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Sample records for pulp inflammation increases

  1. LPS-induced dental pulp inflammation increases expression of ionotropic purinergic receptors in rat trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangxi; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jingwen; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Zhi

    2014-09-10

    Severe toothache can be caused by dental pulp inflammation. The ionotropic purinergic receptor family (P2X) is reported to mediate nociception in primary afferent neurons. This study aims to investigate the involvement of P2X receptors in the sensitization of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) caused by dental pulp inflammation. Lipopolysaccharides were unilaterally applied to the pulp of the upper molar of the rat to induce dental pulp inflammation. Increased expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activity, was induced in V1-V2 division, indicating the activation of TG neurons. The expressions of P2X2, P2X3, and P2X5 were also increased in the V1-V2 division of TG, primarily in small-sized and medium-sized neurons. Markers of glutamatergic afferents, VGluT1, and GABAergic afferents, GAD67, were induced by lipopolysaccharides and coexpressed with P2X in small-sized TG neurons. The present findings suggest that the P2X2, P2X3, and P2X5 receptors are upregulated as part of the sensitization produced by dental pulp inflammation. PMID:25055139

  2. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Michel; Njeh, Akram; Uzunoglu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically. PMID:26538825

  3. The role of cytokines in pulp inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kokkas, A; Goulas, A; Stavrianos, C; Anogianakis, G

    2011-01-01

    Pulpitis is a typical inflammatory disease of dental pulp, characterized by the local accumulation of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. In addition to serving as intercellular messengers mediating the inflammatory response, cytokines and chemokines induce the expression and stimulate the activity of molecular and cellular agents which participate actively in destructive and reparative processes in the pulp. It is the balance between these processes which eventually determines the extent of pulp inflammation and the viability of the affected tooth. Over the last decade, a number of studies have attempted to correlate cytokine gene expression in the pulp with various stages of inflammation, with possible diagnostic applications in mind. A small survey of relevant information is presented in this paper.

  4. Scaffolds to Control Inflammation and Facilitate Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John S.; Moore, Amanda N.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; D’Souza, Rena N.

    2014-01-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance, as teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. While the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis due to their ability to switch to a pro-resolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a pro-resolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  5. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  6. Expression of Vesicular Glutamate Transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the Rat Dental Pulp and Trigeminal Ganglion following Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Sook; Choi, So Young; Kim, Tae Heon; Cho, Yi Sul; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that peripheral glutamate signaling mechanism is involved in the nociceptive transmission during pathological conditions. However, little is known about the glutamate signaling mechanism and related specific type of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) in the dental pulp following inflammation. To address this issue, we investigated expression and protein levels of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the dental pulp and trigeminal ganglion (TG) following complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) application to the rat dental pulp by light microscopic immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Results The density of VGLUT2− immunopositive (+) axons in the dental pulp and the number of VGLUT2+ soma in the TG increased significantly in the CFA-treated group, compared to control group. The protein levels of VGLUT2 in the dental pulp and TG were also significantly higher in the CFA-treated group than control group by Western blot analysis. The density of VGLUT1+ axons in the dental pulp and soma in the TG remained unchanged in the CFA-treated group. Conclusions These findings suggest that glutamate signaling that is mediated by VGLUT2 in the pulpal axons may be enhanced in the inflamed dental pulp, which may contribute to pulpal axon sensitization leading to hyperalgesia following inflammation. PMID:25290694

  7. Viruses in pulp and periapical inflammation: a review.

    PubMed

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Donoso Zúñiga, Manuel; Jané-Salas, Enric; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Segura-Egea, Juan José; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; López-López, José

    2016-05-01

    The presence of viruses in endodontic disease has been studied in the last decade. Their presence is associated with periapical radiolucency and with clinical findings, such as pain. The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific evidence currently published about viruses in pulp and periapical inflammation, and its possible clinical implications. A literature review was carried out using the Medline/Pubmed database. The search was performed, in English and Spanish, using the following keyword combinations: virus AND endodontic; virus AND periapical; virus AND pulpitis; herpesvirus AND periapical; papillomavirus AND periapical. We subsequently selected the most relevant studies, which complied with the search criterion. A total of 21 articles were included, of which 18 detected the present of viruses in the samples. In 3 of the studies, viral presence was not found in the samples studied. The Epstein-Barr virus was found in about 41 % of cases compared to controls, in which it was present in about 2 %. The main association between viruses and endodontic pathosis is between Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus; these are found in 114 of the 406 samples of different endodontic pathosis. Some evidence supports that the Epstein-Barr virus is present in a significant number of endodontic diseases, without exact knowledge of their action in these diseases.

  8. Plasmin is involved in inflammation via protease-activated receptor-1 activation in human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Naoto; Hashizume, Hideki; Nakao, Sumi; Matsushima, Kiyoshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2008-05-15

    Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme produced from plasminogen by plasminogen activators. We investigated the function of plasmin in human dental pulp fibroblast-like cells. Plasmin induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mRNA for protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) was detected, and the PAR-1 activating peptide SFLLRN induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the cells. The plasmin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. Plasmin stimulated the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release, which are involved in inflammation. These effects of plasmin on expression of IL-8 mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release were inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. These results suggest that plasmin activates PAR-1 and is involved in inflammation in human dental pulp. PMID:18384756

  9. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838

  10. Mechanisms underlying ectopic persistent tooth-pulp pain following pulpal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Shingo; Shimizu, Kohei; Shinoda, Masamichi; Ohara, Kinuyo; Ogiso, Bunnai; Honda, Kuniya; Katagiri, Ayano; Sessle, Barry J; Urata, Kentaro; Iwata, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the peripheral mechanisms of ectopic persistent pain in a tooth pulp following pulpal inflammation of an adjacent tooth, masseter muscle activity, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) and TRPV1 immunohistochemistries and satellite cell activation using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) were studied in the rats with molar tooth-pulp inflammation. And, Fluorogold (FG) and DiI were also used in a neuronal tracing study to analyze if some TG neurons innervate more than one tooth pulp. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or saline was applied into the upper first molar tooth pulp (M1) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and capsaicin was applied into the upper second molar tooth pulp (M2) on day 3 after the CFA or saline application. Mean EMG activity elicited in the masseter muscle by capsaicin application to M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. The mean number of pERK-immunoreactive (IR) TG cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. Application of the satellite cell inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) into TG caused a significant depression of capsaicin-induced masseter muscle activity and a significant reduction of satellite cell activation. The number of TRPV1-IR TG cells innervating M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats, and that was decreased following FC injection into TG. Furthermore, 6% of TG neurons innervating M1 and/or M2 innervated both M1 and M2. These findings suggest that satellite cell activation following tooth pulp inflammation and innervation of multiple tooth pulps by single TG neurons may be involved in the enhancement of the activity of TG neurons innervating adjacent non-inflamed teeth that also show enhancement of TRPV1 expression in TG neurons, resulting in the ectopic persistent tooth-pulp pain

  11. Mechanisms underlying ectopic persistent tooth-pulp pain following pulpal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Shingo; Shimizu, Kohei; Shinoda, Masamichi; Ohara, Kinuyo; Ogiso, Bunnai; Honda, Kuniya; Katagiri, Ayano; Sessle, Barry J; Urata, Kentaro; Iwata, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the peripheral mechanisms of ectopic persistent pain in a tooth pulp following pulpal inflammation of an adjacent tooth, masseter muscle activity, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) and TRPV1 immunohistochemistries and satellite cell activation using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) were studied in the rats with molar tooth-pulp inflammation. And, Fluorogold (FG) and DiI were also used in a neuronal tracing study to analyze if some TG neurons innervate more than one tooth pulp. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or saline was applied into the upper first molar tooth pulp (M1) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and capsaicin was applied into the upper second molar tooth pulp (M2) on day 3 after the CFA or saline application. Mean EMG activity elicited in the masseter muscle by capsaicin application to M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. The mean number of pERK-immunoreactive (IR) TG cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. Application of the satellite cell inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) into TG caused a significant depression of capsaicin-induced masseter muscle activity and a significant reduction of satellite cell activation. The number of TRPV1-IR TG cells innervating M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats, and that was decreased following FC injection into TG. Furthermore, 6% of TG neurons innervating M1 and/or M2 innervated both M1 and M2. These findings suggest that satellite cell activation following tooth pulp inflammation and innervation of multiple tooth pulps by single TG neurons may be involved in the enhancement of the activity of TG neurons innervating adjacent non-inflamed teeth that also show enhancement of TRPV1 expression in TG neurons, resulting in the ectopic persistent tooth-pulp pain

  12. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  13. Effect of miR-146a/bFGF/PEG-PEI Nanoparticles on Inflammation Response and Tissue Regeneration of Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Shu, Shan; Cheung, Gary Shunpan; Wei, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Inflammation in dental pulp cells (DPCs) initiated by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in dental pulp necrosis. So far, whether there is a common system regulating inflammation response and tissue regeneration remains unknown. miR-146a is closely related to inflammation. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important regulator for differentiation. Methods. To explore the effect of miR-146a/bFGF on inflammation and tissue regeneration, polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI) was synthesized, and physical characteristics were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and gel retardation analysis. Cell absorption, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Alginate gel was combined with miR-146a/PEG-PEI nanoparticles and bFGF. Drug release ratio was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotography. Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of DPCs with 1 μg/mL LPS treatment were determined. Results. PEG-PEI prepared at N/P 2 showed complete gel retardation and smallest particle size and zeta potential. Transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI was higher than lipo2000. Cell viability decreased as N/P ratio increased. Drug release rate amounted to 70% at the first 12 h and then maintained slow release afterwards. Proliferation and differentiation decreased in DPCs with LPS treatment, whereas they increased in miR-146a/bFGF gel group. Conclusions. PEG-PEI is a promising vector for gene therapy. miR-146a and bFGF play critical roles in inflammation response and tissue regeneration of DPCs. PMID:27057540

  14. Overexpression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Human Dental Pulp Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tancharoen, Salunya; Tengrungsun, Tassanee; Suddhasthira, Theeralaksna; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Vechvongvan, Nuttavun; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1). RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection. PMID:25114379

  15. Innovative endodontic therapy for anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping of permanent teeth with a mature apex

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Direct pulp capping is a treatment of an exposed vital pulp with a dental material to facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and maintenance of vital pulp. It has been studied as an alternate way to avoid vital pulp extirpation. However, the success rate of pulp capping is much lower than that of vital pulp extirpation. Therefore, direct pulp capping is currently considered controversial by many clinicians. To increase success rate, a critical need exists to develop new biologically-based therapeutics that reduce pulp inflammation, promote the continued formation of new dentin-pulp complex, and restore vitality by stimulating the regrowth of pulpal tissue. Bioengineered anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping materials, together with adhesive materials for leakage prevention, have great potential to improve the condition of the existing pulp from an inflamed to a non-inflamed status and lead to a high rate of long-term success. PMID:20416524

  16. Innovative endodontic therapy for anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping of permanent teeth with a mature apex.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2010-05-01

    Direct pulp capping is treatment of an exposed vital pulp with a dental material to facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and maintenance of vital pulp. It has been studied as an alternate way to avoid vital pulp extirpation. However, the success rate of pulp capping is much lower than that of vital pulp extirpation. Therefore, direct pulp capping is currently considered controversial by many clinicians. To increase the success rate, a critical need exists to develop new biologically based therapeutics that reduce pulp inflammation, promote the continued formation of new dentin-pulp complex, and restore vitality by stimulating the regrowth of pulpal tissue. Bioengineered anti-inflammatory direct pulp-capping materials, together with adhesive materials for leakage prevention, have great potential to improve the condition of the existing pulp from an inflamed to a noninflamed status and lead to a high rate of long-term success.

  17. Effects of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract on abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins and their possible consequential impact on metabolism and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Ursula R W; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H; Mat-Junit, Sarni

    2013-01-01

    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.

  18. Effects of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract on Abundance of HepG2 Cell Lysate Proteins and Their Possible Consequential Impact on Metabolism and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Ursula R. W.; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S.; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H.; Mat-Junit, Sarni

    2013-01-01

    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism. PMID:24455694

  19. Resveratrol Increases Osteoblast Differentiation In Vitro Independently of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ornstrup, Marie Juul; Harsløf, Torben; Sørensen, Lotte; Stenkjær, Liselotte; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2016-08-01

    Low-grade inflammation negatively affects bone. Resveratrol is a natural compound proven to possess both anti-inflammatory and bone protective properties. However, it is uncertain if the bone effects are mediated though anti-inflammatory effects. Firstly, we investigated if resveratrol affects proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Secondly, we investigated if inflammation negatively affects proliferation and differentiation, and if resveratrol counteracts this through anti-inflammatory effects. Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from bone marrow aspiration in 13 healthy individuals and cultured towards the osteoblast cell lineage. The cells were stimulated with resveratrol, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + resveratrol, or vehicle (control) for 21 days. Compared to control, resveratrol decreased cell number by 35 % (p < 0.05) and induced differentiation (a 3-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.002), while P1NP and OPG showed similar trends). LPS induced inflammation with a 44-fold increase in interleukin-6 (p < 0.05) and an extremely prominent increase in interleukin-8 production (p < 0.05) relative to control. In addition, LPS increased cell count (p < 0.05) and decreased differentiation (a reduction in P1NP production (p < 0.02)). Co-stimulation with LPS + resveratrol did not reduce interleukin-6 or interleukin-8, but nonetheless, cell count was reduced (p < 0.05) and alkaline phosphatase, P1NP, and OPG increased (p < 0.05 for all). Thus, resveratrol stimulates osteoblast differentiation independently of inflammation.

  20. Increased levels of inosine in a mouse model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Prestwich, Erin G; Mangerich, Aswin; Pang, Bo; McFaline, Jose L; Lonkar, Pallavi; Sullivan, Matthew R; Trudel, Laura J; Taghizedeh, Koli; Dedon, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    One possible mechanism linking inflammation with cancer involves the generation of reactive oxygen, nitrogen and halogen species by activated macrophages and neutrophils infiltrating sites of infection or tissue damage, with these chemical mediators causing damage that ultimately leads to cell death and mutation. To determine the most biologically deleterious chemistries of inflammation, we previously assessed products across the spectrum of DNA damage arising in inflamed tissues in the SJL mouse model nitric oxide over-production (Pang et al., Carcinogenesis 28: 1807–1813, 2007). Among the anticipated DNA damage chemistries, we observed significant changes only in lipid peroxidation-derived etheno adducts. We have now developed an isotope-dilution, liquid chromatography-coupled, tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric method to quantify representative species across the spectrum of RNA damage products predicted to arise at sites of inflammation, including nucleobase deamination (xanthosine, inosine), oxidation (8-oxoguanosine), and alkylation (1,N6-etheno-adenosine). Application of the method to liver, spleen, and kidney from the SJL mouse model revealed generally higher levels of oxidative background RNA damage than was observed in DNA in control mice. However, compared to control mice, RcsX treatment to induce nitric oxide overproduction resulted in significant increases only in inosine and only in the spleen. Further, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-methylarginine, did not significantly affect the levels of inosine in control and RcsX-treated mice. The differences between DNA and RNA damage in the same animal model of inflammation point to possible influences from DNA repair, RcsX-induced alterations in adenosine deaminase activity, and differential accessibility of DNA and RNA to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as determinants of nucleic acid damage during inflammation. PMID:23506120

  1. Inflammation increases the excitability of masseter muscle afferents.

    PubMed

    Harriott, A M; Dessem, D; Gold, M S

    2006-08-11

    Temporomandibular disorder is a major health problem associated with chronic orofacial pain in the masticatory muscles and/or temporomandibular joint. Evidence suggests that changes in primary afferents innervating the muscles of mastication may contribute to temporomandibular disorder. However, there has been little systematic study of the mechanisms controlling the excitability of these muscle afferents, nor their response to inflammation. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that inflammation increases the excitability of sensory neurons innervating the masseter muscle of the rat and that the ionic mechanisms underlying these changes are unique to these neurons. We examined inflammation-induced changes in the excitability of trigeminal ganglia muscle neurons following intramuscular injections of complete Freund's adjuvant. Three days after complete Freund's adjuvant injection acutely dissociated, retrogradely labeled trigeminal ganglia neurons were studied using whole cell patch clamp techniques. Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation was associated with an increase in neuronal excitability marked by a significant decrease in rheobase and increase in the slope of the stimulus response function assessed with depolarizing current injection. The increase in excitability was associated with significant decreases in the rate of action potential fall and the duration of the action potential afterhyperpolarization. These changes in excitability and action potential waveform were associated with significant shifts in the voltage-dependence of activation and steady-state availability of voltage-gated K(+) current as well as significant decreases in the density of voltage-gated K(+) current subject to steady-state inactivation. These data suggest that K(+) channel subtypes may provide novel targets for the treatment of pain arising from inflamed muscle. These results also support the hypothesis that the underlying mechanisms of pain arising from

  2. Increased prevalence of intestinal inflammation in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Osamu; Sugi, Kazunori; Kojima, Keishi; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Ken; Kayazawa, Masanobu; Tanaka, Seigou; Teranishi, Tsutomu; Hirata, Ichiro; Katsu, Ken-ichi

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathophysiology of the digestive tract in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: In 42 cirrhotic patients and 20 control subjects, the following fecal proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: albumin (Alb), transferrin (Tf), and α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) as a marker for intestinal protein loss, hemoglobin (Hb) for bleeding, PMN-elastase for intestinal inflammation, and secretory IgA for intestinal immunity. RESULTS: The fecal concentrations of Hb, Alb, Tf, α1-AT, an d PMN-elastase were increased in 13 (31%), 8 (19%), 10 (24%), 6 (14%), and 11 (26%) cases among 42 patients, respectively. Fecal concentration of secretory IgA was decreased in 7 (17%) of 42 patients. However, these fecal concentrations were not related to the severity or etiology of liver cirrhosis. The serum Alb level was significantly decreased in patients with intestinal protein loss compared to that in patients without intestinal protein loss. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that: ① besides the well-known pathological conditions, such as bleeding and protein loss, intestinal inflammation and decreased intestinal immunity are found in cirrhotic patients; ② intestinal protein loss contributes to hypoalbuminemia in cirrhotic patients, and ③ intestinal inflammation should not be over looked in cirrhotic patients, since it may contribute to or cause intestinal protein loss and other various path ological conditions. PMID:11819475

  3. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  4. The 82-plex plasma protein signature that predicts increasing inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tepel, Martin; Beck, Hans C.; Tan, Qihua; Borst, Christoffer; Rasmussen, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the specific plasma protein signature that predicts the increase of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein from index day to next-day using proteome analysis and novel bioinformatics tools. We performed a prospective study of 91 incident kidney transplant recipients and quantified 359 plasma proteins simultaneously using nano-Liquid-Chromatography-Tandem Mass-Spectrometry in individual samples and plasma C-reactive protein on the index day and the next day. Next-day C-reactive protein increased in 59 patients whereas it decreased in 32 patients. The prediction model selected and validated 82 plasma proteins which determined increased next-day C-reactive protein (area under receiver-operator-characteristics curve, 0.772; 95% confidence interval, 0.669 to 0.876; P < 0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression showed that 82-plex protein signature (P < 0.001) was associated with observed increased next-day C-reactive protein. The 82-plex protein signature outperformed routine clinical procedures. The category-free net reclassification index improved with 82-plex plasma protein signature (total net reclassification index, 88.3%). Using the 82-plex plasma protein signature increased net reclassification index with a clinical meaningful 10% increase of risk mainly by the improvement of reclassification of subjects in the event group. An 82-plex plasma protein signature predicts an increase of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein. PMID:26445912

  5. Increased alveolar soluble annexin V promotes lung inflammation and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Susan; Shi, Wei; Xu, Wei; Frey, Mark R; Moats, Rex; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Warburton, David

    2015-11-01

    The causes underlying the self-perpetuating nature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and usually lethal disease, remain unknown. We hypothesised that alveolar soluble annexin V contributes to lung fibrosis, based on the observation that human IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) containing high annexin V levels promoted fibroblast involvement in alveolar epithelial wound healing that was reduced when annexin V was depleted from the BALF. Conditioned medium from annexin V-treated alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2), but not annexin V per se, induced proliferation of human fibroblasts and contained pro-fibrotic, IPF-associated proteins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines that were found to correlate tightly (r>0.95) with annexin V levels in human BALF. ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in AECs was activated by annexin V, and blockade reduced the fibrotic potential of annexin V-treated AEC-conditioned medium. In vivo, aerosol delivery of annexin V to mouse lung induced inflammation, fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline, with activation of Wnt, transforming growth factor-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signalling pathways, as seen in IPF. Chronically increased alveolar annexin V levels, as reflected in increased IPF BALF levels, may contribute to the progression of IPF by inducing the release of pro-fibrotic mediators. PMID:26160872

  6. Conceptual convergence: increased inflammation is associated with increased basal ganglia glutamate in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Haroon, E; Fleischer, C C; Felger, J C; Chen, X; Woolwine, B J; Patel, T; Hu, X P; Miller, A H

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation and altered glutamate metabolism are two pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Interestingly, these pathways may be linked given that administration of inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-α to otherwise non-depressed controls increased glutamate in the basal ganglia and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whether increased inflammation is associated with increased glutamate among patients with major depression is unknown. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 medication-free, depressed outpatients using single-voxel MRS, to measure absolute glutamate concentrations in basal ganglia and dACC. Multivoxel chemical shift imaging (CSI) was used to explore creatine-normalized measures of other metabolites in basal ganglia. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers were assessed along with anhedonia and psychomotor speed. Increased log plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly associated with increased log left basal ganglia glutamate controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status and depression severity. In turn, log left basal ganglia glutamate was associated with anhedonia and psychomotor slowing measured by the finger-tapping test, simple reaction time task and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Plasma CRP was not associated with dACC glutamate. Plasma and CSF CRP were also associated with CSI measures of basal ganglia glutamate and the glial marker myoinositol. These data indicate that increased inflammation in major depression may lead to increased glutamate in the basal ganglia in association with glial dysfunction and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting glutamate may be preferentially effective in depressed patients with increased inflammation as measured by CRP. PMID:26754953

  7. Conceptual convergence: increased inflammation is associated with increased basal ganglia glutamate in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, E; Fleischer, C C; Felger, J C; Chen, X; Woolwine, B J; Patel, T; Hu, X P; Miller, A H

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and altered glutamate metabolism are two pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Interestingly, these pathways may be linked given that administration of inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-α to otherwise non-depressed controls increased glutamate in the basal ganglia and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whether increased inflammation is associated with increased glutamate among patients with major depression is unknown. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 medication-free, depressed outpatients using single-voxel MRS, to measure absolute glutamate concentrations in basal ganglia and dACC. Multivoxel chemical shift imaging (CSI) was used to explore creatine-normalized measures of other metabolites in basal ganglia. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers were assessed along with anhedonia and psychomotor speed. Increased log plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly associated with increased log left basal ganglia glutamate controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status and depression severity. In turn, log left basal ganglia glutamate was associated with anhedonia and psychomotor slowing measured by the finger-tapping test, simple reaction time task and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Plasma CRP was not associated with dACC glutamate. Plasma and CSF CRP were also associated with CSI measures of basal ganglia glutamate and the glial marker myoinositol. These data indicate that increased inflammation in major depression may lead to increased glutamate in the basal ganglia in association with glial dysfunction and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting glutamate may be preferentially effective in depressed patients with increased inflammation as measured by CRP. PMID:26754953

  8. Experimental model to measure the increase of dental pulp temperature in vivo during laser application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Junqueira, Silvio L. M.; Busato, Mara S.

