradual improvement. Pulmonary CT re-examination showed pulmonary edema markedly improved. At the two-year follow-up, the patient reported no abnormal mental or neurological symptoms. Acute pulmonary edema is rare but can lead to serious side effects of HBO₂ therapy in patients with severe acute CO poisoning. This complication must be must considered when administering HBO₂ therapy to patients with severe CO poisoning.

  10. [Screening of pulmonary hypertension in a Spanish cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    García Hernández, Francisco José; Castillo Palma, María Jesús; Montero Mateos, Enrique; González León, Rocío; López Haldón, José Eduardo; Sánchez Román, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an important cause of morbimortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Evolution is worse than that of subjects with idiopathic PAH, but prognosis improves when PAH is diagnosed early. The aim of this research is to describe results of a screening program for diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) carried out in a cohort of Spanish patients with SSc. PH screening was performed by transthoracic doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in 184 patients with SSc. Patients with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure estimated by TTDE>35 mmHg were evaluated per protocol to confirm diagnosis and type of PH. PAH was diagnosed in 25 patients (13.6%). Patients with diffuse and limited SSc developed PAH in a similar degree, 9/60 (15%) vs. 16/100 (16%), with no cases among patients with SSc "sine scleroderma" or "pre-scleroderma" (P<.001). The only clinical or epidemiological data characterizing patients with PAH were older age (mean age 67 years for patients with PAH vs. 56 years for those without PAH, P=.007), limited SSc, a trend toward shorter evolution of the underlying disease (median 8 years for patients with PAH vs. 10 years for those without PAH, P=.73), and a higher frequency of positive anticentromere antibodies (16 patients [64%] with PAH vs. 70 (48,3%) without PAH, P=.19). Prevalence of PAH in SSc was high and supports the implementation of a regular screening program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary carcinoma in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rettenmund, Christy; Sladky, Kurt K; Rodriguez, Daniel; Petersen, Michael; Pinkerton, Marie E; Rao, Deepa

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary carcinoma was diagnosed in an 18+-year-old captive female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). The owl presented with a history of progressive weakness and sudden onset of frank blood in the droppings. On physical examination, the owl had multiple white to yellow plaques in the oral cavity, decreased air sac sounds on the right side, dyspnea (during manual restraint), and reduced pectoral musculature. Whole-body radiographs revealed obliteration of the right-sided air sacs, a soft tissue plaque/density in the left caudal thoracic air sac, soft tissue opacity over the coelomic organs, and increased medullary opacity in the distal right humerus. The owl died during anesthetic recovery, and the body was submitted for necropsy. Although the clinical signs, physical examination results, radiographic signs, and gross pathology supported a diagnosis of mycotic infection, such as aspergillosis, histopathology confirmed pulmonary carcinoma with metastases to the air sacs and humerus.

  12. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S; Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R

    2016-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting.

  13. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. Results We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. Conclusion This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting. PMID:26748498

  14. Medical and surgical management for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Coronel, María Lorena; Chamorro, Núria; Blanco, Isabel; Amado, Verónica; Del Pozo, Roberto; Pomar, José Luis; Badia, Joan Ramón; Rovira, Irene; Matute, Purificación; Argemí, Gemma; Castellà, Manuel; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PE) is the treatment of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The aim of this study was to analyze our experience in the medical and surgical management of CTEPH. We included 80 patients diagnosed with CTEPH between January 2000 and July 2012. Thirty two patients underwent PE and 48 received medical treatment (MT). We analyzed functional class (FC), six-minute walking distance (6MWD) and pulmonary hemodynamics. Mortality in both groups and periods were analyzed. Patients who underwent PE were younger, mostly men, and had longer 6MWD. No differences were observed in pulmonary hemodynamics or FC at diagnosis. One year after treatment, all PE patients versus 41% in MT group were at FCI-II. At follow-up, the PE group showed greater increase in 6MWD, and greater reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance than the MT group (P<.05). Overall survival in the MT group at 1 and 5years was 83% and 69%, respectively. Conditional survival in patients alive 100days post-PE at 1 and 5years was 95% and 88%, respectively. Surgical mortality in operated patients in the first period (2000-2006) was 31,3%, and 6,3% in the second (2007-2012). PE provides good clinical results, and improves pulmonary hemodynamics in patients who successfully overcome the immediate postoperative period. After a learning period, the current operatory mortality in our center is similar to international standards. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Familial Mediterranean fever presenting with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Ximena D; Gadea, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the autoinflammatory disease and hereditary periodic fever syndrome that most commonly affects people of Eastern Mediterranean origin. It is characterized by recurrent self-limited attacks of fever and serositis, with an increase in acute-phase reactant markers, and is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms favoring thrombosis. There are few reports of an increased risk of hypercoagulability in patients with FMF in the absence of amyloidosis and nephrotic syndrome. In this case report, we describe a 43-year-old Turkish patient who presented with right-sided pleuritic chest pain and pulmonary embolism. The patient described having prior similar attacks of serositis, but had never been diagnosed with FMF. Further workup revealed an increase in acute phase reactants, negative hypercoagulability studies and heterozygosity for the M694V mutation in the pyrin (MEFV) gene. We identified untreated FMF and chronic inflammation as his only risk factor for pulmonary embolism. With this case report, we support recent studies that have demonstrated that inflammation may lead to prothrombotic states in patients with FMF.

  16. Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as a rare cause of pneumothorax in immunocompetent patient: brief report.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Tatjana Adzic; Dudvarski-Ilic, Aleksandra; Zugic, Vladimir; Stevanovic, Goran; Rubino, Salvatore; Barac, Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) represents a form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis which affects immunocompetent individuals or mildly immunocompromised persons with underlying pulmonary disease. Pneumothorax can be a rare complication of subacute IPA due to a leakage of air from an air-filled lung cavitation into the pleural space. Herein, we report rare and unusual case of pneumothorax in a patient with pulmonary cavity infection. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to thoracic surgery due to complete pneumothorax of the left lung. She was active smoker with untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After thoracic drainage multiple cavity forms in the both lungs were noticed. Galactomannan antigen was positive in bronchoalveolar lavage as well as culture of Aspergillus fumigatus. Antifungal treatment by voriconazole was started and continued during 6 months with a favorable outcome. This case highlights that subacute IPA is a diagnose that should be considered in patients with end-stage COPD, low body mass index, or patient who developed pneumothorax. The results of our case show that voriconazole is a safe and effective treatment as primary or salvage therapy in subacute forms of IPA, irrespective of the immunological status of the patients.

  17. Anxiety, Depression, and Health-Related QOL in Patients Diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, Elena; Krannich, Holger; Halank, Michael; Wilkens, Heinrike; Kolb, Philipp; Jany, Berthold; Held, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are life-threatening diseases with a high burden of symptoms. Although depression, anxiety, and reduced health related quality of life (HRQOL) have also been reported, a comparative analysis which explores these traits and their underlying factors was lacking. A retrospective analysis of depression, anxiety, and health related QOL was conducted using a Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) as well as the SF-36 HRQOL questionnaire. Results from these tools were compared with haemodynamic and functional parameters in 70 PAH and 23 CTEPH outpatients from a German tertiary care center specializing in pulmonary hypertension. Although HRQOL was reduced in both cohorts of patients, individuals diagnosed with CTEPH scored lower in nearly all SF-36 parameters. Significance was noted in both "mental health" (p = 0.01) and "mental component summary score" (MCS) (p = 0.02). Depression was also more frequent in patients with CTEPH (56%) than in patients with PAH (30%), (p = 0.03). Overall, depression and anxiety correlated with most SF-36 scales in both PAH and CTEPH. In CTEPH, depression also correlated with the Borg Dyspnea Scale (r = 0.44, p = 0.01). These patients also had significantly lower pCO 2 levels than the PAH cohort reflecting more severe ventilation/perfusion mismatch. All other haemodynamic and functional parameters did not differ across the groups. While both cohorts of patients suffer from a reduced HRQOL as well as depression and anxiety, decreases in mental health parameters are more pronounced in the CTEPH cohort. This suggests a strong effort to improve early detection, especially in dyspneic patients with classical risk factors for CTEPH and PAH and argues for mental illness interventions alongside routine clinical care provided to patients diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH.

  18. Pain management at the end of life: A comparative study of cancer, dementia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Romem, Anat; Tom, Sarah E; Beauchene, Michelle; Babington, Lynn; Scharf, Steven M; Romem, Ayal

    2015-05-01

    Limited data exist concerning the unique pain characteristics of patients with non-cancer terminal diseases referred for inpatient hospice care. To define the unique pain characteristics of patients admitted to an acute inpatient hospice setting with end-stage dementia or chronic obstructive lung disease (or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and to compare them to patients with end-stage cancer. Retrospective patient chart review. Demographic, physiological, pain parameters, and medication utilization data were extracted. Associations between pain characteristics, medication utilization, and admission diagnoses were assessed. Analyses included descriptive statistics. In total, 146 patients admitted to an acute inpatient hospice between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2012 with an underlying primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 51), dementia (n = 48), or cancer (n = 47). Pain was highly prevalent in all diagnostic groups, with cancer patients experiencing more severe pain on admission. Cancer patients received a significantly higher cumulative opioid dose compared with dementia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Pain control within 24 h of pain onset was achieved in less than half of all patient groups with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients the least likely to achieve pain control. Despite the fact that pain is the most common complaint at the end of life, pain management may be suboptimal for some primary diagnoses. Admission diagnosis is the strongest predictor of pain control. Patient with cancer achieve the best pain control, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the least likely to have their pain adequately treated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Hepatic and pulmonary cystic echinococcosis in a patient from the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Develoux, Michel; Enache-Angoulvant, Adela; Gounant, Valerie; Brian, Emmanuel; Khalil, Antoine; Bazelly, Bernard; Hennequin, Christophe

    2011-03-01

    Apical lung opacity was diagnosed in an asymptomatic 30 year-old woman native of Central African Republic by routine chest X-ray. CT scan demonstrated an excavated pulmonary mass and revealed a simple hepatic cyst. Tuberculosis was suspected but mycobacterial cultures remained negative. Three months later, ultrasonography showed septations within the hepatic lesion suggestive of cystic echinococcosis. The detection of seric anti-Echinococcus antibodies was positive. Hepatic and pulmonary cysts were removed surgically and association with three-month course of albendazole resulted in a favorable outcome. Cystic echinococcosis is exceptional in Central Africa and to our knowledge never reported from the Central African Republic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse drug reactions and outcome of short course anti-tuberculosis drugs between single daily dose and split drug dose (BID) in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chuchottaworn, Charoen; Saipan, Benjawan; Kittisup, Chomnapa; Cheewakul, Krisana

    2012-08-01

    Standard six months short course regimen for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is very effective and is recommended as standard treatment. But this regimen composes of many drugs and causes high adverse drug reactions especially gastrointestinal irritation. Spitted administration of drugs to two times a day may reduce adverse drug reactions. To study adverse drug reactions and outcome of single daily versus split drug (two times a day) administration of standard six month short course regimen in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients of the Central Chest Institute of Thailand were randomized to receive standard six months regimen once daily or two times a day (split drug). Patients were followed-up every two weeks and a questionnaire was used to detect adverse drug reactions. Outcome of treatment was evaluated according to national tuberculosis treatment guideline. 122 pulmonary tuberculosis were eligible for the present study and 61 patients were enrolled to each group of once daily or split drug regimen. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients who received split drug regimen had a higher cure rate but not statistical significance because of lower transfer out rate. Adverse drug reactions were similar in both groups of patients who received once daily and split drug regimen. Although split drug group had lower gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions. Split drug regimen has the same cure rate of treatment as single daily regimen and same adverse drug reactions.

  1. Interferon-gamma response to the treatment of active pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, L; Shi, R; Liu, X; Yuan, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, G; Wang, W; Wang, J; England, K; Via, L E; Cai, Y; Goldfeder, L C; Dodd, L E; Barry, C E; Chen, R Y

    2017-10-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The QuantiFERON® TB-Gold assay was run on collected blood samples. Participants received a follow-up telephone call at 24 months to determine relapse status. Of the 152 TB patients enrolled, 135 were eligible for this analysis: 118 pulmonary (PTB) and 17 extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) patients. IFN-γ levels declined significantly over time among all patients (P = 0.002), with this decline driven by PTB patients (P = 0.001), largely during the initial 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.019). IFN-γ levels did not change among EPTB patients over time or against baseline culture or drug resistance status. After 6 months of effective anti-tuberculosis treatment, IFN-γ levels decreased significantly in PTB patients, largely over the initial 8 weeks of treatment. IFN-γ concentrations may offer some value for monitoring anti-tuberculosis treatment response among PTB patients.

  2. Pulmonary artery segmentation and quantification in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Mukherjee, Nisha; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Summers, Ronald M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a known complication associated with sickle-cell disease; roughly 75% of sickle cell disease-afflicted patients have pulmonary arterial hypertension at the time of death. This prospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to act as a surrogate for presence and extent of disease, and whether the size change of the pulmonary arteries of sickle cell patients could be linked to sickle-cell associated pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary CT-Angiography scans from sickle-cell patients were obtained and retrospectively analyzed. Randomly selected pulmonary CT-Angiography studies from patients without sickle-cell anemia were used as negative controls. First, images were smoothed using anisotropic diffusion. Then, a combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery. An algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute the centerline of the segmented arteries. From the centerline, the diameters at the pulmonary trunk and first branch of the pulmonary arteries were measured automatically. Arterial diameters were normalized to the width of the thoracic cavity, patient weight and body surface. Results show that the pulmonary trunk and first right and left pulmonary arterial branches at the pulmonary trunk junction are significantly larger in diameter with increased blood flow in sickle-cell anemia patients as compared to controls (p values of 0.0278 for trunk and 0.0007 for branches). CT with image processing shows great potential as a surrogate indicator of pulmonary hemodynamics or response to therapy, which could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance.

  3. Diagnosis and outcome of a dog with iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism and secondary pulmonary mineralization.

    PubMed

    Blois, Shauna L; Caron, Isabelle; Mitchell, Colleen

    2009-04-01

    A 6-year-old, spayed female dog was evaluated for a history of chronic coughing, excessive panting, and lethargy. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed, and pulmonary mineralization was documented with a 99m Technitium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scan. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxia. Clinical signs resolved and blood gas values returned to normal when corticosteroid therapy was discontinued.

  4. Diagnosis and outcome of a dog with iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism and secondary pulmonary mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Shauna L.; Caron, Isabelle; Mitchell, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old, spayed female dog was evaluated for a history of chronic coughing, excessive panting, and lethargy. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed, and pulmonary mineralization was documented with a 99mTechnitium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scan. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxia. Clinical signs resolved and blood gas values returned to normal when corticosteroid therapy was discontinued. PMID:19436448

  5. [Pulmonary hypertensive crisis in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing cardiac catheterization: the risk factors and clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhu, Y; Li, Q Q; Gu, H

    2018-06-02

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors, clinical features, treatments, and prevention of pulmonary hypertensive crisis (PHC) in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) undergoing cardiac catheterization. Methods: This retrospective study included 67 children who were diagnosed with IPAH and underwent cardiac catheterization between April 2009 and June 2017 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The medical histories, clinical manifestations, treatments, and outcomes were characterized. Statistical analyses were performed using t test, χ(2) test and a multiple Logistic regression analysis. Results: During cardiac catheterization, five children developed PHC who presented with markedly elevated pulmonary artery pressure and central venous pressure, decline in systemic arterial pressure and oxygen saturation. Heart rate decreased in 4 cases and increased in the remaining one. After the treatments including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, pulmonary vasodilator therapy, improving cardiac output and blood pressure, and correction of acidosis, 4 of the 5 cases recovered, while 1 died of severe right heart failure with irreversible PHC 3 days after operation. Potential PHC was considered in 7 other patients, whose pulmonary artery pressure increased and exceeded systemic arterial pressure, oxygen saturation decreased, and central venous pressure and vital signs were relatively stable. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors of PHC in children with IPAH undergoing cardiac catheterization were younger age ( t= 3.160, P= 0.004), low weight ( t= 4.004, P< 0.001), general anesthesia (χ(2)=4.970, P= 0.026), history of syncope (χ(2)=4.948, P= 0.026), and WHO cardiac functional class Ⅲ or Ⅳ (χ(2)=19.013, P< 0.001). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that worse WHO cardiac functional class ( Wald =13.128, P< 0.001, OR= 15.076, 95% CI : 3.475-65.418) was the independent risk factor of PHC. Conclusions: PHC is a severe and extremely

  6. [Acute massive pulmonary embolism in a patient using clavis panax].

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Isa Oner; Arslan, Sakir; Cağırcı, Göksel; Yılmaz, Akar

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, the use of herbal combinations, plant extracts or food supplements has increased in our country and all over the world. However, there is not enough data to determine the effective doses of these substances in the composition of herbal preparations, or their effects on metabolism and drug interactions. With the widespread use of herbal combinations, life-threatening side effects and clinical manifestations that arise from them have been reported. Herein we present a case with acute massive pulmonary embolism while using an herbal combination in the context of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng. A 41-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with the complaint of sudden onset of dyspnea and syncope. As a result of investigations (blood gases, echocardiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy) he was diagnosed with an acute massive pulmonary embolism. The patient's use of panax did not pose as a risk factor for the pulmonary embolism. He was given thrombolytic therapy and shortness of breath improved. At the pre-discharge the patient was informed of the risks associated with the herbal combination, especially panax. Coumadin was started and he was discharged for the INR checks to come.

  7. Pulmonary eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Luiz Eduardo Mendes; Pereira, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Pulmonary eosinophilia comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by eosinophilia in pulmonary infiltrates (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) or in tissue (lung biopsy specimens). Although the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, eosinophilia is an important marker for the diagnosis and treatment. Clinical and radiological presentations can include simple pulmonary eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and pulmonary eosinophilia associated with a systemic disease, such as in Churg-Strauss syndrome and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Asthma is frequently concomitant and can be a prerequisite, as in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In diseases with systemic involvement, the skin, the heart and the nervous system are the most affected organs. The radiological presentation can be typical, or at least suggestive, of one of three types of pulmonary eosinophilia: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The etiology of pulmonary eosinophilia can be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary, due to known causes, such as drugs, parasites, fungal infection, mycobacterial infection, irradiation and toxins. Pulmonary eosinophilia can be also associated with diffuse lung diseases, connective tissue diseases and neoplasia.

  8. CT-Guided Transthoracic Core Biopsy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Diagnostic Value of the Histopathological Findings in the Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Hozumi, E-mail: fkdhzmrad@mitsuihosp.or.jp; Ibukuro, Kenji; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka

    We evaluated the value of CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy for the diagnosis of mycobacterial pulmonary nodules. The 30 subjects in this study had pulmonary nodules that had been either diagnosed histopathologically as tuberculosis or were suspected as tuberculosis based on a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy. The histopathological findings, the existence of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsy specimens, and the clinical course of the patients after the biopsy were reviewed retrospectively. Two of the three histological findings for tuberculosis that included epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and caseous necrosis were observed in 21 of the nodules which weremore » therefore diagnosed as histological tuberculosis. Six of these 21 nodules were positive for acid-fast bacilli, confirming the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thirteen of the 21 nodules did not contain acid-fast bacilli but decreased in size in response to antituberculous treatment and were therefore diagnosed as clinical tuberculosis. Seven nodules with only caseous necrosis were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis, with a final diagnosis of tuberculosis being made in 4 of the nodules and a diagnosis of old tuberculosis in 2 nodules. Two nodules with only multinucleated giant cells were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis with 1 of these nodules being diagnosed finally as tuberculosis and the other nodule as a nonspecific granuloma. When any two of the three following histopathological findings - epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells or caseous necrosis - are observed in a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy, the diagnosis of tuberculosis can be established without the detection of acid-fast bacilli or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.« less

  9. Cost analysis of different diagnostic algorithms for pulmonary tuberculosis varying in placement of Xpert MTB/RIF.

    PubMed

    Chadha, V K; Sebastian, George; Kumar, P

    2016-01-01

    We undertook cost analysis for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using present algorithm under Revised National Tuberculosis Control programme and using Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) as frontline test or in conjunction with smear microscopy and/or chest radiography. Costs were estimated for different strategies: (A) present algorithm involving sputum smear examination followed by antibiotic trial in smear negative patients, repeat smear examination (RE) if symptoms continue and chest radiography if RE negative; (B) direct Xpert; (C) smear microscopy followed by Xpert in smear negative patients; (D) radiography followed by Xpert in those having abnormal pulmonary shadows; and (E) smear examination followed by radiography among smear negative patients and Xpert in presence of abnormal pulmonary shadow. Cost to program was estimated lowest with Strategy A and highest with Strategy B. Compared to the latter, program cost reduces by 7%, 4.5%, and 17.4% by strategies C, D, and E, respectively. Cost to the group of individuals with presumptive PTB and their attendants is significantly higher for Strategy A compared to other four strategies. Among the latter, the patients' cost was minimum with Strategy B and maximum with Strategy C. Program cost per case diagnosed was lowest by Strategy A and highest by Strategy B. Patient cost per case diagnosed was highest by Strategy A and lowest by Strategy B. Using Xpert, Strategy E had the lowest program as well as overall cost per case diagnosed. Strategy E may be chosen for diagnosis of PTB. When resources would no longer be a constraint, direct Xpert would reduce costs incurred by the patients. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, David A.; Ross, David J.; Belperio, John A.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Ardehali, Abbas; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background Reliable, noninvasive approaches to the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are needed. We tested the hypothesis that the forced vital capacity to diffusing capacity ratio and room air resting pulse oximetry may be combined to predict mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Sixty-one idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients with available right-heart catheterization were studied. We regressed measured MPAP as a continuous variable on pulse oximetry (SpO2) and percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) to percent-predicted diffusing capacity ratio (% FVC/% DLco) in a multivariable linear regression model. Results Linear regression generated the following equation: MPAP = −11.9+0.272 × SpO2+0.0659 × (100−SpO2)2+3.06 × (% FVC/% DLco); adjusted R2 = 0.55, p<0.0001. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value of model-predicted pulmonary hypertension were 71% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50–89%), 81% (95% CI: 68–92%), 71% (95% CI: 51–87%) and 81% (95% CI: 68–94%). Conclusions A pulmonary hypertension predictor based on room air resting pulse oximetry and FVC to diffusing capacity ratio has a relatively high negative predictive value. However, this model will require external validation before it can be used in clinical practice. PMID:17604151

  11. Pulmonary MRA: Differentiation of pulmonary embolism from truncation artifact

    PubMed Central

    Bannas, Peter; Schiebler, Mark L; Motosugi, Utaroh; François, Christopher J; Reeder, Scott B; Nagle, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Truncation artifact (Gibbs ringing) causes central signal drop within vessels in pulmonary MRA that can be mistaken for emboli, reducing the diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE). We propose a quantitative approach to differentiate truncation artifact from PE. Methods Twenty-eight patients who underwent pulmonary CTA for suspected PE were recruited for pulmonary MRA. Signal intensity drops within pulmonary arteries that persisted on both arterial-phase and delayed-phase MRA were identified. The percent signal loss between the vessel lumen and central drop was measured. CTA served as the reference standard for presence of pulmonary emboli. Results A total of 65 signal intensity drops were identified on MRA. 48 (74%) of these were artifact and 17 (26%) were PE, as confirmed by CTA. Truncation artifacts had a significantly lower median signal drop than PE at both arterial-phase (26% [range 12–58%] vs. 85% [range 53–91%]) and at delayed-phase MRA (26% [range 11–55%] vs. 77% [range 47–89%]), p<0.0001 for both. ROC analyses revealed a threshold value of 51% (arterial-phase) and 47%-signal drop (delayed-phase) to differentiate between truncation artifact and PE with 100% sensitivity and >90% specificity. Conclusion Quantitative signal drop is an objective tool to help differentiate truncation artifact and pulmonary embolism in pulmonary MRA. PMID:24863886

  12. Impact of sildenafil on survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei-Jie; Sun, Yun-Juan; Gu, Qing; Xiong, Chang-Ming; Li, Jian-Jun; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-09-01

    It has been reported that short-term sildenafil therapy is safe and effective for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, data regarding the impact of sildenafil on the survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension remain limited. The study was conducted on 77 patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension at Fu Wai Hospital between September 2005 and September 2009. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the sildenafil group and the conventional group. Nine patients treated with sildenafil were re-evaluated by right heart catheterization after 3 months. Our data demonstrated that the 6-minute walk distance, World Health Organization functional class, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and hemodynamics significantly improved after 3 months of sildenafil therapy (P < .05). The baseline characteristics of the sildenafil group were similar to those of the conventional group. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates in the sildenafil group were 88%, 72%, and 68% compared with 61%, 36%, and 27% in the conventional group (P < .001). The absence of sildenafil therapy, lower body mass index, and lower mixed venous oxygen saturation were found to be independent predictors of mortality. In conclusion, sildenafil therapy was found to be associated with improved survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  13. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional.