    1994-09-01

    Carbon dioxide laser has been used in dental surgery. The existence of healthy teeth, which have pulp vitality needing to be preserved, is observed in a great number of cases. In this work we describe an experimental model which provides the measurement of temperature in pulp chamber `in vivo,' during oral surgeries in which the CO2 laser beam is applied to gingival tissue. The problems met during the search for the best way to place the thermal probe regarding the diameter and depth of pulp chamber and the thickness of the tissue layer formed by gum and maxillary bone are discussed. We use a thermocouple placed in the pulp chamber of superior canine teeth in dogs. After that, the probe was also placed between gum and dental root. Since the temperature at gingival surface was known, it was easy to determine the rise in temperature at pulp chamber and also to observe the thermal gradient from gum to tissue to bone, thus avoiding pulp damage during laser applications.

  9. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity. To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. Results The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. Conclusion The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp. PMID:24559121

  10. Placental inflammation is not increased in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Taleban, Sasha; Gundogan, Fusun; Chien, Edward K.; Degli-Esposti, Silvia; Saha, Sumona

    2015-01-01

    Background Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for adverse birth outcomes such as preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Most recognized cases of fetal growth restriction in singleton pregnancies have underlying placental causes. However, studies in IBD examining poor birth outcomes have focused on maternal factors. We examined whether women with IBD have a higher rate of placental inflammation than non-IBD controls. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, the placental tissue of 7 ulcerative colitis, 5 Crohn’s disease, and 2 IBD-unclassified subjects enrolled in the Pregnancy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Neonatal Outcome (PIANO) registry were evaluated for villitis, deciduitis, and chorioamnionitis with/without a fetal inflammatory response. The history and birth outcomes of all IBD subjects were reviewed and matched to 26 non-IBD controls by gestational age at delivery. Results Of women with IBD, 29% delivered preterm infants and 21% delivered SGA infants. Half of the IBD patients had mild-moderate disease flares during pregnancy. Five (36%) patients required corticosteroids, 2 (14%) were maintained on an immunomodulator, and 3 (21%) others received tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors during their pregnancy. Chorioamnionitis was the only identified placental pathology present in the placentas reviewed, occurring less frequently in cases compared to controls (7% vs. 27%, P=0.32). Conclusions Placental inflammatory activation does not appear to be responsible for the increase in adverse birth outcome in women with IBD. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings in IBD to explain poor birth outcomes. PMID:26423206

  11. VEGFR-2 reduces while combined VEGFR-2 and -3 signaling increases inflammation in apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Virtej, Anca; Papadakou, Panagiota; Sasaki, Hajime; Bletsa, Athanasia; Berggreen, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background In apical periodontitis, oral pathogens provoke an inflammatory response in the apical area that induces bone resorptive lesions. In inflammation, angio- and lymphangiogenesis take place. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs) are key players in these processes and are expressed in immune cells and endothelial cells in the lesions. Objective We aimed at testing the role of VEGFR-2 and -3 in periapical lesion development and investigated their role in lymphangiogenesis in the draining lymph nodes. Design We induced lesions by pulp exposure in the lower first molars of C57BL/6 mice. The mice received IgG injections or blocking antibodies against VEGFR-2 (anti-R2), VEGFR-3 (anti-R3), or combined VEGFR-2 and -3, starting on day 0 until day 10 or 21 post-exposure. Results Lesions developed faster in the anti-R2 and anti-R3 group than in the control and anti-R2/R3 groups. In the anti-R2 group, a strong inflammatory response was found expressed as increased number of neutrophils and osteoclasts. A decreased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was found in the anti-R2/R3 group. Lymphangiogenesis in the draining lymph nodes was inhibited after blocking of VEGFR-2 and/or -3, while the largest lymph node size was seen after anti-R2 treatment. Conclusions We demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect of VEGFR-2 signaling in periapical lesions which seems to involve neutrophil regulation and is independent of angiogenesis. Combined signaling of VEGFR-2 and -3 has a pro-inflammatory effect. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis is promoted through activation of VEGFR-2 and/or VEGFR-3. PMID:27650043

  12. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    PubMed

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved. PMID:26722808

  13. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. PMID:26686729

  14. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  15. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of work absence, disability, and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances) can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium, and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:26029209

  16. Increase of oxidation and inflammation in nervous and immune systems with aging and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Vida, Carmen; González, Eva M; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    According to the oxidation-inflammation theory of aging, chronic oxidative stress and inflammatory stress situations (with higher levels of oxidant and inflammatory compounds and lower antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses) are the basis of the agerelated impairment of organism functions, including those of the nervous and immune systems, as well as of the neuroimmune communication, which explains the altered homeostasis and the resulting increase of morbidity and mortality. Overproduction of oxidant compounds can induce an inflammatory response, since oxidants are inflammation effectors. Thus, oxidation and inflammation are interlinked processes and have many feedback loops. However, the nature of their potential interactions, mainly in the brain and immune cells, and their key involvement in aging remain unclear. Moreover, in the context of the neuroimmune communication, it has been described that an oxidative-inflammatory situation occurs in subjects with anxiety, and this situation contributes to an immunosenescence, alteration of survival responses and shorter life span. As an example of this, a model of premature aging in mice, in which animals show a poor response to stress and high levels of anxiety, an oxidative stress in their immune cells and tissues, as well as a premature immunosenescence and a shorter life expectancy, will be commented in the present review. This model supports the hypothesis that anxiety can be a situation of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, especially in brain and immune cells, and this accelerates the rate of aging.

  17. Inflammation and increased aromatase expression occur in the breast tissue of obese women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Patrick G.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Giri, Dilip; Morrow, Monica; Falcone, Domenick J.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Du, Baoheng; Brogi, Edi; Crawford, Carolyn B.; Kopelovich, Levy; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women and has been associated with an increased risk of recurrence and reduced survival. In humans, obesity causes subclinical inflammation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, characterized by necrotic adipocytes surrounded by macrophages forming crown-like structures (CLS). Recently, we found increased numbers of CLS, activation of the NF-κB transcription factor and elevated aromatase levels and activity in the mammary glands of obese mice. These preclinical findings raised the possibility that the obesity→inflammation axis is important for the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, our main objective was to determine if the findings in mouse models of obesity translated to women. Breast tissue was obtained from 30 women who underwent breast surgery. CLS of the breast (CLS-B) were found in nearly 50% (14 of 30) of patient samples. The severity of breast inflammation, defined as the CLS-B index, correlated with both body mass index (P<0.001) and adipocyte size (P=0.01). Increased NF-κB binding activity and elevated aromatase expression and activity were found in the inflamed breast tissue of overweight and obese women. Collectively, our results suggest that the obesity→inflammation→aromatase axis is present in the breast tissue of most overweight and obese women. The presence of CLS-B may be a biomarker of increased breast cancer risk or poor prognosis. PMID:21622727

  18. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  19. Non-infected hemodialysis catheters are associated with increased inflammation compared to arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stuart L; Ikizler, T Alp; Zappitelli, Michael; Silverstein, Douglas M; Ayus, Juan C

    2009-11-01

    Although hemodialysis catheters predispose to infection which, in turn, causes inflammation, we studied whether they induce inflammation independent of infection. We compared the level of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) in maintenance hemodialysis patients, comparing those dialyzed using a non-infected catheter to those using arteriovenous fistulas. All incident patients had catheters and fistula placement at dialysis initiation. In 35 patients the fistulas matured, the catheters were removed and the patients were evaluated at 6 months (catheter-fistula). These results were compared to 15 patients in whom the fistula did not mature and catheter use persisted for 6 months (catheter-catheter). There was a significant 82% reduction in the CRP level in the catheter-fistula group but a 16% increase in the catheter-catheter group at 6 months. The changes in CRP did not differ by gender, diabetes status, or by race, and was not correlated with a change in phosphorus, age, or urea reduction ratio at 1 month following hemodialysis initiation. Decreased CRP was associated with increased hemoglobin and albumin. Patients with persistent fistula use from dialysis initiation through 6 months had consistently low CRP levels over that time period. Our study shows that catheters might contribute to increased inflammation independent of infection, and supports avoidance of catheters and a timely conversion to fistulas with catheter removal. PMID:19675528

  20. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy. PMID:26771651

  1. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Piepenbrink, Michael S.; Samuel, Memorie; Zheng, Bo; Carter, Brittany; Fucile, Christopher; Bunce, Catherine; Kiebala, Michelle; Khan, Atif A.; Thakar, Juilee; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Morse, Diane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Haughey, Norman J.; Valenti, William; Keefer, Michael C.; Kobie, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. Methods and Findings A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy. Conclusions These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing

  2. Ovariectomy in mature mice does not increase food intake, but increases adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, characterized by reduced estrogen (E2), is associated with increased adiposity and metabolic pathology. Molecular mechanisms underlying this association between low E2 status and metabolic disease are not fully elucidated. When mice are fed a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and diab...

  3. BMPR2 loss in fibroblasts promotes mammary carcinoma metastasis via increased inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pickup, Michael W; Hover, Laura D; Polikowsky, Eleanor R; Chytil, Anna; Gorska, Agnieszka E; Novitskiy, Sergey V; Moses, Harold L; Owens, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) receptors mediate a diverse range of signals to regulate both development and disease. BMP activity has been linked to both tumor promoting and suppressive functions in both tumor cells and their surrounding microenvironment. We sought to investigate the requirement for BMPR2 in stromal fibroblasts during mammary tumor formation and metastasis. We utilized FSP1 (Fibroblast Specific Protein-1) promoter driven Cre to genetically delete BMPR2 in mice expressing the MMTV.PyVmT mammary carcinoma oncogene. We found that abrogation of stromal BMPR2 expression via FSP1 driven Cre resulted in increased tumor metastasis. Additionally, similar to epithelial BMPR2 abrogation, stromal loss of BMPR2 results in increased inflammatory cell infiltration. We proceeded to isolate and establish fibroblast cell lines without BMPR2 and found a cell autonomous increase in inflammatory cytokine secretion. Fibroblasts were co-implanted with syngeneic tumor cells and resulted in accelerated tumor growth and increased metastasis when fibroblasts lacked BMPR2. We observed that the loss of BMPR2 results in increased chemokine expression, which facilitates inflammation by a sustained increase in myeloid cells. The chemokines increased in BMPR2 deleted cells correlated with poor outcome in human breast cancer patients. We conclude that BMPR2 has tumor suppressive functions in the stroma by regulating inflammation.

  4. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  5. Inflammation and increased IDO in hippocampus contribute to depression-like behavior induced by estrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongjun; Sheng, Hui; Tang, Zhiping; Lu, Jianqiang; Ni, Xin

    2015-07-15

    Estrogen deficiency is involved in the development of depression. However, the mechanism underlying estrogen modulates depression-like behavior remains largely unknown. Inflammation and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) have been shown to play pivotal roles in various depression models. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether estrogen deficiency-induced depression-like behavior is associated with inflammation and IDO activation in brain. The results showed that ovariectomy resulted in depression-like behavior in female rats and caused a decrease in 5-HT content and an increase in levels of IDO, IFN-γ, IL-6, toll like receptor (TLR)-4 and phosphorylated NF-κB (p65 subunit) in hippocampus but not in prefrontal cortex (PFC). 17β-Estradiol (E2) treatment ameliorated depression-like behavior and restored above neurochemical alternations in hippocampus in ovariectomized rats. Partial correlation analysis showed that the levels of phosphorylated p65, IFN-γ and IL-6 in hippocampus correlated to serum E2 level. Our study suggests that estrogen inhibits inflammation and activates of IDO and maintains 5-HT level in hippocampus, thereby ameliorating depression-like behavior.

  6. Glucocorticoids increase excitotoxic injury and inflammation in the hippocampus of adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sorrells, Shawn F.; Munhoz, Carolina D.; Manley, Nathan C.; Yen, Sandra; Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Stress exacerbates neuron loss in many CNS injuries via the actions of adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) hormones. For some injuries, this GC-endangerment of neurons is accompanied by greater immune cell activation in the CNS, a surprising outcome given the potent immunosuppressive properties of GCs. Methods To determine whether the effects of GCs on inflammation contribute to neuron death or result from it, we tested whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could protect neurons from GCs during kainic acid excitotoxicity in adrenalectomized male rats. We next measured GC effects on (i) chemokine production (CCL2, CINC-1), (ii) signals that suppress immune activation (CX3CL1, CD22, CD200, and TGF-b), and (iii) NF-kB activity. Results Concurrent treatment with minocycline but not indomethacin prevented GC-endangerment. GCs did not substantially affect CCL2, CINC-1, or baseline NF-kB activity, but they did suppress CX3CL1, CX3CR1, and CD22 expression in the hippocampus, factors that normally restrain inflammatory responses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that cellular inflammation is not necessarily suppressed by GCs in the injured hippocampus; instead, GCs may worsen hippocampal neuron death, at least in part, by increasing the neurotoxicity of CNS inflammation. PMID:25228100

  7. The role of tumor necrosis factor in increased airspace epithelial permeability in acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Donaldson, K; Brown, D; MacNee, W

    1995-08-01

    Increased airspace epithelial permeability is an early event in lung inflammation and injury. In this study, we have developed a rat model to study the mechanisms of the epithelial permeability to 125iodine-labeled bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA), instilled intratracheally during acute lung inflammation. Epithelial permeability was measured as the percentage of instilled 125I-BSA appearing in the blood. The increase in epithelial permeability induced by intratracheal instillation of heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum produced a peak influx of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space at 16 h, which occurred after the peak increase in epithelial permeability (8 h). The increased epithelial permeability induced by C. parvum did not appear to be protease- or oxidant-mediated. Depletion of peripheral blood neutrophils was achieved by an intravenous injection of anti-neutrophil polyclonal antibody. The consequent profound reduction in neutrophil and macrophage influx into the airspaces 8 h after instillation of C. parvum reduced the epithelial permeability to control values. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leukocytes from rats 8 h, but not 16 h, after treatment with C. parvum caused a modest increase in epithelial permeability when re-instilled intratracheally into control rat lungs. Separation of the leukocytes before re-instillation indicated that macrophages rather than neutrophils were predominantly responsible for the increased epithelial permeability. The presence of dramatically increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in BAL 8 h in contrast to a slight increase in BAL 16 h after C. parvum, the release of TNF from 8 h macrophages, the increased epithelial permeability induced by TNF in epithelial monolayers in vitro, and the inhibition of C. parvum-induced epithelial permeability by TNF antibody support the premise that TNF is a major player in the increased epithelial permeability that occurs during C. parvum-induced acute alveolitis. PMID:7626286

  8. Lyn deficiency leads to increased microbiota-dependent intestinal inflammation and susceptibility to enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Morgan E; Bishop, Jennifer L; Fan, Xueling; Beer, Jennifer L; Kum, Winnie W S; Krebs, Danielle L; Huang, Morris; Gill, Navkiran; Priatel, John J; Finlay, B Brett; Harder, Kenneth W

    2014-11-15

    The Lyn tyrosine kinase governs the development and function of various immune cells, and its dysregulation has been linked to malignancy and autoimmunity. Using models of chemically induced colitis and enteric infection, we show that Lyn plays a critical role in regulating the intestinal microbiota and inflammatory responses as well as protection from enteric pathogens. Lyn(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis, characterized by significant wasting, rectal bleeding, colonic pathology, and enhanced barrier permeability. Increased DSS susceptibility in Lyn(-/-) mice required the presence of T but not B cells and correlated with dysbiosis and increased IFN-γ(+) and/or IL-17(+) colonic T cells. This dysbiosis was characterized by an expansion of segmented filamentous bacteria, associated with altered intestinal production of IL-22 and IgA, and was transmissible to wild-type mice, resulting in increased susceptibility to DSS. Lyn deficiency also resulted in an inability to control infection by the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Citrobacter rodentium. Lyn(-/-) mice exhibited profound cecal inflammation, bacterial dissemination, and morbidity following S. Typhimurium challenge and greater colonic inflammation throughout the course of C. rodentium infection. These results identify Lyn as a key regulator of the mucosal immune system, governing pathophysiology in multiple models of intestinal disease.

  9. Erythropoietin Exacerbates Inflammation and Increases the Mortality of Histoplasma capsulatum-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Locachevic, Gisele Aparecida; Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Secatto, Adriana; Fontanari, Caroline; Galvão, Alyne Fávero; Prado, Morgana Kelly Borges; Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Petta, Tânia; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; de Castro, Fabíola Attie; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a key hormone involved in red blood cell formation, but its effects on nonerythroid cells, such as macrophages, have not been described. Macrophages are key cells in controlling histoplasmosis, a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc). Considering that little is known about EPO's role during fungal infections and its capacity to activate macrophages, in this study we investigated the impact of EPO pretreatment on the alveolar immune response during Hc infection. The consequence of EPO pretreatment on fungal infection was determined by evaluating animal survival, fungal burden, activation of bronchoalveolar macrophages, inflammatory mediator release, and lung inflammation. Pretreatment with EPO diminished mononuclear cell numbers, increased the recruitment of F4/80(+)/CD80(+) and F4/80(+)/CD86(+) cells to the bronchoalveolar space, induced higher production of IFN-γ, IL-6, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and LTB4, reduced PGE2 concentration, and did not affect fungal burden. As a consequence, we observed an increase in lung inflammation with extensive tissue damage that might account for augmented mouse mortality after infection. Our results demonstrate for the first time that EPO treatment has a deleterious impact on lung immune responses during fungal infection. PMID:26538835

  10. Erythropoietin Exacerbates Inflammation and Increases the Mortality of Histoplasma capsulatum-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Locachevic, Gisele Aparecida; Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Secatto, Adriana; Fontanari, Caroline; Galvão, Alyne Fávero; Prado, Morgana Kelly Borges; Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Petta, Tânia; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; de Castro, Fabíola Attie; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a key hormone involved in red blood cell formation, but its effects on nonerythroid cells, such as macrophages, have not been described. Macrophages are key cells in controlling histoplasmosis, a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc). Considering that little is known about EPO's role during fungal infections and its capacity to activate macrophages, in this study we investigated the impact of EPO pretreatment on the alveolar immune response during Hc infection. The consequence of EPO pretreatment on fungal infection was determined by evaluating animal survival, fungal burden, activation of bronchoalveolar macrophages, inflammatory mediator release, and lung inflammation. Pretreatment with EPO diminished mononuclear cell numbers, increased the recruitment of F4/80+/CD80+ and F4/80+/CD86+ cells to the bronchoalveolar space, induced higher production of IFN-γ, IL-6, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and LTB4, reduced PGE2 concentration, and did not affect fungal burden. As a consequence, we observed an increase in lung inflammation with extensive tissue damage that might account for augmented mouse mortality after infection. Our results demonstrate for the first time that EPO treatment has a deleterious impact on lung immune responses during fungal infection. PMID:26538835

  11. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth. PMID:25346831

  12. Increased Myeloperoxidase Activity and Protein Nitration Are Indicators of Inflammation in Patients with Chagas' Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Monisha; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo; Pando, Jasmine M.; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Spratt, Heidi; Vazquez-Corzo, Sara; Perez-Molina, Gladys; Gallegos-Sandoval, Rosa; Moreno, Roberto; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether inflammatory responses contribute to oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with Chagas' disease. We used three tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-flow cytometry, and STAT-PAK immunochromatography) to screen human serum samples (n = 1,481) originating from Chiapas, Mexico, for Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies. We identified 121 subjects who were seropositive for T. cruzi-specific antibodies, a finding indicative of an 8.5% seroprevalence in the rural population from Chiapas. Seropositive and seronegative subjects were examined for plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation, i.e., myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and xanthine oxidase (XOD), as well as for oxidative (advanced oxidation protein products [AOPPs]) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine [3NT]) biomarkers. The seropositive subjects exhibited a significant increase in MPO activity and protein level, the indicator of neutrophil activation. Subsequently, a corresponding increase in AOPP contents, formed by MPO-dependent hypochlorous acid and chloramine formation, was noted in seropositive subjects. The plasma level of 3NT was significantly increased in seropositive subjects, yet we observed no change in XOD activity (O2− source) and nitrate/nitrite contents (denotes iNOS activation and NO production), which implied that direct peroxynitrite formation does not contribute to increased nitrosative damage in chagasic subjects. Instead, a positive correlation between increased MPO activity and protein 3NT formation was observed, which suggested to us that MPO-dependent formation of nitrylchloride that occurs in the presence of physiological NO and O2− concentrations contributes to protein nitration. Overall, our data demonstrate that T. cruzi-induced neutrophil activation is pathological and contributes to MPO-mediated collateral protein oxidative and nitrosative damage in human patients with Chagas' disease. Therapies

  13. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Sima, Corneliu; Gastfreund, Shoshi; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic coverage of the bone-periodontal ligament interface in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such as decreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis.

  14. Systems-level analysis of proteolytic events in increased vascular permeability and complement activation in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Prudova, Anna; Eckhard, Ulrich; Fingleton, Barbara; Overall, Christopher M

    2013-01-15

    During inflammation, vascular permeability is increased by various proteolytic events, such as the generation of bradykinin, that augment local tissue responses by enabling tissue penetration of serum proteins, including complement and acute-phase proteins. Proteases also govern inflammatory responses by processing extracellular matrix proteins and soluble bioactive mediators. We quantified changes in the proteome and the nature of protein amino termini (the N-terminome) and the altered abundance of murine proteases and inhibitors during skin inflammation. Through analysis of the N-terminome by iTRAQ-TAILS, we identified cotranslational and posttranslational αN-acetylation motifs, quantitative increases in protein abundance, and qualitative changes in the proteolytic signature during inflammation. Of the proteins identified in normal skin, about half were cleaved, and phorbol ester-induced inflammation increased the proportion of cleaved proteins, including chemokines and complement proteins, that were processed at previously uncharacterized sites. In response to phorbol ester-induced inflammation, mice deficient in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) showed reduced accumulation of serum proteins in the skin and exhibited different proteolytic networks from those of wild-type mice. We found that the complement 1 (C1) inhibitor attenuated the increase in serum protein accumulation in inflamed skin. Cleavage and inactivation of the C1 inhibitor by MMP2 increased complement activation and bradykinin generation in wild-type mice, leading to increased vessel permeability during inflammation, which was diminished in Mmp2(-/-) mice. Thus, our systems-level analysis of proteolysis dissected cleavage events associated with skin inflammation and demonstrated that loss of a single protease could perturb the proteolytic signaling network and enhance inflammation.

  15. Inflammatory response of human dental pulp to at-home and in-office tooth bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Cardoso, Paula Carvalho; de Souza, João Batista; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Nádia Lago; Torres, Érica Miranda; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tooth bleaching is a technique of choice to obtain a harmonious smile, but bleaching agents may damage the dental pulp. Objective: This study evaluated the inflammatory responses of human dental pulp after the use of two bleaching techniques. Material and Methods: Pulp samples were collected from human third molars extracted for orthodontic reasons and divided into three groups: control - no tooth bleaching (CG) (n=7); at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide (AH) (n = 10), and in-office bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide (IO) (n=12). Pulps were removed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis of inflammation intensity, collagen degradation, and pulp tissue organization. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect mast cells (tryptase+), blood vessels (CD31+), and macrophages (CD68+). Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at p<.05. Results: The inflammation intensity and the number of macrophages were significantly greater in IO than in AH and CG (p<0.05). The results of CD31+ (blood vessels per mm2) were similar in CG (61.39±20.03), AH (52.29±27.62), and IO (57.43±8.69) groups (p>0.05). No mast cells were found in the pulp samples analyzed. Conclusion: In-office bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide resulted in more intense inflammation, higher macrophages migration, and greater pulp damage then at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide, however, these bleaching techniques did not induce migration of mast cells and increased the number of blood vessels. PMID:27812622

  16. Mu opioid receptor expression is increased in inflammatory bowel diseases: implications for homeostatic intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, D; Chakass, D; Thuru, X; Zerbib, P; Tsicopoulos, A; Geboes, K; Bulois, P; Breisse, M; Vorng, H; Gay, J; Colombel, J‐F; Desreumaux, P; Chamaillard, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies with μ opioid receptor (MOR) deficient mice support a physiological anti‐inflammatory effect of MOR at the colon interface. To better understand the potential pharmacological effect of certain opiates in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), we (1) evaluated the regulation in vivo and in vitro of human MOR expression by inflammation; and (2) tested the potential anti‐inflammatory function of a specific opiate (DALDA) in inflamed and resting human mucosa. Patients and methods Expression of MOR mRNA and protein was evaluated in healthy and inflamed small bowel and colonic tissues, isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified monocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and IBD patients. The effect of cytokines and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation on MOR expression in lymphocyte T and monocytic human cell lines was assessed. Finally, DALDA induced anti‐inflammatory effect was investigated in mucosal explants from controls and IBD patients. Results MOR was expressed in ileal and colonic enteric neurones as well as in immunocytes such as myeloid cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Overexpressed in active IBD mucosa, MOR was significantly enhanced by cytokines and repressed by NFκB inhibitor in myeloid and lymphocytic cell lines. Furthermore, ex vivo DALDA treatment dampened tumour necrosis factor α mRNA expression in the colon of active IBD patients. Conclusions Given the increased expression of MOR and the ex vivo beneficial effect of DALDA in active IBD, natural and/or synthetic opioid agonists could help to prevent overt pathological intestinal inflammation. PMID:16299031

  17. MBOAT7 rs641738 increases risk of liver inflammation and transition to fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Khaled; Asimakopoulos, Anastasia; Shojaei, Maryam; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Mangia, Alessandra; Irving, William L; Berg, Thomas; Dore, Gregory J; Grønbæk, Henning; Sheridan, David; Abate, Maria Lorena; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Weltman, Martin; Mollison, Lindsay; Cheng, Wendy; Riordan, Stephen; Fischer, Janett; Spengler, Ulrich; Nattermann, Jacob; Wahid, Ahmed; Rojas, Angela; White, Rose; Douglas, Mark W; McLeod, Duncan; Powell, Elizabeth; Liddle, Christopher; van der Poorten, David; George, Jacob; Eslam, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis likely shares common pathophysiological pathways despite arising from a variety of liver diseases. A recent GWAS identified rs641738, a polymorphism in the MBOAT7 locus, as being associated with the development of alcoholic cirrhosis. Here we explore the role of this variant on liver inflammation and fibrosis in two cohorts of patients with chronic hepatitis C. In 2,051 patients, rs641738 associated with severe hepatic inflammation and increased risk of fibrosis, as well as fast fibrosis progression. At functional level, rs641738 associated with MBOAT7 transcript and protein levels in liver and blood, and with serum inflammatory, oxidative stress and macrophage activation markers. MBOAT7 was expressed in immune cell subsets, implying a role in hepatic inflammation. We conclude that the MBOAT7 rs641738 polymorphism is a novel risk variant for liver inflammation in hepatitis C, and thereby for liver fibrosis. PMID:27630043

  18. MBOAT7 rs641738 increases risk of liver inflammation and transition to fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Khaled; Asimakopoulos, Anastasia; Shojaei, Maryam; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Mangia, Alessandra; Irving, William L.; Berg, Thomas; Dore, Gregory J.; Grønbæk, Henning; Sheridan, David; Abate, Maria Lorena; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Weltman, Martin; Mollison, Lindsay; Cheng, Wendy; Riordan, Stephen; Fischer, Janett; Spengler, Ulrich; Nattermann, Jacob; Wahid, Ahmed; Rojas, Angela; White, Rose; Douglas, Mark W.; McLeod, Duncan; Powell, Elizabeth; Liddle, Christopher; van der Poorten, David; George, Jacob; Eslam, Mohammed; Gallego-Duran, Rocio; Applegate, Tanya; Bassendine, Margaret; Rosso, Chiara; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Leung, Reynold; Malik, Barbara; Matthews, Gail; Grebely, Jason; Fragomeli, Vincenzo; Jonsson, Julie R.; Santaro, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis likely shares common pathophysiological pathways despite arising from a variety of liver diseases. A recent GWAS identified rs641738, a polymorphism in the MBOAT7 locus, as being associated with the development of alcoholic cirrhosis. Here we explore the role of this variant on liver inflammation and fibrosis in two cohorts of patients with chronic hepatitis C. In 2,051 patients, rs641738 associated with severe hepatic inflammation and increased risk of fibrosis, as well as fast fibrosis progression. At functional level, rs641738 associated with MBOAT7 transcript and protein levels in liver and blood, and with serum inflammatory, oxidative stress and macrophage activation markers. MBOAT7 was expressed in immune cell subsets, implying a role in hepatic inflammation. We conclude that the MBOAT7 rs641738 polymorphism is a novel risk variant for liver inflammation in hepatitis C, and thereby for liver fibrosis. PMID:27630043

  19. Chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sebastian; Grunwald, Nicole; Rümmele, Petra; Endlicher, Esther; Lechner, Anja; Neumann, Inga D; Obermeier, Florian; Reber, Stefan O

    2012-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) than the general population. Furthermore, chronic psychosocial stress increases the likelihood of developing IBD and multiple types of malignant neoplasms, including CRC. Here, for the first time, we investigate the effects of chronic psychosocial stress in male mice on an artificially induced CRC, by employing the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing paradigm in combination with the reliable azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) CRC model. Colonoscopy revealed that CSC mice showed accelerated macroscopic suspect lesions. In addition, more CSC mice developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and/or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in the colonic tissue compared to the single-housed control mice (SHC). CSC mice showed an increased number of Ki67+ and a decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling epithelial cells in colonic tissue. Colonic liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), cyclooxygenase II (COXII), tumor necrosis factor, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA as well as colonic ß-catenin, COXII, and LRH-1 protein expression were also increased in CSC compared with SHC mice. Although the number of CD4+ Th cells was increased, a tendency toward a decreased colonic interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, despite an increased percentage of CD3+ cells and CD3+/FoxP3+ double-positive cells within mesenteric lymph node cells of CSC mice, IFN-γ secretion from these cells was unaffected. Altogether, our results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for AOM/DSS-induced and, thus, inflammation-related CRC. Finally, assessment of additional time points may test whether the shift from tumor-protective Th1 cell to regulatory T-cell immunity represents a consequence of increased carcinogenesis or a causal factor involved in its development.

  20. Diet-induced obesity promotes systemic inflammation and increased susceptibility to murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sarnáglia, Glênia Daros; Covre, Luciana Polaco; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; DE Matos Guedes, Herbert Leonel; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Dietze, Reynaldo; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Gomes, Daniel Cláudio Oliviera

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is the main causal factor for metabolic syndrome and chronic systemic inflammation, which impacts on immune function and increases susceptibility to pathogens. Here, we investigated the effect of obesity on the outcome of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmaniasis infantum chagasi. C57BL/6 mice fed with high-sugar and butter diet (HSB) showed a significant increase in body weight, adiposity index and morphological changes in adipocyte. To investigate the consequences of obesity on the specific immunity against Leishmania, both control and HSB diet groups were infected with 107 L. infantum chagasi promastigotes in the eighth-week after diet started and euthanized 4 weeks later. HSB-diet fed mice exhibited a significantly higher parasite burden in both liver and spleen compared with control- diet group. Gonadal adipocyte tissue from HSB-diet mice showed increased TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin and diminished IL-10 production compared with control. Cytokines production analysis in the spleen and liver from these animals also demonstrated higher production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and nitric oxide and diminished production of IL-10 and TGF-β, which correlate with inflammatory foci and the cell hyperplasia observed. Taken together, obesity can interfere with responses to pathogen-derived signals and impair the development of protective anti-Leishmania immunity.

  1. Diet-induced obesity promotes systemic inflammation and increased susceptibility to murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sarnáglia, Glênia Daros; Covre, Luciana Polaco; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; DE Matos Guedes, Herbert Leonel; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Dietze, Reynaldo; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Gomes, Daniel Cláudio Oliviera

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is the main causal factor for metabolic syndrome and chronic systemic inflammation, which impacts on immune function and increases susceptibility to pathogens. Here, we investigated the effect of obesity on the outcome of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmaniasis infantum chagasi. C57BL/6 mice fed with high-sugar and butter diet (HSB) showed a significant increase in body weight, adiposity index and morphological changes in adipocyte. To investigate the consequences of obesity on the specific immunity against Leishmania, both control and HSB diet groups were infected with 107 L. infantum chagasi promastigotes in the eighth-week after diet started and euthanized 4 weeks later. HSB-diet fed mice exhibited a significantly higher parasite burden in both liver and spleen compared with control- diet group. Gonadal adipocyte tissue from HSB-diet mice showed increased TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin and diminished IL-10 production compared with control. Cytokines production analysis in the spleen and liver from these animals also demonstrated higher production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and nitric oxide and diminished production of IL-10 and TGF-β, which correlate with inflammatory foci and the cell hyperplasia observed. Taken together, obesity can interfere with responses to pathogen-derived signals and impair the development of protective anti-Leishmania immunity. PMID:27440305

  2. Quercetin reduced inflammation and increased antioxidant defense in rat adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gardi, C; Bauerova, K; Stringa, B; Kuncirova, V; Slovak, L; Ponist, S; Drafi, F; Bezakova, L; Tedesco, I; Acquaviva, A; Bilotto, S; Russo, G L

    2015-10-01

    Novel therapies for rheumatoid arthritis also include the use of naturally occurring compounds possessing antioxidant properties. In the present work, the effects of oral administration of quercetin were investigated in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis. Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The experimental groups were treated with an oral daily dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. of quercetin for 28 days. Results indicated that quercetin was able to ameliorate all markers of inflammation and oxidative stress measured. Quercetin lowered levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive protein, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and restored plasma antioxidant capacity. In addition, quercetin inhibited the enzymatic activity of pro-inflammatory 12/15-lipoxygenase in lung and liver and increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 in joint and lung of arthritic rats. Finally, quercetin inhibited the 2-fold increase of NF-қB activity observed in lung, liver and joint after induction of arthritis. PMID:26297952

  3. Splenic release of platelets contributes to increased circulating platelet size and inflammation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Li-Ping; Su, Yidan; Tsai, Alan; Xu, Qi; Zhang, Ming; Lambert, Gavin W; Kiriazis, Helen; Gao, Wei; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is characterized by a rapid increase in circulating platelet size but the mechanism for this is unclear. Large platelets are hyperactive and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We determined mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet-monocyte conjugation (PMC) using blood samples from patients, and blood and the spleen from mice with AMI. We further measured changes in platelet size, PMC, cardiac and splenic contents of platelets and leucocyte infiltration into the mouse heart. In AMI patients, circulating MPV and PMC increased at 1-3 h post-MI and MPV returned to reference levels within 24 h after admission. In mice with MI, increases in platelet size and PMC became evident within 12 h and were sustained up to 72 h. Splenic platelets are bigger than circulating platelets in normal or infarct mice. At 24 h post-MI, splenic platelet storage was halved whereas cardiac platelets increased by 4-fold. Splenectomy attenuated all changes observed in the blood, reduced leucocyte and platelet accumulation in the infarct myocardium, limited infarct size and alleviated cardiac dilatation and dysfunction. AMI-induced elevated circulating levels of adenosine diphosphate and catecholamines in both human and the mouse, which may trigger splenic platelet release. Pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme, β1-adrenergic receptor or platelet P2Y12 receptor reduced platelet abundance in the murine infarct myocardium albeit having diverse effects on platelet size and PMC. In conclusion, AMI evokes release of splenic platelets, which contributes to the increase in platelet size and PMC and facilitates myocardial accumulation of platelets and leucocytes, thereby promoting post-infarct inflammation. PMID:27129192

  4. Central autonomic network mediates cardiovascular responses to acute inflammation: Relevance to increased cardiovascular risk in depression?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neil A.; Cooper, Ella; Voon, Valerie; Miles, Ken; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a risk factor for both depression and cardiovascular disease. Depressed mood is also a cardiovascular risk factor. To date, research into mechanisms through which inflammation impacts cardiovascular health rarely takes into account central effects on autonomic cardiovascular control, instead emphasizing direct effects of peripheral inflammatory responses on endothelial reactivity and myocardial function. However, brain responses to inflammation engage neural systems for motivational and homeostatic control and are expressed through depressed mood state and changes in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Here we combined an inflammatory challenge, known to evoke an acute reduction in mood, with neuroimaging to identify the functional brain substrates underlying potentially detrimental changes in autonomic cardiovascular control. We first demonstrated that alterations in the balance of low to high frequency (LF/HF) changes in heart rate variability (a measure of baroreflex sensitivity) could account for some of the inflammation-evoked changes in diastolic blood pressure, indicating a central (rather than solely local endothelial) origin. Accompanying alterations in regional brain metabolism (measured using 18FDG-PET) were analysed to localise central mechanisms of inflammation-induced changes in cardiovascular state: three discrete regions previously implicated in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity, the dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate and pons, strongly mediated the relationship between inflammation and blood pressure. Moreover, activity changes within each region predicted the inflammation-induced shift in LF/HF balance. These data are consistent with a centrally-driven component originating within brain areas supporting stressor evoked blood pressure reactivity. Together our findings highlight mechanisms binding psychological and physiological well-being and their perturbation by peripheral inflammation. PMID:23416033

  5. INCREASED GASTROINTESTINAL PERMEABILITY AND GUT INFLAMMATION IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL ABDOMINAL PAIN AND IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Robert J.; Eakin, Michelle N.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Jarrett, Monica; Ou, Ching-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine GI permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7–10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) vs Controls and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling. Study design GI permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration were measured. Children kept a two-week diary of pain episodes and stooling pattern. Results Proximal GI permeability was greater in the FAP/IBS group (n = 93) compared with controls (n = 52) (0.59 ± 0.50 vs. 0.36 ± 0.26, respectively; mean ± SD; P < 0.001) as was colonic permeability (1.01 ± 0.67 vs. 0.81 ± 0.43, respectively; P < 0.05). Gastric and small intestinal permeability were similar. Fecal calprotectin concentration was greater in children with FAP/IBS compared with control children (65.5 ± 75.4 µg/g stool vs. 43.2 ± 39.4, respectively; P < 0.01). Fecal calprotectin concentration correlated with pain interference with activities (P = 0.01, r2 = 0.36). There was no correlation between GI permeability and pain related symptoms. Neither permeability nor fecal calprotectin correlated with stool form. Conclusions Children with FAP/IBS have evidence of increased GI permeability and low grade GI inflammation with the latter relating to the degree to which pain interferes with activities. PMID:18538790

  6. Increased inflammation in sanctuary sites may explain viral blips in HIV infection

    DOE PAGES

    Piovoso, Michael J.; Cardozo, E. Fabian; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2016-08-01

    Here, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppress HIV-1 viral replication, such that viral load in plasma remains below the limit of detection in standard assays. However, intermittent episodes of transient viremia (blips) occur in a set of HIV-patients. Given that follicular hyperplasia occurs during lymphoid inflammation as a normal response to infection, it is hypothesised that when the diameter of the lymph node follicle (LNF) increases and crosses a critical size, a viral blip occurs due to cryptic viremia. To study this hypothesis, a theoretical analysis of a mathematical model is performed to find the conditions for virus suppression in allmore » compartments and different scenarios of LNF size changes are simulated. According to the analysis, blips with duration of around 30 days arise when the diameter rise rate is between 0.02 and 0.03 days–1. Moreover, the final diameter of the site is directly related to the steady states of the virus load after the occurrence of a blip. When the value of R0 is around 2.1, to have a steady-state below the limit of detection after the viral blip, the maximum final diameters should be greater than 0.7 mm so that there is a relative loss of connection between compartments.« less

  7. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  8. Dietary n-3 PUFAs Deficiency Increases Vulnerability to Inflammation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Thomazeau, Aurore; Madore, Charlotte; Bosch-Bouju, Clementine; Larrieu, Thomas; Lacabanne, Chloe; Remus-Borel, Julie; Aubert, Agnès; Joffre, Corinne; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical components of inflammatory response and memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying the sensitizing effects of low n-3 PUFAs in the brain for the development of memory impairment following inflammation are still poorly understood. In this study, we examined how a 2-month n-3 PUFAs deficiency from pre-puberty to adulthood could increase vulnerability to the effect of inflammatory event on spatial memory in mice. Mice were given diets balanced or deficient in n-3 PUFAs for a 2-month period starting at post-natal day 21, followed by a peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, at adulthood. We first showed that spatial memory performance was altered after LPS challenge only in n-3 PUFA-deficient mice that displayed lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in the hippocampus. Importantly, long-term depression (LTD), but not long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the hippocampus of LPS-treated n-3 PUFA-deficient mice. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in the plasma of both n-3 PUFA-deficient and n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. However, only n-3 PUFA-balanced mice showed an increase in cytokine expression in the hippocampus in response to LPS. In addition, n-3 PUFA-deficient mice displayed higher glucocorticoid levels in response to LPS as compared with n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. These results indicate a role for n-3 PUFA imbalance in the sensitization of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity to inflammatory stimuli, which is likely to contribute to spatial memory impairment.

  9. Cell- and isoform-specific increases in arginase expression in acute silica-induced pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Poljakovic, Mirjana; Porter, Dale W; Millecchia, Lyndell; Kepka-Lenhart, Diane; Beighley, Christopher; Wolfarth, Michael G; Castranova, Vincent; Morris, Sidney M

    2007-01-15

    Arginase induction was reported in several inflammatory lung diseases, suggesting that this may be a common feature underlying the pathophysiology of such diseases. As little is known regarding arginase expression in silicosis, the induction and cellular localization of arginase were elucidated in lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats 24 h following exposure to varying doses of silica by intratracheal instillation. Arginase expression was evaluated by activity assay, quantification of arginase I and arginase II mRNA levels using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunohistochemistry. Analyses of cells and fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed that markers of pulmonary inflammation, tissue damage, activation of alveolar macrophages (AM) and NO production were significantly increased by all silica doses. Arginase activity was increased also in AMs isolated from BAL fluid of silica-treated rats. Silica produced two- and three-fold increases in arginase activity of whole lung at doses of 1 and 5 mg/100 g body weight, respectively. Levels of arginase I mRNA, but not of arginase II mRNA, were similarly elevated. In control lungs, arginase I immunoreactivity was observed only in AMs sparsely dispersed throughout the lung; no inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactivity was detected. In silica-treated lungs, arginase I and iNOS were co-expressed in most AMs that were abundantly clustered at inflammatory foci. The rapid induction of arginase I expression in inflammatory lung cells, similar to induction of arginase in other inflammatory lung diseases, implicates elevated arginase activity as a factor in the development of lung damage following exposure to silica. PMID:17365572

  10. Cell- and Isoform-specific Increases in Arginase Expression in Acute Silica-induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Poljakovic, Mirjana; Porter, Dale W.; Millecchia, Lyndell; Kepka-Lenhart, Diane; Beighley, Christopher; Wolfarth, Michael G.; Castranova, Vincent; Morris, Sidney M.

    2009-01-01

    Arginase induction was reported in several inflammatory lung diseases, suggesting that this may be a common feature underlying the pathophysiology of such diseases. As little is known regarding arginase expression in silicosis, the induction and cellular localization of arginase was elucidated in lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats 24 hr following exposure to varying doses of silica by intratracheal instillation. Arginase expression was evaluated by activity assay, quantification of arginase I and arginase II mRNA levels using real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Analyses of cells and fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed that markers of pulmonary inflammation, tissue damage, activation of alveolar macrophages (AM) and NO production were significantly increased by all silica doses. Arginase activity was increased also in AMs isolated from BAL fluid of silica-treated rats. Silica produced 2- and 3-fold increases in arginase activity of whole lung at doses of 1 and 5 mg/100g body weight, respectively. Levels of arginase I mRNA, but not of arginase II mRNA, were similarly elevated. In control lungs, arginase I immunoreactivity was observed only in AMs sparsely dispersed throughout the lung; no iNOS immunoreactivity was detected. In silica-treated lungs, arginase I and iNOS were co-expressed in most AMs that were abundantly clustered at inflammatory foci. The rapid induction of arginase I expression in inflammatory lung cells, similar to induction of arginase in other inflammatory lung diseases, implicates elevated arginase activity as a factor in the development of lung damage following exposure to silica. PMID:17365572

  11. Despite increased plasma concentration, inflammation reduces potency of calcium channel antagonists due to lower binding to the rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Sattari, Saeed; Dryden, William F; Eliot, Lise A; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis reduces verapamil oral clearance thereby increases plasma concentration of the drug. This coincides with reduced drug effects through an unknown mechanism. The effect of interferon-induced acute inflammation on the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiogram of verapamil (20 mg kg−1, p.o.) and nifedipine (0.1 mg kg−1, i.v.) was studied in Sprague–Dawley rats. The effect of both acute and chronic inflammation on radioligand binding to cardiac L-type calcium channels was also investigated. Acute inflammation resulted in increased plasma concentration of verapamil but had no effect on that of nifedipine. Verapamil binding to plasma proteins was unaffected. As has been reported for humans, the increased verapamil concentration coincided with a reduction in the degree to which PR interval is prolonged by the drug. The effect of nifedipine on PR interval was also reduced by inflammation. Maximum binding of 3H-nitrendipine to cardiac cell membrane was significantly reduced from 63.2±2.5 fmol mg−1 protein in controls to 46.4±2.0 in acute inflammation and from 66.8±2.2 fmol mg−1 protein in controls to 42.2±2.0 in chronic inflammation. Incubation of the normal cardiac cell membranes with 100 and 1000 pg ml−1 of rat tissue necrosis factor-α did not influence the binding indices to the calcium channels. Our data suggest that the reduced calcium channel responsiveness is because of altered binding to channels. PMID:12839868

  12. Priming Dental Pulp Stem Cells With Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Increases Angiogenesis of Implanted Tissue-Engineered Constructs Through Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Caroline; Rochefort, Gael Y; Bascetin, Rumeyza; Ying, Hanru; Lesieur, Julie; Sadoine, Jérémy; Beckouche, Nathan; Berndt, Sarah; Novais, Anita; Lesage, Matthieu; Hosten, Benoit; Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Le-Denmat, Dominique; Marchiol, Carmen; Letourneur, Didier; Nicoletti, Antonino; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Poliard, Anne; Salmon, Benjamin; Muller, Laurent; Chaussain, Catherine; Germain, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering strategies based on implanting cellularized biomaterials are promising therapeutic approaches for the reconstruction of large tissue defects. A major hurdle for the reliable establishment of such therapeutic approaches is the lack of rapid blood perfusion of the tissue construct to provide oxygen and nutrients. Numerous sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) displaying angiogenic potential have been characterized in the past years, including the adult dental pulp. Establishment of efficient strategies for improving angiogenesis in tissue constructs is nevertheless still an important challenge. Hypoxia was proposed as a priming treatment owing to its capacity to enhance the angiogenic potential of stem cells through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The present study aimed to characterize additional key factors regulating the angiogenic capacity of such MSCs, namely, dental pulp stem cells derived from deciduous teeth (SHED). We identified fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as a potent inducer of the release of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by SHED. We found that FGF-2 limited hypoxia-induced downregulation of HGF release. Using three-dimensional culture models of angiogenesis, we demonstrated that VEGF and HGF were both responsible for the high angiogenic potential of SHED through direct targeting of endothelial cells. In addition, FGF-2 treatment increased the fraction of Stro-1+/CD146+ progenitor cells. We then applied in vitro FGF-2 priming to SHED before encapsulation in hydrogels and in vivo subcutaneous implantation. Our results showed that FGF-2 priming is more efficient than hypoxia at increasing SHED-induced vascularization compared with nonprimed controls. Altogether, these data demonstrate that FGF-2 priming enhances the angiogenic potential of SHED through the secretion of both HGF and VEGF.