  14. [Pulmonary function in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, TLS, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 29 patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 93.1% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 65.5%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 79.3 and 37.9%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC, FVC, and TLS, decreased and increased TGV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, and FEV1/VC% and increased Raw, Rin, and Rex; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SS and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The observed functional changes varied from slight to significant and pronounced with a preponderance of small disorders, a lower detection rate of significant disorders, and rare detection of very pronounced ones.

  15. Pulmonary (cardio) diagnostic system for combat casualty care capable of extracting embedded characteristics of obstructive or restrictive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Treece, Dale A.; Pearce, Fred J.; Bentley, Timothy B.

    2000-08-01

    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a prototype pulmonary diagnostic system capable of extracting signatures from adventitious lung sounds that characterize obstructive and/or restrictive flow. Examples of disorders that have been detailed include emphysema, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and pneumothorax. The system is based on the premise that acoustic signals associated with pulmonary disorders can be characterized by a set of embedded signatures unique to the disease. The concept is being extended to include cardio signals correlated with pulmonary data to provide an accurate and timely diagnoses of pulmonary function and distress in critically injured soldiers that will allow medical personnel to anticipate the need for accurate therapeutic intervention as well as monitor soldiers whose injuries may lead to pulmonary compromise later. The basic operation of the diagnostic system is as follows: (1) create an image from the acoustic signature based on higher order statistics, (2) deconstruct the image based on a predefined map, (3) compare the deconstructed image with stored images of pulmonary symptoms, and (4) classify the disorder based on a clustering of known symptoms and provide a statistical measure of confidence. The system has produced conformity between adults and infants and provided effective measures of physiology in the presence of noise.

  16. Microlithiasis of Seminal Vesicles and Severe Oligoasthenospermia in Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis (PAM): Report of An Unusual Sporadic Case.

    PubMed

    Castellana, Giuseppe; Carone, Domenico; Castellana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is classified as an elective dysmetabolic thesaurotic pneumoalveolitis and characterized by the presence within the alveoli of the lungs of myriad of tiny calculi. The classic presentation of the chest radiography is unmistakable with multiple small "sand-like" opacities diffusely involving both lung fields. We present a case of male infertility for hypoposia and severe oligoasthenospermia in a young patient with recurrent haematuria and small calcifications in the seminal vesicles similar to pulmonary microliths. PAM was diagnosed on routine chest radiography, com- puter tomography (CT), transbronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).

  17. The use of dornase alpha for post-operative pulmonary atelectasis after congenital heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Erkut; Tanidir, Ibrahim C; Haydin, Sertac; Onan, Ismihan S; Odemis, Ender; Bakir, Ihsan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of dornase alpha, a mucolytic agent, in children who developed pulmonary atelectasis after congenital heart surgery. Retrospective case-control study. Paediatric cardiac intensive care unit at a tertiary care hospital. Between July, 2011 and July, 2012, 41 patients who underwent congenital cardiac operations and developed post-operative pulmonary atelectasis that was resistant to conventional treatment and chest physiotherapy. In all, 26 patients received dornase alpha treatment. As a control group, 15 patients were treated with conventional medications and chest physiotherapy. The median age of patients was 25.5 (3-480) days in the study group and 50.0 (3-480) days in the control group. A total of 15 (57.6%) patients in the study group and 8 (53.3%) patients in the control group were male. The median weight was 4.2 (2.9-14.2) kg and 4.0 (3.5-13.6) kg in the study and control group, respectively. In the study group, pulmonary atelectasis was diagnosed at a median period of 5 (2-18) days after operations, whereas in the control group atelectasis was diagnosed at a median period of post-operative 6 (3-19) days. In the study group, the median atelectasis score decreased from 3.4 (1-6) to 0.8 (0-3) (p = 0.001). The median pO2 level increased from 69 (17-142) mmHg to 89 (30-168) mmHg (p = 0.04). In addition, heart rate and respiratory rate per minute were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in these parameters in the control group. The use of dornase alpha can be effective for the management of pulmonary atelectasis that develops following congenital heart surgery.

  18. Time Trends in Pulmonary Embolism in the United States: Evidence of Overdiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) may improve detection of life-threatening pulmonary embolism. But this sensitive test may have a downside: overdiagnosis and overtreatment (finding clinically unimportant emboli and exposing patients to harms from unnecessary treatment). Methods To assess the impact of CTPA on national pulmonary embolism incidence, mortality, and treatment complications, we conducted a time trend analysis using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Multiple Cause-of-Death databases. We compared age-adjusted incidence, mortality, and treatment complications (in-hospital gastrointestinal or intracranial hemorrhage or secondary thrombocytopenia) of pulmonary embolism among United States adults before (1993–1998) and after (1998–2006) CTPA was introduced. Results Pulmonary embolism incidence was unchanged before CTPA (p=0.63), but increased substantially after CTPA (81% increase: from 62.1 to 112.3 per 100,000, p<0.001). Pulmonary embolism mortality decreased during both periods: more so before CTPA (8% reduction: from 13.4 to 12.3 per 100,000, p<0.001) than after (3% reduction: from 12.3 to 11.9 per 100,000, p=0.02). Case-fatality improved slightly before (8% decrease, from 13.2% to 12.1%, p=0.02) and substantially after CTPA (36% decrease: from 12.1% to 7.8%, p<0.001). Meanwhile, CTPA was associated with an increase in presumed complications of anticoagulation for pulmonary embolism: pre-CTPA, the complication rate was stable (p=0.24), but post-CTPA it increased by 71% (from 3.1 to 5.3 per 100,000, p<0.001). Conclusions The introduction of CTPA was associated with changes consistent with overdiagnosis: rising incidence, minimal change in mortality, and lower case-fatality. Better technology allows us to diagnose more emboli, but to minimize harms of overdiagnosis we must learn which ones matter. PMID:21555660

  19. Automated detection of pulmonary nodules in CT images with support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Liu, Wanyu; Sun, Xiaoming

    2008-10-01

    Many methods have been proposed to avoid radiologists fail to diagnose small pulmonary nodules. Recently, support vector machines (SVMs) had received an increasing attention for pattern recognition. In this paper, we present a computerized system aimed at pulmonary nodules detection; it identifies the lung field, extracts a set of candidate regions with a high sensitivity ratio and then classifies candidates by the use of SVMs. The Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules from Computed Tomography (CT) images as inflammation, tuberculoma, granuloma..sclerosing hemangioma, and malignant tumor. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of SVMs classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 92.75% and 90.23% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  20. Evaluation of recently validated non-invasive formula using basic lung functions as new screening tool for pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Maha K.; Makhlouf, Hoda A.; Agmy, Gamal R.; Imam, Hisham M. K.; Fouad, Doaa A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prediction formula for mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) using standard lung function measurement has been recently validated to screen for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of this formula as a new non invasive screening tool for PH in IPF patients. Also, to study its correlation with patients' clinical data, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABGs) and other commonly used screening methods for PH including electrocardiogram (ECG), chest X ray (CXR), trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 37 IPF patients from tertiary hospital. The accuracy of MPAP estimation was assessed by examining the correlation between the predicted MPAP using the formula and PH diagnosed by other screening tools and patients' clinical signs of PH. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the prediction of PH using cut off point of 21 or 25 mm Hg (P = 0.24). The formula-predicted MPAP greater than 25 mm Hg strongly correlated in the expected direction with O2 saturation (r = −0.95, P < 0.000), partial arterial O2 tension (r = −0.71, P < 0.000), right ventricular systolic pressure measured by TTE (r = 0.6, P < 0.000) and hilar width on CXR (r = 0.31, P = 0.03). Chest symptoms, ECG and CTPA signs of PH poorly correlated with the same formula (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prediction formula for MPAP using standard lung function measurements is a simple non invasive tool that can be used as TTE to screen for PH in IPF patients and select those who need right heart catheterization. PMID:19881164

  1. Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Silvana Gomes Nunes; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto, Florisneide Rodrigues; Pereira, Susan Martins

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age) residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9%) were in males, and 21 (29.2%) of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3%) described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions. PMID:24068270

  2. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and attenuates pulmonary artery cytokine expression

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ben M.; Lahm, Tim; Morrell, Eric D.; Crisostomo, Paul R.; Markel, Troy; Wang, Meijing; Meldrum, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a common consequence of acute lung injury and may be mediated by increased local production of proinflammatory cytokines. Ethyl pyruvate is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been shown to downregulate proinflammatory genes following hemorrhagic shock; however, its effects on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction are unknown. We hypothesized that ethyl pyruvate would inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and downregulate pulmonary artery cytokine expression during hypoxia. To study this, isometric force displacement was measured in isolated rat pulmonary artery rings (n=8/group) during hypoxia (95% N2/5% CO2) with or without prior ethyl pyruvate (10 mM) treatment. Following 60 minutes of hypoxia, pulmonary artery rings were analyzed for TNF-α and IL-1 mRNA via RT-PCR. Ethyl pyruvate inhibited hypoxic pulmonary artery contraction (4.49±2.32% vs. 88.80±5.68% hypoxia alone) and attenuated the hypoxic upregulation of pulmonary artery TNF and IL-1 mRNA (p<0.05). These data indicate that: 1) hypoxia increases pulmonary artery vasoconstriction and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression; 2) ethyl pyruvate decreases hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and downregulates hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery proinflammatory cytokine gene expression; and 3) ethyl pyruvate may represent a novel therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:17574585

  3. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in isolated mouse pulmonary arterial vessels.

    PubMed

    Strielkov, Ievgen; Krause, Nicole Catherine; Sommer, Natasha; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Grimminger, Friedrich; Gudermann, Thomas; Dietrich, Alexander; Weissmann, Norbert

    2018-06-19

    What is the central question of this study? Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has never been characterized in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries of different generations in detail. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that only small intrapulmonary arteries (80 - 200 μm in diameter) exhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The observed response was sustained, significantly potentiated by depolarization-induced preconstriction, and not dependent on endothelium and TRPC6 channels. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a physiological response of pulmonary arteries, which adapts lung perfusion to regional ventilation. Properties of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) vary significantly between animal species. Despite extensive use of mouse models in studies of HPV, this physiological response has never been characterized in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries in detail. We investigated the effect of 80-min exposure to hypoxia on tone in mouse pulmonary arteries of different generations in the presence and absence of preconstriction using wire myography. Hypoxia induced a sustained relaxation in non-preconstricted extrapulmonary arteries (500 - 700 μm in diameter), but not in the presence of KCl-induced preconstriction. Large intrapulmonary arteries (450 - 650 μm) did not exhibit a significant response to the hypoxic challenge. By contrast, in small intrapulmonary arteries (80 - 200 μm), hypoxia elicited a slowly developing sustained constriction, which was independent of endothelium. The response was significantly potentiated in arteries preconstricted with KCl, but not with U46619. HPV was not altered in pulmonary arteries of TRPC6-deficient mice, which suggests that this response corresponds to the sustained phase of biphasic HPV observed earlier in isolated, buffer-perfused, and ventilated mouse lungs. In conclusion, we have established the protocol allowing to study sustained HPV in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries. The

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary nodules: An unexpected final diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zurita Prada, Pablo Antonio; Urrego Laurín, Claudia Lía; Assyaaton Bobo, Sow; Faré García, Regina; Estrada Trigueros, Graciliano; Gallardo Romero, José Manuel; Borrego Pintado, Maria Henar

    We report the case of a 50-year-old female smoker with an 11-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies) receiving triple therapy. She developed pulmonary nodules diagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis by lung biopsy. We found no reported cases of the coexistence of these two diseases. Smoking abstinence led to radiologic resolution without modifying the immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and profile of congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension in Down syndrome in a pediatric cardiology service

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Felipe Alves; Villachan, Lúcia Roberta R.; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequence and profile of congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients referred to a pediatric cardiologic center, considering the age of referral, gender, type of heart disease diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography and its association with pulmonary hypertension at the initial diagnosis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection of 138 patients with Down syndrome from a total of 17,873 records. Descriptive analysis of the data was performed, using Epi-Info version 7. RESULTS: Among the 138 patients with Down syndrome, females prevailed (56.1%) and 112 (81.2%) were diagnosed with congenital heart disease. The most common lesion was ostium secundum atrial septal defect, present in 51.8%, followed by atrioventricular septal defect, in 46.4%. Ventricular septal defects were present in 27.7%, while tetralogy of Fallot represented 6.3% of the cases. Other cardiac malformations corresponded to 12.5%. Pulmonary hypertension was associated with 37.5% of the heart diseases. Only 35.5% of the patients were referred before six months of age. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of referral until six months of age highlights the need for a better tracking of patients with Down syndrome in the context of congenital heart disease, due to the high frequency and progression of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25119745

  6. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  7. Approach to patients with pulmonary embolism in a surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Grigorakos, Leonidas; Sotiriou, Evangelia; Myrianthefs, P; Michail, Anastasia; Koulendi, Despina; Zidianakis, Vasilis; Gianakopoulos, K; Baltopoulos, G

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life threatening disease. Clinical signs and symptoms allow the clinician to determine the pretest probability of someone having pulmonary embolism but are insufficient to diagnose or rule out the condition. This paper aims to study the clinical presentation, identify the risk factors and evaluate the diagnostic strategies and management of patients with PE. The medical files of 69 patients were searched, who were diagnosed with PE and who were admitted to the Surgical Care Unit. Dyspnea, pleuritic pain, haemoptysis, fever and cough were the most common presenting symptoms. Risk factors for PE were found in 90% of cases. D-dimers assay was elevated in all cases (100%) and the other diagnostic strategies used showed great accuracy in confirming the pretest probabilities of PE. It is of high importance that 75% of the patients had deep vein thrombosis as assessed by venous ultrasonography. Mortality due to PE was approximately 6.9%. PE can be often overlooked with hazardous consequences. Clinical evaluation in combination with spiral CT or lung scintigraphy and vein ultrasound and D-dimer level can establish the diagnosis in the majority of patients so that effective treatment to be started as soon as possible.

  8. Autopsy interrogation of emergency medicine dispute cases: how often are clinical diagnoses incorrect?

    PubMed

    Liu, Danyang; Gan, Rongchang; Zhang, Weidi; Wang, Wei; Saiyin, Hexige; Zeng, Wenjiao; Liu, Guoyuan

    2018-01-01

    Emergency medicine is a 'high risk' specialty. Some diseases develop suddenly and progress rapidly, and sudden unexpected deaths in the emergency department (ED) may cause medical disputes. We aimed to assess discrepancies between antemortem clinical diagnoses and postmortem autopsy findings concerning emergency medicine dispute cases and to figure out the most common major missed diagnoses. Clinical files and autopsy reports were retrospectively analysed and interpreted. Discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and autopsy diagnoses were evaluated using modified Goldman classification as major and minor discrepancy. The difference between diagnosis groups was compared with Pearson χ 2 test. Of the 117 cases included in this study, 71 of cases (58 class I and 13 class II diagnostic errors) were revealed as major discrepancies (60.7%). The most common major diagnoses were cardiovascular diseases (54 cases), followed by pulmonary diseases, infectious diseases and so on. The difference of major discrepancy between the diagnoses groups was significant (p<0.001). Aortic dissection and myocardial infarction were the most common cause of death (15 cases for each disease) and the most common missed class I diagnoses (80% and 66.7% for each), higher than the average 49.6% of all class I errors of the study patients. High major disparities between clinical diagnoses and postmortem examinations exist in emergency medical disputes cases; acute aortic dissection and myocardial infarction are the most frequently major missed diagnoses that ED clinicians should pay special attention to in practice. This study reaffirmed the necessity and usefulness of autopsy in auditing death in EDs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. [Pulmonary hypoplasia: An analysis of cases over a 20-year period].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Peña, Yanny Paola; Torrent-Vernetta, Alba; Sacoto, Gabriela; de Mir-Messa, Inés; Rovira-Amigo, Sandra; Gartner, Silvia; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Molino-Gahete, José Andrés; Castillo-Salinas, Felíx

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary hypoplasia is the most frequent congenital anomaly associated with perinatal mortality. A retrospective and descriptive review was conducted on cases of patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypoplasia between 1995 and 2014 in a tertiary university hospital. An analysis was made of the prenatal imaging, clinical manifestations, post-natal diagnostic tests, treatment and management, long-term follow up, and survival data. A total of 60 cases were identified, all of them with prenatal imaging. Sixteen patients required foetal surgery. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia was the most frequent diagnosis. Main clinical presentation was respiratory distress with severe hypoxemia and high requirements of mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate was 47% within first 60 days of life, and 75% for the first day of life. Pneumonia and recurrent bronchitis episodes were observed during follow-up. They had a lung function obstructive pattern, and their quality of life and exercise tolerance was good. High neonatal mortality and significant long-term morbidity associated with pulmonary hypoplasia requires an early diagnosis and a specialised multidisciplinary team management. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Successful retreatment with osimertinib after osimertinib-induced acute pulmonary embolism in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Hayama, Manabu; Satoh, Shingo; Nasu, Shingo; Tanaka, Ayako; Morita, Satomu; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) can be life-threatening, and it is challenging to diagnose because of its nonspecific signs and symptoms. PE is also an important potential risk of osimertinib treatment, however, clinical courses regarding retreatment after osimertinib-induced acute pulmonary embolism remain unclear. We described a 77-year-old woman with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma who developed osimertinib-induced acute PE. She received apixaban and was later successfully retreated with osimertinib. This case suggests that retreatment with osimertinib after osimertinib-induced acute PE may be a treatment option when alternative therapeutic options are limited.

  11. Diagnostic impact of digital tomosynthesis in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Poillucci, Gabriele; Gennari, Antonio Giulio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2016-08-01

    To assess the actual diagnostic impact of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR). A total of 237 patients (135 male, 102 female; age, 70.8 ± 10.4 years) with a known primary malignancy and suspected pulmonary lesion(s) on CXR and who underwent DTS were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists (experience, 10 and 15 years) analysed in consensus CXR and DTS images and proposed a diagnosis according to a confidence score: 1 or 2 = definitely or probably benign pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesion, or pseudolesion; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probably or definitely pulmonary lesion. DTS findings were proven by CT (n = 114 patients), CXR during follow-up (n = 105) or histology (n = 18). Final diagnoses included 77 pulmonary opacities, 26 pulmonary scars, 12 pleural lesions and 122 pulmonary pseudolesions. DTS vs CXR presented a higher (P < 0.05) sensitivity (92 vs 15 %), specificity (91 vs 9 %), overall accuracy (92 vs 12 %), and diagnostic confidence (area under ROC, 0.997 vs 0.619). Mean effective dose of CXR vs DTS was 0.06 vs 0.107 mSv (P < 0.05). DTS improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence in comparison to CXR alone in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on CXR with only a slight, though significant, increase in radiation dose. • Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) improves accuracy of chest radiography (CXR) in oncologic patients. • DTS improves confidence of CXR in oncologic patients. • DTS allowed avoidance of CT in about 50 % of oncologic patients.

  12. Pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement: a cross-sectional and observational study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Tao, Ru-Jia; Zou, Dan-Feng; Li, Man-Hui; Xu, Xin; Cao, Wei-Jun

    2018-02-16

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterised by the formation of granulomas within various organs, mainly the lungs. Several studies from different countries have been undertaken to investigate sarcoidosis with extrapulmonary involvement except from China. The objective of this study is to investigate a comparative clinical analysis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement from China. Data from inpatients diagnosed with sarcoidosis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively collected and analysed. Six hundred and thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were included in the study, including 378 isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis and 258 pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement. Two hundred and fifty-eight (40.6%) patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis had extrapulmonary involvement. Extrapulmonary localisations were detected mostly in extrathoracic lymph nodes (n=147) and skin (n=86). Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement and patients with isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis for fatigue (16.6%vs8.3%, P<0.05), serum ACE (SACE) levels (79.0±46.9 IU/L vs 69.7±38.7 IU/L, P<0.05), and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings (53.8%vs46.2%, P<0.05). Extrapulmonary involvement is common in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, with the most common sites being extrathoracic lymph nodes and skin. Patients with sarcoidosis with extrapulmonary involvement are more symptomatic (fatigue), have higher SACE levels and more deteriorating HRCT findings, to which clinicians should pay attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Patent foramen ovale in patients with pulmonary embolism: A prognostic factor on CT pulmonary angiography?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Stephanie; Patel, Vishal; Zalta, Benjamin A; Shmukler, Anna; Levsky, Jeffrey M; Jain, Vineet R; Shaban, Nada M; Haramati, Linda B

    2017-12-02

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a risk factor for mortality, but this has not been evaluated for CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between PFO and mortality in patients with acute PE diagnosed on CTPA. This retrospective study included 268 adults [173 women, mean age 61 (range 22-98) years] diagnosed with acute PE on non-ECG-gated 64-slice CTPA in 2012 at our medical center. The images were reviewed for PFO by a panel of cardiothoracic radiologists with an average of 11 years of experience (range 1-25 years). CT signs of right heart strain and PE level were noted. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE), when available (n = 207), were reviewed for PFO by a cardiologist with subspecialty training in advanced imaging and with 3 years of experience. The main outcome was 30-day mortality. Fischer's exact test was utilized to compare mortality. PFO prevalence on CTPA was 22% (58/268) and 4% (9/207) on TTE. Overall 30-day mortality was 6% (16/268), 9% (5/58) for patients with PFO and 5% (11/210) for those without (p = 0.35). CT signs of right heart strain trended with higher mortality, but statistically significant only for hepatic vein contrast reflux [14% (6/44) vs 4% (10/224), p = 0.03]; right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio >1 [8% (13/156) vs RV:LV ≤ 1 3% (3/112), p = 0.07], septal bowing [10% (4/42) vs without 5% (12/226), p = 0.30]. PFO was demonstrated on CTPA in a proportion similar to the known population prevalence, while routine TTE was less sensitive. Mortality was non-significantly higher in patients with acute PE and PFO in this moderate-sized study. A larger study to answer this clinically important question is worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary Fibrosis in Hermansky–Pudlak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vicary, Glenn W.; Vergne, Yeidyly; Santiago-Cornier, Alberto; Young, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a bleeding diathesis due to platelet dysfunction. More than 50% of cases worldwide are diagnosed on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Genetic testing plays a growing role in diagnosis; however, not all patients with HPS have identified genetic mutations. In Puerto Rico, patients with HPS are often identified shortly after birth by their albinism, although the degree of hypopigmentation is highly variable. Ten subtypes have been described. Patients with HPS-1, HPS-2, and HPS-4 tend to develop pulmonary fibrosis in Puerto Rico; 100% of patients with HPS-1 develop HPS-PF. HPS-PF and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are considered similar entities (albeit with distinct causes) because both can show similar histological disease patterns. However, in contrast to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, HPS-PF manifests much earlier, often at 30–40 years of age. The progression of HPS-PF is characterized by the development of dyspnea and increasingly debilitating hypoxemia. No therapeutic interventions are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of HPS and HPS-PF. However, the approval of two new antifibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, has prompted new interest in identifying drugs capable of reversing or halting the progression of HPS-PF. Thus, lung transplantation remains the only potentially life-prolonging treatment. At present, two clinical trials are recruiting patients with HPS-PF to identify biomarkers for disease progression. Advances in the diagnosis and management of these patients will require the establishment of multidisciplinary centers of excellence staffed by experts in this disease. PMID:27529121

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...

  16. Diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension remodel the arterial tree to a high shear phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Roblee P.; Schelegle, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with progressive changes in arterial network complexity. An allometric model is derived that integrates diameter branching complexity between pulmonary arterioles of generation n and the main pulmonary artery (MPA) via a power-law exponent (X) in dn = dMPA2−n/X and the arterial area ratio β = 21–2/X. Our hypothesis is that diverse forms of PH demonstrate early decrements in X independent of etiology and pathogenesis, which alters the arteriolar shear stress load from a low-shear stress (X > 2, β > 1) to a high-shear stress phenotype (X < 2, β < 1). Model assessment was accomplished by comparing theoretical predictions to retrospective morphometric and hemodynamic measurements made available from a total of 221 PH-free and PH subjects diagnosed with diverse forms (World Health Organization; WHO groups I-IV) of PH: mitral stenosis, congenital heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary lung disease, chronic thromboembolism, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), familial (FPAH), collagen vascular disease, and methamphetamine exposure. X was calculated from pulmonary artery pressure (PPA), cardiac output (Q) and body weight (M), utilizing an allometric power-law prediction of X relative to a PH-free state. Comparisons of X between PAH-free and PAH subjects indicates a characteristic reduction in area that elevates arteriolar shear stress, which may contribute to mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and injury before clinically defined thresholds of pulmonary vascular resistance and PH. We conclude that the evaluation of X may be of use in identifying reversible and irreversible phases of PH in the early course of the disease process. PMID:24858853

  17. Prehospital lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Christian B; Hänselmann, Anja; Posth, Stefan; Mikkelsen, Søren; Videbæk, Lars; Berg, Henrik

    2016-08-02

    An improved prehospital diagnostic accuracy of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema could potentially improve initial treatment, triage, and outcome. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility, time-use, and diagnostic accuracy of prehospital lung ultrasound (PLUS) for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. A prospective observational study was conducted in a prehospital setting. Patients were included if the physician based prehospital mobile emergency care unit was activated and one or more of the following two were present: respiratory rate >30/min., oxygen saturation <90 %. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, permanent mental disability or PLUS causing a delay in life-saving treatment or transportation. Following clinical assessment PLUS was performed and presence or absence of interstitial syndrome was registered. Audit by three physicians using predefined diagnostic criteria for cardiogenic pulmonary oedema was used as gold standard. A total of 40 patients were included in the study. Feasibility of PLUS was 100 % and median time used was 3 min. The gold standard diagnosed 18 (45.0 %) patients with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The diagnostic accuracy of PLUS for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema was: sensitivity 94.4 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 72.7-99.9 %), specificity 77.3 % (95 % CI 54.6-92.2 %), positive predictive value 77.3 % (95 % CI 54.6-92.2 %), negative predictive value 94.4 % (95 % CI 72.7-99.9 %). The sensitivity of PLUS is high, making it a potential tool for ruling-out cardiogenic pulmonary. The observed specificity was lower than what has been described in previous studies. Performed, as part of a physician based prehospital emergency service, PLUS seems fast and highly feasible in patients with respiratory failure. Due to its diagnostic accuracy, PLUS may have potential as a prehospital tool, especially to rule out cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.