  13. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  14. Emodin mitigates diesel exhaust particles-induced increase in airway resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-08-15

    Clinical and experimental studies have reported that short-term exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and impairment of lung function. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) has a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the possible ameliorative effect of emodin on diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced impairment of lung function, inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. Mice were intratracheally instilled with DEP (20 μg/mouse) or saline (control). Emodin was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 7h after pulmonary exposure to DEP. Twenty-four hours following DEP exposure, we evaluated airway resistance measured by forced oscillation technique, lung inflammation and oxidative stress. Emodin treatment abated the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance, and prevented the influx of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Similarly, lung histopathology confirmed the protective effect of emodin on DEP-induced lung inflammation. DEP induced a significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines in the lung including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1β. The latter effect was significantly ameliorated by emodin. DEP caused a significant increase in lung lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species and a significant decrease of reduced glutathione concentration. These effects were significantly mitigated by emodin. We conclude that emodin significantly mitigated DEP-induced increase of airway resistance, lung inflammation and oxidative stress. Pending further pharmacological and toxicological studies, emodin may be considered a potentially useful pulmonary protective agent against particulate air pollution-induced lung toxicity.

  15. Gallbladder inflammation is associated with increase in mucin expression and pigmented stone formation.

    PubMed

    Vilkin, Alexander; Nudelman, Israel; Morgenstern, Sara; Geller, Alex; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Levi, Zohar; Rodionov, Galina; Hardy, Britta; Konikoff, Fred; Gobbic, Diana; Niv, Yaron

    2007-07-01

    Mucin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that plays an important role in protecting the gallbladder epithelium from the detergent effect of bile. However, it also participates in gallstone formation. There is little information about a possible relationship between gallbladder inflammation and mucin expression or gallbladder stones' characteristics. The aims of this study were to investigate stone characteristics and patterns of mucin expression in the gallbladder epithelium and bile of gallstone patients, in relation to inflammation. Gallbladder bile and tissue samples from 21 patients were obtained at surgery. Mucin content was evaluated by gel filtration on a Sepharose CL-4B column. Dot blot for bile mucin apoproteins and immunohistochemistry staining for gallbladder mucosal mucin apoproteins were performed with antibodies to MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. Staining intensity score (0-3) was used for assessment of antigen expression and the level of inflammation. Gallstone cholesterol content was determined in 16 patients. MUC 5AC and MUC 5B were demonstrated in 95.4 and 100% of gallbladder bile samples, respectively. Immunohistochemistry staining with antibodies to MUC 2, MUC 3, MUC 5AC, MUC 5B and MUC 6 were positive in 0, 100, 85.7, 100 and 95.4% of the gallbladder mucosal samples, respectively. Pigmented brown stones were associated with a higher level of gallbladder inflammation. Mucin species expressed in gallbladder epithelium are MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. MUC5AC and MUC5B are secreted into bile. Inflammation of the gallbladder is accompanied by a higher level of MUC5AC expression and is associated with pigmented brown stones. PMID:17385041

  16. Increased GIP signaling induces adipose inflammation via a HIF-1α-dependent pathway and impairs insulin sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Okahara, Fumiaki; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone secreted in response to dietary fat and glucose. The blood GIP level is elevated in obesity and diabetes. GIP stimulates proinflammatory gene expression and impairs insulin sensitivity in cultured adipocytes. In obesity, hypoxia within adipose tissue can induce inflammation. The aims of this study were 1) to examine the proinflammatory effect of increased GIP signaling in adipose tissues in vivo and 2) to clarify the association between GIP and hypoxic signaling in adipose tissue inflammation. We administered GIP intraperitoneally to misty (lean) and db/db (obese) mice and examined adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity. We also examined the effects of GIP and hypoxia on expression of the GIP receptor (GIPR) gene and proinflammatory genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GIP administration increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and increased blood glucose in db/db mice. GIPR and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expressions were positively correlated in the adipose tissue in mice. GIPR expression increased dramatically in differentiated adipocytes. GIP treatment of adipocytes increased MCP-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. Adipocytes cultured either with RAW 264 macrophages or under hypoxia expressed more GIPR and HIF-1α, and GIP treatment increased gene expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and IL-6. HIF-1α gene silencing diminished both macrophage- and hypoxia-induced GIPR expression and GIP-induced IL-6 expression in adipocytes. Thus, increased GIP signaling plays a significant role in adipose tissue inflammation and thereby insulin resistance in obese mice, and HIF-1α may contribute to this process. PMID:25537494

  17. Effects of inflammation on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics: increasing recognition of its contribution to variability in response.

    PubMed

    Schmith, V D; Foss, J F

    2008-06-01

    Inflammation is an interesting phenomenon that crosses many disciplines as part of the host response to disease, whether it is the acute response to an infectious, traumatic, or surgical event or the more chronic responses to systemic disease such as malignancy, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, or diabetes. The impact of inflammatory states on the variability in drug response should be an integral part of research conducted across disciplines within clinical pharmacology. PMID:18488052

  18. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  19. Inflammation, Endothelial Dysfunction and Increased Left Ventricular Mass in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Dounousi, Evangelia; Jager, Kitty J.; Papagianni, Aikaterini; Pappas, Konstantinos; Siamopoulos, Kostas C.; Zoccali, Carmine; Tsakiris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Within this longitudinal study we investigated the association of inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and endothelial dysfunction markers intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with left ventricular mass indexed for height2·71 (LVMI) in hypertensive predialysis CKD patients. Material and Methods From 2004 to 2005, 182 incident consecutive adult patients from the outpatient CKD clinics of two hospitals in Greece with CKD and hypertension or using antihypertensive medication, were included. Of these, 107 patients underwent CRP (mg/l) and LVMI (g/height2·71) measurements annually for three years. Results In the longitudinal analyses, using linear mixed modeling, a higher IL-6 (ß = 1.9 (95%ci:0.38;3.5), inflammation score based on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (ß = 5.0 (95%ci:0.72; 9.4) and VCAM-1 (ß = 0.01 (95%ci:0.005;0.02) were associated with higher LVMI. These models were adjusted for age, gender and primary renal disease, and for confounders that on top changed the beta with ≥10%, i.e. diuretic use (for IL-6 and inflammation score). Conclusion The results suggest that in predialysis CKD patients, inflammation as well as endothelial dysfunction may play an important role towards the increase in LVMI. PMID:26398099

  20. Increased acylated plasma ghrelin, but improved lipid profiles 24-h after consumption of carob pulp preparation rich in dietary fibre and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Garcia, Ada L; Otto, Baerbel; Wagner, Karen; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Burget, Lukas; Weickert, Martin O; Dongowski, Gerhard; Speth, Maria; Katz, Norbert; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-12-01

    We have recently shown that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (Ceratonia siliqua L; carob fibre) decreased postprandial acylated ghrelin, TAG and NEFA during an acute liquid meal challenge test. However, delayed effects of carob fibre consumption are unknown. Therefore, a randomized controlled crossover study in nineteen healthy volunteers consuming foods with or without 50 g carob fibre was conducted. On the subsequent day (day 2), glucose, TAG, total and acylated ghrelin as well as insulin, NEFA and leptin were assessed at baseline and at timed intervals for 300 min after ingestion of standardized bread. Consumption of carob fibre-enriched foods did not affect fasting concentrations of glucose, TAG, total ghrelin, NEFA, insulin and leptin. Fasting acylated ghrelin was increased on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption compared with control (P = 0.046). After consumption of the standard bread on day 2, glucose response (P = 0.029) was increased, and TAG (P = 0.033) and NEFA (P < 0.001) responses were decreased compared with control. Postprandial responses of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin and leptin on day 2 were unaffected by carob fibre consumption the previous day. In conclusion, an increase in total and acylated plasma ghrelin accompanied by enhanced lipid metabolism after carob fibre consumption suggests higher lipid utilization and suppressed lipolysis on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption. However, elevated glucose levels after carob fibre consumption need to be addressed in future studies.

  1. Precursor B Cells Increase in the Lung during Airway Allergic Inflammation: A Role for B Cell-Activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Malmhäll, Carina; Rådinger, Madeleine; Ramos-Ramirez, Patricia; Lu, You; Deák, Tünde; Semitekolou, Maria; Gaga, Mina; Sjöstrand, Margareta; Lötvall, Jan; Bossios, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Background B cells, key cells in allergic inflammation, differentiate in the bone marrow and their precursors include pro-B, pre-B and immature B cells. Eosinophil progenitor cells increase in the lung after allergen exposure. However, the existence and possible role of B cell precursors in the lung during allergic inflammation remains elusive. Methods A BALB/c mouse model of allergic airway inflammation was utilized to perform phenotypic and quantification analyses of pro-B and pre-B cells in the lung by flow cytometry. B cell maturation factors IL-7 and B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and their receptors (CD127 and BAFFR, BCMA, TACI, respectively) were also evaluated in the lung and serum. The effect of anti-BAFF treatment was investigated both in vivo (i.p. administration of BAFF-R-Ig fusion protein) and in vitro (colony forming cell assay). Finally, BAFF levels were examined in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Results Precursor pro and pre-B cells increase in the lung after allergen exposure, proliferate in the lung tissue in vivo, express markers of chemotaxis (CCR10 and CXCR4) and co-stimulation (CD40, CD86) and are resistant to apoptosis (Bax). Precursor B cells express receptors for BAFF at baseline, while after allergen challenge both their ligand BAFF and the BCMA receptor expression increases in B cell precursors. Blocking BAFFR in the lung in vivo decreases eosinophils and proliferating precursor B cells. Blocking BAFFR in bone marrow cultures in vitro reduces pre-B colony formation units. BAFF is increased in the BAL of severe asthmatics. Conclusion Our data support the concept of a BAFF-mediated role for B cell precursors in allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27513955

  2. Inflammation increases plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 in patients with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Jonker, Jacqueline T; van Glabbeek, Marjolijn; Dehnavi, Reza Alizadeh; Tamsma, Jouke T; Smit, Johannes W A; Kersten, Sander; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase and associates with dyslipidemia. The expression of ANGPTL4 is regulated by free fatty acids (FFA) that activate lipid-sensing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but FFA can also activate pattern recognition receptors including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. Objective To assess whether systemic low-grade inflammation is a determinant for plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design We studied 335 male participants: healthy controls (Controls), patients with the MetS without inflammation (MetS−I) and with low-grade inflammation (MetS+I), and patients with T2DM. All patients without diabetes included in the present study were initially matched for waist circumference. In plasma, ANGPTL4, C reactive protein (CRP) and metabolic parameters were determined. Underlying mechanisms were examined using human macrophages in vitro. Results As compared with Controls, plasma ANGPTL4 levels were increased in patients with MetS−I, MetS+I, and T2DM. Furthermore, ANGPTL4 was increased in T2DM compared with MetS−I. In fact, plasma CRP correlated positively with plasma ANGPTL4. In vitro studies showed that TLR 3/4 activation largely increased the expression and release of ANGPTL4 by macrophages. Conclusions Plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans are predicted by CRP, a marker of inflammation, and ANGPTL4 expression by macrophages is increased by inflammatory stimuli. PMID:25512873

  3. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  4. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  5. Estrogen protects the blood-brain barrier from inflammation-induced disruption and increased lymphocyte trafficking.

    PubMed

    Maggioli, E; McArthur, S; Mauro, C; Kieswich, J; Kusters, D H M; Reutelingsperger, C P M; Yaqoob, M; Solito, E

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences have been widely reported in neuroinflammatory disorders, focusing on the contributory role of estrogen. The microvascular endothelium of the brain is a critical component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and it is recognized as a major interface for communication between the periphery and the brain. As such, the cerebral capillary endothelium represents an important target for the peripheral estrogen neuroprotective functions, leading us to hypothesize that estrogen can limit BBB breakdown following the onset of peripheral inflammation. Comparison of male and female murine responses to peripheral LPS challenge revealed a short-term inflammation-induced deficit in BBB integrity in males that was not apparent in young females, but was notable in older, reproductively senescent females. Importantly, ovariectomy and hence estrogen loss recapitulated an aged phenotype in young females, which was reversible upon estradiol replacement. Using a well-established model of human cerebrovascular endothelial cells we investigated the effects of estradiol upon key barrier features, namely paracellular permeability, transendothelial electrical resistance, tight junction integrity and lymphocyte transmigration under basal and inflammatory conditions, modeled by treatment with TNFα and IFNγ. In all cases estradiol prevented inflammation-induced defects in barrier function, action mediated in large part through up-regulation of the central coordinator of tight junction integrity, annexin A1. The key role of this protein was then further confirmed in studies of human or murine annexin A1 genetic ablation models. Together, our data provide novel mechanisms for the protective effects of estrogen, and enhance our understanding of the beneficial role it plays in neurovascular/neuroimmune disease. PMID:26321046

  6. Estrogen protects the blood-brain barrier from inflammation-induced disruption and increased lymphocyte trafficking.

    PubMed

    Maggioli, E; McArthur, S; Mauro, C; Kieswich, J; Kusters, D H M; Reutelingsperger, C P M; Yaqoob, M; Solito, E

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences have been widely reported in neuroinflammatory disorders, focusing on the contributory role of estrogen. The microvascular endothelium of the brain is a critical component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and it is recognized as a major interface for communication between the periphery and the brain. As such, the cerebral capillary endothelium represents an important target for the peripheral estrogen neuroprotective functions, leading us to hypothesize that estrogen can limit BBB breakdown following the onset of peripheral inflammation. Comparison of male and female murine responses to peripheral LPS challenge revealed a short-term inflammation-induced deficit in BBB integrity in males that was not apparent in young females, but was notable in older, reproductively senescent females. Importantly, ovariectomy and hence estrogen loss recapitulated an aged phenotype in young females, which was reversible upon estradiol replacement. Using a well-established model of human cerebrovascular endothelial cells we investigated the effects of estradiol upon key barrier features, namely paracellular permeability, transendothelial electrical resistance, tight junction integrity and lymphocyte transmigration under basal and inflammatory conditions, modeled by treatment with TNFα and IFNγ. In all cases estradiol prevented inflammation-induced defects in barrier function, action mediated in large part through up-regulation of the central coordinator of tight junction integrity, annexin A1. The key role of this protein was then further confirmed in studies of human or murine annexin A1 genetic ablation models. Together, our data provide novel mechanisms for the protective effects of estrogen, and enhance our understanding of the beneficial role it plays in neurovascular/neuroimmune disease.

  7. Deficiency in macrophage-stimulating protein results in spontaneous intestinal inflammation and increased susceptibility toward epithelial damage in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Witte, Merlijn; Huitema, Leonie F A; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Brugman, Sylvia

    2014-12-01

    Several genome-wide association studies have identified the genes encoding for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) and its receptor RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) as possible susceptibility factors in inflammatory bowel disease. While it has been shown that the MSP-RON signaling pathway is involved in tissue injury responses, current mouse models for MSP and RON deficiency have not clearly demonstrated a role of MSP-RON signaling in the context of intestinal inflammation. In this study, we report that the recently identified zebrafish Msp mutant (msp(t34230)) develops spontaneous intestinal inflammation over time. From 14 to 28 weeks postfertilization Msp-deficient zebrafish show intestinal eosinophilia, increased intestinal expression of inflammatory marker mmp9, and activation of intestinal goblet cells. Moreover, these Msp mutant zebrafish are more susceptible toward ethanol-induced epithelial damage, which resulted in increased infiltration and proliferation of immune cells within the lamina propria and prolonged intestinal proinflammatory cytokine responses in some mutant fish. In light of the recent development of many tools to visualize, monitor, and genetically modify zebrafish, these Msp-deficient zebrafish will enable in-depth in vivo analysis of epithelial and macrophage-specific MSP-RON signaling in the context of intestinal inflammation.

  8. Deficiency in macrophage-stimulating protein results in spontaneous intestinal inflammation and increased susceptibility toward epithelial damage in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Witte, Merlijn; Huitema, Leonie F A; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Brugman, Sylvia

    2014-12-01

    Several genome-wide association studies have identified the genes encoding for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) and its receptor RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) as possible susceptibility factors in inflammatory bowel disease. While it has been shown that the MSP-RON signaling pathway is involved in tissue injury responses, current mouse models for MSP and RON deficiency have not clearly demonstrated a role of MSP-RON signaling in the context of intestinal inflammation. In this study, we report that the recently identified zebrafish Msp mutant (msp(t34230)) develops spontaneous intestinal inflammation over time. From 14 to 28 weeks postfertilization Msp-deficient zebrafish show intestinal eosinophilia, increased intestinal expression of inflammatory marker mmp9, and activation of intestinal goblet cells. Moreover, these Msp mutant zebrafish are more susceptible toward ethanol-induced epithelial damage, which resulted in increased infiltration and proliferation of immune cells within the lamina propria and prolonged intestinal proinflammatory cytokine responses in some mutant fish. In light of the recent development of many tools to visualize, monitor, and genetically modify zebrafish, these Msp-deficient zebrafish will enable in-depth in vivo analysis of epithelial and macrophage-specific MSP-RON signaling in the context of intestinal inflammation. PMID:25353089

  9. Imbalance in systemic inflammation and immune response following transarterial chemoembolization potentially increases metastatic risk in huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Jia, Qing-An; Ge, Ning-Ling; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in tumor metastasis. However, few inflammation-related biomarkers are currently available to predict the risk of metastasis for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using huge tumors (diameter >10 cm) as a model, we evaluated the potential risk of pre- and post-treatment inflammatory responses in the development of metastasis of HCC patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors. One hundred and sixty-five patients with huge HCC were enrolled in the study. Metastases were identified in 25.5% (42/165) patients by imaging evaluation post-TACE. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes decreased significantly post-TACE. Univariate analysis showed that high post-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p = 0.003), low post-treatment lymphocyte count (p = 0.047), and high baseline NLR (p = 0.100) were potential risk factors for metastasis. Further, multivariate analysis showed that high post-treatment NLR, but not pre-treatment NLR, was an independent risk factor for metastasis; this was confirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Post-treatment NLR, however, had no correlation to tumor response and overall survival of patients. In conclusion, post-treatment NLR but not pre-treatment NLR independently increases the risk of metastasis in huge HCC. Our findings suggest the potential contribution of treatment-related inflammation to metastasis in advanced HCC.

  10. Changes are in Store for Pulping Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry are being forced by economic considerations and air pollution regulations to consider alternatives to the use of sulfur systems, be they kraft, acid or neutral sulfite. To meet environmental requirements and combat erosion of profits, modernized non-sulfur pulping methods will increasingly appear on the scene. (BT)

  11. Depletion of regulatory T cells in a hapten-induced inflammation model results in prolonged and increased inflammation driven by T cells

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, A D; Skov, S; Kvist, P H; Haase, C

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to play an immunosuppressive role in the response of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), but neither the dynamics of Tregs during the CHS response nor the exaggerated inflammatory response after depletion of Tregs has been characterized in detail. In this study we show that the number of Tregs in the challenged tissue peak at the same time as the ear-swelling reaches its maximum on day 1 after challenge, whereas the number of Tregs in the draining lymph nodes peaks at day 2. As expected, depletion of Tregs by injection of a monoclonal antibody to CD25 prior to sensitization led to a prolonged and sustained inflammatory response which was dependent upon CD8 T cells, and co-stimulatory blockade with cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA-4-Ig) suppressed the exaggerated inflammation. In contrast, blockade of the interleukin (IL)-10-receptor (IL-10R) did not further increase the exaggerated inflammatory response in the Treg-depleted mice. In the absence of Tregs, the response changed from a mainly acute reaction with heavy infiltration of neutrophils to a sustained response with more chronic characteristics (fewer neutrophils and dominated by macrophages). Furthermore, depletion of Tregs enhanced the release of cytokines and chemokines locally in the inflamed ear and augmented serum levels of the systemic inflammatory mediators serum amyloid (SAP) and haptoglobin early in the response. PMID:25302741

  12. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Otto, Baerbel; Garcia, Ada L; Wagner, Karen; Mueller, Corinna; Weickert, Martin O; Heldwein, Walter; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre consumption is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary polyphenols have been suggested to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Recently, we reported that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (carob fibre) resulted in lower postprandial acylated ghrelin levels after a liquid meal challenge test compared with a control meal without supplementation. The effects may, however, differ when a different food matrix is used. Thus, we investigated the effects of carob fibre on glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses in healthy humans in combination with a glucose load. In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P < 0.001), and serum insulin by 19.9 and 24.8 % (P < 0.001), compared with the control. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations did not change significantly after the consumption of carob-enriched glucose solution. Total ghrelin decreased only after 10 g carob fibre (P < 0.001) compared with control. In conclusion, we showed that polyphenol-rich carob fibre, administered within a water-glucose solution, increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, suggesting a deterioration in glycaemic control.

  13. Increased Levels of Calprotectin in Obesity Are Related to Macrophage Content: Impact on Inflammation and Effect of Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Victor; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-01-01

    Calprotectin has been recently described as a novel marker of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the circulating concentrations and expression levels of calprotectin subunits (S100A8 and S100A9) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), exploring its impact on insulin resistance and inflammation and the effect of weight loss. We included 53 subjects in the study. Gene expression levels of the S100A8/A9 complex were analyzed in VAT as well as in both adipocytes and stromovascular fraction cells (SVFCs). In addition, circulating calprotectin and soluble receptor for the advanced glycation end product (sRAGE) concentrations were measured before and after weight loss achieved by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 26). Circulating concentrations and VAT expression of S100A8/A9 complex were increased in normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic obese patients (P < 0.01) and associated with markers of inflammation (P < 0.01). Oppositely, concentrations of sRAGE were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in both obese groups compared to lean volunteers. Elevated calprotectin levels in obese patients decreased (P < 0.00001) after RYGB, whereas sRAGE concentrations tended to increase. Calprotectin was mainly expressed by SVFCs, and its expression was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with mRNA levels of the monocyte-macrophage–related molecules macrophage-specific antigen CD68 (CD68), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), integrin α-M (CD11B), and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). Tumor necrosis factor-α treatment significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) of human visceral adipocytes. The increased levels of calprotectin in obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, its positive association with inflammation as well as the higher expression levels in the SVFCs in VAT suggests a potential role of this protein as a chemotactic factor in the recruitment of macrophages to VAT, increasing inflammation and the development of obesity

  14. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  15. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  16. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  17. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronically colonized with Haemophilus influenzae during stable disease phase have increased airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Ekberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show increased airway inflammation and bacterial colonization during stable phase. The aim of this study was to follow COPD patients and investigate chronic colonization with pathogenic bacteria during stable disease phase, and relate these findings to clinical parameters, inflammatory pattern, lung function, and exacerbations. Methods Forty-three patients with COPD were included while in a stable state and followed up monthly until exacerbation or for a maximum of 6 months. The patients completed the Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale questionnaires, and exhaled breath condensate was collected, followed by spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and sputum induction. Results Ten patients were chronically colonized (ie, colonized at all visits) with Haemophilus influenzae during stable phase. These patients had higher sputum levels of leukotriene B4 (P<0.001), 8-isoprostane (P=0.002), myeloperoxidase activity (P=0.028), and interleukin-8 (P=0.02) during stable phase when compared with other patients. In addition, they had lower forced vital capacity (P=0.035) and reactance at 5 Hz (P=0.034), but there was no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity % predicted, exhaled breath condensate biomarkers, C-reactive protein, or Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale results. Three patients had intermittent colonization (colonized at only some visits) of H. influenzae during stable phase, and had lower levels of inflammatory biomarkers in sputum when compared with the chronically colonized patients. The difference in airway inflammation seen during stable phase in patients chronically colonized with H. influenzae was not observed during exacerbations. Conclusion Some COPD patients who were chronically colonized with H. influenzae during stable phase showed increased airway

  18. Succinobucol-Eluting Stents Increase Neointimal Thickening and Peri-Strut Inflammation in a Porcine Coronary Model

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Jonathan; Kennedy, Simon; McCormick, Christopher; Agbani, Ejaife O; McPhaden, Allan; Mullen, Alexander; Czudaj, Peter; Behnisch, Boris; Wadsworth, Roger M; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of stent-based delivery of succinobucol alone and in combination with rapamycin in a porcine coronary model. Background: Current drugs and polymers used to coat coronary stents remain suboptimal in terms of long term efficacy and safety. Succinobucol is a novel derivative of probucol with improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Methods Polymer-free Yukon stents were coated with 1% succinobucol (SucES), 2% rapamycin (RES), or 1% succinobucol plus 2% rapamycin solutions (SucRES) and compared with a bare metal stent (BMS). Results The in vivo release profile of SucES indicated drug release up to 28 days (60% drug released at 7 days); 41 stents (BMS, n = 11; SucES, n =10; RES, n = 10; SucRES, n = 10) were implanted in the coronary arteries of 17 pigs. After 28 days, mean neointimal thickness was 0.31 ± 0.14 mm for BMS, 0.51 ± 0.14 mm for SucES, 0.19 ± 0.11 mm for RES, and 0.36 ± 0.17 mm for SucRES (P < 0.05 for SucES vs. BMS). SucES increased inflammation and fibrin deposition compared with BMS (P < 0.05), whereas RES reduced inflammation compared with BMS (P < 0.05). Conclusion In this model, stent-based delivery of 1% succinobucol using a polymer-free stent platform increased neointimal formation and inflammation following coronary stenting. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22581717

  19. Vital pulp therapy-current progress of dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  20. Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts.

    PubMed

    Botta, Amy; Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Decoffe, Daniella; Brown, Kirsty; Halder, Swagata; Devlin, Angela; Gibson, Deanna L; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, controls inflammation and mitochondrial gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues following exercise intervention. However, attributing such effects to PGC-1α is counfounded by exercise-induced fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin or bodyweight in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α on inflammation and mitochondrial protein expressions in aging db/db mice hearts, independent of changes in glycemic parameters. In 8-month-old db/db mice hearts with diabetes lasting over 22 weeks, short-term, moderate-intensity exercise upregulated PGC-1α without altering body weight or glycemic parameters. Nonetheless, such a regimen lowered both cardiac (macrophage infiltration, iNOS and TNFα) and systemic (circulating chemokines and cytokines) inflammation. Curiously, such an anti-inflammatory effect was also linked to attenuated expression of downstream transcription factors of PGC-1α such as NRF-1 and several respiratory genes. Such mismatch between PGC-1α and its downstream targets was associated with elevated mitochondrial membrane proteins like Tom70 but a concurrent reduction in oxidative phosphorylation protein expressions in exercised db/db hearts. As mitochondrial oxidative stress was predominant in these hearts, in support of our in vivo data, increasing concentrations of H2O2 dose-dependently increased PGC-1α expression while inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes and downstream transcription factors in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. We conclude that short-term exercise-induced oxidative stress may be key in attenuating cardiac inflammatory genes and impairing PGC-1α mediated gene transcription of downstream transcription factors in type 2 diabetic hearts at an advanced age.

  1. Increased von Willebrand factor levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reflect inflammation rather than increased propensity for platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren D; Eilertsen, Gro Østli

    2016-01-01

    Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in platelet plug formation and protein transport. Increased VWF levels in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are considered risk factors for vascular events. VWF protein levels, however, do not accurately reflect its platelet-aggregating function, which has not been examined in SLE. Methods Cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data obtained in patients with SLE (n=92) from a regional lupus registry. VWF function was determined by ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (VWF ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo) and VWF levels by turbidimetric assay (VWF antigen, VWF:Ag). The platelet-aggregating activity per VWF unit was estimated by the VWF RCo/Ag ratio. Healthy controls served as comparators and associations were evaluated by non-parametric methods. Results VWF:Ag (142% vs 107%, p=0.001) and VWF:RCo levels (123% vs 78%, p<0.041) were increased in patients with SLE, but VWF RCo/Ag ratio was similar as in controls (0.83 vs 0.82, p=0.8). VWF:Ag levels were higher in patients experiencing serositis but unrelated to other manifestations, thrombotic disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematous Disease Activity Index 2000 or Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics-Damage Index. VWF:Ag levels correlated significantly with VWF:RCo levels (Rs 0.8, p<0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Rs 0.32, p<0.01), anti-dsDNA Ab (Rs 0.27, p<0.01), total IgG (Rs 0.33 p<0.01), fibrinogen (Rs 0.28, p<0.01) and ceruloplasmin (Rs 0.367, p<0.01) levels. VWF:RCo levels were not related to clinical findings but were correlated with ESR, anti-dsDNA and transferrin levels. No serological associations existed for VWF RCo/Ag ratio (all p>0.2). Conclusions In this SLE cohort, VWF:Ag behaved similarly to acute-phase reactants, but VWF:Ag increases were not matched by increases in functional activity per unit of VWF. Thus, more VWF did not increase the propensity for platelet aggregation in SLE.

  2. Increased von Willebrand factor levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reflect inflammation rather than increased propensity for platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren D; Eilertsen, Gro Østli

    2016-01-01

    Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in platelet plug formation and protein transport. Increased VWF levels in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are considered risk factors for vascular events. VWF protein levels, however, do not accurately reflect its platelet-aggregating function, which has not been examined in SLE. Methods Cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data obtained in patients with SLE (n=92) from a regional lupus registry. VWF function was determined by ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (VWF ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo) and VWF levels by turbidimetric assay (VWF antigen, VWF:Ag). The platelet-aggregating activity per VWF unit was estimated by the VWF RCo/Ag ratio. Healthy controls served as comparators and associations were evaluated by non-parametric methods. Results VWF:Ag (142% vs 107%, p=0.001) and VWF:RCo levels (123% vs 78%, p<0.041) were increased in patients with SLE, but VWF RCo/Ag ratio was similar as in controls (0.83 vs 0.82, p=0.8). VWF:Ag levels were higher in patients experiencing serositis but unrelated to other manifestations, thrombotic disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematous Disease Activity Index 2000 or Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics-Damage Index. VWF:Ag levels correlated significantly with VWF:RCo levels (Rs 0.8, p<0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Rs 0.32, p<0.01), anti-dsDNA Ab (Rs 0.27, p<0.01), total IgG (Rs 0.33 p<0.01), fibrinogen (Rs 0.28, p<0.01) and ceruloplasmin (Rs 0.367, p<0.01) levels. VWF:RCo levels were not related to clinical findings but were correlated with ESR, anti-dsDNA and transferrin levels. No serological associations existed for VWF RCo/Ag ratio (all p>0.2). Conclusions In this SLE cohort, VWF:Ag behaved similarly to acute-phase reactants, but VWF:Ag increases were not matched by increases in functional activity per unit of VWF. Thus, more VWF did not increase the propensity for platelet aggregation in SLE. PMID:27651919

  3. PET-Scan Shows Peripherally Increased Neurokinin 1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow: Visualizing Neurogenic Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Magnus; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Aarnio, Mikko; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1 specific radioligand [11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:24155873

  4. LPS induces pulp progenitor cell recruitment via complement activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; Jeanneau, C; Laurent, P; About, I

    2015-01-01

    Complement system, a major component of the natural immunity, has been recently identified as an important mediator of the dentin-pulp regeneration process through STRO-1 pulp cell recruitment by the C5a active fragment. Moreover, it has been shown recently that under stimulation with lipoteichoic acid, a complex component of the Gram-positive bacteria cell wall, human pulp fibroblasts are able to synthesize all proteins required for complement activation. However, Gram-negative bacteria, which are also involved in tooth decay, are known as powerful activators of complement system and inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Gram-negative bacteria-induced complement activation on the pulp progenitor cell recruitment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of all Gram-negative bacteria. Our results show that incubating pulp fibroblasts with LPS induced membrane attack complex formation and C5a release in serum-free fibroblast cultures. The produced C5a binds to the pulp progenitor cells' membrane and induces their migration toward the LPS stimulation chamber, as revealed by the dynamic transwell migration assays. The inhibition of this migration by the C5aR-specific antagonist W54011 indicates that the pulp progenitor migration is mediated by the interaction between C5a and C5aR. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct interaction between the recruitment of progenitor pulp cells and the activation of complement system generated by pulp fibroblast stimulation with LPS.

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Foster, B L; Dale, B E; Doran-Peterson, J B

    2001-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is a carbohydrate-rich coproduct generated by the table sugar industry. Beet pulp has shown promise as a feedstock for ethanol production using enzymes to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates and engineered bacteria to ferment sugars to ethanol. In this study, sugar beet pulp underwent an ammonia pressurization depressurization (APD) pretreatment in which the pulp was exploded by the sudden evaporation of ammonia in a reactor vessel. APD was found to substantially increase hydrolysis efficiency of the cellulose component, but when hemicellulose- and pectin-degrading enzymes were added, treated pulp hydrolysis was no better than the untreated control.

  6. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Increased Scalp Sweating: Is Neurogenic Inflammation the Common Link?

    PubMed

    Harries, Matthew J; Wong, Sharon; Farrant, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an uncommon scarring hair loss disorder that is characterized by a band-like recession of the frontal hair line with eyebrow hair loss. We present a series of patients with FFA and increased sweating predominantly localized to the scalp, and potential explanations for this association are discussed. We hypothesize that the reported increase in sweating seen in our patients may be in part related to the inflammatory process occurring locally within the skin, either inducing a local axonal sweating reflex or through direct modulation of sweat gland secretion by neuropeptides. PMID:27386462

  7. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Increased Scalp Sweating: Is Neurogenic Inflammation the Common Link?

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Matthew J.; Wong, Sharon; Farrant, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an uncommon scarring hair loss disorder that is characterized by a band-like recession of the frontal hair line with eyebrow hair loss. We present a series of patients with FFA and increased sweating predominantly localized to the scalp, and potential explanations for this association are discussed. We hypothesize that the reported increase in sweating seen in our patients may be in part related to the inflammatory process occurring locally within the skin, either inducing a local axonal sweating reflex or through direct modulation of sweat gland secretion by neuropeptides. PMID:27386462

  8. xCT increases tuberculosis susceptibility by regulating antimicrobial function and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Wang, Wenfei; Zhang, Mingxia; Wu, Junying; Deng, Guofang; Deng, Qunyi; Liu, Haiying; Zhou, Boping; Jin, Qi; Feng, Carl G; Sassetti, Christopher M; Wang, Fudi; Chen, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    The physiological functions of macrophage, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, depend on its redox state. System xc-, a cystine-glutamate transporter, which consists of xCT and CD98, influences many ROS-dependent pathways by regulating the production of the antioxidant glutathione. xCT's ability to alter this critical host redox balance by increasing the glutathione synthesis aspect of phagocyte physiology suggested that it might influence tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this study, we found that the xCT expression was increased in peripheral blood monocyte of active tuberculosis. xCT expression in macrophage was induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through TLR2/Akt- and p38-dependent signaling pathway. Importantly, xCT deficiency conferred protection against tuberculosis, as xCT knock out mice displayed increased Mtb load and reduced pulmonary pathology in lung compared to wild type mice. xCT disruption enhanced the mycobateriacidal activity of macrophage through increasing the mycothiol oxidation. Importantly, chemical inhibition of xCT with sulfasalazine, a specific xCT inhibitor that is already approved by the FDA for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, produces similar protective effects in vivo and in vitro, indicating xCT might be a novel and useful target for host-directed TB treatment strategy. PMID:27129162

  9. Caveolin-1 Increases Proinflammatory Chemoattractants and Blood–Retinal Barrier Breakdown but Decreases Leukocyte Recruitment in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoman; Gu, Xiaowu; Boyce, Timothy M.; Zheng, Min; Reagan, Alaina M.; Qi, Hui; Mandal, Nawajes; Cohen, Alex W.; Callegan, Michelle C.; Carr, Daniel J. J.; Elliott, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the signature protein of caveolae, modulates inflammatory responses, and innate immunity. However, Cav-1′s role in retinal inflammation has not been rigorously tested. In this study, we examined the effect of Cav-1 ablation on the sensitivity of the retina to inflammation. Methods. Cav-1 knockout (KO) mice were challenged by intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammatory cell recruitment was assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Leukostasis was assessed in retinal flatmounts after perfusion with FITC-labeled Concanavalin A (FITC-ConA). Chemoattractants were measured by multiplex immunoassays. Blood–retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown was assessed quantitatively by a FITC-dextran permeability assay. The ratio of extravascular to total immune cells was determined by CD45 immunohistochemistry of retinal flatmounts. Results. Inflammatory challenge resulted in significant blunting of proinflammatory cytokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1/CCL2], CXCL1/KC, IL-6, and IL-1β) responses as well as reduced inflammatory BRB breakdown in Cav-1 KO retinas. Paradoxically, Cav-1 deficiency resulted in significantly increased recruitment of immune cells compared with controls as well as increased leukostasis. A similar ratio of extravascular/total leukocytes were found in Cav-1 KO and wild-type (WT) retinas suggesting that Cav-1 deficient leukocytes were as competent to extravasate as those from WT mice. We found increased levels of circulating immune cells in naïve (not challenged with LPS) Cav-1 KO mice compared with controls. Conclusions. Caveolin-1 paradoxically modulates inflammatory signaling and leukocyte infiltration through distinct mechanisms. We hypothesize that Cav-1 expression may enhance inflammatory signaling while at the same time supporting the physical properties of the BRB. PMID:25159208

  10. Chronic psoriatic skin inflammation leads to increased monocyte adhesion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Jackelyn B.; Groft, Sarah G.; Squeri, Michael V.; Debanne, Sara M.; Ward, Nicole L.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis patients exhibit an increased risk of death by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and have elevated levels of circulating intermediate (CD14++CD16+) monocytes. This elevation could represent evidence of monocyte dysfunction in psoriasis patients at risk of CVD, as increases in circulating CD14++CD16+ monocytes are predictive of myocardial infarction and death. An elevation in the CD14++CD16+ cell population has been previously reported in patients with psoriatic disease, which has been confirmed in the cohort of our human psoriasis patients. CD16 expression was induced in CD14++CD16neg classical monocytes following plastic adhesion, which also elicited enhanced β2 but not β1 integrin surface expression, suggesting increased adhesive capacity. Indeed, we found that psoriasis patients have increased monocyte aggregation among circulating PBMCs which is recapitulated in the KC-Tie2 murine model of psoriasis. Visualization of human monocyte aggregates using imaging cytometry revealed that classical CD14++CD16neg monocytes are the predominant cell type participating in these aggregate pairs. Many of these pairs also included CD16+ monocytes, which could account for apparent elevations of intermediate monocytes. Additionally, intermediate monocytes and monocyte aggregates were the predominant cell type to adhere to TNF-α and IL-17A-stimulated dermal endothelium. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) demonstrated that monocyte aggregates have a distinct transcriptional profile from singlet monocytes and monocytes following plastic adhesion, suggesting that circulating monocyte responses to aggregation are not fully accounted for by homotypic adhesion, and that further factors influence their functionality. PMID:26223654

  11. COX-2 dependent inflammation increases spinal Fos expression during rodent postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, C; Birder, L A; Kiss, S; VanBibber, M M; Bauer, A J

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandins (PGs) participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory postoperative ileus. We sought to determine whether the emerging neuronal modulator COX-2 plays a significant role in primary afferent activation during postoperative ileus using spinal Fos expression as a marker. Methods: Rats, and COX-2+/+ and COX-2−/− mice underwent simple intestinal manipulation. The effect of intestinal manipulation on Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in the L5-S1 spinal cord, in situ circumference, and postoperative leucocytic infiltrate of the intestinal muscularis was measured. Postoperative PGE2 production was measured in peritoneal lavage fluid. The dependence of these parameters on COX-2 was studied in pharmacological (DFU, Merck- Frosst, selective COX-2 inhibitor) and genetic (COX-2−/− mice) models. Results: Postoperative Fos IR increased 3.7-fold in rats and 2.2-fold in mice. Both muscularis leucocytic infiltrate and the circumference of the muscularis increased significantly in rats and COX-2+/+ mice postoperatively, indicating dilating ileus. Surgical manipulation markedly increased PGE2 levels in the peritoneal cavity. DFU pretreatment and the genetic absence of COX-2−/− prevented dilating ileus, and leucocytic infiltrate was diminished by 40% with DFU and by 54% in COX-2−/− mice. DFU reversed postsurgical intra- abdominal PGE2 levels to normal. Fos IR after intestinal manipulation was attenuated by approximately 50% in DFU treated rats and in COX-2−/− mice. Conclusions: Postoperatively, small bowel manipulation causes a significant and prolonged increase in spinal Fos expression, suggesting prolonged primary afferent activation. COX-2 plays a key role in this response. This activation of primary afferents may subsequently initiate inhibitory motor reflexes to the gut, contributing to postoperative ileus. PMID:12631664

  12. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Kristan L.S.; Dodd, Andrea A.; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles, observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 hours and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 hours in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the broncheoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung. PMID:24008224

  13. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-10-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

  14. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kazuya; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Takeda, Shogo; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE) increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance. PMID:27441286

  15. Pulp biology: progress during the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Henry O

    2003-04-01

    During the past 25 years there has been a rapid expansion in our knowledge of the dentine and pulp complex. This paper provides representative examples of important advances that researchers have made in this field. Topics to be considered include: differentiation of odontoblasts, dentine matrix proteins, extent of odontoblast processes, pulpal stem cells, apoptosis, interstitial fluid pressure in normal and inflamed pulps, class II antigen-presenting cells of the pulp, cytokines, antibodies, pulpal calcifications, tertiary dentine and pulpal inflammation associated with bacterial contamination of exposed dentine beneath restorations.

  16. Reaction of the dental pulp to hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Jaber, L; Mascrès, C; Donohue, W B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of hydroxyapatite (HA) (Osteogen HA Resorb, GBD Marketing Group Inc., Valley Stream, N.Y.) on the dental pulp of rats. Four upper molar pulps in 45 rats were exposed and capped with synthetic HA (Osteogen) with a stereoscopic microscope. Pulps capped with calcium hydroxide (Dycal, L.D. Caulk Co., Milford, Del.) served as controls. The cavities were filled with amalgam, and the molars on each side of the maxilla were protected by the placement of a pedodontic steel crown. Pulp inflammation and dentin repair were compared by histologic observations and computer image analysis after 7, 14, and 28 days. After 7 days a partial acute pulpitis were observed in specimens treated with Osteogen or Dycal. Reparative dentin formation along the pulp walls was also seen. After 14 days the pulpitis was more extensive in the Osteogen-treated teeth than in the control teeth. Dentin formation as measured by morphometric analysis was more pronounced in Osteogen-treated teeth. Neo-odontoblasts were observed after the use of both materials. After 28 days an acute inflammatory reaction was still evident in the Osteogen-treated group. A complete dentinal bridge was observed more frequently with Dycal than with Osteogen. Despite the putative abilities of HA to be osteoconductive, osteogenic, and dentinogenic, the results of this study indicate that it should not be used as a pulp-capping agent because of its tendency to cause scattered dystrophic calcification in the dental pulp, which could interfere with future endodontic treatment. PMID:1318535

  17. Inadequate Processing of Decellularized Dermal Matrix Reduces Cell Viability In Vitro and Increases Apoptosis and Acute Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Aaron H.; Chang, Julie; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Decellularized tissue scaffolds are commonly used in the clinic because they can be used as substitutes for more traditional biomaterials, while imparting additional physiological effects. Nevertheless, reports of complications associated with their use are widespread and poorly understood. This study probes possible causes of these complications by examining cell viability and apoptosis in response to eluents from decellularized dermis. Using multiple sources of decellularized dermis, this study shows that typical decellularized scaffolds (prepared with commonly used laboratory techniques, as well as purchased from commercial sources) contain soluble components that are cytotoxic and that these components can be removed by extensive washes in cell culture media. In addition, this study demonstrates that these observed in vitro phenotypes correlate with increased apoptosis and acute inflammation when implanted subcutaneously in mice. PMID:27500014

  18. BMP-7 Treatment Increases M2 Macrophage Differentiation and Reduces Inflammation and Plaque Formation in Apo E-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Singla, Dinender K; Singla, Reetu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays a fundamental role in the inception and development of atherosclerosis (ATH). Mechanisms of inflammation include the infiltration of monocytes into the injured area and subsequent differentiation into either pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We have previously published data suggesting bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) enhances M2 macrophage differentiation and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro. In this regard, we hypothesized BMP-7 would inhibit plaque formation in an animal model of ATH through monocytic plasticity mediation. ATH was generated in male and female Apo E(-/-) mice via partial left carotid artery (PLCA) ligation and mice were divided into 3 groups: Sham, PLCA, and PLCA+BMP-7 (200 ug/kg; i.v.). Our data suggest that BMP-7 inhibits plaque formation and increases arterial systolic velocity. Furthermore, we report inhibition of monocyte infiltration and a decrease in associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the PLCA+BMP-7 mice. In contrast, our data suggest a significant (p<0.05) increase in M2 macrophage populations with consequential enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1RA, IL-10, and Arginase 1) expression following BMP-7 treatment. We have also observed that mechanisms promoting monocyte into M2 macrophage differentiation by BMP-7 involve the upregulation and activation of the BMP-7 receptor (BMP-7RII). In conclusion, we report that BMP-7 has the potential to mediate cellular plasticity and mitigate the inflammatory immune response, which results in decreased plaque formation and improved blood velocity. PMID:26824441

  19. BMP-7 Treatment Increases M2 Macrophage Differentiation and Reduces Inflammation and Plaque Formation in Apo E-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Dinender K.; Singla, Reetu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays a fundamental role in the inception and development of atherosclerosis (ATH). Mechanisms of inflammation include the infiltration of monocytes into the injured area and subsequent differentiation into either pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We have previously published data suggesting bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) enhances M2 macrophage differentiation and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro. In this regard, we hypothesized BMP-7 would inhibit plaque formation in an animal model of ATH through monocytic plasticity mediation. ATH was generated in male and female Apo E-/- mice via partial left carotid artery (PLCA) ligation and mice were divided into 3 groups: Sham, PLCA, and PLCA+BMP-7 (200ug/kg; i.v.). Our data suggest that BMP-7 inhibits plaque formation and increases arterial systolic velocity. Furthermore, we report inhibition of monocyte infiltration and a decrease in associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the PLCA+BMP-7 mice. In contrast, our data suggest a significant (p<0.05) increase in M2 macrophage populations with consequential enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1RA, IL-10, and Arginase 1) expression following BMP-7 treatment. We have also observed that mechanisms promoting monocyte into M2 macrophage differentiation by BMP-7 involve the upregulation and activation of the BMP-7 receptor (BMP-7RII). In conclusion, we report that BMP-7 has the potential to mediate cellular plasticity and mitigate the inflammatory immune response, which results in decreased plaque formation and improved blood velocity. PMID:26824441

  20. Inflammation induced by increased frequency of intermittent hypoxia is attenuated by tempol administration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zheng, L; Cao, J; Chen, B; Jin, D

    2015-12-01

    The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in heart tissues in response to different frequencies of intermittent hypoxia (IH) and the antioxidant tempol were evaluated. Wistar rats (64 males, 200-220 g) were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups and 2 control groups. Four groups were exposed to IH 10, 20, 30, or 40 times/h. The other 2 experimental groups were challenged with IH (30 times/h) plus tempol, either beginning on day 0 (IH30T0) or on day 29 (IH30T29). After 6 weeks of challenge, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and interleukin-10 were measured, and western blot analysis was used to detect NF-κB p65 and HIF-1α in myocardial tissues. Serum levels of TNF-α and ICAM-1 and myocardial expression of NF-κB p65 and HIF-1α were all significantly higher in IH rats than in controls (P<0.001). Increased IH frequency resulted in more significant changes. Administration of tempol in IH rats significantly reduced levels of TNF-α, ICAM-1, NF-κB and HIF-1α compared with the non-tempol-treated group (F=16.936, P<0.001). IH induced an inflammatory response in a frequency-dependent manner. Additionally, HIF-1α and NF-κB were increased following IH administration. Importantly, tempol treatment attenuated this effect. PMID:26397969

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. The confluence of increased permeability, inflammation, and pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Lasch, Karen; Zhou, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal ailments among those seeking health care for gastrointestinal disorders. Despite its prevalence, IBS pathophysiology is still not completely understood. Continued elucidation of IBS etiological mechanisms will lead to a greater appreciation of possible therapeutic targets. In the past decade, there has been increasing focus on the possible connection between increased intestinal mucosal permeability, inflammation, and visceral hypersensitivity. Increased permeability in subsets of IBS patients has been observed and the possible mechanisms underlying this defect are just beginning to be understood. The objectives of this review are to summarize the role of the healthy intestinal epithelium as a barrier between the lumen and the rest of the body with a focus on tight junctions; to examine the lines of evidence that suggest that different triggers lead to increased intestinal mucosal permeability and disruption of tight junctions in IBS patients; and to explore how this increased permeability may elicit immune responses that affect afferent nerves, resulting in the pain associated with IBS.