  18. Can pleural adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in pleural tuberculosis predict the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis? A CT analysis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Myung Je; Lee, In Jae; Kim, Joo-Hee

    2016-06-01

    To assess the relationship between imaging features of pulmonary tuberculosis at computed tomography (CT) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) values via pleural fluid analysis in patients with pleural tuberculosis. This retrospective study enrolled 60 patients who underwent fluid analysis for ADA and chest CT and were diagnosed with tuberculosis by culture or polymerase chain reaction of pleural fluid and sputum. The presence of centrilobular nodules, consolidation, cavitation, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at CT were evaluated. The relationship between ADA values and the pattern of pulmonary involvement of tuberculosis was analysed. Pulmonary involvement was seen in 42 of the 60 patients. A centrilobular nodular pattern was seen in 37 and consolidation in 22. In 17 patients, both findings were identified. A centrilobular nodular pattern was more common than consolidation or cavitary lesions. When ADA values were high, pulmonary involvement was more frequent (p=0.002). Comparing low and high ADA groups using an obtained cut-off value of 80 IU/l, the high group had more frequent pulmonary involvement (p<0.001). Patients with tuberculous pleurisy who had high ADA values had a higher probability of manifesting pulmonary tuberculosis. High ADA values may help predict contagious pleuroparenchymal tuberculosis. The most common pulmonary involvement of tuberculous pleurisy showed a centrilobular nodular pattern. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer by amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness: a community-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Aamli Gagnat, Ane; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Gallefoss, Frode; Coxson, Harvey O; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per

    2017-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate if using CT to quantitatively assess the amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness independently predicts the subsequent incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 947 ever-smokers performed spirometry and underwent CT examination. The main predictors were the amount of emphysema measured by the percentage of low attenuation areas (%LAA) on CT and standardised measures of airway wall thickness (AWT-PI10). Cancer data from 2003-2013 were obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Register. The hazard ratio associated with emphysema and airway wall thickness was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression for cancer diagnoses.During 10 years of follow-up, non-pulmonary cancer was diagnosed in 11% of the subjects with LAA <3%, in 19% of subjects with LAA 3-10%, and in 17% of subjects with LAA ≥10%. Corresponding numbers for lung cancer were 2%, 3% and 11%, respectively. After adjustment, the baseline amount of emphysema remained a significant predictor of the incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Airway wall thickness did not predict cancer independently.This study offers a strong argument that emphysema is an independent risk factor for both non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  20. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in urine as a marker on coagulation activity in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Wexels, Fredrik; Dahl, Ola E; Pripp, Are H; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Borris, Lars C; Haslund, Anniken; Gudmundsen, Tor E; Lauritzen, Trine; Lassen, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    We have recently reported that increased levels of urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 reflected radiologically verified deep vein thrombosis. In this study we evaluated whether urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 was associated with pulmonary embolism in non-selected patients. Patients with clinical suspected pulmonary embolism were interviewed on comorbidities and medications. Urine was collected from each patient before radiological examination and snap frozen until analysed on urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 with an ELISA kit. Imaging of the pulmonary arteries were conducted with contrast enhanced computer tomography. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 44/197 patients. Non-significantly higher urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were found in non-selected patients with pulmonary embolism vs. those without (p=0.324). Significantly higher urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were found in the pulmonary embolism positive patients without comorbidities (n=13) compared to the control group (n=28) (p=0.009). The calculated sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value using the lowest detectable urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 level was 82%, 34% and 87%, respectively. There was no significant urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 level difference in patients with and without pulmonary embolism. In non-comorbide pulmonary embolism positive patients the urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were significantly higher compared to the control group. The negative predictive value found in this study indicates that uF1+2 has the potential to identify patients with a low risk of PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of pulmonary artery hypertension in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its correlation with stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercising capacity, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Roy, Bidyut; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Mishra, Arvind; Patel, M L; Singh, Jitendra; Kumar, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in advance stages, and its presence indicates poor prognosis. The present study was design to know the prevalence of PAH in patients with COPD and its correlation with stages of COPD, exercising capacity, and quality of life. It is a cross-sectional prevalence study over a period of 1 year from August 2015 to July 2016. The study included 109 COPD patients, diagnosed by spirometry, and severity was determined according Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification criteria. Screening two-dimensional echocardiography was done to determine pulmonary arterial hypertension and exercising capacity assessed by 6 min walk test (6MWT) while the quality of life was assessed by St George respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C) Questionnaires. Out of 109 patients, PAH was present in 68 (62.4%) cases consisting of mild grade 41 (37.6%), moderate grade 11 (10.1%), and severe grade 16 (14.7%). In GOLD A stage, there were 20 cases of mild PAH and Stage B included 18 cases of mild and 3 cases of moderate PAH. Stage C had 3 cases of mild and 8 cases of moderate PAH while Stage D had 16 cases of severe PAH. In 6MWT, patients with severe grade PAH fail to perform the test while patients with mild to moderate PAH walked short distance. In SGRQ-C Questionnaires symptom, activity, impact, and total score were high with the severity of PAH. The prevalence of PAH in COPD was significant. Therefore, every COPD patient should be evaluated for PAH.

  2. Prevalence of pulmonary artery hypertension in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its correlation with stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercising capacity, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Roy, Bidyut; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Mishra, Arvind; Patel, M. L.; Singh, Jitendra; Kumar, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in advance stages, and its presence indicates poor prognosis. Aims and Objective: The present study was design to know the prevalence of PAH in patients with COPD and its correlation with stages of COPD, exercising capacity, and quality of life. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional prevalence study over a period of 1 year from August 2015 to July 2016. The study included 109 COPD patients, diagnosed by spirometry, and severity was determined according Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification criteria. Screening two-dimensional echocardiography was done to determine pulmonary arterial hypertension and exercising capacity assessed by 6 min walk test (6MWT) while the quality of life was assessed by St George respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C) Questionnaires. Results: Out of 109 patients, PAH was present in 68 (62.4%) cases consisting of mild grade 41 (37.6%), moderate grade 11 (10.1%), and severe grade 16 (14.7%). In GOLD A stage, there were 20 cases of mild PAH and Stage B included 18 cases of mild and 3 cases of moderate PAH. Stage C had 3 cases of mild and 8 cases of moderate PAH while Stage D had 16 cases of severe PAH. In 6MWT, patients with severe grade PAH fail to perform the test while patients with mild to moderate PAH walked short distance. In SGRQ-C Questionnaires symptom, activity, impact, and total score were high with the severity of PAH. Conclusion: The prevalence of PAH in COPD was significant. Therefore, every COPD patient should be evaluated for PAH. PMID:29915733

  3. Pulmonary Infiltrates in Immunosuppressed Patients: Analysis of a Diagnostic Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Danés, Cristina; González-Martín, Julián; Pumarola, Tomàs; Rañó, Ana; Benito, Natividad; Torres, Antoni; Moreno, Asunción; Rovira, Montserrat; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic protocol was started to study the etiology of pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients. The diagnostic yields of the different techniques were analyzed, with special emphasis on the importance of the sample quality and the role of rapid techniques in the diagnostic strategy. In total, 241 patients with newly developed pulmonary infiltrates within a period of 19 months were included. Noninvasive or invasive evaluation was performed according to the characteristics of the infiltrates. Diagnosis was achieved in 202 patients (84%); 173 patients (72%) had pneumonia, and specific etiologic agents were found in 114 (66%). Bronchoaspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage showed the highest yields, either on global analysis (23 of 35 specimens [66%] and 70 of 134 specimens [52%], respectively) or on analysis of each type of pneumonia. A tendency toward better results with optimal-quality samples was observed, and a statistically significant difference was found in sputum bacterial culture. Rapid diagnostic tests yielded results in 71 of 114 (62.2%) diagnoses of etiological pneumonia. PMID:12037077

  4. Mycelial forms of Coccidioides spp. in the parasitic phase associated to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hernández, B; Martínez-Rivera, M A; Palma Cortés, G; Tapia-Díaz, A; Manjarrez Zavala, M E

    2008-09-01

    Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis shares characteristics with other pulmonary pathologies. In tissue, spherules containing endospores are markers of Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii infection. Mycelial forms presenting without classical parasitic structures are often misdiagnosed. The study was performed at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER) of Mexico between September 1991 and June 2005 and analyzed the association between cases, controls, and risk factors, including co-morbidity. A case was defined as any patient who presented mycelial forms and a control as any patient who presented only spherules or no parasitic forms. All patients (n = 44) with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis were diagnosed by culture, histopathology, cytology, and immunology. Type 2 diabetic patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis were four times more likely than non-diabetics to develop parasitic mycelial forms (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-20.10; P < 0.01). We formulated a comprehensive definition based on the results as follows: patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis with an evolution longer than 8 months, cough, hemoptysis, radiological evidence of a cavitary lesion, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, develop parasitic mycelial forms of Coccidioides spp. Based on microscopic images of patient specimens, we propose incorporating mycelial forms into the parasitic phase of Coccidioides spp. in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic and cavitary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

  5. Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  6. Pulse oximetry findings in newborns with antenatally diagnosed congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Isabel E; Babu, Pratusha L; Simpson, John M; Fox, Grenville F

    2018-05-01

    A retrospective review of admission preductal oxygen saturations of neonates with antenatally diagnosed critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was performed to investigate the differences in newborn pulse oximetry (Pulsox) by specific CCHD diagnosis. Saturations were recorded at median of < 1 h (range < 1-9 h) after delivery. Data was stratified by CCHD diagnosis and analysed according to the three different admission Pulsox thresholds, ≤ 90, ≤ 92 and ≤ 95%. Of the 276 neonates studied, 208 were clinically well at admission, with no co-morbidities, gestation > 34 weeks and birth weight > 1.8 kg. A statistically significant increase in the proportion with low admission saturations was seen using ≤ 95% saturation threshold (72% (95% CI 66-78)) compared to ≤ 92% (52% (95% CI 46-59)) and ≤ 90% (46% (95% CI 39-52)). Sub-group analysis found the proportion of neonates with low saturations varied according to the specific CCHD diagnosis with only 20-42% of neonates with aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary stenosis having saturations ≤ 95%. The proportion of neonates with low admission oxygen saturation varied by CCHD diagnosis with those without critically reduced pulmonary blood flow not having low admission saturations, in general, even using the ≤ 95% threshold which had the highest proportions of abnormal saturations. This data may assist developing Pulsox screening policies. What is Known: • The addition of pulse oximetry (Pulsox) screening to the routine newborn examination increases the sensitivity of CCHD detection. Pulsox screening is also highly specific for CCHD in asymptomatic neonates, with low false-positive rates. • Early diagnosis of CCHD improves patient outcomes in relation to both morbidity and mortality. What is New: • The proportion of affected infants with an abnormal Pulsox result varies by CCHD diagnosis and screening threshold. In our study using the ≤ 95% threshold gave

  7. Comparative evaluation of physicians' pulmonary nodule detection with reduced slice thickness at CT screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsuat, Marodina; Shimamura, Ichiro; Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Tominaga, Keigo; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2008-03-01

    With thin and thick section Multi-slice CT images at lung cancer screening, we have statistically and quantitatively shown and evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of these slice thicknesses on physicians' pulmonary nodule diagnosis. To comparatively evaluate the 2 mm and 10 mm slice thicknesses, MSCT images of 360 people were read by six physicians. The reading criteria consisted of nodule for further examination (NFE), nodule for no further examination (NNFE) and no abnormality (NA) case. For reading results evaluation; firstly, cross-tabulation was carried out to roughly analyze the diagnoses based on whole lung field and each lung lobes. Secondly, from semi-automated extraction result of the nodule, detailed quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the diagnostic capabilities of two slice thicknesses. Finally, using the reading results of 2 mm thick image as the gold standard, the diagnostic capabilities were analyzed through the features and locations of pulmonary nodules. The study revealed that both slice thicknesses can depict lung cancer. Thin section may not be effective to diagnose nodules of <=3 mm in size and nodules of <= 5mm in size for thick section. Though thick section is less tiring for reading physicians, it is not good at depicting nodules located at the border of lung upper lobe and which have a pixel size distance of <=5 from the chest wall. The information presented may serve as a useful reference to determine in which particular pulmonary nodule condition the two slice thicknesses can be effectively used for early detection of lung cancer.

  8. Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema in a Dog Following Initiation of Therapy for Concurrent Hypoadrenocorticism and Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Paik, Jooyae; Kang, Ji-Houn; Chang, Dongwoo; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    A 5 yr old intact female cocker spaniel dog weighing 7.8 kg was referred with anorexia, vomiting, and depression. At referral, the dog was diagnosed initially with typical hypoadrenocorticism, and 2 d later, concurrent primary hypothyroidism was detected. Hormonal replacement therapies, including fludrocortisone, prednisolone, and levothyroxine, were initiated, but a few days later the dog became abruptly tachypneic, and thoracic radiographs indicated the development of pulmonary edema. Echocardiography showed that there were abnormalities indicating impaired left ventricular function, although the heart valves were normal. Following treatment with pimobendan and furosemide, the pulmonary edema resolved. The dog had no recurrence of the clinical signs after 10 mo of follow-up, despite being off all cardiac medications; consequently, the cardiac failure was transient or reversible in this dog. The case report describes the stepwise diagnosis and successful treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema after initiation of hormonal replacement therapy for concurrent hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in a dog.

  9. Stent Implantation for Malignant Pulmonary Artery Stenosis in a Metastasizing Non-Small Cell Bronchial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, A., E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.c; Koch, S.; Meier, U. R.

    2008-07-15

    A 58-year-old patient with recently diagnosed non-small cell bronchial carcinoma was referred to us with increasing shortness of breath and orthopnea by her family practitioner. To exclude the possibility of a pulmonary embolism, contrast medium-enhanced angio-CT of the thorax was performed. This showed a large mediastinal tumor, which, on the one hand, infiltrated and occluded the left upper lobe bronchus and, on the other, constricted the left pulmonary artery over a considerable part of its length. In view of the palliative situation and massively increasing dyspnea, balloon dilatation of the obstructed left pulmonary artery followed by stent placement was performed.more » This resulted in an immediate improvement of the symptoms. The originally strongly oxygen-dependent and heavily dyspneic patient could be relieved of the external supply of oxygen and was able to sleep normally without additional medication within 24 h. The patient was able ambulate freely within 2 days, with a markedly improved quality of life.« less

  10. Ruling out Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with High Pretest Probability.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Murtaza; Kline, Jeffrey; Bhattarai, Bikash; Courtney, Mark; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    The American College of Emergency Physicians guidelines recommend more aggressive workup beyond imaging alone in patients with a high pretest probability (PTP) of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the ability of multiple tests to safely rule out PE in high PTP patients is not known. We sought to measure the ability of negative computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) along with negative D-dimer to rule out PE in these high-risk patients. We analyzed data from a previous prospective observational study conducted in 12 emergency departments (ED). Wells score criteria were entered by providers before final PE testing. PE was diagnosed by imaging on the index ED visit, or within 45 days, demonstrating either PE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), or if the patient died of PE during the 45-day, follow-up period. Testing threshold was set at 1.8%. A total of 7,940 patients were enrolled and tested for PE, and 257 had high PTP (Wells >6). Sixteen of these high-risk patients had negative CTPA and negative D-dimer, of whom two were positive for PE (12.5% [95% confidence interval {2.2%-40.0%}]). One of these patients had a DVT on CT venogram and the other was diagnosed at follow-up. Our analysis suggests that in patients with high PTP of PE, neither negative CTPA by itself nor a negative CTPA plus a negative D-dimer are sufficient to rule out PE. More aggressive workup strategies may be required for these patients.

  11. Current management of primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Klings, E S; Farber, H W

    2001-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare disorder with an annual incidence of 1 to 2 per million people. The aetiology of this disorder is unknown, but it appears to result from an abnormal interaction of environmental and genetic factors leading to a vasculopathy. The pulmonary arteries in these patients exhibit a spectrum of pathological lesions ranging from the early medial hypertrophy to the end-stage fibrotic plexiform lesions. This characteristic pathology is also observed in pulmonary hypertension resulting from connective tissue disease (particularly systemic sclerosis), HIV infection, portal hypertension and certain toxins. PPH is a condition that is difficult to diagnose and treat, with a median survival of 2.8 years in historical studies. One of the difficulties in treating patients with PHH is that the subacute nature of disease presentation often prevents an accurate diagnosis during the early stages of the illness. Progressive dyspnoea on exertion is the most common presenting symptom. Diagnostic evaluation should include electrocardiography, chest radiograph and echocardiography, and laboratory and other studies to evaluate for secondary causes (e.g. pulmonary function tests, chest computed tomography and ventilation/perfusion scans, pulmonary arteriogram, cardiopulmonary testing, right heart catherisation). PHH is a disorder for which there is no known cure. Current medical and surgical treatment options for patients with PHH include anticoagulation, vasodilators and transplantation. Calcium channel antagonists are currently the oral drugs of choice for the treatment of patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II disease. These agents, in particular the dihydropyridine compounds, have beneficial effects on haemodynamics and right ventricular function, and possibly increased survival. Epoprostenol is administered by intravenous infusion, and studies have demonstrated short- and long-term improvements in symptoms, haemodynamics and

  12. The non-resolving lung cavity: a case of pulmonary cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Simon; Schembri, Emma Louise; Gauci, Jonathan; Mizzi, Adrian; Mallia Azzopardi, Charles; Micallef, Josef

    2017-07-31

    The authors report a case of a 20-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary cystic echinococcosis. She was admitted to hospital with a 1-week history of unresolving cough, coloured sputum with occasional haemoptysis and fever despite oral antibiotics. Radiology revealed a cavitating right lower lobe lung abscess. After 4 weeks of treatment, follow-up radiology showed incomplete resolution. Bronchoscopy revealed a white, avascular cystic lesion in the right lower lobe and serology testing for Echinococcus granulosus was positive. Repeat imaging eventually confirmed the cystic lesion with the 'air bubble'sign. A thorough travel history, a high index of clinical suspicion and close follow-up are essential in making a diagnosis of pulmonary cystic echinococcosis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of shock due to massive pulmonary embolism: approach with transesophageal echocardiography and intrapulmonary thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Krivec, B; Voga, G; Zuran, I; Skale, R; Pareznik, R; Podbregar, M; Noc, M

    1997-11-05

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as an initial diagnostic tool in shocked patients. The second objective was to study therapeutic impact of intrapulmonary thrombolysis in patients with diagnosed massive pulmonary embolism. Prospective observational study. Medical ICU in 800-bed general hospital. Twenty-four consecutive patients with unexplained shock and distended jugular veins. In 18 patients, right ventricular dilatation with global or segmental hypokinesis was documented. In addition, central pulmonary thromboemboli (12 patients), reduced contrast flow in right pulmonary artery (one patient), and right ventricular free wall akinesis (one patient) were found. No additional echocardiographic findings were apparent in four patients. According to pulmonary scintigraphy or autopsy, sensitivity of TEE for diagnosis of massive pulmonary embolism (MPE) in patients with right ventricular dilatation was 92% and specificity was 100%. In patients without right ventricular dilatation, left ventricular dysfunction (four patients) or cardiac tamponade (two patients) was confirmed. Intrapulmonary thrombolysis was evaluated in 11 of 13 patients with MPE. Two patients died prior to attempted thrombolysis. Three patients received streptokinase and eight received urokinase. Twenty-four hours after beginning of treatment, total pulmonary resistance index significantly decreased for 59% and mean pulmonary artery pressure for 31%. Cardiac index increased for 74%. Nine of 11 patients receiving thrombolysis survived to hospital discharge. Bedside TEE is a valuable tool for diagnosis of MPE. It enables immediate intrapulmonary thrombolysis, which seems to be an effective therapeutic alternative in our group of patients with obstructive shock.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Gláucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão; Marchiori, Edson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema.

  15. Change in forced vital capacity and associated subsequent outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, William M; Yu, Yanni F; Macaulay, Dendy; Wu, Eric Q; Nathan, Steven D

    2015-12-29

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare and serious disease characterized by progressive lung-function loss. Limited evidence has been published on the impact of lung-function loss on subsequent patient outcomes. This study examined change in forced vital capacity (FVC) across IPF patients in the 6 months after diagnosis and its association with clinical and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) outcomes in a real-world setting in the U.S. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with IPF by U.S. pulmonologists. Patient eligibility criteria included: 1) 40 years or older with a confirmed date of first IPF diagnosis with high-resolution computed tomography and/or lung biopsy between 01/2011 and 06/2013; 2) FVC results recorded at first diagnosis (±1 month) and at 6 months (±3 months) following diagnosis. Based on relative change in FVC percent predicted (FVC%), patients were categorized as stable (decline <5%), marginal decline (decline ≥5% and <10%), or significant decline (decline ≥10%). Physician-reported clinical and HRU outcomes were assessed from ~6 months post-diagnosis until the last contact date with the physician and compared between FVC% change groups. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models were constructed to assess risk of mortality, suspected acute exacerbation (AEx), and hospitalization post-FVC% change. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for multiple patients contributed by individual physicians. The sample included 490 IPF patients contributed by 168 pulmonologists. The mean (SD) age was 61 (11) years, 68% were male, and the mean (SD) baseline FVC% was 60% (26%). 250 (51%) patients were categorized as stable, 98 (20%) as marginal decline, and 142 (29%) as significant decline. The mean (SD) observation time was 583 (287) days. In both unadjusted analysis and multivariable models, significantly worse clinical outcomes and increased HRU were observed with greater lung-function decline. These

  16. Patient Factors Influencing Respiratory-Related Clinician Actions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Screening.

    PubMed

    Wadland, William C; Zubek, Valentina Bayer; Clerisme-Beaty, Emmanuelle M; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Yawn, Barbara P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patient-related factors that may explain the increased likelihood of receiving a respiratory-related clinician action in patients identified to be at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a U.S.-based pragmatic study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening. This post hoc analysis (conducted in 2014-2015) of the Screening, Evaluating and Assessing Rate Changes of Diagnosing Respiratory Conditions in Primary Care 1 (SEARCH1) study (conducted in 2010-2011), used the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Population Screener questionnaire in 112 primary care practices. Anyone with a previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis was excluded. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to assess patient factors associated with the likelihood of receiving an respiratory-related clinician action following positive screening. Overall, 994 of 6,497 (15%) screened positive and were considered at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, only 187 of the 994 patients (19%) who screened positive received a respiratory-related clinician action. The chances of receiving a respiratory-related clinician action were significantly increased in patients who visited their physician with a respiratory issue (p<0.05) or had already been prescribed a respiratory medication (p<0.05). Most (81%) patients who screened positive or had a respiratory-related clinician action had one or more comorbidity, including cardiovascular disease (68%), diabetes (30%), depression/anxiety (26%), asthma (11%), and cancer (9%). Routine chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening appears to promote respiratory-related clinician actions in patients with a high likelihood for disease who have respiratory complaints or already use prescribed respiratory medication. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors affecting the response to exercise in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Flox-Camacho, Angela; Escribano-Subías, Pilar; Jiménez-López Guarch, Carmen; Fernández-Vaquero, Almudena; Martín-Ríos, Dolores; de la Calzada-Campo, Carlos Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Ergospirometry objectively quantifies exercise capacity. Up until now, the response to exercise evaluated by ergospirometry in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension has only been described in recently diagnosed.patients. Our aim is to describe the response to exercise in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension under specific treatment and define which parameters determine their exercise capacity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 80 patients, 57 women, aged 45 (14), with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (48 idiopathic, 14 related to toxic rapeseed oil, 13 to connective tissue disease, 5 to human immunodeficiency virus), mean pulmonary pressure at diagnosis 61(15)mmHg and after 49(33) months under treatment since diagnosis. Biomarkers were measured and echocardiography and ergospirometry were performed the same day. Our patients, under specific treatment, showed the typical behaviour of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with less limitation of both aerobic capacity and ventilatory efficiency. Being male (p=0.004), high ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide at anaerobic threshold (p<0.001) or biomarkers (p=0.006) were the strongest predictors of impaired peak oxygen uptake in multivariate analysis, whereas for an impaired percentage achieved of predicted value were right ventricle diastolic diameter (p<0.001), months of treatment (p=0.01) and high ventilatory equivalent for CO(2) (p<0.001). In pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricle dysfunction (expressed by its dilation or high NTproBNP) and impaired ventilatory inefficiency as well as being male or a short time under treatment can be considered as determining factors of impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2010 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Interobserver variability for the WHO classification of pulmonary carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Dorian R A; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; den Bakker, Michael A; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Thunnissen, Frederik B J M; Volante, Marco; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Scheltinga, Marc R M; Bootsma, Gerben P; Pouwels, Harry M M; van den Borne, Ben E E M; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Speel, Ernst-Jan M

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors histopathologically subclassified into typical (TC; no necrosis, <2 mitoses per 2 mm) and atypical (AC; necrosis or 2 to 10 mitoses per 2 mm). The reproducibility of lung carcinoid classification, however, has not been extensively studied and may be hampered by the presence of pyknotic apoptosis mimicking mitotic figures. Furthermore, prediction of prognosis based on histopathology varies, especially for ACs. We examined the presence of interobserver variation between 5 experienced pulmonary pathologists who reviewed 123 originally diagnosed pulmonary carcinoid cases. The tumors were subsequently redistributed over 3 groups: unanimously classified cases, consensus cases (4/5 pathologists rendered identical diagnosis), and disagreement cases (divergent diagnosis by ≥2 assessors). κ-values were calculated, and results were correlated with clinical follow-up and molecular data. When focusing on the 114/123 cases unanimously classified as pulmonary carcinoids, the interobserver agreement was only fair (κ=0.32). Of these 114 cases, 55% were unanimously classified, 25% reached consensus classification, and for 19% there was no consensus. ACs were significantly more often in the latter category (P=0.00038). The designation of TCs and ACs by ≥3 assessors was not associated with prognosis (P=0.11). However, when disagreement cases were allocated on the basis of Ki-67 proliferative index (<5%; ≥5%) or nuclear orthopedia homeobox immunostaining (+; -), correlation with prognosis improved significantly (P=0.00040 and 0.0024, respectively). In conclusion, there is a considerable interobserver variation in the histopathologic classification of lung carcinoids, in particular concerning ACs. Additional immunomarkers such as Ki-67 or orthopedia homeobox may improve classification and prediction of prognosis.