  2. Acid-Sensitive Sheddable PEGylated PLGA Nanoparticles Increase the Delivery of TNF-α siRNA in Chronic Inflammation Sites.

    PubMed

    Aldayel, Abdulaziz M; Naguib, Youssef W; O'Mary, Hannah L; Li, Xu; Niu, Mengmeng; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing interest in utilizing small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), in chronic inflammation therapy. However, delivery systems that can increase the distribution of the siRNA in chronic inflammation sites after intravenous administration are needed. Herein we report that innovative functionalization of the surface of siRNA-incorporated poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles significantly increases the delivery of the siRNA in the chronic inflammation sites in a mouse model. The TNF-α siRNA incorporated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by the standard double emulsion method, but using stearoyl-hydrazone-polyethylene glycol 2000, a unique acid-sensitive surface active agent, as the emulsifying agent, which renders (i) the nanoparticles PEGylated and (ii) the PEGylation sheddable in low pH environment such as that in chronic inflammation sites. In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation, the acid-sensitive sheddable PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles showed significantly higher accumulation or distribution in chronic inflammation sites than PLGA nanoparticles prepared with an acid-insensitive emulsifying agent (i.e., stearoyl-amide-polyethylene glycol 2000) and significantly increased the distribution of the TNF-α siRNA incorporated into the nanoparticles in inflamed mouse foot. PMID:27434685

  3. Adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized mice occurs in the absence of increased adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause promotes central obesity, adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Both obesity and the loss of estrogen can activate innate and adaptive immune cells (macrophages (M's), T-cells). The respective impacts of weight gain and loss of ovarian hormones on AT inflammation an...

  4. Placental-mediated increased cytokine response to lipopolysaccharides: a potential mechanism for enhanced inflammation susceptibility of the preterm fetus

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Julie L; Ross, Michael G; Beloosesky, Ron; Desai, Mina; Belkacemi, Louiza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive motor impairment syndrome that has no effective cure. The etiology of most cases of cerebral palsy remains unknown; however, recent epidemiologic data have demonstrated an association between fetal neurologic injury and infection/inflammation. Maternal infection/inflammation may be associated with the induction of placental cytokines that could result in increased fetal proinflammatory cytokine exposure, and development of neonatal neurologic injury. Therefore, we sought to explore the mechanism by which maternal infection may produce a placental inflammatory response. We specifically examined rat placental cytokine production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway in response to lipopolysaccharide exposure at preterm and near-term gestational ages. Methods: Preterm (e16) or near-term (e20) placental explants from pregnant rats were treated with 0, 1, or 10 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide. Explant integrity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis alpha levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. TLR4 and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) protein expression levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Results: At both e16 and e20, lactate dehydrogenase levels were unchanged by treatment with lipopolysaccharide. After exposure to lipopolysaccharide, the release of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis alpha from e16 placental explants increased by 4-fold and 8–9-fold, respectively (P < 0.05 versus vehicle). Conversely, interleukin-6 release from e20 explants was not significantly different compared with vehicle, and tumor necrosis alpha release was only 2-fold higher (P < 0.05 versus vehicle) following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Phosphorylated NFκB protein expression was significantly increased in the nuclear fraction from placental explants exposed to lipopolysaccharide at both e16 and e

  5. Increased inflammation and impaired resistance to Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in Dusp1(-/-) mice: critical role of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nuria; Dietrich, Harald; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Weintz, Gabriele; Scheller, Jürgen; Hammer, Michael; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Rose-John, Stefan; Miethke, Thomas; Lang, Roland

    2010-09-01

    The MAPK phosphatase DUSP1 is an essential negative regulator of TLR-triggered innate immune activation. Here, we have investigated the impact of DUSP1 on inflammatory and antimicrobial host responses to the intracellular pathogen Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Following nasal infection, DUSP1-deficient mice mounted an enhanced pulmonary cytokine (IL-1beta, IL-6) and chemokine response (CCL3, CCL4, CXCL1, CXCL2), leading to increased leukocyte infiltration. Of interest, the increased inflammatory response, in the absence of DUSP1, was associated with higher bacterial numbers in the lungs, although the expression of IFN-gamma and critical antichlamydial effector molecules, such as iNOS, was intact. Blockade of IL-6 trans-signaling by injection of a soluble gp130-Fc fusion protein corrected the overshooting chemokine production as well as the increased chlamydial load in Dusp1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, IL-6 enhanced the replication of C. pneumoniae in embryonic fibroblasts in vitro. These data show that DUSP1 is required to achieve a balanced response to chlamydial infection and identify IL-6 as critical for amplifying inflammation and benefiting chlamydial growth through direct effects on infected cells.

  6. Moderate-intensity interval training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and decreases inflammation in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients. PMID:24930517

  7. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  8. Electron microscope characteristics of dentin repair after hydroxylapatite direct pulp capping in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaber, L; Mascrès, C; Donohue, W B

    1991-11-01

    In order to study the osteogenic action of hydroxylapatite (HA) on the dental pulp, a pulp capping experiment was designed using the rat upper molar. Under general anesthesia, molar teeth in 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats were pulp capped with Osteogen (HA) or with Dycal as a control material. After pulp capping, the maxillary molars cavities were restored with amalgam and a pedodontic steel crown was adjusted and sealed over the molar teeth on either side of the maxilla. After 7 days, the areas of necrosis and acute inflammation were more evident in the pulps treated with Dycal than with Osteogen. Hard tissue formation began to appear around dentinal chips in the pulp and extended from the cavity walls into the pulp regardless of the material that was used. Furthermore, this calcified material was scattered throughout the pulp when Osteogen was used, but was not observed in the Dycal treated pulps. The hard tissue formation was thought to be due to the putative fibroblasts and odontoblasts found in the pulp. After 28 days dense dentinal tissue was observed bridging the exposure site when Dycal was used. The dentinal tissues formed with Osteogen was always of a globular type, and showed an irregular distribution. Since Osteogen tends to cause areas of dystrophic calcification in the pulp, its use is not be recommended for pulp capping purposes in humans, because these areas of calcification would make future endodontic treatment difficult. PMID:1661333

  9. A Chimeric Cfh Transgene Leads to Increased Retinal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Accumulation of Activated Subretinal Microglia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aredo, Bogale; Li, Tao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Kaiyan; Wang, Cynthia Xin-Zhao; Gou, Darlene; Zhao, Biren; He, Yuguang; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Variants of complement factor H (Cfh) affecting short consensus repeats (SCRs) 6 to 8 increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to explore the effect of expressing a Cfh variant on the in vivo susceptibility of the retina and RPE to oxidative stress and inflammation, using chimeric Cfh transgenic mice (chCfhTg). Methods. The chCfhTg and age-matched C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to oxidative stress by either normal aging, or by exposure to a combination of oral hydroquinone (0.8% HQ) and increased light. Eyes were collected for immunohistochemistry of RPE–choroid flat mounts and of retinal sections, ELISA, electron microscopy, and RPE/microglia gene expression analysis. Results. Aging mice to 2 years led to an increased accumulation of basal laminar deposits, subretinal microglia/macrophages (MG/MΦ) staining for CD16 and for malondialdehyde (MDA), and MDA-modified proteins in the retina in chCfhTg compared to B6 mice. The chCfhTg mice maintained on HQ diet and increased light showed greater deposition of basal laminar deposits, more accumulation of fundus spots suggestive of MG/MΦ, and increased deposition of C3d in the sub-RPE space, compared to controls. In addition, chCfhTg mice demonstrated upregulation of NLRP3, IP-10, CD68, and TREM-2 in the RNA isolates from RPE/MG/MΦ. Conclusions. Expression of a Cfh transgene introducing a variant in SCRs 6 to 8 was sufficient to lead to increased retinal/RPE susceptibility to oxidative stress, a proinflammatory MG/MΦ phenotype, and a proinflammatory RPE/MG/MΦ gene expression profile in a transgenic mouse model. Our data suggest that altered interactions of Cfh with MDA-modified proteins may be relevant in explaining the effects of the Cfh variant. PMID:26030099

  10. Colonic insult impairs lymph flow, increases cellular content of the lymph, alters local lymphatic micro-environment and leads to sustained inflammation in the rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Walter; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, Scott D.; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Newell Rogers, M. Karen; Zawieja, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic dysfunction has been linked to inflammation since the 1930’s. Lymphatic function in the gut and mesentery is grossly underexplored in models of IBD despite the use of lymphatic occlusion in early models of IBD. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune system is a hallmark of TNBS-induced inflammation and is linked to disruption of the intrinsic lymph pump. Recent identification of crosstalk between lymphatic vessel resident immune cells and regulation of lymphatic vessel contractility underscore the importance of the timing of lymphatic dysfunction during tissue inflammation in response to TNBS. Methods To evaluate lymphatic function in TNBS induced inflammation, lymph was collected and flow measured from mesenteric lymphatics. Cellularity and cytokine profile of the lymph was also measured. Histopathology was performed to determine severity of injury and immunofluorescent staining of the mesentery was done to evaluate changes in the population of immune cells that reside near and on gastro-intestinal collecting lymphatics. Results Lymph transport fell 24hrs after TNBS administration and began recovering at 72hrs. Significant reduction of lymph flow preceded significant increase in histopathological score and occurred simultaneously with increased MPO activity. These changes were preceded by increased MHCII+ cells surrounding mesenteric lymphatics leading to an altered lymphatic environment that would favor dysfunction. Conclusions Alterations in environmental factors that effect lymphatic function occur before the development of gross GI inflammation. Reduced lymphatic function in TNBS-mediated inflammation is likely an early factor in the development of injury and that recovery of function is associated with resolution of inflammation. PMID:25939039

  11. Increased taurine in pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice greatly reduces the acute onset of myofibre necrosis and dystropathology and prevents inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terrill, Jessica R.; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to increase taurine availability to pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice (from 14 days of age), to evaluate the impact on levels of myofibre necrosis and inflammation (at 22 days) during the acute period of severe dystropathology. Results: Untreated 22 day old mdx muscle was not deficient in taurine, with similar levels to normal C57 control muscle. However taurine treatment, which increased the taurine content of young dystrophic muscle (by 40%), greatly reduced myofibre necrosis (by 75%) and prevented significant increases in 3 markers of inflammation. Conclusion: Taurine was very effective at preventing the acute phase of muscle damage that normally results in myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice, supporting continued research into the use of taurine as a therapeutic intervention for protecting growing muscles of young DMD boys

  12. Shorter Duration of Post-Operative Antibiotics for Cecal Ligation and Puncture Does Not Increase Inflammation or Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Iskander, Kendra N.; Vaickus, Max; Duffy, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy for sepsis has beneficial effects, but prolonged use fosters emergence of resistant microorganisms, increases cost, and secondary infections. We tested whether 3 days versus 5 days of antibiotics in the murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) negatively influences outcomes. Following CLP mice were randomized to receive the antibiotic imipenem-cilastatin (25mg/kg) in dextrose 5% in Lactated Ringer’s solution every 12 hours for either three or five days. Serial monitoring over 28 days included body weight, temperature, pulse oximetry, and facial vein sampling for hematological analysis and glucose. A separate group of mice were euthanized on post-CLP day 5 to measure cytokines and peritoneal bacterial counts. The first study examined no antimicrobial therapy and demonstrated that antibiotics significantly improved survival compared to fluids only (p = 0.004). We next tested imipenem-cilastatin therapy for 3 days versus 5 days. Body weight, temperature, glucose, and pulse oximetry measurements remained generally consistent between both groups as did the hematological profile. Pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines were comparable between both groups for IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-2 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, and TNF SRI. At 5 days post-CLP, i.e. 2 days after the termination of antibiotics in the 3 day group, there were no differences in the number of peritoneal bacteria. Importantly, shortening the course of antibiotics by 40% (from 5 days to 3 days) did not decrease survival. Our results indicate that reducing the duration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in murine sepsis did not increase inflammation or mortality. PMID:27669150

  13. Systemic alterations in the metabolome of diabetic NOD mice delineate increased oxidative stress accompanied by reduced inflammation and hypertriglyceremia

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Johannes; Grapov, Dmitry; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Bell, Graeme I.

    2015-01-01

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are a commonly used model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, not all animals will develop overt diabetes despite undergoing similar autoimmune insult. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomic approach, consisting of gas chromatography time-of-flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-accurate mass quadruple time-of-flight (UHPLC-qTOF) MS and targeted UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-based methodologies, was used to capture metabolic alterations in the metabolome and lipidome of plasma from NOD mice progressing or not progressing to T1D. Using this multi-platform approach, we identified >1,000 circulating lipids and metabolites in male and female progressor and nonprogressor animals (n = 71). Statistical and multivariate analyses were used to identify age- and sex-independent metabolic markers, which best differentiated metabolic profiles of progressors and nonprogressors. Key T1D-associated perturbations were related with 1) increases in oxidation products glucono-δ-lactone and galactonic acid and reductions in cysteine, methionine and threonic acid, suggesting increased oxidative stress; 2) reductions in circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid signaling mediators, most notably arachidonic acid (AA) and AA-derived eicosanoids, implying impaired states of systemic inflammation; 3) elevations in circulating triacylglyercides reflective of hypertriglyceridemia; and 4) reductions in major structural lipids, most notably lysophosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Taken together, our results highlight the systemic perturbations that accompany a loss of glycemic control and development of overt T1D. PMID:25852003

  14. Pulpal response to different pulp capping methods after pulp exposure by air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Duque, Lina Maria; Yoshida, Makoto; Goto, George

    2002-01-01

    Air abrasion is regaining popularity especially in the area of pediatric dentistry due to its ease of use and its advantages. Due to the lost of tactile information, while using this technique, there is an increased risk for pulpal exposure. On the other hand, Ca(OH)2 medicament has been proven to induce dentin bridge formation, but an adequate sealing seems to be even more important that the capping material used. The purpose of this study was two fold: to assess the pulpal response after pulpal exposure by air abrasion and to evaluate the healing potential after using Ca(OH)2 medicament or Liner Bond II as a capping agent. Two hundred sixteen teeth from mixed-bred dogs were used in this study. The teeth were divided into three groups, A) pulpal exposure by air-abrasion followed by sealing of the cavity with Liner Bond II, B) pulpal exposure by air-abrasion and Ca(OH)2 pulp capping and C) pulpal exposure by high-speed followed by air-abrasion and Ca(OH)2 pulp capping as a control group. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 14, 30 and 60 days and a histopathological evaluation was undertaken. After applying Analysis of Variance to compare the groups, it was observed that at earlier observation periods, the inflammatory criteria near the exposure site were different among the groups. As time elapsed, the inflammation was resolved in the pulp tissue, however, the odontoblastic layer and the dentin bridge formation had a highly statistically significant difference (p<0.001) among the various groups at all observation periods. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the organization of the odontoblastic layer and the dentin bridge formation mainly after 30 days. It could be concluded that dentin bridge formation could be achieved with the use of Ca(OH) or Liner Bond II as capping agent with an adequate sealing. However, the formation is delayed especially when Liner Bond II is used as capping agent.

  15. How does our increased understanding of the role of inflammation and innate immunity in acne impact treatment approaches?

    PubMed

    Leyden, James

    2016-01-01

    A supplement article recently published in the Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology by Dréno et al., members of the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne group, summarized the data for the emerging concept that inflammation in general and the innate immune system specifically play a central role in the pathogenesis of acne. This review, entitled "Understanding innate immunity and inflammation in acne: implications for management", also discusses the impact of different treatment options on the innate immune response and inflammation. The aim of the present summary is to provide a synopsis of the key points made in the paper, from the members of the Global Alliance, as relevant to the main article within this supplement: "Recent advances in the use of adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% to treat acne patients with moderate to severe acne".

  16. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with an increase of inflammation-related colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory processes and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF ...

  17. Bleaching kraft pulps with white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, I.D.; Paice, M.G.; Bourbonnais, R.

    1996-10-01

    Certain white-rot fungi, notably Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete sordida, and isolate IZU-154 can lower the residual lignin content and increase the brightness of kraft pulps without damaging the pulps` strength or yield. This biological delignification effect can be used in Elemental Chlorine Free and Totally Chlorine Free bleaching sequences. Physical contact between the fungal hyphae and the pulp fibers is not required, but the presence of the living fungus is necessary for continued delignification. In many but not a systems, delignification is correlated with manganese peroxidase activity. Experiments with pulps containing {sup 14}C-labelled lignin indicate that the residual lignin is solubilized, but not extensively mineralized, by T. versicolor. The solubilized lignin has the same molecular size as the residual lignin originally present in the pulp. Demethylation of the phenolic rings in the pulp is an early effect of incubation with the fungus.

  18. The effect of cavity preparation on substance P expression in human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Caviedes-Bucheli, Javier; Correa-Ortíz, José Antonio; García, Leydy Viviana; López-Torres, Rocío; Lombana, Nelson; Muñoz, Hugo Roberto

    2005-12-01

    Substance P (SP) plays an important role during neurogenic inflammation of dental pulp. The purpose of this study was to use a radioimmunoassay for determining the effect of cavity preparation on SP expression in healthy human dental pulp. Ten pulp samples were obtained from healthy premolars where extraction was indicated for orthodontic reasons. Deep cavity preparation (<1 mm remaining dentine thickness) was performed before extraction in five of these bicuspids. All samples were processed and I-SP labeled; SP was quantified by competition assay. The results revealed SP expression in all human pulp samples. Mann-Whitney's U test revealed statistically significant higher expression in pulp from teeth where cavity preparation had been performed compared to control values (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that SP is released during common dental procedures (such as cavity preparation) and its expression may have an important clinical significance in terms of experiencing inflammation and pain.

  19. Pattern-recognition receptors in pulp defense.

    PubMed

    Staquet, M-J; Carrouel, F; Keller, J-F; Baudouin, C; Msika, P; Bleicher, F; Kufer, T A; Farges, J-C

    2011-07-01

    Initial sensing of infection is mediated by germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), the activation of which leads to the expression of inflammatory mediators responsible for the elimination of pathogens and infected cells. PRRs act as immune sensors that provide immediate cell responses to pathogen invasion or tissue injury. Here, we review the expression of PRRs in human dental pulp cells, namely, receptors from the Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like NLR families, by which cells recognize bacteria. Particular attention is given to odontoblasts, which are the first cells encountered by pathogens and represent, in the tooth, the first line of defense for the host. Understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the recognition of bacterial pathogens by odontoblasts is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies that aim at preventing excessive pulp inflammation and related deleterious effects.

  20. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  1. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  2. Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Independent of Body Adiposity in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Controls in falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon

    2016-01-01

    Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana. Also, body adiposity index, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were computed. Before and during falciparum malaria, diabetes patients exhibited higher (P < 0.05) levels of CRP and peroxides than controls but TAP and BAI were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Baseline CRP correlated positively (r = 0.341, P = 0.002) with peroxide only in the diabetic group. During malaria, TAP level in both study groups declined (P < 0.05) by 80% of their baseline levels. CRP correlated negatively (r = −0.352, P = 0.011) with TAP in the control but not the diabetic group. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria elevated inflammation and peroxidation but decreased antioxidant power independent of adiposity. This finding may have implication on cardiovascular health. PMID:27298824

  3. Kynurenine, by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor, decreases erythropoietin and increases hepcidin production in HepG2 cells: A new mechanism for anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    It is known that inadequate erythropoietin (EPO) production contributes to the pathogenesis of anemia of inflammation, although the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) may compete with hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α), the master regulator of EPO production, for binding with HIF-1β. The effect of kynurenine, an endogenous AhR activator that increases in inflammation, on EPO and hepcidin production was evaluated. HepG2 cells were treated with the hypoxia mimetic CoCl2, kynurenine, the AhR inhibitor CH223191, and combinations of these. EPO and hepcidin production was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIF-2α and CYP1A1 levels, a transcriptional target of AhR, were assessed by Western blotting. CoCl2 increased EPO production and decreased hepcidin and CYP1A1. Kynurenine exerted the opposite effects. Wherever CH223191 was added, the inhibitor overcorrected kynurenine-induced alterations in both the presence and the absence of CoCl2. Also, treatment with CH223191 alone increased EPO and decreased hepcidin, indicating that there is a degree of constitutive AhR activation, possibly by other endogenous AhR activators. In conclusion, kynurenine, by competing with HIF-2α, may contribute to anemia of inflammation by decreasing EPO and increasing hepcidin production. The fact that inactivation of AhR alone induces EPO makes this transcription factor a potential therapeutic target in situations that require increased EPO.

  4. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D’Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA. PMID:26864323

  5. Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Leads to Increased Proportions of F4/80+ Red Pulp Macrophages and Decreased Proportions of B and T Lymphocytes in the Spleen.

    PubMed

    Rosche, Kristin L; Aljasham, Alanoud T; Kipfer, James N; Piatkowski, Bryan T; Konjufca, Vjollca

    2015-01-01

    Infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) causes systemic inflammatory disease and enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). Splenomegaly has been attributed to a general increase in the numbers of phagocytes, lymphocytes, as well as to the expansion of immature CD71+Ter119+ reticulocytes. The spleen is important for recycling senescent red blood cells (RBCs) and for the capture and eradication of blood-borne pathogens. Conservation of splenic tissue architecture, comprised of the white pulp (WP), marginal zone (MZ), and red pulp (RP) is essential for initiation of adaptive immune responses to captured pathogens. Using flow cytometry and four color immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM), we show that Salmonella-induced splenomegaly is characterized by drastic alterations of the splenic tissue architecture and cell population proportions, as well as in situ cell distributions. A major cause of splenomegaly appears to be the significant increase in immature RBC precursors and F4/80+ macrophages that are important for recycling of heme-associated iron. In contrast, the proportions of B220+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, as well as MZ MOMA+ macrophages decrease significantly as infection progresses. Spleen tissue sections show visible tears and significantly altered tissue architecture with F4/80+ macrophages and RBCs expanding beyond the RP and taking over most of the spleen tissue. Additionally, F4/80+ macrophages actively phagocytose not only RBCs, but also lymphocytes, indicating that they may contribute to declining lymphocyte proportions during Salmonella infection. Understanding how these alterations of spleen microarchitecture impact the generation of adaptive immune responses to Salmonella has implications for understanding Salmonella pathogenesis and for the design of more effective Salmonella-based vaccines.

  6. Simplification of culture medium and conditions for fermentation of henequen pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Blancas, A.; Aguilar, G.; Huitron, C.

    1984-01-01

    Henequen pulp is obtained during the defibering process of Agave fourcroydes which grows in the southeast of Mexico. Previously, dried untreated henequen pulp was fermented to give protein but in this work the increase in the yields of crude protein from the fermentation of fresh henequen pulp are presented.

  7. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Monjok, Emmanuel; Kouamou, Ghislaine; Ohia, Sunny E; Bagchi, Debasis; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2007-10-01

    Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Male Zucker rats (5-week old) were supplemented with vehicle (control) and HCA-SX in drinking water for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress markers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (DNPH), and protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-NO(2)) were measured in the liver and kidney tissues using biochemical and immunoblotting techniques. Compared to controls, the levels of MDA, DNPH and tyr-NO(2) were lower in the liver and kidney of HCA-SX-treated animals. Furthermore, the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, were lower in the plasma of HCA-SX-supplemented animals compared to controls, as were levels of fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. Interestingly, insulin resistance did not develop in HCA-SX-supplemented rats. Food-intake and body weight gain was also lower in rats supplemented with HCA-SX compared to their control counterparts. These results suggest that HCA-SX supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

  8. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Monjok, Emmanuel; Kouamou, Ghislaine; Ohia, Sunny E; Bagchi, Debasis; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2007-10-01

    Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Male Zucker rats (5-week old) were supplemented with vehicle (control) and HCA-SX in drinking water for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress markers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (DNPH), and protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-NO(2)) were measured in the liver and kidney tissues using biochemical and immunoblotting techniques. Compared to controls, the levels of MDA, DNPH and tyr-NO(2) were lower in the liver and kidney of HCA-SX-treated animals. Furthermore, the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, were lower in the plasma of HCA-SX-supplemented animals compared to controls, as were levels of fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. Interestingly, insulin resistance did not develop in HCA-SX-supplemented rats. Food-intake and body weight gain was also lower in rats supplemented with HCA-SX compared to their control counterparts. These results suggest that HCA-SX supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. PMID:17503004

  9. The treatment of nonunions with application of BMP-7 increases the expression pattern for angiogenic and inflammable cytokines: a matched pair analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haubruck, Patrick; Kammerer, Andreas; Korff, Sebastian; Apitz, Philipp; Xiao, Kai; Büchler, Axel; Biglari, Bahram; Zimmermann, Gerald; Daniel, Volker; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Moghaddam, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The local application of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in combination with the transplantation of autologous bone graft improves the outcome in nonunion treatment; however, the specific reasons remain unclear. In this study, we sought to determine if the local application of BMP-7 contributes to improved bone regeneration in nonunion therapy by modulation of the angiogenic and inflammable cytokine expression patterns of the early inflammation response. Therefore, we utilized the analysis of serological cytokine expression patterns. As a matched pair analysis, best-fitting patients who were treated with transplantation of autologous bone graft (G1, n=10) were compared with patients who were treated with additional application of BMP-7 (G2, n=10). The changes in the cytokine expression patterns were monitored and correlated to clinical data of bone healing. Significant differences in angiogenesis potential (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] serum levels) could be found in the first days after surgery (P<0.05). Furthermore, the increase and absolute amount of VEGF levels in the BMP-7 group were considerably higher than in the control group during the first 2 weeks after surgery. The expression pattern of inflammable cytokines showed noticeable differences in the time point of significant elevated levels, in particular, inflammable cytokines showed an earlier peak in G2. Furthermore, interleukin-6 was significantly elevated within the first week only, comparing G2 to G1 (P<0.05). Our findings indicate that BMP-7 induces an early and more intense expression of VEGF via a direct and postulated indirect pathway, thereby providing a favorable environment for bone healing. Moreover, application of BMP-7 leads to an earlier expression of known proinflammatory cytokines. The results of this study show that application of BMP-7 leads to costimulatory effect on both angiogenic and inflammable cytokine expression patterns that may serve as a possible stimulus for

  10. Effect of immunologic reactions on rat intestinal epithelium. Correlation of increased permeability to chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ovalbumin during acute inflammation and anaphylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramage, J.K.; Stanisz, A.; Scicchitano, R.; Hunt, R.H.; Perdue, M.H.

    1988-06-01

    In these studies we compared jejunal permeability to two probes--chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) (mol wt, 360) and ovalbumin (mol wt, 45,000)--under control conditions, during acute intestinal inflammation, and in response to systemic anaphylaxis. Acute inflammation was produced after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and rats were studied at day 0 (control), day 4 (early), day 10 (acute), and day 35 (postinfection). At the latter stage, immune rats were also studied during anaphylaxis induced by i.v. N. brasiliensis antigen. In each study, blood and urine were sampled over 5 h after the probes were simultaneously injected into ligated loops in anesthetized rats. In controls, small quantities (less than 0.04% and 0.002% of the administered dose for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively) appeared in the circulation and plateaued at 1 h. During acute inflammation, the appearance of both probes continued to increase with time. Compared with controls, 5-h values for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin were (a) significantly elevated at day 4 (p less than 0.005), (b) increased approximately 20-fold at day 10 (p less than 0.005 and less than 0.01, respectively), and (c) normal at day 35. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA followed the same pattern. During anaphylaxis, appearance of the probes in the circulation increased at 1 h to values approximately 10-fold those in controls (p less than 0.001 and less than 0.01, for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively), and then declined. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA over 5 h was also significantly increased. We conclude that epithelial barrier function becomes impaired during both acute inflammation and anaphylaxis. In this rat model, gut permeability changes to 51Cr-EDTA reflect gut permeability changes to macromolecular antigens.

  11. Phosphorylation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in medullary and upper cervical cord neurons following noxious tooth pulp stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kohei; Asano, Masatake; Kitagawa, Junichi; Ogiso, Bunnai; Ren, Ke; Oki, Hidero; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiko; Iwata, Koichi

    2006-02-01

    The phosphorylated Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (pERK) and Fos expression and masticatory muscle activity were analyzed in rats with capsaicin-induced acute inflammation of the tooth pulp in order to clarify the role of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and upper cervical spinal cord in tooth pulp pain. Digastric and masseteric muscle activities were significantly increased following capsaicin injection into the molar tooth pulp but not after vehicle treatment. The pERK-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons were observed in the subnuclei interpolaris-caudalis transition (Vi/Vc) zone, the paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) and the superficial laminae of the caudal Vc/C2 zone. The pERK expression was detected as early as 2 min and peaked at 5 min after capsaicin or vehicle injection. The pERK expression in the Vi/Vc zone and Pa5 was bilateral, whereas it was predominantly ipsilateral in the caudal Vc/C2 zone. The capsaicin treatment of the whisker pad produced pERK expression in the rostro-caudal middle portion of the ipsilateral Vc, but small number of pERK-LI cells were observed after vehicle treatment. The pERK expression was similar in the Vi/Vc zone following capsaicin injection into the upper or lower molar tooth pulp, whereas the pERK expression was in the lateral portion of the caudal Vc/C2 zone after upper molar injection and restricted to the medial portion of the Vc/C2 zone after the lower molar capsaicin. These data were confirmed with Western blots. There were differences in the distribution of Fos protein-like immunoreactive (LI) cells and pERK-LI cells following tooth pulp stimulation. After capsaicin application into the upper molar tooth pulp, no pERK-LI cells were observed in the ventral part of the Vi/Vc zone, whereas many Fos protein-LI cells were expressed in this region. The difference in the distribution pattern of pERK- and Fos protein-LI cells in the Vi/Vc zone suggests their differential temporal expression profiles after capsaicin. The present

  12. Human Pulp Response to Direct Pulp Capping and Miniature Pulpotomy with MTA after Application of Topical Dexamethasone: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Amir; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Shahnaseri, Shirin; Paymanpour, Payam; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the histologic pulp tissue response to one-step direct pulp capping (DPC) and miniature pulpotomy (MP) with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after application of dexamethasone in healthy human premolars. Methods and Materials: Forty intact premolars from 10 orthodontic patients, were randomly chosen for DPC (n=20) or MP (n=20). In 10 teeth from each group, after exposure of the buccal pulp horn, topical dexamethasone was applied over the pulp. In all teeth the exposed/miniaturely resected pulp tissue was covered with MTA and cavities were restored with glass ionomer. Teeth vitality was evaluated during the next 7, 21, 42, and 60 days. Signs and/or symptoms of irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis were considered as failure. According to the orthodontic schedule, after 60 days the teeth were extracted and submitted for histological examination. The Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis of the data (P=0.05). Results: Although dexamethasone specimens showed less inflammation, calcified bridge, pulpal blood vasculature, collagen fibers and granulation tissue formation were not significantly different between the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Topical dexamethasone did not hindered pulp healing but reduced the amount of underlying pulpal tissue inflammation after DPC and MP in healthy human premolars. PMID:27141213

  13. Increased inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity indicate metabolic disturbances in zoo-managed compared to free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    PubMed

    Schook, Mandi W; Wildt, David E; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Wolfe, Barbara A; Dennis, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Black rhinoceros (rhinos) living in zoos express a host of unusual disease syndromes that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including hemolytic anemia, rhabdomyolysis, hepatopathy and ulcerative skin disease, hypophosphatemia and iron overload. We hypothesized that iron overload is a consequence and indicator of disturbances related to inflammation and insulin/glucose metabolism. The objectives of this study were to: (1) generate the first baseline information on biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], serum amyloid A [SAA]), insulin sensitivity (insulin, glucose and proxy calculations of insulin sensitivity), phosphate and iron stores (ferritin) using banked serum from free-ranging black rhinos; and (2) then compare serum biomarkers between zoo-managed (n=86 individuals) and free-ranging (n=120) animals. Enzyme immunoassays were validated for serum and then biomarker levels analyzed using mixed models while controlling for sex, age and year of sample collection. Concentrations of TNFα, SAA, insulin and insulin-to glucose ratio were higher (P<0.05) in black rhinos managed in ex situ conditions compared to free-living counterparts. Findings indicate that the captive environment is contributing to increased inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity in this endangered species.

  14. Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue but not liver inflammation and insulin resistance after weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, J.; Evers, N.; Awazawa, M.; Nicholls, H.T.; Brönneke, H.S.; Dietrich, A.; Mauer, J.; Blüher, M.; Brüning, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and certain cancer entities. Treatment of obesity is hindered by the long-term maintenance of initially reduced body weight, and it remains unclear whether all pathologies associated with obesity are fully reversible even upon successfully maintained weight loss. Methods We compared high fat diet-fed, weight reduced and lean mice in terms of body weight development, adipose tissue and liver insulin sensitivity as well as inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, we assessed similar parameters in a human cohort before and after bariatric surgery. Results Compared to lean animals, mice that demonstrated successful weight reduction showed increased weight gain following exposure to ad libitum control diet. However, pair-feeding weight-reduced mice with lean controls efficiently stabilized body weight, indicating that hyperphagia was the predominant cause for the observed weight regain. Additionally, whereas glucose tolerance improved rapidly after weight loss, systemic insulin resistance was retained and ameliorated only upon prolonged pair-feeding. Weight loss enhanced insulin action and resolved pro-inflammatory gene expression exclusively in the liver, whereas visceral adipose tissue displayed no significant improvement of metabolic and inflammatory parameters compared to obese mice. Similarly, bariatric surgery in humans (n = 55) resulted in massive weight reduction, improved hepatic inflammation and systemic glucose homeostasis, while adipose tissue inflammation remained unaffected and adipocyte-autonomous insulin action only exhibit minor improvements in a subgroup of patients (42%). Conclusions These results demonstrate that although sustained weight loss improves systemic glucose homeostasis, primarily through improved inflammation and insulin action in liver, a remarkable obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue

  15. The preservative polyquaternium-1 increases cytoxicity and NF-kappaB linked inflammation in human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Paimela, Tuomas; Ryhänen, Tuomas; Kauppinen, Anu; Marttila, Liisa; Salminen, Antero

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In numerous clinical and experimental studies, preservatives present in eye drops have had detrimental effects on ocular epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of the preservative polyquaternium-1 (PQ-1) containing Travatan (travoprost 0.004%) and Systane Ultra eye drops with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) alone or BAK-preserved Xalatan (0.005% latanoprost) eye drops in HCE-2 human corneal epithelial cell culture. Methods HCE-2 cells were exposed to the commercial eye drops Travatan, Systane Ultra, Xalatan, and the preservative BAK. Cell viability was determined using colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Induction of apoptosis was measured with a using a colorimetric caspase-3 assay kit. DNA binding of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor, and productions of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL-6 and IL-8, were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results Cell viability, as measured by the MTT assay, declined by up to 50% after exposure to Travatan or Systane Ultra solutions which contain 0.001% PQ-1. BAK at 0.02% rather than at 0.001% concentration evoked total cell death signs on HCE-2 cells. In addition, cell membrane permeability, as measured by LDH release, was elevated by sixfold with Travatan and by a maximum threefold with Systane Ultra. Interestingly, Travatan and Systane Ultra activated NF-κB and elevated the secretion of inflammation markers IL-6 by 3 to eightfold and IL-8 by 1.5 to 3.5 fold, respectively, as analyzed with ELISA. Conclusions Eye drops containing PQ-1 evoke cytotoxicity and enhance the NF-κB driven inflammation reaction in cultured HCE-2 cells. Our results indicate that these harmful effects of ocular solutions preserved with PQ-1 should be further evaluated in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22605930

  16. Effect of low level laser therapy on dental pulp during orthodontic movement

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Ángela; Ballesteros, Rosa Emilia; Viáfara, Jairo Hernán; Tamayo, Oscar Mario

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To validate the protocol described here to be used in future clinical trials related to the effect of laser therapy on dental pulp. METHODS: Histologically treated samples from eight human healthy premolar teeth obtained from the middle root level were distributed in four groups: group 1 (G1) absolute control; group 2 (G2) only laser irradiation; group 3 (G3) exposed only to orthodontics; and group 4 (G4) treated with orthodontics and laser. Laser treatment was performed at 830 nm wavelength, 100 mW (energy 80 J/cm2, 2.2 J), for 22 s in the vestibular surface and 22 s in the palatal surface, 1 mm away from the dental root mucosa. Three staining methods were performed: hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson’s Trichrome method and Gomori’s method. RESULTS: The pulp histology parameters were evaluated and the results classified in to 3 parts: an inflammatory response, soft tissue response (dental pulp) and hard tissue response (dentin and predentin). There was no inflammation (chronic or acute) in any of the evaluated groups. The zones of pulp necrosis were found in one premolar of G3 and in one of G4; in groups G2 and G4 there was higher angiogenesis than in the other two groups. G4 group presented the highest level of vascularization. A reduced nerve density was observed in G3. A G2 specimen showed increased nerve density. A higher rate of calcification was observed in G1 compared to G2. Denticles, either real or false, were observed in G1, G2 and G3. Sclerosis of dentin and focal dentin loss was observed among all the groups. Secondary dentin was present in one sample in G1 and G2. A necrosis zone was found in one sample of G3 and G4. No differences between groups were observed in the odontoblast irregularity layer but the layer was wider in the group treated with laser only. A notable difference was detected in reduction of the cell-free layer between the groups G1 and G4. The findings in pulp tissue favor its adaptative response against dental movement induced

  17. [Relationship between the included levels of coffee pulp and the protein content in rations for monogastric animals].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brenes, R A; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of including fresh and ensilaged coffee pulp in rations for monogastric animals, and find the best protein and coffee pulp levels in rations for rats. Fresh coffee pulp and pulp ensilaged for 12 months were used; both kinds of pulp were sun-dried before incorporating them into the rations. The chemical analyses of the pulps revealed a lower content in caffeine, tannins, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the ensilaged pulp than in fresh coffee pulp. Thirty-two experimental rations were prepared, 16 with fresh coffee pulp and 16 with the ensilaged by-product, distributed into four different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%), and three levels of pulp (15, 30 and 45%) for each protein level. The rations thus prepared were fed to Wistar albino rats for a six-week period. The parameters used to measure the effect of the two types of pulp were mortality rate, food consumption, weight gain, food conversion and apparent digestibility of the rations. Ensilaged pulp had a higher nutritive value, lower toxicity and better digestibility than fresh pulp. The increase in the protein level of the ration resulted in partial protection against the negative effects of coffee pulp on the performance of animals, since this improved as the protein level of the ration increased.

  18. Ethanol-Induced Mast Cell-Mediated Inflammation Leads to Increased Susceptibility of Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the APC Δ468 Min Mouse Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Andre L.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Khan, Mohammad Wasim; Pemberton, Alan; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic and frequent ethanol (EtOH) intake has been associated with an increased incidence of several types of cancers including breast, mouth, throat, esophageal, stomach and colorectal (CRC). The underlying mechanism of this deleterious carcinogenic effect of alcohol has not been clearly established but inflammation may be one unifying feature of these cancers. We have recently shown that intestinal mast cells play a central role in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that mast cell-mediated inflammation is one underlying mechanism by which chronic alcohol promotes intestinal tumorigenesis. Methods APC Δ468 mice were fed either an alcohol containing Nanji liquid diet or isocaloric dextrose containing Nanji diet for 10 weeks and then sacrificed to collect small and large intestine samples. Assessments of tumor number and size as well as mast cell number and mast cell activity and histology score for invasion were compared between Control (dextrose fed) and Alcohol fed APCΔ468 mice. The effect of alcohol on mast cell mediated tumor migration was also assessed using an in vitro migration assay. Results Alcohol feeding increased both polyp number and size within both the small and large intestines of APCΔ468 mice. Only alcohol fed mice showed evidence of tumor invasion. Chronic alcohol feeding also resulted in an increased mast cell number and activity in tumor stroma and invading borders. In vitro migration assay showed that alcohol significantly increases mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Conclusions Our data show that chronic alcohol intake promotes: (1) intestinal tumorigenesis and tumor invasion in genetically susceptible mice; (2) increases in polyp associated mast cells; (3) mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Both our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that mast cell mediated inflammation could be one mechanism by which alcohol promotes carcinogenesis. PMID:23320800

  19. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  20. Ultrastructural changes, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expressions in heart tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Omar S; Hussain, Tajamul; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Gambhir, Dikshit; Sumague, Terrance S

    2015-07-01

    Incense smoke exposure has recently been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, heart rate variability, and endothelial dysfunction. To test the possible underlying mechanisms, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, gene expressions of cardiac hypertrophic and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and ultrastructural changes were measured, respectively, using standard, ELISA-based, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscope procedures in heart tissues of Wistar rats after chronically exposing to Arabian incense. Malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF)-α, and IL-4 levels were significantly increased, while catalase and glutathione levels were significantly declined in incense smoke-exposed rats. Incense smoke exposure also resulted in a significant increase in atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Rats exposed to incense smoke displayed marked ultrastructural changes in heart muscle with distinct cardiac hypertrophy, which correlated with the augmented hypertrophic gene expression as well as markers of cardiac damage including creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Increased oxidative stress, inflammation, altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expression, tissue damage, and architectural changes in the heart may collectively contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals exposed to incense smoke. Increased gene expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 may be instrumental in the incense smoke-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, incense smoke can be considered as a potential environmental pollutant and its long-term exposure may negatively impact human health.

  1. Impact of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (3-AT)-Derived Increase in Hydrogen Peroxide Levels on Inflammation and Metabolism in Human Differentiated Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepción María; Gil, Angel; Rupérez, Azahara Iris

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, which is associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Excessive H2O2 levels are degraded by catalase (CAT), the activity of which is decreased in obesity. We investigated the effects of inhibition of catalase activity on metabolism and inflammation by incubating human differentiated adipocytes with 10 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) for 24 h. As expected, the treatment decreased CAT activity and increased intracellular H2O2 levels significantly. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was also reduced, and the gene expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes GPX4 and peroxiredoxins (1, 3 and 5) were inhibited. Interestingly, this occurred along with lower mRNA levels of the transcription factors nuclear factor (erythroid 2-like 2) and forkhead box O, which are involved in redox homeostasis. However, superoxide dismutase activity and expression were increased. Moreover, 3-AT led to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and increased tumor necrosis alpha and interleukin 6 protein and gene expression levels, while lowering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA and protein levels. These alterations were accompanied by an altered glucose and lipid metabolism. Indeed, adipocytes treated with 3-AT showed reduced basal glucose uptake, reduced glucose transporter type 4 gene and protein expression, reduced lipolysis, reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activation and reduced gene expression of lipases. Our results indicate that increased H2O2 levels caused by 3-AT treatment impair the antioxidant defense system, lower PPARγ expression and initiate inflammation, thus affecting glucose and lipid metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes. PMID:27023799

  2. Impact of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (3-AT)-Derived Increase in Hydrogen Peroxide Levels on Inflammation and Metabolism in Human Differentiated Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepción María; Gil, Angel; Rupérez, Azahara Iris

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, which is associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Excessive H2O2 levels are degraded by catalase (CAT), the activity of which is decreased in obesity. We investigated the effects of inhibition of catalase activity on metabolism and inflammation by incubating human differentiated adipocytes with 10 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) for 24 h. As expected, the treatment decreased CAT activity and increased intracellular H2O2 levels significantly. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was also reduced, and the gene expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes GPX4 and peroxiredoxins (1, 3 and 5) were inhibited. Interestingly, this occurred along with lower mRNA levels of the transcription factors nuclear factor (erythroid 2-like 2) and forkhead box O, which are involved in redox homeostasis. However, superoxide dismutase activity and expression were increased. Moreover, 3-AT led to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and increased tumor necrosis alpha and interleukin 6 protein and gene expression levels, while lowering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA and protein levels. These alterations were accompanied by an altered glucose and lipid metabolism. Indeed, adipocytes treated with 3-AT showed reduced basal glucose uptake, reduced glucose transporter type 4 gene and protein expression, reduced lipolysis, reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activation and reduced gene expression of lipases. Our results indicate that increased H2O2 levels caused by 3-AT treatment impair the antioxidant defense system, lower PPARγ expression and initiate inflammation, thus affecting glucose and lipid metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes. PMID:27023799

  3. Impact of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (3-AT)-Derived Increase in Hydrogen Peroxide Levels on Inflammation and Metabolism in Human Differentiated Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepción María; Gil, Angel; Rupérez, Azahara Iris

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, which is associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Excessive H2O2 levels are degraded by catalase (CAT), the activity of which is decreased in obesity. We investigated the effects of inhibition of catalase activity on metabolism and inflammation by incubating human differentiated adipocytes with 10 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) for 24 h. As expected, the treatment decreased CAT activity and increased intracellular H2O2 levels significantly. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was also reduced, and the gene expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes GPX4 and peroxiredoxins (1, 3 and 5) were inhibited. Interestingly, this occurred along with lower mRNA levels of the transcription factors nuclear factor (erythroid 2-like 2) and forkhead box O, which are involved in redox homeostasis. However, superoxide dismutase activity and expression were increased. Moreover, 3-AT led to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and increased tumor necrosis alpha and interleukin 6 protein and gene expression levels, while lowering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA and protein levels. These alterations were accompanied by an altered glucose and lipid metabolism. Indeed, adipocytes treated with 3-AT showed reduced basal glucose uptake, reduced glucose transporter type 4 gene and protein expression, reduced lipolysis, reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activation and reduced gene expression of lipases. Our results indicate that increased H2O2 levels caused by 3-AT treatment impair the antioxidant defense system, lower PPARγ expression and initiate inflammation, thus affecting glucose and lipid metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes.