  19. Effects of air pollution on children’s pulmonary health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaku, Afrim; Bejtja, Gazmend; Bala, Silvana; Toci, Ervin; Resuli, Jerina

    2011-12-01

    IntroductionMany reports regarding the effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health have appeared in the scientific literature. Some investigators found increases in persistent cough and phlegm, bronchitis, and early respiratory infections in communities with poor air quality. The purpose of this survey was to compare the pulmonary function of children living in urban area of Tirana city with children living in suburban area of the city. Material and methodsThis survey is carried out during 2004-2005 period on 238 children living in urban area and in 72 children living in suburban area, measuring dynamic pulmonary function. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sex, current respiratory symptoms, allergy diagnosed by the physician, parent education and smoking habit of parents, presence of animals, synthetic carpets and moulds in their houses. The selection of schools, and children included in this survey was done by randomized method. Also, we have measured and classic air pollutants. ResultsComparing the results of values of pulmonary function of two groups of children, we have shown that differences were significant ( p 0.001), whereas comparing symptoms were for cough ( p 0.011) and for phlegm ( p 0.032). The level of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended matter (TSP) were over the recommended limit values, whereas the levels of other pollutants have resulted within recommended levels of World Health Organization (WHO) ConclusionsThe results of this survey suggest that air pollution is associated with respiratory health of children causing a slight decrease in values of pulmonary function in children of urban area compared with those of suburban area.

  20. Dynamic contrast–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Condliffe, Robin; Marshall, Helen; Elliot, Charlie; Kiely, David G.; Wild, Jim M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dynamic contrast–enhanced (DCE) time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a technique whereby the passage of an intravenous contrast bolus can be tracked through the pulmonary vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of DCE-MR pulmonary blood transit times in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with PAH underwent pulmonary DCE imaging at 1.5 T using a time-resolved three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo sequence. The prognostic significance of two DCE parameters, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the first-pass clearance curve and pulmonary transit time (PTT), along with demographic and invasive catheter measurements, was evaluated by univariate and bivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. DCE-MR transit times were most closely correlated with cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and were both found to be accurate for detecting reduced CI (FWHM area under the curve [AUC] at receiver operating characteristic analysis = 0.91 and PTT AUC = 0.92, respectively) and for detecting elevated PVRI (FWHM AUC = 0.88 and PTT AUC = 0.84, respectively). During the follow-up period, 25 patients died. Patients with longer measurements of FWHM (P = 0.0014) and PTT (P = 0.004) were associated with poor outcome at Kaplan-Meier analysis, and both parameters were strong predictors of adverse outcome from Cox proportional hazards analysis (P = 0.013 and 0.010, respectively). At bivariate analysis, DCE measurements predicted mortality independent of age, gender, and World Health Organization functional class; however, invasive hemodynamic indexes CI, PVRI, and DCE measurements were not independent of one another. In conclusion, DCE-MR transit times predict mortality in patients with PAH and are closely associated with clinical gold standards CI and PVRI. PMID:25006422

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Swift, Andrew J; Telfer, Adam; Rajaram, Smitha; Condliffe, Robin; Marshall, Helen; Capener, Dave; Hurdman, Judith; Elliot, Charlie; Kiely, David G; Wild, Jim M

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a technique whereby the passage of an intravenous contrast bolus can be tracked through the pulmonary vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of DCE-MR pulmonary blood transit times in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with PAH underwent pulmonary DCE imaging at 1.5 T using a time-resolved three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo sequence. The prognostic significance of two DCE parameters, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the first-pass clearance curve and pulmonary transit time (PTT), along with demographic and invasive catheter measurements, was evaluated by univariate and bivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. DCE-MR transit times were most closely correlated with cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and were both found to be accurate for detecting reduced CI (FWHM area under the curve [AUC] at receiver operating characteristic analysis = 0.91 and PTT AUC = 0.92, respectively) and for detecting elevated PVRI (FWHM AUC = 0.88 and PTT AUC = 0.84, respectively). During the follow-up period, 25 patients died. Patients with longer measurements of FWHM (P = 0.0014) and PTT (P = 0.004) were associated with poor outcome at Kaplan-Meier analysis, and both parameters were strong predictors of adverse outcome from Cox proportional hazards analysis (P = 0.013 and 0.010, respectively). At bivariate analysis, DCE measurements predicted mortality independent of age, gender, and World Health Organization functional class; however, invasive hemodynamic indexes CI, PVRI, and DCE measurements were not independent of one another. In conclusion, DCE-MR transit times predict mortality in patients with PAH and are closely associated with clinical gold standards CI and PVRI.

  2. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    PubMed

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in community-based annual lung cancer screening: Chiba Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Lung Cancer Screening Study Group.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yasuo; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Suzuki, Kiminori; Tsutatani, Shuko; Kubota, Kazuko; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Isobe, Yuji; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is crucial in the management of COPD. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a community-based lung cancer screening for detecting COPD. In Japan, community-based lung cancer screening for residents who are 40 years or older using chest radiography is well established. A screening system in Chiba City, Japan, was used to detect COPD. The criteria to consider COPD at screening included age of 60 years or older, a smoking history and chronic respiratory symptoms. Participants fulfilling these criteria were referred for diagnostic evaluation consisting of pulmonary function testing (PFT) and chest computed tomography (CT). Of 89,100 Chiba City residents who underwent lung cancer screening, 72,653 residents were 60 years or older. Among them, 878 (1.0%) were identified with suspected COPD and referred for further evaluation. Of those identified, a total of 567 residents (64.6%, 567/878) underwent further evaluations, and 161 (28.4%) were reported to have COPD, with 38.5% of them requiring COPD treatment. To verify the diagnoses from the secondary evaluation centres, PFT and CT data were collected from 228 study participants, and 24.9% were diagnosed with COPD. CT findings classified according to the Goddard classification revealed that 20.1% of these participants had moderate to severe emphysema. COPD screening added to a community-based lung cancer screening programme may be effective in the detection of patients with COPD. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Right ventricular morphology and function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients living at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Erer, Hatice Betül; Kul, Seref; Perinçek, Gökhan; Ilhan, Sami; Sayar, Nurten; Yıldırım, Binnaz Zeynep; Doğan, Coşkun; Karabağ, Yavuz; Balcı, Bahattin; Eren, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vasculature is affected in patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). As a result of increased pulmonary resistance, right ventricular morphology and function are altered in COPD patients. High altitude and related hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction, thereby affecting the right ventricle. We aimed to investigate the combined effects of COPD and altitude-related chronic hypoxia on right ventricular morphology and function. Forty COPD patients living at high altitude (1768 m) and 41 COPD patients living at sea level were enrolled in the study. All participants were diagnosed as COPD by a pulmonary diseases specialist depending on symptoms, radiologic findings and pulmonary function test results. Detailed two-dimensional echocardiography was performed by a cardiologist at both study locations. Oxygen saturation and mean pulmonary artery pressure were higher in the high altitude group. Right ventricular end diastolic diameter, end systolic diameter, height and end systolic area were significantly higher in the high altitude group compared to the sea level group. Parameters of systolic function, including tricuspid annular systolic excursion, systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus and right ventricular isovolumic acceleration were similar between groups, while fractional area change was significantly higher in the sea level groups compared to the high altitude group. Indices of diastolic function and myocardial performance index were similar between groups. An increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular dimensions are observed in COPD patients living at high altitude. Despite this increase, systolic and diastolic functions of the right ventricle, as well as global right ventricular performance are similar in COPD patients living at high altitude and sea level. Altitude-related adaptation to chronic hypoxia could explain these findings. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic

  5. Pulmonary Angiography and Embolization for Severe Hemoptysis Due to Cavitary Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyika, Charles; Corr, Peter; Royston, Duncan

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To identify the role of pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis and treatment of severe hemoptysis due to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Selective pulmonary angiography was performed on eight patients with severe hemoptysis uncontrolled by previous bronchial and systemic arterial embolization. Results: Three (38%) patients had Rasmussen aneurysms, which were successfully embolized with steel coils. Five patients demonstrated pulmonary arterial hypoperfusion in the diseased lung. Conclusions: We recommend pulmonary angiography in cavitary tuberculous patients with severe hemoptysis who do not respond to systemic arterial embolization. Rasmussen aneurysms are effectively treated by steel coil occlusion.

  6. A case of sudden onset of thyroid storm just before cesarean section manifesting congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Ryusuke; Yoshiyama, Yuki; Ichino, Takashi; Hishinuma, Norimasa; Shimizu, Sari; Imai, Noriko; Mitsuzawa, Kunihiro; Kawamata, Mikito

    2017-01-01

    Since acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a life-threatening complication, particularly in the gestational period, differential diagnosis and rapid treatment are required. Among the various causes of sudden onset of ARF, thyroid storm is a rare cause in a parturient complicated with well-controlled hyperthyroidism. In this case report, we describe a parturient with hyperthyroidism in whom a thyroid storm manifesting congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema developed just before an emergency ceasarean section, even though hyperthyroidism was well-controlled with antithyroid drugs. A 36-year-old pregnant woman was diagnosed as having clinical chorioamnionitis, and an emergency cesarean section was performed at 25 weeks of pregnancy. She had a complication of hyperthyroidism accompanied by mild mitral regurgitation, and she had been treated with methimazole. She was treated with ritodrine and MgSO 4 for the threat of premature delivery. At the preoperative consultation, her percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) was 98% on room air. When she was admitted to the operating room, her heart rate and blood pressure were 130 beats/min and 196/78 mmHg, respectively. SpO 2 was 88% on room air without any symptoms; however, just after starting oxygen administration via a facemask, she complained of severe respiratory distress and became agitated. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen was 108 mmHg with an inspiratory oxygen fraction of 1.0. Chest radiography revealed pulmonary congestion, and transesophageal echocardiography revealed normal right ventricular function without an embolus and severe mitral regurgitation with preserved left ventricular function. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography after the operation revealed no pulmonary embolus but revealed a pulmonary effusion, and free triiodothyronine level was increased at the onset of dyspnea. Therefore, we diagnosed the causes of sudden onset of dyspnea as pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure induced by a

  7. Role of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in pulmonary nodule management

    PubMed Central

    Dahagam, Chanukya; Breen, David P.; Sarkar, Saiyad

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pulmonary nodules and lung cancer is rising. Some of this increase in incidence is due to improved pick up by newer imaging modalities. However, the goal is to diagnose these lesion, many of which are located in the periphery, by safe and relatively non-invasive methods. This has led to the emergence of numerous techniques such as electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB). Current evidence supports a role for these techniques in the diagnostic pathway. However, numerous factor influence the diagnostic accuracy. Thus despite significant advances, more research needs to be undertaken to further improve the currently available diagnostic technologies. PMID:27606080

  8. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by nested polymerase chain reaction in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens* ,**

    PubMed Central

    Furini, Adriana Antônia da Cruz; Pedro, Heloisa da Silveira Paro; Rodrigues, Jean Francisco; Montenegro, Lilian Maria Lapa; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Franco, Célia; Schindler, Haiana Charifker; Batista, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias; Rossit, Andrea Regina Baptista

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) with that of cultures in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. METHODS: We analyzed 20 and 78 pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens, respectively, of 67 hospitalized patients suspected of having tuberculosis. An automated microbial system was used for the identification of Mycobacterium spp. cultures, and M. tuberculosis IS6110 was used as the target sequence in the NPCR. The kappa statistic was used in order to assess the level of agreement among the results. RESULTS: Among the 67 patients, 6 and 5, respectively, were diagnosed with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the NPCR was positive in all of the cases. Among the 98 clinical specimens, smear microscopy, culture, and NPCR were positive in 6.00%, 8.16%, and 13.26%, respectively. Comparing the results of NPCR with those of cultures (the gold standard), we found that NPCR had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively, in pulmonary specimens, compared with 83% and 96%, respectively, in extrapulmonary specimens, with good concordance between the tests (kappa, 0.50 and 0.6867, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although NPCR proved to be a very useful tool for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex, clinical, epidemiological, and other laboratory data should also be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:24473765

  9. [Assessment of the characteristics of echocardiography in pediatric patients with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-ping; Ye, Jing-jing; He, Jin; Zhao, Lei; Peng, Xue-hui; He, Yu; Yang, Xiu-zhen

    2006-07-01

    To assess the accuracy of echocardiography in diagnosis of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). A combination of suprasternal, parasternal, subcostal and apical views were employed to diagnose TAPVC and to trace the course of the anomalous pulmonary venous connection, the direction of the inter-atrial shunt, enlargement of right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV), superior and inferior vena cava. All pediatric patients underwent surgical repair. The results of echocardiography were compared with surgical findings. A total of 28 consecutive pediatric patients with suspected TAPVC were included in this study. The TAPVC diagnosis was confirmed in 26 cases after surgery, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) in one case, and Cor Triatriatum and possible TAPVC in another. The diagnostic accuracy of TAPVC by echocardiography in the study was 92.86%. There were 17 supracardiac TAPVC, 11 intracardiac TAPVC. In all patients, enlargement of the RA and RV, inter-atrial right-to-left shunt via atrial septal defects were documented in parasternal and subcostal views. Common pulmonary vein or four pulmonary vein direct to RA or via coronary sinus to RA were the draining sites of intracardiac TAPVC. The enlargement of left innominate vein-right superior vena cava draining to RA was seen in supracardiac TAPVC. A combination of suprasternal and subcostal multi-views in echocardiography can increase the diagnostic accuracy of TAPVC in pediatric patients.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Renal Denervation on Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Qingyan, Zhao; Xuejun, Jiang; Yanhong, Tang; Zixuan, Dai; Xiaozhan, Wang; Xule, Wang; Zongwen, Guo; Wei, Hu; Shengbo, Yu; Congxin, Huang

    2015-07-01

    Activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that renal denervation decreases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity and inhibits the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty-two beagles were randomized into 3 groups. The dogs' pulmonary dynamics were measured before and 8 weeks after injection of 0.1mL/kg dimethylformamide (control dogs) or 2mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs). Eight weeks after injection, neurohormone levels and pulmonary tissue morphology were measured. Levels of plasma angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were significantly increased after 8 weeks in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs and were higher in the lung tissues of these dogs than in those of the control and renal denervation dogs (mean [standard deviation] angiotensin II: 65 [9.8] vs 38 [6.7], 46 [8.1]; endothelin-1: 96 [10.3] vs 54 [6.2], 67 [9.4]; P < .01). Dehydromonocrotaline increased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (16 [3.4] mmHg vs 33 [7.3] mmHg; P < .01), and renal denervation prevented this increase. Pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation was higher in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs than in the control and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs. Renal denervation attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension. The effect of renal denervation may contribute to decreased neurohormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients with interstitial pneumonia: a single-centre prospective study assessing PCR-based diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Cabanne, Églantine; Franck-Martel, Claire; Gombert, Martin; Gyan, Emmanuel; Lissandre, Séverine; Renaud, Marc; Monjanel, Hélène; Dartigeas, Caroline; Bailly, Éric; Van Langendonck, Nathalie; Chandenier, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary toxoplasmosis has become a very rare parasitic infection since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies. It is generally diagnosed by the direct microscopic observation of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The aim of this study was to assess possible improvements in diagnostic performance associated with the use of real-time PCR. This prospective study was carried out on BALFs obtained from immunocompromised patients over a 2-year period. We systematically compared the results of conventional staining with those of molecular detection. Two cases of pulmonary toxoplasmosis were diagnosed for a total of 336 samples. PCR did not detect any additional cases and was more time-consuming than conventional staining. Conventional staining is a reliable technique and is probably the most appropriate method for experienced microbiology laboratories, whereas T. gondii-specific PCR may be useful for laboratories with less experience in parasitology. 2015_030, May 27th 2015. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Prevalence of incidental pulmonary nodules on computed tomography of the thorax in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, G; Cao, J; Gumm, K; Irving, L; Steinfort, D

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the third leading cause of death in high-income countries. Early detection leads to improved clinical outcomes, with evidence showing that lung cancer screening reduces lung cancer mortality. Knowledge of the population prevalence of pulmonary nodules affects the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a local screening programme. We performed a retrospective review of our trauma database looking for the prevalence of incidental pulmonary nodules on computed tomography of the thorax. Prevalence of nodules and follow up according to Fleischner Guidelines were reviewed. Two hundred and forty-eight patients underwent a computed tomography thorax as part of their trauma assessment. 8.5% (21/248) had incidental pulmonary nodules. Eighty-one per cent of these (17/21) required follow up according to the Fleischner Society Guidelines. One was subsequently diagnosed with primary lung cancer, one with metastatic sigmoid cancer and one with invasive aspergillus. Incidental pulmonary nodules are common in the general population. This has implications for possible lung cancer screening recommendations in the Australian population. Referral and/or review systems are essential to ensure adequate follow up of incidental findings, as it is likely some patients are not receiving adequate follow up at present. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings between those with pulmonary tuberculosis and those with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Chunpongthong, Pongsak; Phojanamongkolkij, Kamol; Jitruckthai, Pasakorn; Kasetjaroen, Yuttichai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    In tuberculosis endemic areas, patients with sputum positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are usually diagnosed and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is often ascertained only after lung disease progression occurs, increasing the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. We conducted a matched case-control study among a prospective cohort of 300 patients with newly diagnosed AFB-positive sputum in Thailand during 2010-2012. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, NTM lung disease and NTM colonization. A mycobacterial culture was performed in all patients. Ten patients with NTM lung disease were compared to 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 patients with NTM colonization. The presence of diabetes mellitus or human immunodeficiency virus infection, were associated with NTM lung disease (p = 0.030). Patients with NTM lung disease had a significantly lower body weight prior to treatment (p = 0.021), a higher body weight change from baseline (p = 0.038), and were more likely to have cavitations on chest radiograph (p = 0.033) than those with NTM colonization. In tuberculosis endemic areas, mycobacterial identification should be performed among patients with impaired immune function. NTM lung disease treatment should be considered in patients with NTM sputum isolates who have a history of significant weight loss or cavitations on chest radiography.

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Herbicide Exposure in Vietnam-Era U.S. Army Chemical Corps Veterans.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Yasmin; Hines, Stella E; Davey, Victoria J; Eber, Stephanie M; Schneiderman, Aaron I

    2018-04-01

    Past research demonstrates a possible association between herbicide exposure and respiratory health. Biologic plausibility and inhalation as a mode of exposure further support the contention that herbicides may act as adverse contributors to respiratory status, especially in military personnel who were responsible for chemical maintenance and distribution during the Vietnam War. This study examines the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and herbicide exposure among Vietnam-era U.S. Army Chemical Corps veterans. A 2013 three-phase health study was conducted that included a survey (mail or telephone), in-home physical examinations, and medical record reviews/abstractions. Living, eligible veterans (n = 4,027) were identified using an existing cohort of men (n = 5,609) who either served in Vietnam (n = 2,872) or never served in Southeast Asia (n = 2,737). The health survey collected self-reported data on physician-diagnosed pulmonary conditions (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis), service-related herbicide spraying history, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and demographics. Data from service personnel files confirmed chemical operations involvement and service status, whereas serum samples analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin supported self-reported herbicide exposure. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health quality-assured spirometry was performed during the physical examinations on a subset of survey respondents (n = 468 of 733 selected for participation and who provided consent) to determine mainly spirometric obstructive respiratory disease (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ]/forced vital capacity [FVC] < lower limit of normal [LLN], FVC ≥ LLN, and FEV 1  < LLN; and FEV 1 /FVC < LLN and FEV 1  ≥ LLN). Associations between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and veteran characteristics were examined (n = 403

  15. Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor for death in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gladwin, Mark T; Sachdev, Vandana; Jison, Maria L; Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Plehn, Jonathan F; Minter, Karin; Brown, Bernice; Coles, Wynona A; Nichols, James S; Ernst, Inez; Hunter, Lori A; Blackwelder, William C; Schechter, Alan N; Rodgers, Griffin P; Castro, Oswaldo; Ognibene, Frederick P

    2004-02-26

    The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease, the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significance are unknown. We performed Doppler echocardiographic assessments of pulmonary-artery systolic pressure in 195 consecutive patients (82 men and 113 women; mean [+/-SD] age, 36+/-12 years). Pulmonary hypertension was prospectively defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second. Patients were followed for a mean of 18 months, and data were censored at the time of death or loss to follow-up. Doppler-defined pulmonary hypertension occurred in 32 percent of patients. Multiple logistic-regression analysis, with the use of the dichotomous variable of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of less than 2.5 m per second or 2.5 m per second or more, identified a self-reported history of cardiovascular or renal complications, increased systolic blood pressure, high lactate dehydrogenase levels (a marker of hemolysis), high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and low transferrin levels as significant independent correlates of pulmonary hypertension. The fetal hemoglobin level, white-cell count, and platelet count and the use of hydroxyurea therapy were unrelated to pulmonary hypertension. A tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second, as compared with a velocity of less than 2.5 m per second, was strongly associated with an increased risk of death (rate ratio, 10.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 47.0; P<0.001) and remained so after adjustment for other possible risk factors in a proportional-hazards regression model. Pulmonary hypertension, diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography, is common in adults with sickle cell disease. It appears to be a complication of chronic hemolysis, is resistant to hydroxyurea therapy, and confers a high risk of death. Therapeutic trials targeting this population of patients are indicated. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society

  16. Comparison of Linear and Non-linear Regression Analysis to Determine Pulmonary Pressure in Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Scarneciu, Camelia C; Sangeorzan, Livia; Rus, Horatiu; Scarneciu, Vlad D; Varciu, Mihai S; Andreescu, Oana; Scarneciu, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) at newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and at finding a simple model showing the complex functional relation between pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors causing it. The 53 hyperthyroid patients (H-group) were evaluated mainly by using an echocardiographical method and compared with 35 euthyroid (E-group) and 25 healthy people (C-group). In order to identify the factors causing pulmonary hypertension the statistical method of comparing the values of arithmetical means is used. The functional relation between the two random variables (PAPs and each of the factors determining it within our research study) can be expressed by linear or non-linear function. By applying the linear regression method described by a first-degree equation the line of regression (linear model) has been determined; by applying the non-linear regression method described by a second degree equation, a parabola-type curve of regression (non-linear or polynomial model) has been determined. We made the comparison and the validation of these two models by calculating the determination coefficient (criterion 1), the comparison of residuals (criterion 2), application of AIC criterion (criterion 3) and use of F-test (criterion 4). From the H-group, 47% have pulmonary hypertension completely reversible when obtaining euthyroidism. The factors causing pulmonary hypertension were identified: previously known- level of free thyroxin, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac output; new factors identified in this study- pretreatment period, age, systolic blood pressure. According to the four criteria and to the clinical judgment, we consider that the polynomial model (graphically parabola- type) is better than the linear one. The better model showing the functional relation between the pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors identified in this study is given by a polynomial equation of second

  17. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Običan, Sarah G; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subset of pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by an underlying disorder of the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Pulmonary hypertension can also occur secondarily to structural cardiac disease, autoimmune disorders, and toxic exposures. Although pregnancies affected by pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension are rare, the pathophysiology exacerbated by pregnancy confers both high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In light of new treatment modalities and the use of a multidisciplinary approach to care, maternal outcomes may be improving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  19. Characterization of Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Claudie; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Mallette, Valérie; Lemière, Catherine; Larivée, Pierre; Blais, Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 15-20% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) also display characteristics of asthma. In May 2014, the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was briefly addressed in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy documents. We evaluated how pulmonologists diagnose and treat ACOS and how they assess its control. Pulmonologists from two university healthcare centers, having ≥ 1 year experience, treating patients with asthma, COPD, or ACOS, were invited to participate in focus groups. Two focus groups (1 hour duration) were convened with seven and five participants, respectively. According to pulmonologists from both institutions, ACOS is a new name for an existing syndrome rather than a new disease. It is characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitations and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second over time. The pulmonologists noted that its diagnosis must be based on clinical characteristics, pulmonary function test results, and clinical intuition. To diagnose ACOS, pulmonologists must rely on their clinical judgment. They also agreed that the treatment of patients with ACOS should target the features of both asthma and COPD. Pulmonologists from both institutions used asthma control criteria to assess ACOS control. A deeper understanding would enable clinicians to establish specific criteria for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of subjects with ACOS.

  20. Pulmonary Histoplasmosis in a Japanese Man Infected During Travel to Mexico and Management of His Wife's Condition: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asahata-Tago, Sayaka; Hirai, Yuji; Ainoda, Yusuke; Fujita, Takahiro; Muraosa, Yasunori; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Wakayama, Megumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Kikuchi, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We report herein on the case of a 33-year-old Japanese man in whom an abnormal shadow was detected on chest radiography during a medical checkup after a 1-year-stay in Mexico. Chest computed tomography showed a nodule in the left lower lobe adjacent to the visceral pleura. Histopathologic examination of a thoracoscopic partial pulmonary resection specimen showed coagulation necrosis with a number of yeast-like forms on Grocott staining. In addition, serum anti-Histoplasma antibody positivity was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Histoplasma-specific nested real-time polymerase chain reaction results were positive in the pulmonary region. Finally, pulmonary histoplasmosis was diagnosed, and treatment with itraconazole was initiated. The patient's wife who had accompanied him to Mexico was asymptomatic and was not found to have histoplasmosis based on diagnostic imaging and serological findings. Although rare in Japan, histoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary lesions in patients who have returned from travel to endemic areas.

  1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Tucumán province associated to an unexpected viral genotype.

    PubMed

    Ciancaglini, Matías; Bellomo, Carla M; Torres Cabreros, Clara L; Alonso, Daniel; Bassi, Sabrina C; Iglesias, Ayelén A; Martínez, Valeria P

    2017-01-01

    We describe the characterization of the viral genotype involved in the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reported in Tucumán, a Northwestern province of Argentina. A 23-year-old woman, with no record of travel history and previously diagnosed with an antiphospholipid syndrome, died after 11 days of severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Among the four endemic regions of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, the Northwest Region has the highest incidence, exceeding 50% of all reported cases in the country. Until now, only Salta and Jujuy (2 out of the 6 provinces composing the Northwest Region), reported cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, all of which occurred in the Yungas Forest area. Remarkably, the viral genotype characterized in this case showed higher nucleotide identity with the Andes-BsAs genotype most prevalent in Buenos Aires province, located 1400 km apart from Tucumán, than with any of the commonly found genotypes in the Northwest Region. The Andes-BsAs genotype has been associated with 30% lethality and interhuman transmission in Buenos Aires province. Interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out in the present case.

  2. Impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the long-term outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Filippi, Lucia; Palla, Antonio; Visonà, Adriana; Bova, Carlo; Marzolo, Marco; Porro, Fernando; Villalta, Sabina; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Bucherini, Eugenio; Nante, Giovanni; Battistelli, Sandra; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Beltramello, Giampietro; Prisco, Domenico; Casazza, Franco; Ageno, Walter; Palareti, Gualtiero; Quintavalla, Roberto; Monti, Simonetta; Mumoli, Nicola; Zanatta, Nello; Cappelli, Roberto; Cattaneo, Marco; Moretti, Valentino; Corà, Francesco; Bazzan, Mario; Ghirarduzzi, Angelo; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Miniati, Massimo; Prandoni, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    The impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism is uncertain.We recruited 647 consecutive symptomatic patients with a first episode of pulmonary embolism, with or without concomitant deep venous thrombosis. They received conventional anticoagulation, were assessed for residual pulmonary obstruction through perfusion lung scanning after 6 months and then were followed up for up to 3 years. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were assessed according to widely accepted criteria.Residual pulmonary obstruction was detected in 324 patients (50.1%, 95% CI 46.2-54.0%). Patients with residual pulmonary obstruction were more likely to be older and to have an unprovoked episode. After a 3-year follow-up, recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension developed in 34 out of the 324 patients (10.5%) with residual pulmonary obstruction and in 15 out of the 323 patients (4.6%) without residual pulmonary obstruction, leading to an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.26 (95% CI 1.23-4.16).Residual pulmonary obstruction, as detected with perfusion lung scanning at 6 months after a first episode of pulmonary embolism, is an independent predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  3. First case of Pseudoclavibacter bifida bacteremia in an immunocompromised host with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Oyaert, Matthijs; De Baere, Thierry; Breyne, Joke; De Laere, Emmanuel; Mariën, Stan; Waets, Peter; Laffut, Wim

    2013-06-01

    Pseudoclavibacter spp. are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family of Microbacteriaceae. Identification of these species with conventional biochemical assays is difficult. This case report of a Pseudoclavibacter bifida bacteremia occurring in an immunocompromised host diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a lethal outcome, confirms that this organism may be a human pathogen.

  4. Pulmonary veins in the normal lung and pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James M.; Bethea, Brian; Liu, Xiang; Gandjeva, Aneta; Mammen, Pradeep P. A.; Stacher, Elvira; Gandjeva, Marina R.; Parish, Elisabeth; Perez, Mario; Smith, Lynelle; Graham, Brian B.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of pulmonary veins in normal lung physiology and the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD), pulmonary veins remain largely understudied. Difficult to identify histologically, lung venous endothelium or smooth muscle cells display no unique characteristic functional and structural markers that distinguish them from pulmonary arteries. To address these challenges, we undertook a search for unique molecular markers in pulmonary veins. In addition, we addressed the expression pattern of a candidate molecular marker and analyzed the structural pattern of vascular remodeling of pulmonary veins in a rodent model of PH-LHD and in lung tissue of patients with PH-LHD obtained at time of placement on a left ventricular assist device. We detected urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression preferentially in normal pulmonary veins of mice, rats, and human lungs. Expression of uPAR remained elevated in pulmonary veins of rats with PH-LHD; however, we also detected induction of uPAR expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries. These findings were validated in lungs of patients with PH-LHD. In selected patients with sequential lung biopsy at the time of removal of the left ventricular assist device, we present early data suggesting improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and venous remodeling, indicating potential regression of venous remodeling in response to assist device treatment. Our data indicate that remodeling of pulmonary veins is an integral part of PH-LHD and that pulmonary veins share some key features present in remodeled yet not normotensive pulmonary arteries. PMID:24039255

  5. Current topics in surgery for isolated total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Fukahara, Kazuaki; Yamashita, Akio; Doki, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Katsunori; Higuma, Tomonori; Senda, Kazutaka; Toge, Masayoshi; Matsuo, Tatsuro; Nagura, Saori; Aoki, Masaya; Sakata, Kimimasa; Obi, Hayato

    2014-12-01

    Surgical correction of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) remains a challenge, with reported early mortality rates of up to 20%. In this review article, we describe several topics, including surgery for neonates, diagnoses with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and primary sutureless repair. Several studies have reported mortality rates of around 10%, and demonstrated unchanged hospital mortality in neonates, despite improvement of the overall mortality of cohorts including older patients. Previous reports identified a low body weight at the time of the operation, preoperative pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO), and a prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time as risk factors for hospital mortality. With the development of new technologies, MDCT has become a good diagnostic modality for use in the pre- and post-operative evaluation. MDCT delineates the drainage site of the vertical vein and the atypical vessel into the systemic vein, and it can also evaluate the existence of obstruction in the vertical vein. Following favorable experiences with post-repair PVO, the indications for sutureless repair as a primary operation have been expanded for infants, including those at risk of developing PVO after the repair of TAPVC. Primary sutureless repair has proven especially useful for difficult patient groups, such as those with congenital PVO, infracardiac TAPVC with small pulmonary veins, or mixed-type TAPVC.

  6. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome With a Novel Missense COL3A1 Mutation Present With Pulmonary Complications and Iliac Arterial Dissection.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guangchao; Yang, Hang; Cui, Lijia; Fu, Yuanyuan; Li, Fangda; Zhou, Zhou; Zheng, Yuehong

    2018-02-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a life-threatening connective tissue disorder due to its high tendency of arterial and organ rupture. Pulmonary complications in vEDS are rare. We present a young male patient with vEDS who developed severe pulmonary complications and severe rupture of the iliac artery at different stages of his life. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations and confirmed by the identification of COL3A1 gene mutation. Due to high bleeding tendency and weak cardiopulmonary capacity, conservative treatment was taken for him. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vEDS case in which the patient developed both pulmonary complications and dissection of large arteries. Our report emphasizes the importance of considering vEDS when an adolescent develops unexplained pulmonary cysts with fragility of lung tissues. Genetic counseling and close monitoring should be performed for earlier diagnosis and prevention of severe complications of large arteries. The typical presentations of vEDS were also discussed by means of a review of case reports on vEDS with pulmonary complications.

  7. Pulmonary artery relative area change detects mild elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance and predicts adverse outcome in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Swift, Andrew J; Rajaram, Smitha; Condliffe, Robin; Capener, Dave; Hurdman, Judith; Elliot, Charlie; Kiely, David G; Wild, Jim M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of magnetic resonance imaging measurements related to pulmonary artery stiffness in the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension (PH). A total of 134 patients with suspected PH underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) and magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-T scanner within 2 days. Phase contrast imaging at the pulmonary artery trunk and cine cardiac views were acquired. Pulmonary artery area change (AC), relative AC (RAC), compliance (AC/pulse pressure from RHC), distensibility (RAC/pulse pressure from RHC), right ventricular functional indices, and right ventricular mass were all derived. Regression curve fitting identified the statistical model of best fit between RHC measurements and pulmonary artery stiffness indices. The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of noninvasive AC and RAC were also assessed. The relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery RAC was best reflected by an inverse linear model. Patients with mild elevation in pulmonary vascular resistance (<4 Woods units) demonstrated reduced RAC (P = 0.02) and increased right ventricular mass index (P < 0.0001) without significant loss of right ventricular function (P = 0.17). At follow-up of 0 to 40 months, 18 patients with PH had died (16%). Analysis of Kaplan-Meier plots showed that both AC and RAC predicted mortality (log-rank test, P = 0.046 and P = 0.012, respectively). Area change and RAC were also predictors of mortality using univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (P = 0.046 and P = 0.03, respectively). Noninvasive assessment of pulmonary artery RAC is a marker sensitive to early increased vascular resistance in PH and is a predictor of adverse outcome.

  8. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Francis C; D'Alonzo, Gilbert

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of sarcoidosis. This review discusses clinical characteristics of patients with sarcoid-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) and pitfalls in the diagnosis, and highlights potential therapies. SAPH is common in patients with advanced disease, but it can occur in patients with minimal disease burden. Risk factors for SAPH include restrictive lung physiology, hypoxemia, advanced Scadding chest X-ray stage, and low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. Echocardiogram is a good initial screening tool in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension, but right heart catheterization is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment with pulmonary vasodilators, including endothelin antagonists, can lead to improvements in pulmonary hemodynamics in some patients but may not improve their exercise capacity. Forced vital capacity is an important predictor of exercise performance in patients with SAPH. Clinical observations and response to specific therapies for pulmonary hypertension suggest the presence of different SAPH phenotypes. Patients who complain of persistent dyspnea should be screened for the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The prognosis of SAPH is poor and it is prudent to consider referral of these patients for lung transplantation. In some patients with SAPH, treatment with anti-inflammatory agents and pulmonary vasodilators can lower pulmonary arterial pressures, improve dyspnea and functionality, and enhance overall quality of life.

  9. Amyloidosis diagnosed in cytology specimen of pleural effusion: A case report.

    PubMed

    Manur, Rashmi; Lamzabi, Ihab

    2018-06-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare condition resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid, a fibrillary material derived from various precursor proteins. Involvement of the pleura by amyloidosis is a rare but serious complication. Pleural amyloidosis is primarily diagnosed by identifying amyloid deposition by histology on pleural biopsy specimens. Hereby, we report a case of systemic amyloidosis where we were able to identify amyloid in a pleural effusion specimen sent for cytopathology evaluation. A 59-year-old male with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and systemic amyloidosis underwent therapeutic thoracentesis. The H&E stained cell block sections revealed a single, less than one millimeter focus of waxy material surrounded by a rim of reactive mesothelial cells suspicious for amyloid deposit in a background of fibrin, lymphocytes, and reactive mesothelial cells. The focus stained salmon pink with Congo-red special stain and showed apple-green birefringence under polarized light. Our finding suggests that pleural involvement in patients with systemic amyloidosis can be identified on effusion specimens and avert the need for more invasive procedures like pleural or pulmonary parenchymal biopsies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nutrient supplementation as adjunct therapy in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    2004-03-01

    The study examined the effect of supplementation with multivitamins and trace elements on microbiological and radiological recovery in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Forty-four patients aged 28-50 years were diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis based on X-ray of the chest and smear examination of the sputum for the presence of acid-fast bacilli. They were all treated for six months with a standard anti-tuberculosis regimen that has been found to be effective worldwide for disease control. The subjects were randomized to receive either a multivitamin-trace element supplement or a placebo containing calcium. The two groups were matched on all relevant confounding variables. At two months into the treatment, the group that was supplemented with a multivitamin-trace element preparation showed a significant reduction in the number of individuals with sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacillus: two out of 22 individuals, compared with seven out of 22 among placebo-treated controls (p = 0.028, Fisher's test). It is concluded that patients with tuberculosis should be supplemented with a suitable micronutrient preparation that contains optimum amounts of all vitamins and trace elements that have been documented to enhance the immune response.

  11. Examining the Reading Level of Internet Medical Information for Common Internal Medicine Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Nora; Baird, Grayson L; Garg, Megha

    2016-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that health materials be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, which has generally not been achieved in online reading materials. Up to the present time, there have not been any assessments focused on the reading level of online educational materials across the most popular consumer Web sites for common internal medicine diagnoses. In this study, we examined the readability of open-access online health information for 9 common internal medicine diagnoses. Nine of the most frequently encountered inpatient and ambulatory internal medicine diagnoses were selected for analysis. In November and December 2014, these diagnoses were used as search terms in Google, and the top 5 Web sites across all diagnoses and a diagnosis-specific site were analyzed across 5 validated reading indices. On average, the lowest reading grade-level content was provided by the NIH (10.7), followed by WebMD (10.9), Mayo Clinic (11.3), and diagnosis-specific Web sites (11.5). Conversely, Wikipedia provided content that required the highest grade-level readability (14.6). The diagnoses with the lowest reading grade levels were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10.8), followed by diabetes (10.9), congestive heart failure (11.7), osteoporosis (11.7) and hypertension (11.7). Depression had the highest grade-level readability (13.8). Despite recommendations for patient health information to be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, our examination of online educational materials pertaining to 9 common internal medicine diagnoses revealed reading levels significantly above the NIH recommendation. This was seen across both diagnosis-specific and general Web sites. There is a need to improve the readability of online educational materials made available to patients. These improvements have the potential to greatly enhance patient awareness, engagement, and physician-patient communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The clinical presentations of pulmonary aspergillosis in children with cystic fibrosis - preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Walicka-Serzysko, Katarzyna; Sands, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a very serious complication in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients due to the great variety of its clinical presentations and the fact that it worsens the prognosis. We can distinguish the following: Aspergillus colonization (AC), Aspergillus infection (AI) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Aspergillus colonization (AC) is defined as isolation of Aspergillus spp. from 50% ormore sputum samples over six months to one year without observing deterioration in lung function and an increase in such respiratory symptoms as cough. Aspergillus infection (AI) is diagnosed in subjects with Aspergillus colonization and a decline in lung function, respiratory exacerbation with and without cough or with an incomplete response to a 2-4 week course of appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics. Aspergillus can also cause allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The classic diagnostic criteria of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis have been established during the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Conference in 2001. To establish the prevalence of pulmonary aspergillosis in children with cystic fibrosis under the care of our centre and to investigate the potential predisposing factors to Aspergillus infection (AI) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). An analysis was conducted of the medical documentation of 374 children aged 0-18 years monitored regularly in the Cystic Fibrosis Centre of the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw from 01.01.2010 to 31.08.2014. We selected 13 patients who presented an evidently worsening clinical status and course of the bronchopulmonary disease (decline in lung function parameters, respiratory exacerbations with increased cough, new or recent abnormalities in chest imaging) despite standard treatment with a high calorie diet, supplementation of pancreatic enzymes and vitamins, dornase alpha, inhaled and/or oral antibiotics, inhaled or oral corticosteroids, bronchodilators

  13. Management of Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism Patients Without Hospitalization: The Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism Prospective Management Study.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Joseph R; Woller, Scott C; Stevens, Scott M; Aston, Valerie; Patten, Rich; Allen, Todd; Horne, Benjamin D; Dong, Lydia; Lloyd, James; Snow, Greg; Madsen, Troy; Elliott, C Gregory

    2018-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of managing patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) without hospitalization requires objective data from US medical centers. We sought to determine the 90-day composite rate of recurrent symptomatic VTE, major bleeding events, and all-cause mortality among consecutive patients diagnosed with acute low-risk PE managed without inpatient hospitalization; and to measure patient satisfaction. We performed a prospective cohort single-arm management study conducted from January 2013 to October 2016 in five EDs. We enrolled 200 consecutive adults diagnosed with objectively confirmed acute PE and assessed to have a low risk for mortality using the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) score (< 86), echocardiography, and whole-leg compression ultrasound (CUS). The primary intervention was observation in the ED or hospital (observation status) for > 12 to < 24 h, followed by outpatient management with Food and Drug Administration-approved therapeutic anticoagulation. Patients were excluded for a PESI ≥ 86, echocardiographic signs of right heart strain, DVT proximal to the popliteal vein, hypoxia, hypotension, hepatic or renal failure, contraindication to therapeutic anticoagulation, or another condition requiring hospital admission. The primary outcome was 90-day composite rate of all-cause mortality, recurrent symptomatic VTE, and major bleeding. The composite outcome occurred in one of 200 patients (90-day composite rate = 0.5%; 95% CI, 0.02%-2.36%). No patient suffered recurrent VTE or died during the 90-day follow-up period. A major bleed occurred in one patient. Patients indicated a high level of satisfaction with their care. Treatment of carefully selected patients with acute PE and low risk by PESI < 86, echocardiography, and CUS without inpatient hospitalization is safe and acceptable to patients. Results must be viewed with caution because of the small sample size relative to the end point and the generalizability surrounding

  14. Knowledge and perception of tuberculosis and the risk to become treatment default among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated in primary health care, East Nusa Tenggara: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Putera, Ikhwanuliman; Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, Elvina

    2015-06-10

    Despite the high efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) drug regiments, one of the barriers in the TB control program is the non-compliance to treatment. Morbidity, mortality, and risk to become resistant to drugs are emerging among defaulters. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify the factors, especially knowledge and perceptions of TB and association with treatment default among patients treated in primary care settings, East Nusa Tenggara. This study was part of a bigger cohort community-based controlled trial study. The subjects were newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients from four districts in East Nusa Tenggara. Knowledge, perception of TB, and other related factors were assessed prior to the treatment. Patients who interrupted the treatment in two consecutive months were classified as defaulters, as World Health Organization stated. Odds ratio (OR) looking for factors associated with becoming defaulter was analyzed. A total of 300 patients were recruited for this study. At the end of the treatment, 255 patients (85%) completed the treatment without interruption from regular visit. In univariate analysis, none of the socio-demographic factors attributed to treatment default yet lack of knowledge and incorrect perception of TB prior therapy (OR 2.49 1.30-4.79 95% CI, p = 0.006; OR 5.40 2.64-11.04 95% CI, p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only incorrect perception of TB showed significant association with treatment default (OR 4.75 2.30-9.86 95% CI). Assessing the knowledge and perception of TB prior to the treatment in newly pulmonary TB patients is important as both of them were known as risk factor for treatment default. Education and counseling may be required to improve patients' compliance to treatment.

  15. Ambulatory vital signs in the workup of pulmonary embolism using a standardized 3-minute walk test.

    PubMed

    Amin, Qamar; Perry, Jeffrey J; Stiell, Ian G; Mohapatra, Subhra; Alsadoon, Abdulaziz; Rodger, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosing pulmonary embolism can be difficult given its highly variable clinical presentation. Our objective was to determine whether a decrease in oxygen saturation or an increase in heart rate while ambulating could be used as an objective tool in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. This was a two-site tertiary-care-centre prospective cohort study that enrolled adult emergency department or thrombosis clinic patients with suspected or newly confirmed pulmonary embolism. Patients were asked to participate in a standardized 3-minute walk test, which assessed ambulatory heart rate and ambulatory oxygen saturation. The primary outcome was pulmonary embolism. We enrolled 114 patients, including 30 with pulmonary embolism (26.3%). A ≥2% absolute decrease in ambulatory oxygen saturation and an ambulatory change in heart rate >10 beats per minute (BPM) were significantly associated with pulmonary embolism. An ambulatory heart rate change of >10 BPM had a sensitivity of 96.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.3 to 99.4) and a specificity of 31.0% (95% CI 22.1 to 45.0) for pulmonary embolism. A ≥2% absolute decrease ambulatory oxygen saturation had a sensitivity of 80.2% (95% CI 62.7 to 90.5) and a specificity of 39.3% (95% CI 29.5 to 50.0) for pulmonary embolism. The combination of both variables yielded a sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI 87.0 to 100.0) and a specificity of 11.0% (95% CI 6.6 to 21.0). In summary, our study found that an ambulatory heart rate change of >10 BPM or a ≥2% absolute decrease in ambulatory oxygen saturation from baseline during a standardized 3-minute walk test are highly correlated with pulmonary embolism. Although the findings appear promising, neither of these variables can currently be recommended as a screening tool for pulmonary embolism until larger prospective studies examine their performance either alone or with pre-existing rules.

  16. A case report of apatinib in treating osteosarcoma with pulmonary metastases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wengeng; Tang, Fan; Luo, Yi; Min, Li; Zhang, Wenli; Shi, Rui; Duan, Hong; Tu, Chongqi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Pulmonary metastases lead to a significantly increased risk of death. Apatinib, a new potent oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the intracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), shows survival benefits in treating advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma, non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic breast cancer. However, its efficacy in metastatic osteosarcoma has not been reported yet. Patient concerns: Herein, we presented a 50-year-old man patient who visited hospital due to local bone pain in the left leg. Diagnoses: He was initially diagnosed with osteoblastic osteosarcoma. Interventions: The patient suffered repeated resection surgeries but developed multiple lung metastases. Positive staining for CD31, CD34, and VEGFR-2 were detected in the tumor section. As he refused to receive chemotherapy due to concerns regarding the chemotherapy toxicities and sorafenib due to high cost, apatinib was given at a dose of 500 mg daily. Outcomes: Eleven months following apatinib administration, the patient achieved a partial response according to the RECIST 1.1 standard. No severe toxicity or drug-related side effect was observed during the treatment. Lessons: Therefore, apatinib could be a new option for the treatment of metastatic osteosarcoma. Clinical trials are required to further confirm the efficacy and safety of apatinib in treating pulmonary metastases from osteosarcoma. PMID:28403086

  17. Association of lung function genes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jin; Lim, Myoung Nam; Hong, Yoonki; Silverman, Edwin K; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Bock Hyun; Ra, Seung Won; Choi, Hye Sook; Jung, Young Ju; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Myung Jae; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Do

    2014-08-01

    Spirometric measurements of pulmonary function are important in diagnosing and determining the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed this study to determine whether candidate genes identified in genome-wide association studies of spirometric measurements were associated with COPD and if they interacted with smoking intensity. The current analysis included 1,000 COPD subjects and 1,000 controls recruited from 24 hospital-based pulmonary clinics. Thirteen SNPs, chosen based on genome-wide association studies of spirometric measurements in the Korean population cohorts, were genotyped. Genetic association tests were performed, adjusting for age, sex, and smoking intensity, using models including a SNP-by-smoking interaction term. PID1 and FAM13A were significantly associated with COPD susceptibility. There were also significant interactions between SNPs in ACN9 and FAM13A and smoking pack-years, and an association of ACN9 with COPD in the lowest smoking tertile. The risk allele of FAM13A was associated with increased expression of FAM13A in the lung. We have validated associations of FAM13A and PID1 with COPD. ACN9 showed significant interaction with smoking and is a potential candidate gene for COPD. Significant associations of genetic variants of FAM13A with gene expression levels suggest that the associated loci may act as genetic regulatory elements for FAM13A gene expression.

  18. Computed tomographic features of idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia: comparison with pulmonary fibrosis related to collagen vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Hwa; Misumi, Shigeki; Sahin, Hakan; Brown, Kevin K; Newell, John D; Lynch, David A

    2009-01-01

    To compare the computed tomographic (CT) features of idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with those of pulmonary fibrosis related to collagen vascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the CT scans of 177 patients with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, of which 97 had idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia and 80 had CVD. The CT images were systematically scored for the presence and extent of pulmonary and extrapulmonary abnormalities. Computed tomographic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was assigned. A CT pattern of UIP was identified in 59 (60.8%) of patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia compared with 15 (18.7%) of those patients with CVD; conversely, the CT diagnosis of NSIP was made in 51 (64%) of patients with CVD compared with 36 (37%) of patients with idiopathic disease (P < 0.01). In 113 patients who had lung biopsy, the CT diagnoses of UIP and NSIP were concordant with the histologic diagnoses in 36 of 50 patients and 34 of 41 patients, respectively. Pleural effusions, esophageal dilation, and pericardial abnormalities were more frequent in patients with CVD than in patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Compared with patients with CVD, those patients with an idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia showed a higher prevalence of a UIP pattern and lower prevalence of an NSIP pattern as determined by CT. Identification of coexisting extrapulmonary abnormalities on CT can support a diagnosis of CVD.

  19. Characteristics of elderly patients with COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer, and factors associated with treatment decision.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianwen; Li, Guangsheng; Zhou, Jingmin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment status of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with lung cancer. This was a retrospective study of 206 patients aged >60 years with COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer at the Tianjin Chest Hospital Respiratory Centre between September 2008 and September 2013. Lung function, radiology, and clinical data were retrieved. Among all patients, 57% (117/206) were hospitalized due to acute COPD aggravation, 47% (96/206) had COPD grade III or IV, 95% (195/206), showed diffusion dysfunction in pulmonary function examination, 90% (185/206) had a history of smoking, and 26% (54/206) were treated with inhaled corticosteroids for COPD treatment. Ninety-eight patients suffered from squamous carcinoma, 73 from adenocarcinoma, and 35 from small-cell carcinoma. Clinical staging was I in 36 patients, II in 47 patients, III in 78 patients, and IV in 45 patients. Initial treatments were surgery in 59 patients, chemotherapy in 30 patients, and no treatment in 117 patients. Multivariate analysis showed that age (P<0.001), COPD grades (P=0.01), clinical staging (P<0.001), and pulmonary diffusion function (P=0.007) were independent factors associated with patients with COPD being given treatments for lung cancer. Younger patients with lower COPD grades, earlier lung cancer stage, and better pulmonary diffusion function are more likely to receive treatments.

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Schieb, Linda J.; Ayala, Carma; Talwalkar, Anjali; Levant, Shaleah

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an uncommon but progressive condition, and much of what we know about it comes from specialized disease registries. With expanding research into the diagnosis and treatment of PH, it is important to provide updated surveillance on the impact of this disease on hospitalizations and mortality. This study, which builds on previous PH surveillance of mortality and hospitalization, analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey between 2001 and 2010. PH deaths were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes I27.0, I27.2, I27.8, or I27.9 as any contributing cause of death on the death certificate. Hospital discharges associated with PH were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 416.0, 416.8, or 416.9 as one of up to seven listed medical diagnoses. The decline in death rates associated with PH among men from 1980 to 2005 has reversed and now shows a significant increasing trend. Similarly, the death rates for women with PH have continued to increase significantly during the past decade. PH-associated mortality rates for those aged 85 years and older have accelerated compared with rates for younger age groups. There have been significant declines in PH-associated mortality rates for those with pulmonary embolism and emphysema. Rates of hospitalization for PH have increased significantly for both men and women during the past decade; for those aged 85 years and older, hospitalization rates have nearly doubled. Continued surveillance helps us understand and address the evolving trends in hospitalization and mortality associated with PH and PH-associated conditions, especially regarding sex, age, and race/ethnicity disparities. PMID:24700091

  1. Pulmonary embolism: epidemiological data and diagnosis in Kinshasa hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bakebe, A; Kashongwe, I; Mulenga, C; Tshiasuma, M; Kabengele, B; Bisuta, S F; Makulo, J R; Kashongwe, Z; Kayembe, J-M

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is common but difficult to diagnose. To describe the epidemiological, clinical and paraclinical characteristics of PE in Kinshasa hospitals. This was a retrospective study in 158 cases with suspected PE. The prevalence of PE was 37% among cases with suspicion of the disease. Male sex was predominant (55%). The mean age was 55 ± 15 years. The main risk factors were obesity (53%), immobilisation (43%) and surgery (14%). The main symptoms were dyspnoea (98%), cough (59%), chest pain (43%) and unilateral limb pain (36%). Tachypnoea (88%), tachycardia (53%) and signs of deep-vein thrombosis (36%) were the main clinical presentations. Lung examination was normal in 55% of the patients. PE prevalence in the 'PE likely' category based on the Wells score was 53%. Levels of D-dimers were elevated in all patients. Sinus tachycardia (72%), S1Q3T3 pattern (30%) and T-wave inversion in V1-V4 (34%) were the main electrocardiographic abnormalities. Chest X-ray was normal in 30% of patients. Right ventricular pressure overload was detected in 58% of patients who had access to echocardiography. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed in 65% of patients. All patients were treated with anticoagulants; no cases received thrombolytics. Patients who died (7%) were all in class III-V according to the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index prognostic score. PE is common in Kinshasa, with characteristics similar to those reported in the literature.

  2. Comorbid Conditions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Recognition and Management

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Collard, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology, primarily affects older adults and leads to a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life. With a median survival of 3–5 years, IPF is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Despite the poor survivorship, there exists substantial variation in disease progression, making accurate prognostication difficult. Lung transplantation remains the sole curative intervention in IPF, but two anti-fibrotic therapies were recently shown to slow pulmonary function decline and are now approved for the treatment of IPF in many countries around the world. While the approval of these therapies represents an important first step in combatting of this devastating disease, a comprehensive approach to diagnosing and treating patients with IPF remains critically important. Included in this comprehensive assessment is the recognition and appropriate management of comorbid conditions. Though IPF is characterized by single organ involvement, many comorbid conditions occur within other organ systems. Common cardiovascular processes include coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension (PH), while gastroesophageal reflux and hiatal hernia are the most commonly encountered gastrointestinal disorders. Hematologic abnormalities appear to place patients with IPF at increased risk of venous thromboembolism, while diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypothyroidism are prevalent metabolic disorders. Several pulmonary comorbidities have also been linked to IPF, and include emphysema, lung cancer, and obstructive sleep apnea. While the treatment of some comorbid conditions, such as CAD, DM, and hypothyroidism is recommended irrespective of IPF, the benefit of treating others, such as gastroesophageal reflux and PH, remains unclear. In this review, we highlight common comorbid conditions encountered in IPF, discuss disease-specific diagnostic modalities, and review the

  3. Pulmonary hypertension - at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... care; Activity - pulmonary hypertension; Preventing infections - pulmonary hypertension; Oxygen - pulmonary hypertension ... In the hospital, you received oxygen treatment. You may need to use ... change how much oxygen is flowing without asking your doctor. ...

  4. Induced sputum and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, T; Wells, A; Harrison, A; Lindstrom, S; Cameron, R; Foskin, E

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that bronchoscopy and a single induced sputum sample are equally effective for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: In a prospective study of subjects with possibly active pulmonary tuberculosis, the diagnostic yield of three induced sputum tests was compared with that of bronchoscopy. Subjects either produced no sputum or (acid fast) smear negative sputum. Bronchoscopy was only performed if at least two induced sputum samples were smear negative. Results: Of 129 subjects who completed all tests, 27 (21%) had smear negative and culture positive specimens, 14 (52%) on bronchoscopy and 26 (96%) on induced sputum (p<0.005). One patient was culture positive on bronchoscopy alone compared with 13 on induced sputum alone; 13 were culture positive on both tests. Induced sputum positivity was strikingly more prevalent when chest radiographic appearances showed any features of active tuberculosis (20/63, 32%) than when appearances suggested inactivity (1/44, 2%; p<0.005). Induced sputum costs were about one third those of bronchoscopy, and the ratio of costs of the two tests per case of tuberculosis diagnosed could be as much as 1:6. Conclusions: In subjects investigated for possibly active or inactive tuberculosis who produce no sputum or have smear negative sputum, the most cost effective strategy is to perform three induced sputum tests without bronchoscopy. Induced sputum testing carries a high risk of nosocomial tuberculosis unless performed in respiratory isolation conditions. The cost benefits shown could be lost if risk management measures are not observed. PMID:12454293

  5. Ruling out Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with High Pretest Probability

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey; Bhattarai, Bikash; Courtney, Mark; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The American College of Emergency Physicians guidelines recommend more aggressive workup beyond imaging alone in patients with a high pretest probability (PTP) of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the ability of multiple tests to safely rule out PE in high PTP patients is not known. We sought to measure the ability of negative computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) along with negative D-dimer to rule out PE in these high-risk patients. Methods We analyzed data from a previous prospective observational study conducted in 12 emergency departments (ED). Wells score criteria were entered by providers before final PE testing. PE was diagnosed by imaging on the index ED visit, or within 45 days, demonstrating either PE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), or if the patient died of PE during the 45-day, follow-up period. Testing threshold was set at 1.8%. Results A total of 7,940 patients were enrolled and tested for PE, and 257 had high PTP (Wells >6). Sixteen of these high-risk patients had negative CTPA and negative D-dimer, of whom two were positive for PE (12.5% [95% confidence interval {2.2%–40.0%}]). One of these patients had a DVT on CT venogram and the other was diagnosed at follow-up. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that in patients with high PTP of PE, neither negative CTPA by itself nor a negative CTPA plus a negative D-dimer are sufficient to rule out PE. More aggressive workup strategies may be required for these patients. PMID:29760845

  6. Bronchial anthracofibrosis: an emerging pulmonary disease due to biomass fuel exposure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Shah, A

    2011-05-01

    1) To document current knowledge of bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), an emerging pulmonary disease recognised just over a decade ago; 2) to highlight the demographic profile, and clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic features peculiar to BAF; and 3) to discuss the postulated causes and clinical conditions associated with BAF, emphasising the need to characterise and recognise it as a distinct clinical disorder. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed and other databases with key terms 'anthracosis', 'biomass fuels', 'bronchial anthracofibrosis' and 'pulmonary tuberculosis'. The bibliographies of papers identified were searched for further relevant articles. A total of 17 studies and six case series/reports describing 1320 patients with bronchoscopically confirmed BAF were documented. BAF was predominantly observed in elderly housewives in rural areas with prolonged exposure to biomass fuel, and was associated with respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and malignancy. Exposure to biomass fuel smoke emerged as the main causative factor, but the possibility of an occupational lung disorder was also raised. Characteristic clinical, thorax computed tomography and bronchoscopic features of BAF were identified and its differentiation from endobronchial TB and bronchogenic carcinoma was described. As a pulmonary disease, BAF is yet to be highlighted in both developing and industrialised countries. BAF is currently diagnosed only on bronchoscopy, whereas a suitable non-invasive diagnostic modality would enable rapid diagnosis and increased recognition. Approaches for patients with BAF need to be developed and the serious hazards of biomass fuel use should be emphasised.

  7. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Weitzenblum, Emmanuel; Chaouat, Ari; Kessler, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) ≥ 25 mm Hg at rest in the supine position. Owing to its frequency, COPD is a common cause of PH; in fact, it is the second most frequent cause of PH, just after left heart diseases. PH is due to the elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, which is caused by functional and morphological factors, chronic alveolar hypoxia being the most important. In COPD PH is generally mild to moderate, PAP usually ranging between 25 and 35 mm Hg in a stable state of the disease. A small proportion of COPD patients may present a severe or "disproportionate" PH with a resting PAP > 35-40 mm Hg. The prognosis is particularly poor in these patients. In COPD PH worsens during exercise, sleep and severe exacerbations of the disease, and these acute increases in afterload may favour the development of right heart failure. The diagnosis of PH relies on Doppler echocardiography, and right heart catheterization is needed in a minority of patients. Treatment of PH in COPD relies on long-term oxygen therapy (≥ 16h/day) which generally stabilizes or at least attenuates the progression of PH. Vasodilator drugs, which are commonly used in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, have rarely been used in COPD, and we lack studies in this field. Patients with severe PH should be referred to a specialist PH centre where the possibility of inclusion in a controlled clinical trial should be considered.

  8. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  9. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  10. Quantitative MR imaging of pulmonary hypertension: A practical approach to the current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Andrew J.; Wild, Jim M.; Nagle, Scott K.; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; François, Christopher J.; Fain, Sean; Johnson, Kevin; Capener, Dave; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Kiely, David G.; Wang, Kang; Schiebler, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a condition of varied aetiology, commonly associated with a poor clinical outcome. Patients are categorised on the basis of pathophysiological, clinical, radiological and therapeutic similarities. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is often diagnosed late in its disease course with outcome dependent on aetiology, disease severity and response to treatment. Recent advances in quantitative MR imaging allow for a better initial characterization and measurement of the morphologic and flow related changes that accompany the response of the heart-lung axis to prolonged elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance and provide a reproducible, comprehensive and non-invasive means of assessing the course of the disease and response to treatment. Typical features of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occur primarily as a result of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and resultant increased RV afterload. Several MRI derived diagnostic markers have emerged, such as ventricular mass index (VMI), interventricular septal configuration and average pulmonary artery velocity having reported diagnostic accuracy similar to Doppler echocardiography. Furthermore, prognostic markers have been identified with independent predictive value for identification of treatment failure. Such markers include: large right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI), low left ventricular end diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), low right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and relative area change of the pulmonary trunk. MRI is ideally suited to longitudinal follow-up of patients with PAH due to its non-invasive nature, high reproducibility and has the advantage over other biomarkers in PAH due to its sensitivity to change in morphological, functional and flow related parameters. Further study the role of MR imaging as a biomarker in the clinical environment is warranted. PMID:24552882

  11. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection: diagnosis by transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ammash, N M; Seward, J B; Warnes, C A; Connolly, H M; O'Leary, P W; Danielson, G K

    1997-05-01

    This study sought to demonstrate that with proper technique, identification of the normal and abnormal pulmonary venous connection can be made with confidence using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) is an uncommon congenital anomaly whose diagnosis has classically been made using angiography. We performed a retrospective review of all patients of all ages with PAPVC diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic who had undergone TEE because of either right ventricular volume overload or suspected intracardiac shunting by transthoracic echocardiography or intraoperatively. A total of 66 PAPVCs were detected in 43 patients (1.5/patient); in 2 additional patients, TEE suggested, but did not diagnose, PAPVCs. Shortness of breath was the most common presenting symptom (42.2%), followed by heart murmur and supraventricular tachycardia. Right-sided anomalous veins were identified in 35 patients (81.4%), left-sided in 7 (16.3%) and bilateral in 1 (2.3%). There was a single anomalous connecting vein in 23 patients (53.5%), two in 18 (41.9%), three in 1 (2.3%) and four in 1 (2.3%). The connecting site was the superior vena cava (SVC) in 39 veins (59.1%), right atrial-SVC junction in 6 (9.1%), right atrium in 8 (12.1%), inferior vena cava in 1 (1.5%) and the coronary sinus in 2 (3.0%). Ten anomalous left pulmonary veins were connected by a vertical vein to the innominate vein (15.1%). Sinus venosus atrial septal defect (ASD) was the most common associated anomaly in 22 patients (49%), followed by ostium secundum ASD in 6 and patent foramen ovale in 4. Fifteen patients had an intact atrial septum. Thirty-one patients (68.8%) underwent surgical repair. PAPVC was confirmed in all patients, including the two whose TEE results were suggestive of PAPVC. All 49 PAPVCs detected by TEE preoperatively were confirmed at the time of operation. TEE is highly diagnostic for PAPVC and can obviate angiography. Accurate anatomic diagnosis may

  12. Pneumoconiosis in dental technicians: HRCT and pulmonary function findings.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, H; Koksal, N; Cinkara, M; Ozkan, F; Sucakli, M H; Ekerbicer, H

    2014-09-01

    Pneumoconiosis is a form of diffuse interstitial lung disease, often resulting from occupational exposures. As dental prosthetic technicians (DPTs) build prostheses, they are exposed to many chemical materials that increase their risk of developing pneumoconiosis. To document pulmonary function and prevalence of pneumoconiosis in DPTs. A cross-sectional study of DPTs working in prosthetic laboratories who underwent pulmonary function test and high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scanning. There were 76 participants and pneumoconiosis was diagnosed in 46%. The most commonly seen radiological finding was round opacities, present in 38%. Agreement among HRCT readers was moderate to good. As defined by HRCT, emphysema was diagnosed more often in those with a longer occupational history or a history of smoking, and low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO), but not in those with pneumoconiosis. Forced expiratory rate and DLCO were significantly lower in those who had worked 16 years or more (all P < 0.05). DLCO values were significantly lower in technicians with emphysema and in current smokers (all P < 0.01). Round opacities were also present in a substantial proportion of DPTs who had 15 years or less exposure. Because HRCT is able to detect radiological changes of occupational lung disease very early, the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in our participants was quite high. Pneumoconiosis identified by HRCT was present in almost half of DPTs surveyed. Appropriate education and workplace protection should be given to DPTs in order to prevent exposure to hazardous materials in dental prosthetics laboratories. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evaluation of the Microcirculation in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Patients: The Impact of Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling on Postoperative and Follow-Up Pulmonary Arterial Pressure and Vascular Resistance.

    PubMed

    Jujo, Takayuki; Sakao, Seiichiro; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ishida, Keiichi; Naito, Akira; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Masahisa; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is generally recognized to be caused by persistent organized thrombi that occlude the pulmonary arteries. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of small vessel remodeling and its impact on the hemodynamics in CTEPH patients. Hemodynamic data were obtained from right heart catheterization in 17 CTEPH patients before pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Lung tissue specimens were obtained at the time of PEA. Pathological observations and evaluation of quantitative changes in pulmonary muscular arteries and veins were performed using light microscopy on 423 slides in 17 patients. The relationship between the results and the hemodynamics of CTEPH was investigated. Pulmonary arteriopathy and venopathy were recognized in most cases, although no plexiform lesions and no capillary-hemangiomatosis-like lesions were detected in any of the specimens. The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in the postoperative and follow-up periods. The PVR and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were significantly higher in the high-obstruction group than in the low-obstruction group. The findings in pulmonary venopathy were similar to the findings seen in pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in some cases, although severe venopathy was only observed in a portion of the pulmonary veins. There was a significant correlation between the extent of pulmonary arteriopathy and venopathy, although an effect of pulmonary venopathy to hemodynamics, including pulmonary arterial wedged pressure (PAWP), could not be identified. The vascular remodeling of the pulmonary muscular arteries was closely associated with the hemodynamics of CTEPH. Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might be related to residual pulmonary hypertension after PEA. Those altered pulmonary arteries might be a new target for the persistent PH after the operation.

  14. Neonatal pulmonary physiology.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan P; Mychaliska, George B

    2013-11-01

    Managing pulmonary issues faced by both term and preterm infants remains a challenge to the practicing pediatric surgeon. An understanding of normal fetal and neonatal pulmonary development and physiology is the cornerstone for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of many congenital and acquired problems in the neonate. Progression through the phases of lung development and the transition to postnatal life requires a symphony of complex and overlapping events to work in concert for smooth and successful transition to occur. Pulmonary physiology and oxygen transport in the neonate are similar to older children; however, there are critical differences that are important to take into consideration when treating the youngest of patients. Our understanding of fetal and neonatal pulmonary physiology continues to evolve as the molecular and cellular events governing these processes are better understood. This deeper understanding has helped to facilitate groundbreaking research, leading to improved technology and treatment of term and preterm infants. As therapeutics and research continue to advance, a review of neonatal pulmonary physiology is essential to assist the clinician with his/her management of the wide variety of challenging congenital and acquired pulmonary disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Aortic valve replacement and tricuspid valve annuloplasty via a left thoracotomy in an adult with left pulmonary agenesis.

    PubMed

    Furutachi, Akira; Furukawa, Kojiro; Shimauchi, Kouta; Yunoki, Junji; Itoh, Manabu; Takamatsu, Masanori; Nogami, Eijiro; Mukae, Yosuke; Nishida, Takahiro

    2018-06-06

    We report a case of a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed with severe aortic regurgitation, moderate tricuspid regurgitation and chronic atrial fibrillation. Preoperative computed tomography showed left lung agenesis. We performed aortic valve replacement, tricuspid valve annuloplasty and right pulmonary vein isolation via a left thoracotomy. This approach provided an adequate field of view.

  16. [A case of pulmonary abscess in which Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated by percutaneous needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Eiyasu; Takaya, Hisashi; Sugino, Keishi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Kawabata, Masateru; Kishi, Kazuma; Narui, Koji; Homma, Sakae; Nakatani, Tatsuo; Nakata, Koichiro; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2006-08-01

    Some microbes, including the Bacteroides species, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus milleri groups, can cause pulmonary abscess. Haemophilus parainfluenzae is usually categorized as one of the normal flora which colonizes in the ears and the nasopharynx, and it has been long considered that H. parainfluenzae has little pathogenicity in the lower respiratory tract and lung parenchymal. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary abscess caused by both H. parainfluenzae and Streptococcus intermedius. The patient was a 75-year-old man who had had total esophageo-gastrectomy because of esophageal cancer. He presented with purulent sputum, and chest X-ray film showed a dense consolidation in the right upper lung field. CT-guided transcutaneous fine needle aspiration was performed as a diagnostic procedure. Since both H. parainfluenzae and S. intermedius had been isolated from the lesion, pulmonary abscess caused by these two pathogens was diagnosed. The patient was treated with panipenem/betamipron, and his symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates on the chest X-ray film improved thereafter. So far, very few cases have been reported in which H. parainfluenzae caused lower respiratory tract infection. Although S. intermedius is known as one of the pathogens of pulmonary abscess, it is possible that H. parainfluenzae could also be pathogenic in infectious diseases of the lung.

  17. Regression of pulmonary artery hypertension due to development of a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Ashfaq; Sastry, B.K.S.; Aleem, M.A.; Reddy, Gokul; Mahmood, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension (IPAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in the absence of an identifiable underlying cause. The condition is usually relentlessly progressive with a short survival in the absence of treatment.1 We describe a patient of IPAH in whom the pulmonary artery pressures significantly abated with complete disappearance of symptoms, following spontaneous development of a pulmonary arterio-venous malformation (PAVM). PMID:25443608

  18. Melatonin Decreases Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and Oxygen Sensitivity in Pulmonary Hypertensive Newborn Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Cristian R.; González-Candia, Alejandro; Candia, Alejandro A.; Figueroa, Esteban G.; Cañas, Daniel; Ebensperger, Germán; Reyes, Roberto V.; Llanos, Aníbal J.; Herrera, Emilio A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic hypoxia and oxidative stress during gestation lead to pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PHN), a condition characterized by abnormal pulmonary arterial reactivity and remodeling. Melatonin has strong antioxidant properties and improves pulmonary vascular function. Here, we aimed to study the effects of melatonin on the function and structure of pulmonary arteries from PHN lambs. Methods: Twelve lambs (Ovis aries) gestated and born at highlands (3,600 m) were instrumented with systemic and pulmonary catheters. Six of them were assigned to the control group (CN, oral vehicle) and 6 were treated with melatonin (MN, 1 mg.kg−1.d−1) during 10 days. At the end of treatment, we performed a graded oxygenation protocol to assess cardiopulmonary responses to inspired oxygen variations. Further, we obtained lung and pulmonary trunk samples for histology, molecular biology, and immunohistochemistry determinations. Results: Melatonin reduced the in vivo pulmonary pressor response to oxygenation changes. In addition, melatonin decreased cellular density of the media and diminished the proliferation marker KI67 in resistance vessels and pulmonary trunk (p < 0.05). This was associated with a decreased in the remodeling markers α-actin (CN 1.28 ± 0.18 vs. MN 0.77 ± 0.04, p < 0.05) and smoothelin-B (CN 2.13 ± 0.31 vs. MN 0.88 ± 0.27, p < 0.05). Further, melatonin increased vascular density by 134% and vascular luminal surface by 173% (p < 0.05). Finally, melatonin decreased nitrotyrosine, an oxidative stress marker, in small pulmonary vessels (CN 5.12 ± 0.84 vs. MN 1.14 ± 0.34, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Postnatal administration of melatonin blunts the cardiopulmonary response to hypoxia, reduces the pathological vascular remodeling, and increases angiogenesis in pulmonary hypertensive neonatal lambs.These effects improve the pulmonary vascular structure and function in the neonatal period under chronic hypoxia. PMID:29559926

  19. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  20. An unusual neonatal presentation of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Garty, Y; Guri, A; Shinwell, E S; Matitiau, A

    2008-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported neonatal presentation of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery. This is a full-term female infant after normal pregnancy and delivery. The baby was diagnosed at 2 days of age due to weak femoral pulses noted on the routine nursery discharge examination. The cardiac examination revealed weak pulses everywhere and mild tachypnea and tachycardia. An electrocardiogram showed clear signs of ischemia. Echocardiography demonstrated an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery with bidirectional blood flow. There was a severely depressed left ventricular function and mild mitral valve regurgitation. At 4 days of age, the infant underwent complete successful surgical repair with reimplantation of the anomalous coronary artery to the aorta. She recovered slowly but well. Fifteen months later she is doing well with no cardiac residua. A neonatal presentation is very unusual due to protective high pulmonary resistance after birth, with gradual decline in pressure and gradual onset of heart failure. This case may be related to an unusually rapid drop in pulmonary vascular resistance causing very early cardiac ischemia. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluation of the Microcirculation in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Patients: The Impact of Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling on Postoperative and Follow-Up Pulmonary Arterial Pressure and Vascular Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Keiichi; Naito, Akira; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Masahisa; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is generally recognized to be caused by persistent organized thrombi that occlude the pulmonary arteries. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of small vessel remodeling and its impact on the hemodynamics in CTEPH patients. Methods and Results Hemodynamic data were obtained from right heart catheterization in 17 CTEPH patients before pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Lung tissue specimens were obtained at the time of PEA. Pathological observations and evaluation of quantitative changes in pulmonary muscular arteries and veins were performed using light microscopy on 423 slides in 17 patients. The relationship between the results and the hemodynamics of CTEPH was investigated. Pulmonary arteriopathy and venopathy were recognized in most cases, although no plexiform lesions and no capillary-hemangiomatosis-like lesions were detected in any of the specimens. The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in the postoperative and follow-up periods. The PVR and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were significantly higher in the high-obstruction group than in the low-obstruction group. The findings in pulmonary venopathy were similar to the findings seen in pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in some cases, although severe venopathy was only observed in a portion of the pulmonary veins. There was a significant correlation between the extent of pulmonary arteriopathy and venopathy, although an effect of pulmonary venopathy to hemodynamics, including pulmonary arterial wedged pressure (PAWP), could not be identified. Conclusion The vascular remodeling of the pulmonary muscular arteries was closely associated with the hemodynamics of CTEPH. Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might be related to residual pulmonary hypertension after PEA. Those altered pulmonary arteries might be a new target for the persistent PH after the operation. PMID:26252755

  2. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. We used data from adults aged ≥ 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p < 0.001, each). In 12,885 subjects with no sequalae on CXR, those with prior pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p < 0.001) than those without. Subjects with prior pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p < 0.001, each). In total subjects, prior pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.922-2.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.606-3.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB

  3. Spinal Epidural Hematoma After Thrombolysis for Deep Vein Thrombosis with Subsequent Pulmonary Thromboembolism: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Young-Min, E-mail: ymhan@chonbuk.ac.kr; Kwak, Ho-Sung; Jin, Gong-Young

    2006-06-15

    A 38-year-old male was initially admitted for left leg swelling. He was diagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left leg and a pulmonary thromboembolism by contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) with delayed lower extremity CT. The DVT was treated by thrombolysis and a venous stent. Four hours later, he complained of severe back pain and a sensation of separation of his body and lower extremities; he experienced paraplegia early in the morning of the following day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a spinal epidural hematoma between T11 and L2, which decompressed following surgery. We, therefore, report a casemore » of a spinal epidural hematoma after thrombolysis in a case of DVT with a pulmonary thromboembolism.« less

  4. CT Bronchus Sign and the Diagnostic Yield of Guided Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad S; Sethi, Jaskaran; Taneja, Amit; Musani, Ali; Maldonado, Fabien

    2018-06-07

    Indeterminate peripheral pulmonary lesions often require tissue diagnosis. If non-surgical biopsy techniques are considered, deciding between bronchoscopic transbronchial vs. CT guided transthoracic biopsy can be difficult. The former has a low diagnostic yield with a low complication risk, while the latter has a better diagnostic yield but a higher complication rate. Investigators have looked at various lesion characteristics that can predict the diagnostic yield of guided bronchoscopic biopsies. While consensus exists that larger size and proximity to the hilum increase the diagnostic yield, there is ongoing debate about the association between CT bronchus sign (air-filled bronchus in close proximity of the lesion as seen on CT) and the diagnostic yield of guided bronchoscopic modalities. To perform a meta-analysis and systematic review, determining the association between CT bronchus sign and the diagnostic yield of guided bronchoscopy for peripheral pulmonary lesions. MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched in January 2018 for guided bronchoscopy studies that had assessed the impact of CT bronchus sign on the diagnostic yield. The quality of included studies was assessed using Quality Assessment, Data Abstraction and Synthesis-2 tool. Meta-analysis was performed using MedCalc (version 18). Odds ratios were used to compare yield of lesions with and without bronchus sign. Random effects model was used when significant heterogeneity was observed (I2>40%). For 2199 lesions with CT bronchus sign, the overall weighted diagnostic yield was 74.1% (95% CI: 68.3-79.5%). For 971 lesions without CT bronchus sign, the overall weighted diagnostic yield was 49.6% (95% CI: 39.6-59.5%). The odds ratio for successfully diagnosing a lesion with CT bronchus was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.4-5.0). Possible sources of heterogeneity in the meta-analysis included differences in study designs, guidance modalities and cancer prevalence. The odds ratio for successfully diagnosing a

  5. Role of bronchoscopy in evaluation of cases with sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis, interstitial lung disease and lung malignancy: A retrospective study of 712 cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Gupta, Nitesh

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of flexible bronchoscope has revolutionized the field of pulmonary medicine and is a standard instrument used for diagnostic purpose. A retrospective analysis of the clinico-radiological profile, indication, biopsy procedure and complications, for patients undergoing bronchoscopy at one of the respiratory unit at a tertiary care center in India. Retrospective analysis of 712 bronchoscopies was done in regard to demographic profile, clinical and radiological presentation and diagnostic indication. The results were analyzed on basis of bronchoscopy inspection and histopathological specimen obtained from transbronchial (TBLB), endobronchial biopsy (EBLB) and cytology specimen by transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Furthermore, diagnostic yield of each biopsy procedure and their combination was evaluated. Of 712 patients undergoing bronchoscopy, the pathological diagnosis was achieved in 384 (53.93%). Of 384 diagnosed cases, the clinic-radio-pathological diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in 88 (22.19%), interstitial lung disease (ILDs) in 226 (58.85%), and lung cancer in 70 (18.22%) cases. Of 116 sputum smear negative tuberculosis patients, 88 (75.86%) were diagnosed to be pulmonary tuberculosis; the contribution of BAL being 71.59%. Of 226 ILDs, sarcoidosis was most common 148/226 (65.48%). Among 70 lung cancer diagnosed cases, squamous cell carcinoma was most common (54.28%). The results from current study reemphasizes on the diagnostic utility as well as safety of the bronchoscopy procedure. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Update in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mejía Chew, C R; Alcolea Batres, S; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and progressive disease that mainly affects the pulmonary arterioles (precapillary), regardless of the triggering aetiology. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension in Spain is estimated at 19.2 and 16 cases per million inhabitants, respectively. The diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on haemodynamic criteria (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance >3 Wood units) and therefore requires the implementation of right cardiac catheterisation. Sequential therapy with a single drug has been used in clinical practice. However, recent European guidelines recommend combined initial therapy in some situations. This review conducts a critical update of our knowledge of this disease according to the latest guidelines and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated Transitions of Care for Patients With Rare Pulmonary Diseases.

    PubMed

    Moreo, Kathleen; Lattimer, Cheri; Lett, James E; Heggen-Peay, Cherilyn L; Simone, Laura

    Many continuing education (CE) resources are available to support case management professionals in developing competencies in transitions of care (TOC) that apply generally across disease areas. However, CE programs and tools are lacking for advanced TOC competencies in specific disease areas. This article describes 2 projects in which leading TOC, case management, and CE organizations collaborated to develop CE-accredited interdisciplinary pathways for promoting safe and effective TOC for patients with rare pulmonary diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The interdisciplinary pathways apply to PAH and IPF case management practice and TOC across settings that include community-based primary care and specialty care, PAH or IPF centers of expertise, acute care and post-acute settings, long-term care, rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities, and patients' homes. Both PAH and IPF are chronic, progressive respiratory diseases that are associated with severe morbidity and mortality, along with high health care costs. Because they are relatively rare diseases with nonspecific symptoms and many comorbidities, PAH and IPF are difficult to diagnose. Early diagnosis, referral to centers of expertise, and aggressive treatment initiation are essential for slowing disease progression and maintaining quality of life and function. Both the rarity and complexity of PAH and IPF pose unique challenges to ensuring effective and safe TOC. Expert consensus and evidence-based approaches to meeting these challenges, and thereby improving PAH and IPF patient outcomes, are presented in the 2 interdisciplinary TOC pathways that are described in this article. In coordinating care for patients with complex pulmonary diseases such as PAH and IPF, case managers across practice settings can play key roles in improving workflow processes and communication, transition planning, coordinating TOC with centers of expertise

  8. Development of acute pulmonary hypertension after bortezomib treatment in a patient with multiple myeloma: a case report and the review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akosman, Cengiz; Ordu, Cetin; Eroglu, Elif; Oyan, Basak

    2015-01-01

    Bortezomib is widely used in treatment of multiple myeloma. In recent years, severe bortezomib-induced lung injury has been reported. The clinical course is generally characterized with fever and dyspnea, followed by respiratory failure with pulmonary infiltrates. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma admitted with dyspnea, fever, and hypotension on the third day of the first dose of bortezomib therapy. He had bilateral jugular venous distention, crackles at the bases of the lungs and hepatomegaly. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed acute pulmonary hypertension (PH) with an estimated pressure of 70 mm Hg. The perfusion scintigraphy ruled out pulmonary embolism, and microbiological examination was negative. On his course, fever, dyspnea, hypoxia, and pulmonary vascular pressure subsided rapidly. The sudden onset of PH and its rapid decrement without any treatment suggests bortezomib as the underlying cause. Subsequently, the patient did not respond to vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone regimen and thalidomide. Bortezomib treatment was repeated, and no pulmonary adverse reactions occurred. Follow-up echocardiographies revealed pulmonary arterial pressures to be maximally of 35 mm Hg. To our knowledge, this is the first case of acute PH after front-line bortezomib therapy. In this report, we review bortezomib-related pulmonary complications in the literature and possible underlying mechanisms.

  9. Effect of drug-induced hyperuricaemia on renal function in Nigerians with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Adebisi, S A; Oluboyo, P O; Okesina, A B

    2000-01-01

    Some anti-tuberculosis chemotherapeutic agents have been established as causing hyperuricaemia. Hyperuricaemia in turn causes renal damage. This study therefore aims at establishing the effect of anti-tuberculosis drugs-induced hyperuricaemia on renal function of the patients. Fifty patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis with mean age of 36.8 years (SD 13.69) consisting of 14 females and 17 males were longitudinally studied each for 6 months to determine the effect of drug-induced hyperuricaemia on their renal function. The Biochemical indices determined included serum urate level, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance of newly diagnosed patient with tuberculosis, before and during treatment with anti-tuberculosis therapy. Serum urate level revealed that 16 (51.6%) and 15 (48.4%) of the patients were hyperuricaemic at the end of the first and second months of anti-tuberculosis therapy. There was no significant difference in the mean serum creatinine level of the control group 96 micromol/L when compared with both the pre-treat value 89 micromol/L (P > 0.25) as well as the value at the end of the sixth month of treatment 91 micromol/L (P > 0.40). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean creatinine clearance of the control group 102 ml/min/1.73 m2 when compared with the patient's mean pre-treatment value (89 ml/min/1.73 m2) P < 0.05. Also the mean creatinine clearance increased to (103 ml/min/1.73 m2) by the end of the 6th month of treatment, a value that is statistically significant when compared with the pretreatment value of (89 ml/min/1.73 m2) P < 0.05. We submit as follows: that pulmonary tuberculosis as a disease with significant impairment of renal function; despite the associated drug-induced hyperuricaemia recorded during the treatment, renal function steadily improved with the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis to the extent that comparable values with control was obtained at the end of treatment. We

  10. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Apparently Healthy Attendants of Tertiary Care Hospital and Assessment of its Severity.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Tahira; Abbassi, Amanullah; Khan, Osama Ahsan

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity. Cross-sectional, observational study. Study was conducted from January 2015 to July 2015 at Dow University Hospital, Ojha campus. Ascreening method was designed for apparently healthy individuals including attendants of patients, hospital staff, faculty and students, belonging to age group 18-60 years after excluding severe obesity and already diagnosed respiratory and cardiovascular diseases by means of history. Each participant performed pulmonary function tests via spirometer after filling a questionnaire based on various risk factors and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data was entered and analysed by SPSS-20. Out of the 517 participants, 122 (23.6%) were found to have COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry. Out of these, 23 (4.4%) had COPD stage I, 42 (8.1%) had COPD II, 34 (6.6%) had COPD III, and 23 (4.4%) had COPD IV. Exposure to smoking, wooden stoves, pesticides, biomass fuel, aerosol sprays, gas grill and vehicle exhaust were found to be statistically significant factors in relation to development of COPD. Apparently healthy individuals may have underlying COPD and active screening by means of spirometry plays vital role in early detection of COPD. Smoking and exposure to certain hazardous environmental pollutants are responsible for the development and progression of COPD.

  11. [Has high-definition spiral computed tomography changed the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism?].

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Raffaele; de Conti, Giorgio; Minotto, Isabella; Prandoni, Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common condition carrying a significant degree of mortality if not diagnosed early. The diagnosis of PE is challenging, because of the non-specific nature of its clinical features. For many years the diagnostic strategies for PE have mainly involved ventilation/perfusion lung scan as the chief diagnostic procedure, often associated with a few clinical models of pre-test probability and the D-dimer test. These modalities of diagnosing PE, though quite satisfactory in various clinical settings, show several limitations, the most important one being the high rate of non-diagnostic procedures. The introduction of computed tomography (CT) has changed the diagnostic strategies and has become the main diagnostic procedure for diagnosing PE. CT is undergoing a rapid technological upgrade, which will open in the near future new frontiers in the diagnosis of PE. Nonetheless, CT carries a number of limitations, which should be carefully identified. This article reviews the evidences on both the traditional and newer diagnostic strategies for PE, outlines their strengths and weaknesses and describes future applications of CT for diagnosing PE.

  12. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... know Host an event, engage legislators, or distribute educational materials about pulmonary fibrosis. Get Involved ... CARE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY REPORTED AT PULMONARY FIBROSIS FOUNDATION CONFERENCE Physicians and ...

  13. Opportunities to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine care in the UK: a retrospective study of a clinical cohort.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rupert C M; Price, David; Ryan, Dermot; Sims, Erika J; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Mascarenhas, Laurence; Burden, Anne; Halpin, David M G; Winter, Robert; Hill, Sue; Kearney, Matt; Holton, Kevin; Moger, Anne; Freeman, Daryl; Chisholm, Alison; Bateman, Eric D

    2014-04-01

    Patterns of health-care use and comorbidities present in patients in the period before diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. We investigated these factors to inform future case-finding strategies. We did a retrospective analysis of a clinical cohort in the UK with data from Jan 1, 1990 to Dec 31, 2009 (General Practice Research Database and Optimum Patient Care Research Database). We assessed patients aged 40 years or older who had an electronically coded diagnosis of COPD in their primary care records and had a minimum of 3 years of continuous practice data for COPD (2 years before diagnosis up to a maximum of 20 years, and 1 year after diagnosis) and at least two prescriptions for COPD since diagnosis. We identified missed opportunites to diagnose COPD from routinely collected patient data by reviewing patterns of health-care use and comorbidities present before diagnosis. We assessed patterns of health-care use in terms of lower respiratory consultations (infective and non-infective), lower respiratory consultations with a course of antibiotics or oral steroids, and chest radiography. If these events did not lead to a diagnosis of COPD, they were deemed to be missed opportunities. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01655667. We assessed data for 38,859 patients. Opportunities for diagnosis were missed in 32,900 (85%) of 38,859 patients in the 5 years immediately preceding diagnosis of COPD; in 12,856 (58%) of 22,286 in the 6-10 years before diagnosis, in 3943 (42%) of 9351 in the 11-15 years before diagnosis; and in 95 (8%) of 1167 in the 16-20 years before diagnosis. Between 1990 and 2009, we noted decreases in the age at diagnosis (0·05 years of age per year, 95% CI 0·03-0·07) and yearly frequency of lower respiratory prescribing consultations (rate ratio 0·982 opportunities per year, 95% CI 0·979-0·985). Prevalence of all comorbidities present at COPD diagnosis increased except for asthma and

  14. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Parthasarathi; Paul, Rantu; Ghosh, Malabika; Dey, Ratna; Dey, Rana; Barooah, Nirjoo; Islam, Saidul; Acharya, Dipabali; Nag, Saikat; Bardhan, Sujan

    2011-07-01

    Reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) is a known and established phenomenon in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there have been no data regarding osteoporosis/osteopenia in COPD patients in India. To look for the degree and frequency of osteoporosis/osteopenia in our OPD patients being diagnosed as COPD. Thirty-seven randomly selected patients with COPD were assessed for BMD with commercially available ultrasound bone densitometer (HOLOGIC SAHARA) in a pulmonary OPD. Some cofactors for reduced BMD were also noted. Out of the 37 COPD (all belonging to the GOLD III/IV category) patients studied, the BMD was found to be normal in 10 (27%) patients, while 27 (73%) patients were found to have osteopenia/osteoporosis [19 (51.35%) and 8 (21.62%) patients having osteopenia and osteoporosis, respectively]. Frequency of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be very high (73%) in our population of advanced COPD. The data suggest a need for further in-depth study regarding the issue.

  15. Fulminant antenatal pulmonary oedema in a woman with hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kubota-Sjogren, Yukiko; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    An asymptomatic 40-year-old para 1 black African woman with pre-existing hypertension and a booking blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg, was admitted with superimposed preeclampsia diagnosed because of worsening hypertension and significant proteinuria at 27+5 weeks gestation. Antenatally, her blood pressure was controlled with labetalol, and blood tests including serum creatinine were within normal limits for pregnancy. Three days later, the patient developed severe hypertension despite treatment, and reported sudden onset severe shortness of breath; oxygen saturations on air dropped to 93%. Auscultation revealed widespread crepitations leading to a working diagnosis of pulmonary oedema. Despite appropriate management, respiratory function continued to deteriorate and she required intubation, ventilation and emergency caesarean section under general anaesthesia. A live male infant was delivered floppy and was intubated and resuscitated. He awaits discharge home on oxygen. The mother's pulmonary oedema resolved postpartum. Echocardiogram showed left ventricular hypertrophy but normal left ventricular function and the patient's hypertension is being controlled on medication. PMID:26607194

  16. Primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the right ventricular infundibulum treated with a cavo-pulmonary shunt and coronary embolization.

    PubMed

    Owa, M; Higashikata, T; Shimada, H; Kitahara, H; Asano, M; Nakayama, J; Hikita, H; Koyama, J; Sakurai, S; Ikeda, S

    2000-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with progressive right ventricular infundibular wall thickening and outflow obstruction. She had had an aorto-coronary bypass for left main coronary artery disease 1 year after radiation therapy for left mammary cancer. Enhanced computed tomography showed a mass in the right ventricular free wall with no connection to the mediastinum; the tumor extended into the main pulmonary artery, but there was no other evidence of a primary or metastatic tumor. A biopsy specimen was obtained and based on the microscopic and immuno-histochemical findings (vimentin and Kp-1 positive) the diagnosis was primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma, which is very rare. A cavo-pulmonary artery connection lessened her symptoms, but embolization of the coronary artery to try and to reduce the mass had minimal effect. Four months after the tumor was diagnosed she died of extended pulmonary artery obstruction.

  17. Pulmonary endothelial pavement patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Kibria, G; Heath, D; Smith, P; Biggar, R

    1980-01-01

    The appearance of the endothelial pavement pattern was studied in the pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, aorta, and inferior vena cava of the rat by means of silver staining of the cell borders. The endothelial cell in each of the four blood vessels was found to have its own distinctive shape, fusiform and pointed in the direction of blood flow in the case of the aorta and larger and more rectangular in the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary veins. Detailed quantitation of the dimensions and surface area of the endothelial cells in each blood vessel was carried out by a photographic technique. Pulmonary hypertension was induced in one group of rats by feeding them on Crotalaria spectabilis seeds. The endothelial pavement pattern in their pulmonary trunks became disrupted with many of the cells assuming a fusiform shape reminiscent of aortic endothelium. Many small, new endothelial cells formed in the pulmonary trunk suggesting division of cells to line the enlarging blood vessels. In contrast the endothelial cells of the inferior vena cava merely increased in size to cope with the dilatation of this vein. Images PMID:7385090

  18. Computer-assisted diagnostic tool to quantify the pulmonary veins in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Pamulapati, Vivek; Alam, Shoaib; Mehari, Alem; Kato, Gregory J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common cause of death among patients with sickle cell disease. This study investigates the use of pulmonary vein analysis to assist the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension non-invasively with CT-Angiography images. The characterization of the pulmonary veins from CT presents two main challenges. Firstly, the number of pulmonary veins is unknown a priori and secondly, the contrast material is degraded when reaching the pulmonary veins, making the edges of these vessels to appear faint. Each image is first denoised and a fast marching approach is used to segment the left atrium and pulmonary veins. Afterward, a geodesic active contour is employed to isolate the left atrium. A thinning technique is then used to extract the skeleton of the atrium and the veins. The locations of the pulmonary veins ostia are determined by the intersection of the skeleton and the contour of the atrium. The diameters of the pulmonary veins are measured in each vein at fixed distances from the corresponding ostium, and for each distance, the sum of the diameters of all the veins is computed. These indicators are shown to be significantly larger in sickle-cell patients with pulmonary hypertension as compared to controls (p-values < 0.01).

  19. Improving pulmonary rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Beckford, Katy

    The Clinical Audit of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Services in England and Wales was the first national audit of pulmonary rehabilitation services in England and Wales. Forming part of the National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Audit Programme, it was commissioned by Healthcare Quality Improvement Programme and conducted by the Royal College of Physicians and British Thoracic Society. The audit was undertaken to geographically map pulmonary rehabilitation services and identify how they can improve. This article summarises the key findings of the audit, and its recommendations.

  20. The Role of Multidetector Computed Tomography in the Early Diagnosis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Çiledağ, Nazan; Arda, Kemal; Arıbaş, Bilgin Kadri; Tekgündüz, Ali Irfan Emre; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate vessel involvement and the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the earlydiagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with febrile neutropenia and antibiotic-resistant feverundergoing autologous bone morrow transplantation. Material and Methods: In all, 74 pulmonary MDCT examinations in 37 consecutive hematopoietic stem celltransplantation patients with febrile neutropenia and clinically suspected IPA were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Diagnosis of IPA was based on Fungal Infections Cooperative Group, and National Institute of Allergy andInfectious Diseases Mycoses Study Consensus Group criteria. In all, 0, 14, and 11 patients were diagnosed as proven,probable, and possible IPA, respectively. Among the 25 patients accepted as probable and possible IPA, all had pulmonaryMDCT findings consistent with IPA. The remaining 12 patients were accepted as having fever of unknown origin (FUO)and had patent vessels based on MDCT findings.In the patients with probable and possible IPA, 72 focal pulmonary lesions were observed; in 41 of the 72 (57%) lesionsvascular occlusion was noted and the CT halo sign was observed in 25 of these 41 (61%) lesions. Resolution of feveroccurred following antifungal therapy in 19 (76%) of the 25 patients with probable and possible IPA. In all, 6 (25%)of the patients diagnosed as IPA died during follow-up. Transplant-related mortality 100 d post transplant in patientswith IPA and FUO was 24% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, MDCT has a potential role in the early diagnosis of IPA via detection of vessel occlusion. PMID:24744620

  1. Single origin of right and left pulmonary arteries from ascending aorta with atretic main pulmonary artery from right ventricle and left pulmonary sling.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Ling; Huang, Li-Ting; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Tsai, Yi-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Either left pulmonary sling or single origin of right and left pulmonary arteries (only three cases reported previously) are rare congenital heart anomalies and concomitantly occurred had not been reported. The image presentation is similar to type A1 truncus arteriosus but preserved pulmonary valve and main pulmonary artery development. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of balneotherapy on disease activity, functional status, pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Koray; Tok, Fatih; Peker, Fatma; Safaz, Ismail; Taskaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Ozgul, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of balneotherapy on disease activity, functional status, metrology index, pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study included 28 patients (27 male and 1 female) diagnosed with AS according to modified New York criteria. The patients were treated with balneotherapy for 3 weeks (30 min/day, 5 days/week). The patients were evaluated using the global index, Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), disease functional index (BASFI), metrology index (BASMI), chest expansion measures, pulmonary function testing, and the medical outcomes study-short form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) (measure of quality of life) before balneotherapy and 1 month after treatment. Post balneotherapy BASDAI and global index decreased, BASMI parameters improved, chest expansion increased, and some SF-36 parameters improved; however, none of these changes were statistically significant (P > 0.05), except for the decrease in BASMI total score (P < 0.05). Before balneotherapy 6 patients had restrictive pulmonary disorder, according to pulmonary function test results. Pulmonary function test results in 3 (50%) patients were normalized following balneotherapy; however, as for the other index, balneotherapy did not significantly affect pulmonary function test results. The AS patients' symptoms, clinical findings, pulmonary function test results, and quality of life showed a trend to improve following balneotherapy, although without reaching significant differences. Comprehensive randomized controlled spa intervention studies with longer follow-up periods may be helpful in further delineating the therapeutic efficacy of balneotherapy in AS patients.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension and computed tomography measurement of small pulmonary vessels in severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shin; Washko, George R; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Diaz, Alejandro; Silverman, Edwin K; Hoffman, Eric; Fessler, Henry E; Criner, Gerard J; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Scharf, Steven M; Martinez, Fernando J; Reilly, John J; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2010-02-01

    Vascular alteration of small pulmonary vessels is one of the characteristic features of pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The in vivo relationship between pulmonary hypertension and morphological alteration of the small pulmonary vessels has not been assessed in patients with severe emphysema. We evaluated the correlation of total cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) assessed on computed tomography (CT) scans with the degree of pulmonary hypertension estimated by right heart catheterization. In 79 patients with severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), we measured CSA less than 5 mm(2) (CSA(<5)) and 5 to 10 mm(2) (CSA(5-10)), and calculated the percentage of total CSA for the lung area (%CSA(<5) and %CSA(5-10), respectively). The correlations of %CSA(<5) and %CSA(5-10) with pulmonary arterial mean pressure (Ppa) obtained by right heart catheterization were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis using Ppa as the dependent outcome was also performed. The %CSA(<5) had a significant negative correlation with Ppa (r = -0.512, P < 0.0001), whereas the correlation between %CSA(5-10) and Ppa did not reach statistical significance (r = -0.196, P = 0.083). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that %CSA(<5) and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) % predicted were independent predictors of Ppa (r(2) = 0.541): %CSA (<5) (P < 0.0001), and DL(CO) % predicted (P = 0.022). The %CSA(<5) measured on CT images is significantly correlated to Ppa in severe emphysema and can estimate the degree of pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis diagnosed by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Linnane, Barry M; Hall, Graham L; Nolan, Gary; Brennan, Siobhan; Stick, Stephen M; Sly, Peter D; Robertson, Colin F; Robinson, Philip J; Franklin, Peter J; Turner, Stephen W; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2008-12-15

    Progressive lung damage in cystic fibrosis (CF) starts in infancy, and early detection may aid preventative strategies. To measure lung function in infants with CF diagnosed by newborn screening and describe its association with pulmonary infection and inflammation. Infants with CF (n = 68, 6 weeks to 30 months of age) and healthy infants without CF (n = 49) were studied. Forced vital capacity, FEV(0.5), and forced expiratory flows at 75% of exhaled vital capacity (FEF(75)) were measured using the raised-volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique. Forty-eight hours later, infants with CF had bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for assessment of pulmonary infection and inflammation. In the CF group, the deficit in FEV(0.5) z score increased by -0.77 (95% confidence interval, -1.14 to -0.41; P < 0.001) with each year of age. The mean FEV(0.5) z score did not differ between infants with CF and healthy control subjects less than 6 months of age (-0.06 and 0.02, respectively; P = 0.87). However, the mean FEV(0.5) z score was lower by 1.15 in infants with CF who were older than 6 months of age compared with healthy infants (P < 0.001). FVC and FEF(75) followed a similar pattern. Pulmonary infection and inflammation in BAL samples did not explain the lung function results. Lung function, measured by forced expiration, is normal in infants with CF at the time of diagnosis by newborn screening but is diminished in older infants. These findings suggest that in CF the optimal timing of therapeutic interventions aimed at preserving lung function may be within the first 6 months of life.

  5. [Pulmonary function in patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rcx, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS/VA, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 40 patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 75%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 57.5 and 25%, respectively. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared mainly as increased TGV and PRV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, PaO2, and PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. TGV and PRL increased up to 148-187 and 142-223% of the normal values, respectively; MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and DLCO decreased to 59-24, 58-26, 78-57, and 78-67% of the normal values and PaO2 and PaCO2 did to 79-69 and 34-30 cm Hg.

  6. Early pulmonary vascular disease in preterm infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mourani, Peter M; Sontag, Marci K; Younoszai, Adel; Miller, Joshua I; Kinsella, John P; Baker, Christopher D; Poindexter, Brenda B; Ingram, David A; Abman, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes among preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but whether early signs of pulmonary vascular disease are associated with the subsequent development of BPD or PH at 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) is unknown. To prospectively evaluate the relationship of early echocardiogram signs of pulmonary vascular disease in preterm infants to the subsequent development of BPD and late PH (at 36 wk PMA). Prospectively enrolled preterm infants with birthweights 500-1,250 g underwent echocardiogram evaluations at 7 days of age (early) and 36 weeks PMA (late). Clinical and echocardiographic data were analyzed to identify early risk factors for BPD and late PH. A total of 277 preterm infants completed echocardiogram and BPD assessments at 36 weeks PMA. The median gestational age at birth and birthweight of the infants were 27 weeks and 909 g, respectively. Early PH was identified in 42% of infants, and 14% were diagnosed with late PH. Early PH was a risk factor for increased BPD severity (relative risk, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.23) and late PH (relative risk, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-6.33). Infants with late PH had greater duration of oxygen therapy and increased mortality in the first year of life (P < 0.05). Early pulmonary vascular disease is associated with the development of BPD and with late PH in preterm infants. Echocardiograms at 7 days of age may be a useful tool to identify infants at high risk for BPD and PH.

  7. Improved pulmonary vascular reactivity and decreased hypertrophic remodeling during nonhypercapnic acidosis in experimental pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Helen; Reslan, Ossama M.; Mam, Virak; Tanbe, Alain F.; Vitali, Sally H.; Touma, Marlin; Arons, Elena; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Kourembanas, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by pulmonary arteriolar remodeling with excessive pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. This results in decreased responsiveness of pulmonary circulation to vasodilator therapies. We have shown that extracellular acidosis inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Here we tested whether induction of nonhypercapnic acidosis in vivo ameliorates PH and the underlying pulmonary vascular remodeling and dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxia (8.5% O2) for 2 wk, or injected subcutaneously with monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) to develop PH. Acidosis was induced with NH4Cl (1.5%) in the drinking water 5 days prior to and during the 2 wk of hypoxic exposure (prevention protocol), or after MCT injection from day 21 to 28 (reversal protocol). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and Fulton's index were measured, and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling was analyzed. Pulmonary and mesenteric artery contraction to phenylephrine (Phe) and high KCl, and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were examined ex vivo. Hypoxic and MCT-treated rats demonstrated increased RVSP, Fulton's index, and pulmonary arteriolar thickening. In pulmonary arteries of hypoxic and MCT rats there was reduced contraction to Phe and KCl and reduced vasodilation to ACh and SNP. Acidosis prevented hypoxia-induced PH, reversed MCT-induced PH, and resulted in reduction in all indexes of PH including RVSP, Fulton's index, and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling. Pulmonary artery contraction to Phe and KCl was preserved or improved, and relaxation to ACh and SNP was enhanced in NH4Cl-treated PH animals. Acidosis alone did not affect the hemodynamics or pulmonary vascular function. Phe and KCl contraction and ACh and SNP relaxation were not different in mesenteric arteries of all groups. Thus nonhypercapnic acidosis ameliorates experimental PH, attenuates pulmonary arteriolar thickening

  8. Automated detection system for pulmonary emphysema on 3D chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iwano, Shingo; Itoh, Shigeki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2004-05-01

    An automatic extraction of pulmonary emphysema area on 3-D chest CT images was performed using an adaptive thresholding technique. We proposed a method to estimate the ratio of the emphysema area to the whole lung volume. We employed 32 cases (15 normal and 17 abnormal) which had been already diagnosed by radiologists prior to the study. The ratio in all the normal cases was less than 0.02, and in abnormal cases, it ranged from 0.01 to 0.26. The effectiveness of our approach was confirmed through the results of the present study.

  9. Diagnostic Value of Serum Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Level for Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Salmanzadeh, Shokrollah; Tavakkol, Heshmatollah; Bavieh, Khalid; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is not always easy, thus employing methods with a short duration and acceptable sensitivity and specificity is necessary to diagnose TB. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) level for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. A total of 160 sex and age-matched subjects were included in this study, and were divided to four groups; forty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosed based on the national TB program (NTP), forty patients with non-tuberculosis bacterial pneumonia, forty patients with lung cancer and forty people who were healthy in every respect. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in patients of each group was measured by the Giusti and Galanti calorimetry method using a commercial kit (Diazyme, USA). The ANOVA analysis was used to compare groups for quantitative variables. Mean serum ADA level in the PTB group was clearly higher than the mean serum ADA in the other three groups. Mean serum ADA was 26 IU/L in PTB patients, 19.48 IU/L in patients with pneumonia, 15.8 IU/L in patients with lung cancer, and 10.7 IU/L in the control group (P < 0.05). In regard to the cut off value of 26 IU/L for ADA in patients with PTB sensitivity and specificity was defined as 35% and 91%, respectively. Serum ADA activity with high specificity percentage may be a useful alternative test in restricted resource areas to rule out diagnosis of PTB. However, serum ADA activity is not a useful tool for TB diagnosis.

  10. Prevalence and etiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tariq; Singh, Ravindra Kumar; Kant, Surya; Shukla, Amitabh Das; Chandra, Alok; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking has been recognized as the most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for a long time, but recent studies have shown that nonsmokers also contribute to a significant proportion of COPD. This study was performed to find out the proportion of nonsmoker individuals among COPD patients and to determine various etiologies in nonsmoker COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This study was an observational cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Pulmonary Medicine, MLN Medical College, Allahabad. A total of 200 COPD patients, aged >18 years of either gender with COPD, diagnosed by clinical and spirometric criteria (GOLD guideline) were included in the study. Results: Of the 200 COPD patients, the proportion of nonsmoker patients was 56.5%, and the smoker was 43.5%. Among 113 nonsmoker COPD patients, maximum number of patients (69.03%) belonged to low socioeconomic status but most important and statistically significant risk factor was exposure to biomass smoke (53.98%), other significant risk factors were treated pulmonary tuberculosis (32.74%), and long-standing asthma (14.16%). Risk factors that were not statistically significant were occupational exposure (9.73%), exposure to outdoor air pollution (3.54%), and lower respiratory tract infection during childhood (1.77%). The patients who were exposed to more than one risk factors, developed COPD at an earlier age. Conclusions: This study revealed that nonsmokers contribute a significant proportion of COPD patients. Multiple risk factors other than smoking also play a major role in the development of COPD, particularly exposure to biomass smoke, treated pulmonary tuberculosis, and long-standing asthma. PMID:28360458

  11. The Most Common Detected Risk and Etiologic Factors of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Baljic, Rusmir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is the most serious manifestation of thromboembolic disease. Objective: To determine the most common risk and etiologic factors of pulmonary tromboembolism in patients treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year- period from 2008. to 2010. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed patients with PTE treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period from 2008. to 2010. PTE was diagnosed by high resolute computed tomography, in most of them ventilatory /perfusion scintigraphy (V/P SPECT) was made, with proper laboratory analyses (D-dimmer, platelets , fibrinogen, and if it was needed protein C, S and AT III factor were examined). In all of them echosonography of abdomen and pelvis was done, also the examination by angiologist, and in patients with indications echosonography of the heart and Color Doppler of leg veins was made. We analysed risk and etiologic factors for PTE in each patient. Results: In 222 treated patients with PTE risk factors were found in 124 or 55.86% patients, etiologic factors were found in 31 or 13.96%, and both risk and etiologic factors in one patient were found in 18 or 8.11% patients. Conclusion: PTE is very serious disease that very often has fatal prognosis, and can develop with previously entirely healthy people, and as soon as we become suspicious of its presence we have to made appropriate diagnostic procedures and include appropriate therapy. We can after look for risk and etiologic factors and try to influence them. PMID:23922531

  12. Agile convolutional neural network for pulmonary nodule classification using CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinzhuo; Liu, Liyao; Qi, Shouliang; Teng, Yueyang; Li, Jianhua; Qian, Wei

    2018-04-01

    To distinguish benign from malignant pulmonary nodules using CT images is critical for their precise diagnosis and treatment. A new Agile convolutional neural network (CNN) framework is proposed to conquer the challenges of a small-scale medical image database and the small size of the nodules, and it improves the performance of pulmonary nodule classification using CT images. A hybrid CNN of LeNet and AlexNet is constructed through combining the layer settings of LeNet and the parameter settings of AlexNet. A dataset with 743 CT image nodule samples is built up based on the 1018 CT scans of LIDC to train and evaluate the Agile CNN model. Through adjusting the parameters of the kernel size, learning rate, and other factors, the effect of these parameters on the performance of the CNN model is investigated, and an optimized setting of the CNN is obtained finally. After finely optimizing the settings of the CNN, the estimation accuracy and the area under the curve can reach 0.822 and 0.877, respectively. The accuracy of the CNN is significantly dependent on the kernel size, learning rate, training batch size, dropout, and weight initializations. The best performance is achieved when the kernel size is set to [Formula: see text], the learning rate is 0.005, the batch size is 32, and dropout and Gaussian initialization are used. This competitive performance demonstrates that our proposed CNN framework and the optimization strategy of the CNN parameters are suitable for pulmonary nodule classification characterized by small medical datasets and small targets. The classification model might help diagnose and treat pulmonary nodules effectively.

  13. Is insufficient pulmonary air support the cause of dysphonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Hassan, Megahed M; Hussein, Mona T; Emam, Ahmed Mamdouh; Rashad, Usama M; Rezk, Ibrahim; Awad, Al Hussein

    2018-08-01

    Optimal pulmonary air support is essential pre-requisite for efficient phonation. The objective is to correlate pulmonary and vocal functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to find out whether the reduced pulmonary function per se could induce dysphonia. In this prospective case-control study, sixty subjects with stable COPD underwent evaluation of pulmonary and vocal functions. The pulmonary functions measured include {Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)}. The vocal functions were {jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, pitch perturbation quotient, amplitude perturbation quotient, maximum phonation time (MPT), sound pressure level, phonatory efficiency, resistance and power. A control group (n=35) underwent the same measurements. These functions were compared between subjects and controls. Also, correlation of the vocal and pulmonary functions was conducted. Thirty five (58.3%) of COPD subjects have dysphonia. The pulmonary functions were lower in all COPD group than in the control group (P<0.001 for all parameters). Also, the FVC, FEV1, PEF and MMEF % of predicted values were significantly lower in subjects with dysphonia (n=35) than those without dysphonia (n=25) with P values 0.0018, <0.001, 0.0011 and 0.0026 respectively. In addition, the MPT in all subjects showed positive correlations to the 5 pulmonary functions (P=0.004 for FEV1/FVC ratio and P<0.001 for the rest). Also, the phonatory efficiency showed significant positive correlations with the pulmonary functions FVC, FEV1, PEF and MMEF (P=0.001, 0.001, 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). Unlike efficiency, the phonatory resistance revealed significant negative correlations with these pulmonary functions in the same order (P=0.001, 0.003, 0.002, 0.001 respectively). Dysphonia is a common comorbidity with COPD which attributed to multifactorial etiologies. The lower

  14. Parasitic pulmonary eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Chitkara, Rajinder K; Krishna, Ganesh

    2006-04-01

    Parasitic infections, although common in tropical and subtropical regions, are prevalent worldwide because of changing immigration patterns and in international travel. The burden of worm infection is enormous and the intensity of infection is usually high among the poor and in immunocompromised individuals. Pulmonary eosinophilia occurs in almost all metazoan infections. In the Western world, the most common infections are caused by Strongyloides, Ascaris, Toxocara, and Ancylostoma species. Most of the nematodes multiply within the human host and cause pulmonary eosinophilia during larval migration through the lungs. Despite larval migration through the lungs, there is usually no permanent lung damage. The result is an increased number of eosinophils in the airways or lung parenchyma with or without peripheral eosinophilia. Löffler's syndrome, visceral larva migrans, and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia are the most common infections that cause pulmonary eosinophilia. The most serious parasitic eosinophilic lung disease is tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a disorder caused by the filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, in which cases have typically been reported to masquerade acute or refractory bronchial asthma. Increasing awareness, newer diagnostic techniques, preventative measures, and antiparasitic drugs are important in reducing the worldwide morbidity and mortality from parasitic helminths and protozoa. This review focuses on common and some uncommon causes of pulmonary parasitic eosinophilia and their manifestations, diagnosis, and management.

  15. Lung Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Connective Tissue Diseases: Criteria and Severity of Pulmonary Fibrosis - Analysis of 52 Patients.

    PubMed

    Buda, N; Piskunowicz, M; Porzezińska, M; Kosiak, W; Zdrojewski, Z

    2016-08-01

    Patients with a diagnosed systemic connective tissue disease require regular monitoring from the point of view of interstitial lung disease. The main aim of this work is a description of the criteria for pulmonary fibrosis and the degree of the severity of the fibrosis during the course of interstitial lung disease through the TLU (transthoracic lung ultrasound). 52 patients with diagnosed diffuse interstitial lung disease were qualified for this research, together with 50 volunteers in the control group. The patients in both groups were over 18 years of age and were of both sexes. The results of the TLU of the patients underwent statistical analysis and were compared to High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) results. As a consequence of the statistical analysis, we defined our own criteria for pulmonary fibrosis in TLU: irregularity of the pleura line, tightening of the pleura line, the fragmentary nature of the pleura line, blurring of the pleura line, thickening of the pleura line, artifacts of line B ≤ 3 and ≥ 4, artifacts of Am line and subpleural consolidations < 5 mm. As a result of the conducted research, a scale of severity of pulmonary fibrosis in TLU was devised (UFI - Ultrasound Fibrosis Index), enabling a division to be made into mild, moderate and severe cases. Transthoracic Lung Ultrasonography (TLU) gives a new outlook on the diagnostic possibilities, non-invasive and devoid of ionising radiation, of pulmonary fibrosis. This research work has allowed to discover two new ultrasound symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis (blurred pleural line and Am lines). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Reexpansion pulmonary edema in children

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Antonio Lucas L.; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo; Romaneli, Mariana Tresoldi das N.; Fraga, Andrea de Melo A.; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Tresoldi, Antonia Teresinha

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To present a case of a patient with clinical and radiological features of reexpansion pulmonary edema, a rare and potentially fatal disease. CASE DESCRIPTION An 11-year-old boy presenting fever, clinical signs and radiological features of large pleural effusion initially treated as a parapneumonic process. Due to clinical deterioration he underwent tube thoracostomy, with evacuation of 3,000 mL of fluid; he shortly presented acute respiratory insufficiency and needed mechanical ventilation. He had an atypical evolution (extubated twice with no satisfactory response). Computerized tomography findings matched those of reexpansion edema. He recovered satisfactorily after intensive care, and pleural tuberculosis was diagnosed afterwards. COMMENTS Despite its rareness in the pediatric population (only five case reports gathered), the knowledge of this pathology and its prevention is very important, due to high mortality rates. It is recommended, among other measures, slow evacuation of the pleural effusion, not removing more than 1,500 mL of fluid at once. PMID:24142327

  17. Spirometry Use among Older Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.; Sharma, Gulshan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Clinical practice guidelines recommend spirometry to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and facilitate management. National trends in spirometry use in older adults with newly diagnosed COPD are not known. Objectives: To examine the rate and beneficiary characteristics associated with spirometry use in subjects with newly diagnosed COPD between 1999 and 2008. Methods: We examined newly diagnosed beneficiaries with COPD using a 5% Medicare population from 1999 to 2008. A new COPD diagnosis required two outpatient visits or one hospitalization with primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition code 491.xx, 492.xx, or 496 occurring at least 30 days apart with none in the prior 12 months. The primary measurement was spirometry performed within 365 days (±) of the first claim with a COPD diagnosis. Measurements and Main Results: Between 1999 and 2008, 64,985 subjects were newly diagnosed with COPD. Of these, 35,739 (55%) had spirometry performed within 1 year before or after the initial diagnosis of COPD. Spirometry use increased from 51.3% in 1999 to 58.3% in 2008 (P < 0.001). Subjects with younger age, men, whites, those with higher socioeconomic status, and those with a greater number of comorbidities were more likely to have spirometry. In a multivariable analysis, compared with 1999, subjects diagnosed in 2008 had 10% higher odds (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.13) of having spirometry performed. Conclusions: Despite an increase in the use of spirometry over time in newly diagnosed older adults with COPD, spirometry use remains low. Clinical practice guidelines and educational efforts should focus on increasing the use of spirometry to diagnose and manage COPD. PMID:24053440

  18. Pulmonary Thromboembolism: Evaluation By Intravenous Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Gerald D.; Cook, Glenn C.; Woolfenden, James M.; Dodge, Russell R.

    1981-11-01

    Using perfusion lung scans as a guide, digital video subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries was performed in human subjects suspected of having pulmonary embolism. Dogs were employed as a pulmonary embolism model and both routine pulmonary angiography and intravenous pulmonary angiograms were obtained for comparison purposes. We have shown by our preliminary results that the technique is extremely promising as a safe and accurate alternative to routine pulmonary angiography in selected patients.

  19. Clinical Presentation of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Survey of 800 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Cenci, Caterina; Monti, Simonetta; Poli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal disease that is still underdiagnosed. The objective of our study was to reappraise the clinical presentation of PE with emphasis on the identification of the symptoms and signs that prompt the patients to seek medical attention. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 800 patients with PE from two different clinical settings: 440 were recruited in Pisa (Italy) as part of the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED); 360 were diagnosed with and treated for PE in seven hospitals of central Tuscany, and evaluated at the Atherothrombotic Disorders Unit, Firenze (Italy), shortly after hospital discharge. We interviewed the patients directly using a standardized, self-administered questionnaire originally utilized in the PISAPED. The two samples differed significantly as regards age, proportion of outpatients, prevalence of unprovoked PE, and of active cancer. Sudden onset dyspnea was the most frequent symptom in both samples (81 and 78%), followed by chest pain (56 and 39%), fainting or syncope (26 and 22%), and hemoptysis (7 and 5%). At least one of the above symptoms was reported by 756 (94%) of 800 patients. Isolated symptoms and signs of deep vein thrombosis occurred in 3% of the cases. Only 7 (1%) of 800 patients had no symptoms before PE was diagnosed. Conclusions/Significance Most patients with PE feature at least one of four symptoms which, in decreasing order of frequency, are sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, fainting (or syncope), and hemoptysis. The occurrence of such symptoms, if not explained otherwise, should alert the clinicians to consider PE in differential diagnosis, and order the appropriate objective test. PMID:22383978

  20. Submillisievert standard-pitch CT pulmonary angiography with ultra-low dose contrast media administration: A comparison to standard CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Mikat, Christian; Stenzel, Elena; Erfanian, Youssef; Wetter, Axel; Schlosser, Thomas; Forsting, Michael; Nassenstein, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of submillisievert standard-pitch CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with ultra-low dose contrast media administration in comparison to standard CTPA. Hundred patients (56 females, 44 males, mean age 69.6±15.4 years; median BMI: 26.6, IQR: 5.9) with suspected pulmonary embolism were examined with two different protocols (n = 50 each, group A: 80 kVp, ref. mAs 115, 25 ml of contrast medium; group B: 100 kVp, ref. mAs 150, 60 ml of contrast medium) using a dual-source CT equipped with automated exposure control. Objective and subjective image qualities, radiation exposure as well as the frequency of pulmonary embolism were evaluated. There was no significant difference in subjective image quality scores between two groups regarding pulmonary arteries (p = 0.776), whereby the interobserver agreement was excellent (group A: k = 0.9; group B k = 1.0). Objective image analysis revealed that signal intensities (SI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the pulmonary arteries were equal or significantly higher in group B. There was no significant difference in the frequency of pulmonary embolism (p = 0.65). Using the low dose and low contrast media protocol resulted in a radiation dose reduction by 71.8% (2.4 vs. 0.7 mSv; p<0.001). This 80 kVp standard pitch CTPA protocol with 25 ml contrast agent volume can obtain sufficient image quality to exclude or diagnose pulmonary emboli while reducing radiation dose by approximately 71%.

  1. Outcomes of synchronous pulmonary nodules detected on computed tomography in head and neck cancer patients: 12-year retrospective review of a consecutive cohort.

    PubMed

    Zammit-Maempel, I; Kurien, R; Paleri, V

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the long-term outcomes of pulmonary nodules detected on chest computed tomography in a consecutive cohort of patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent head and neck squamous cell cancer staged between 2001 and 2003. The study included 222 patients, 148 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer (group 1) and 74 patients with recurrent cancer (group 2). Abnormalities were identified in 101 patients (45.4 per cent); these were predominantly benign in group 1 (61.7 per cent) as compared to predominantly malignant in group 2 (64.3 per cent) (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.0009). Only four patients (7.4 per cent) with an initially benign-looking pulmonary nodule went on to dev