  4. Effects of Camphorquinone on Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Regulation and Prostaglandin E2 Production of Dental Pulp Cells: Role of ROS, ATM/Chk2, MEK/ERK and Hemeoxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Min-Tsz; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Lee, Ming-Shu; Sun, Tzu-Ying; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Lin, Hsueh-Jen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is a popularly-used photosensitizer in composite resin restoration. In this study, the effects of CQ on cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes and proteins expression of pulp cells were investigated. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM/Chk2/p53 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and MEK/ERK signaling was also evaluated. We found that ROS and free radicals may play important role in CQ toxicity. CQ (1 and 2 mM) decreased the viability of pulp cells to about 70% and 50% of control, respectively. CQ also induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pulp cells. The expression of type I collagen, cdc2, cyclin B, and cdc25C was inhibited, while p21, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were stimulated by CQ. CQ also activated ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation and GADD45α expression. Besides, exposure to CQ increased cellular ROS level and 8-isoprostane production. CQ also stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production of pulp cells. The reduction of cell viability caused by CQ can be attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but can be promoted by Zinc protoporphyin (ZnPP). CQ stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and U0126 prevented the CQ-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. These results indicate that CQ may cause cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and PGE2 production of pulp cells. These events could be due to stimulation of ROS and 8-isoprostane production, ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling, HO-1, COX-2 and p21 expression, as well as the inhibition of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclin B1. These results are important for understanding the role of ROS in pathogenesis of pulp necrosis and pulpal inflammation after clinical composite resin filling. PMID:26658076

  5. Effects of Camphorquinone on Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Regulation and Prostaglandin E2 Production of Dental Pulp Cells: Role of ROS, ATM/Chk2, MEK/ERK and Hemeoxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Min-Tsz; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Lee, Ming-Shu; Sun, Tzu-Ying; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Lin, Hsueh-Jen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is a popularly-used photosensitizer in composite resin restoration. In this study, the effects of CQ on cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes and proteins expression of pulp cells were investigated. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM/Chk2/p53 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and MEK/ERK signaling was also evaluated. We found that ROS and free radicals may play important role in CQ toxicity. CQ (1 and 2 mM) decreased the viability of pulp cells to about 70% and 50% of control, respectively. CQ also induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pulp cells. The expression of type I collagen, cdc2, cyclin B, and cdc25C was inhibited, while p21, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were stimulated by CQ. CQ also activated ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation and GADD45α expression. Besides, exposure to CQ increased cellular ROS level and 8-isoprostane production. CQ also stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production of pulp cells. The reduction of cell viability caused by CQ can be attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but can be promoted by Zinc protoporphyin (ZnPP). CQ stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and U0126 prevented the CQ-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. These results indicate that CQ may cause cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and PGE2 production of pulp cells. These events could be due to stimulation of ROS and 8-isoprostane production, ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling, HO-1, COX-2 and p21 expression, as well as the inhibition of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclin B1. These results are important for understanding the role of ROS in pathogenesis of pulp necrosis and pulpal inflammation after clinical composite resin filling. PMID:26658076

  6. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) Reduces Muscle Growth in Response to Acute Injury and Increases Muscle Inflammation and Pathology in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Singhal, Neha; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Joshi, Mandar; Bauer, John A.; Janssen, Paulus M.L.; Martin, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Skeletal muscle Galgt2 gene expression is also normally increased in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy compared with the wild-type mice. To assess whether this increased endogenous Galgt2 expression could affect disease, we quantified muscular dystrophy measures in mdx mice deleted for Galgt2 (Galgt2−/−mdx). Galgt2−/− mdx mice had increased heart and skeletal muscle pathology and inflammation, and also worsened cardiac function, relative to age-matched mdx mice. Deletion of Galgt2 in wild-type mice also slowed skeletal muscle growth in response to acute muscle injury. In each instance where Galgt2 expression was elevated (developing muscle, regenerating muscle, and dystrophic muscle), Galgt2-dependent glycosylation of αDG was also increased. Overexpression of Galgt2 failed to inhibit skeletal muscle pathology in dystroglycan-deficient muscles, in contrast to previous studies in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles. This study demonstrates that Galgt2 gene expression and glycosylation of αDG are dynamically regulated in muscle and that endogenous Galgt2 gene expression can ameliorate the extent of muscle pathology, inflammation, and dysfunction in mdx mice. PMID:26435413

  7. A novel combinatorial therapy with pulp stem cells and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for total pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Takeuchi, Norio; Osako, Yohei; Ito, Masataka; Ishizaka, Ryo; Utunomiya, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of deep caries with pulpitis is a major challenge in dentistry. Stem cell therapy represents a potential strategy to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex, enabling conservation and restoration of teeth. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pulp stem cell transplantation as a prelude for the impending clinical trials. Clinical-grade pulp stem cells were isolated and expanded according to good manufacturing practice conditions. The absence of contamination, abnormalities/aberrations in karyotype, and tumor formation after transplantation in an immunodeficient mouse ensured excellent quality control. After autologous transplantation of pulp stem cells with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dog pulpectomized tooth, regenerated pulp tissue including vasculature and innervation completely filled in the root canal, and regenerated dentin was formed in the coronal part and prevented microleakage up to day 180. Transplantation of pulp stem cells with G-CSF yielded a significantly larger amount of regenerated dentin-pulp complex compared with transplantation of G-CSF or stem cells alone. Also noteworthy was the reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and apoptotic cells and the significant increase in neurite outgrowth compared with results without G-CSF. The transplanted stem cells expressed angiogenic/neurotrophic factors. It is significant that G-CSF together with conditioned medium of pulp stem cells stimulated cell migration and neurite outgrowth, prevented cell death, and promoted immunosuppression in vitro. Furthermore, there was no evidence of toxicity or adverse events. In conclusion, the combinatorial trophic effects of pulp stem cells and G-CSF are of immediate utility for pulp/dentin regeneration, demonstrating the prerequisites of safety and efficacy critical for clinical applications.

  8. [Coffee hulls and pulp. XII. Effect of storage of coffee pulp on its nutritive value for calves].

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M T; Estrada, E; Murillo, B; González, J M; Bressani, R

    1976-06-01

    Coffee pulp, dehydrated and stored for 7, 13 and 17 months or ensiled for 4, 10 and 14 months, was studied in calves with a rapid growing rate. Storage of dehydrated coffee pulp did not affect its chemical composition, but ensiling reduced crude fiber and increased its nitrogen free extract content after 10 and 14 months. Three growth trials were carried out with Holstein calves averaging 95 kg in the first and second trials, and 130 kg in the third. Eighteen calves were used in the first trial and 24 in each of the other two. In each trial the animals were divided into three equal groups and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, which contained 48% cottonseed hulls, and the other two, with 30% dehydrated coffee pulp or 30% ensiled coffee pulp. Basically, the difference between trials consisted in the time of storage or ensiling of coffee pulp. In all trials, weight gains of calves fed coffee pulp (1.00, 0.90 and 0.98 kg/day, and 1.06, 0.94 and 1.08 kg/day, respectively) were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the weight gains induced by the control ration (1.21, 1.08 and 1.19 kg/day). Feed intake was also lower, but feed conversion ratio was higher for those rations containing coffee pulp. Calf performance was better with ensiled than with deydrated coffee pulp, particularly in the third trial, where the differences in weight gains were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that storage time does not change nutritive value of coffee pulp; and the ensiling is an adequate process for storing pulp during coffee harvesting, and, possibly also, for improving its nutritive value.

  9. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  12. Increased Serum and Musculotendinous Fibrogenic Proteins following Persistent Low-Grade Inflammation in a Rat Model of Long-Term Upper Extremity Overuse

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Helen G. L.; Fisher, Paul W.; Lambi, Alex G.; Wade, Christine K.; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E.; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between grip strength declines and muscle-tendon responses induced by long-term performance of a high-repetition, low-force (HRLF) reaching task in rats. We hypothesized that grip strength declines would correlate with inflammation, fibrosis and degradation in flexor digitorum muscles and tendons. Grip strength declined after training, and further in weeks 18 and 24, in reach limbs of HRLF rats. Flexor digitorum tissues of reach limbs showed low-grade increases in inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β after training and in week 18, IL-1α in week 18, TNF-α and IL-6 after training and in week 24, and IL-10 in week 24, with greater increases in tendons than muscles. Similar cytokine increases were detected in serum with HRLF: IL-1α and IL-10 in week 18, and TNF-α and IL-6 in week 24. Grip strength correlated inversely with IL-6 in muscles, tendons and serum, and TNF-α in muscles and serum. Four fibrogenic proteins, TGFB1, CTGF, PDGFab and PDGFbb, and hydroxyproline, a marker of collagen synthesis, increased in serum in HRLF weeks 18 or 24, concomitant with epitendon thickening, increased muscle and tendon TGFB1 and CTGF. A collagenolytic gelatinase, MMP2, increased by week 18 in serum, tendons and muscles of HRLF rats. Grip strength correlated inversely with TGFB1 in muscles, tendons and serum; with CTGF-immunoreactive fibroblasts in tendons; and with MMP2 in tendons and serum. Thus, motor declines correlated with low-grade systemic and musculotendinous inflammation throughout task performance, and increased fibrogenic and degradative proteins with prolonged task performance. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, TGFB1, CTGF and MMP2 may serve as serum biomarkers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, although further studies in humans are needed. PMID:24015193

  13. Dietary Vitamin D Increases Percentages and Function of Regulatory T Cells in the Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes and Suppresses Dermal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Geldenhuys, Sian; Judge, Melinda; Weeden, Clare E.; Waithman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Skin inflammatory responses in individuals with allergic dermatitis may be suppressed by dietary vitamin D through induction and upregulation of the suppressive activity of regulatory T (TReg) cells. Vitamin D may also promote TReg cell tropism to dermal sites. In the current study, we examined the capacity of dietary vitamin D3 to modulate skin inflammation and the numbers and activity of TReg cells in skin and other sites including lungs, spleen, and blood. In female BALB/c mice, dietary vitamin D3 suppressed the effector phase of a biphasic ear swelling response induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in comparison vitamin D3-deficient female BALB/c mice. Vitamin D3 increased the percentage of TReg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLN). The suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and blood was upregulated by vitamin D3. However, there was no difference in the expression of the naturally occurring TReg cell marker, neuropilin, nor the expression of CCR4 or CCR10 (skin-tropic chemokine receptors) on TReg cells in skin, SDLN, lungs, and airway-draining lymph nodes. These data suggest that dietary vitamin D3 increased the percentages and suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, which are poised to suppress dermal inflammation. PMID:27672666

  14. Dietary Vitamin D Increases Percentages and Function of Regulatory T Cells in the Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes and Suppresses Dermal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Geldenhuys, Sian; Judge, Melinda; Weeden, Clare E.; Waithman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Skin inflammatory responses in individuals with allergic dermatitis may be suppressed by dietary vitamin D through induction and upregulation of the suppressive activity of regulatory T (TReg) cells. Vitamin D may also promote TReg cell tropism to dermal sites. In the current study, we examined the capacity of dietary vitamin D3 to modulate skin inflammation and the numbers and activity of TReg cells in skin and other sites including lungs, spleen, and blood. In female BALB/c mice, dietary vitamin D3 suppressed the effector phase of a biphasic ear swelling response induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in comparison vitamin D3-deficient female BALB/c mice. Vitamin D3 increased the percentage of TReg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLN). The suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and blood was upregulated by vitamin D3. However, there was no difference in the expression of the naturally occurring TReg cell marker, neuropilin, nor the expression of CCR4 or CCR10 (skin-tropic chemokine receptors) on TReg cells in skin, SDLN, lungs, and airway-draining lymph nodes. These data suggest that dietary vitamin D3 increased the percentages and suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, which are poised to suppress dermal inflammation.

  15. Increased microRNA-155 and decreased microRNA-146a may promote ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaijun; Du, Yi; Jiang, Ben-Li; He, Jian-Feng

    2014-04-18

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the orbit, characterized by inflammation and proliferation of the orbital tissue caused by CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts. Despite recent substantial findings regarding its cellular and molecular foundations, the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy remains unclear. Accumulating data suggest that microRNAs play important roles in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and proliferation. Specifically, microRNA-155 (miR-155) can promote autoimmune inflammation by enhancing inflammatory T cell development. In contrast to miR-155, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) can inhibit the immune response by suppressing T cell activation. Furthermore, miR-155 and miR-146a are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and many other life processes. Thus, miR-155 and miR-146a, with opposite impacts on inflammatory responses carried out by T lymphocytes, appear to have multiple targets in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Our previous work showed that the expression of miR-146a was significantly decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Graves' ophthalmopathy patients compared with normal subjects. Accordingly, we proposed that the expression of miR-155 increased and the expression of miR-146a decreased in the target cells (CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts), thus promoting ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy. The proposed hypothesis warrants further investigation of the function of the differentially expressed microRNAs, which may shed new light on the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy and lead to new strategies for its management.

  16. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E.; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J.; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-01-01

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35–65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:25970149

  17. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-05-01

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:25970149

  18. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-05-11

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation.

  19. Considerations for the direct pulp capping procedure in primary teeth: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kopel, H M

    1992-01-01

    In reviewing the various studies concerning the direct pulp capping procedure in primary teeth, using rigid criteria for case selection and procedure appears to insure a significant amount of success. It is acknowledged that vital primary pulp tissue is capable of healing without resorting to complete pulpectomy, although statistically direct pulp capping has been found to be less successful in primary teeth than indirect pulp therapy or coronal amputation (pulpotomy). To achieve success for direct pulp capping in primary teeth, the considerations involve: selecting teeth with minimal or no clinical signs of pulpal inflammation; or pretreating the carious tooth with a sedative restoration before excavating the caries; disinfecting the cavity floor; enlarging the actual exposure, and flushing out dentinal debris with mild solutions; controlling bleeding by not allowing a clot to form; placing a hard-set, CaOH material over the exposure, followed by a fast-setting, zinc oxide-eugenol cement to achieve a hermetic seal; and lastly, placing a stainless steel crown to minimize microleakage and prevent a fractured or defective restoration. These procedural steps can hardly ensure complete success in direct pulp capping of a primary tooth; but, based on the many cited investigations in this review, a significant amount of success can be expected without resorting more frequently to invasive techniques. Surely the evidence presented leading to the feasibility of direct pulp capping in primary teeth merits further investigations, before dogmatically rejecting this procedure of pulp therapy. PMID:1583199

  20. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  1. Reduced energy expenditure and increased inflammation are early events in the development of ovariectomy-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, an age-related loss of ovarian hormone production, promotes increased adiposity and associated metabolic pathologies. However, the diet-independent mechanism(s) by which loss of ovarian function promotes increased adipose tissue mass and insulin resistance remain unclear. We investigate...

  2. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    PubMed

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  3. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  4. Trends and guidelines in water pollution control in the Finnish pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Junna, J. ); Ruonala, S. )

    1991-07-01

    There are about 50 paper and pulp mills in Finland. In this paper, their production capacities in 1988 are illustrated. Pulp and paper production has increased quite rapidly during the last few decades. The greatest increase incurred in the production of bleached kraft pulp and mechanical pulp. The production of sulfite pulp has decreased during recent years. Within paper the production of printing papers has had the biggest increase. Estimates predict that the production capacity of the finish pulp and paper industry will show an average increase of 4% per year by the middle of this decade. Final production in 1987 and one estimate of production in 1992 are given. Wastewater loadings per production output are decreasing.

  5. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Álvarez, K.; Solís-Lozano, L.; Leon-Cabrera, S.; González-Chávez, A.; Gómez-Hernández, G.; Quiñones-Álvarez, M. S.; Serralde-Zúñiga, A. E.; Hernández-Ruiz, J.; Ramírez-Velásquez, J.; Galindo-González, F. J.; Zavala-Castillo, J. C.; De León-Nava, M. A.; Robles-Díaz, G.; Escobedo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-(IL-) 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r = 0.5154), serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r = 0.4481), body fat percentage (r = 0.5625), serum glucose (r = 0.3158), triglyceride (r = 0.3714), and TNF-α (r = 0.4717). Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans. PMID:23533314

  6. In vivo selection for spine-derived highly metastatic lung cancer cells is associated with increased migration, inflammation and decreased adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huayun; Zhang, Jishen; Li, Shichang; Wei, Haifeng; Yang, Cheng; Xu, Leqin; Jin, Rongrong; Li, Zhenxi; Zhou, Wang; Ding, JianDong; Chu, Jianjun; Jia, Lianshun; Jia, Qi; Tan, Chengjun; Liu, Mingyao; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-01-01

    We developed a murine spine metastasis model by screening five metastatic non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (PC-9, A549, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, H2030). A549 cells displayed the highest tendency towards spine metastases. After three rounds of selection in vivo, we isolated a clone named A549L6, which induced spine metastasis in 80% of injected mice. The parameters of the A549L6 cell spinal metastatic mouse models were consistent with clinical spine metastasis features. All the spinal metastatic mice developed symptoms of nerve compression after 40 days. A549L6 cells had increased migration, invasiveness and decreased adhesion compared to the original A549L0 cells. In contrast, there was no significant differences in cell proliferation, apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. Comparative transcriptomic analysis and Real-time PCR analysis showed that expression of signaling molecules regulating several tumor properties including migration (MYL9), metastasis (CEACAM6, VEGFC, CX3CL1, CST1, CCL5, S100A9, IGF1, NOTCH3), adhesion (FN1, CEACAM1) and inflammation (TRAF2, NFκB2 and RelB) were altered in A549L6 cells. We suggest that migration, adhesion and inflammation related genes contribute to spine metastatic capacity. PMID:26090868

  7. In vivo selection for spine-derived highly metastatic lung cancer cells is associated with increased migration, inflammation and decreased adhesion.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaopan; Luo, Jian; Yang, Xinghai; Deng, Huayun; Zhang, Jishen; Li, Shichang; Wei, Haifeng; Yang, Cheng; Xu, Leqin; Jin, Rongrong; Li, Zhenxi; Zhou, Wang; Ding, JianDong; Chu, Jianjun; Jia, Lianshun; Jia, Qi; Tan, Chengjun; Liu, Mingyao; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-09-01

    We developed a murine spine metastasis model by screening five metastatic non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (PC-9, A549, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, H2030). A549 cells displayed the highest tendency towards spine metastases. After three rounds of selection in vivo, we isolated a clone named A549L6, which induced spine metastasis in 80% of injected mice. The parameters of the A549L6 cell spinal metastatic mouse models were consistent with clinical spine metastasis features. All the spinal metastatic mice developed symptoms of nerve compression after 40 days. A549L6 cells had increased migration, invasiveness and decreased adhesion compared to the original A549L0 cells. In contrast, there was no significant differences in cell proliferation, apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. Comparative transcriptomic analysis and real-time PCR analysis showed that expression of signaling molecules regulating several tumor properties including migration (MYL9), metastasis (CEACAM6, VEGFC, CX3CL1, CST1, CCL5, S100A9, IGF1, NOTCH3), adhesion (FN1, CEACAM1) and inflammation (TRAF2, NFκB2 and RelB) were altered in A549L6 cells. We suggest that migration, adhesion and inflammation related genes contribute to spine metastatic capacity. PMID:26090868

  8. Simvastatin versus Calcium Hydroxide Direct Pulp Capping of Human Primary Molars: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Maljaei, Ensiyeh; Erfanparast, Leila; Ala Aghbali, Amir; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Najafpour, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of present study was to investigate pulp-dentin complex reactions following direct pulp capping (DPC) with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and simvastatin as pulp-capping materials in the primary human molars. Materials and methods 120 primary molar teeth which had to be extracted for orthodontic reasons were randomly allocated into four groups. Group Ι as a control, underwent DPC with calcium hydroxide. The dental pulp in group ІІ, ІІІ and ІV were directly capped with simvastatin-based materials at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 µM, respectively. All of the teeth were restored with stainless steel crown. After a mean period of 7.41 months teeth were extracted and processed for histological examination and categorized in terms of hard tissue formation and pulp inflammation. Results Teeth in group I had statistically favorable outcomes in hard tissue formation and pulp inflammation than did the groups ІІ, ІІІ and ІV (P < 0.001). Considering three different concentrations of simvastatin, the result showed a dose dependent trend. Teeth in group ІV showed significantly lower rates of hard tissue formation and higher rates of pulp inflammation and necrosis compared to those of groups ІІ (P < 0.05). Conclusion The findings of this study depicted that healing with no inflammation and hard tissue formation following statin treatment occurs with a lower rate than that with the calcium hydroxide. PMID:23487477

  9. Addition of aerobic exercise to a weight loss program increases BMD, with an associated reduction in inflammation in overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Natalie E; Nicklas, Barbara J; Ryan, Alice S

    2009-04-01

    Increased inflammation and weight loss are associated with a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). Aerobic exercise may minimize the loss of bone and weight loss may contribute to a decrease in cytokines. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise in combination with a weight loss program would decrease circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers, thus mediating changes in BMD. This was a nonrandomized controlled trial. Eighty-six overweight and obese postmenopausal women (50-70 years of age; BMI, 25-40 kg/m(2)) participated in a weight loss (WL; n = 40) or weight loss plus walking (WL + AEX; n = 46) program. Outcome measures included BMD and bone mineral content of the femoral neck and lumbar spine measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble receptors of IL-6, and TNF-alpha (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2; receptors in a subset of the population), VO(2) max, fat mass, and lean mass. Weight decreased in the WL (p < 0.001) and WL + AEX (p < 0.001) groups. VO(2) max increased (p < 0.001) after WL + AEX. There was a 2% increase in femoral neck BMD in the WL + AEX group (p = 0.001), which was significantly different from the WL group. The change in sTNFR1 was significantly associated with the change in femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05). The change in VO(2) max was an independent predictor of the change in femoral neck BMD. Our findings suggest that the addition of aerobic exercise is recommended to decrease inflammation and increase BMD during weight loss in overweight postmenopausal women.

  10. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice.

  11. Semaphorin 3A Induces Odontoblastic Phenotype in Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Wada, N; Hasegawa, D; Miyaji, H; Mitarai, H; Tomokiyo, A; Hamano, S; Maeda, H

    2016-10-01

    In cases of pulp exposure due to deep dental caries or severe traumatic injuries, existing pulp-capping materials have a limited ability to reconstruct dentin-pulp complexes and can result in pulpectomy because of their low potentials to accelerate dental pulp cell activities, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic agents has been anticipated for direct pulp capping. Dental pulp tissues are enriched with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, the authors investigated the effects of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on various functions of human DPSCs in vitro and reparative dentin formation in vivo in a rat dental pulp exposure model. Immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of Sema3A and its receptor Nrp1 (neuropilin 1) in rat dental pulp tissue and human DPSC clones. Sema3A induced cell migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC clones. In addition, Sema3A treatment of DPSC clones increased β-catenin nuclear accumulation, upregulated expression of the FARP2 gene (FERM, RhoGEF, and pleckstrin domain protein 2), and activated Rac1 in DPSC clones. Furthermore, in the rat dental pulp exposure model, Sema3A promoted reparative dentin formation with dentin tubules and a well-aligned odontoblast-like cell layer at the dental pulp exposure site and with novel reparative dentin almost completely covering pulp tissue at 4 wk after direct pulp capping. These findings suggest that Sema3A could play an important role in dentin regeneration via canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sema3A might be an alternative agent for direct pulp capping, which requires further study. PMID:27302880

  12. Meta-analysis of Gene Expression in the Mouse Liver Reveals Biomarkers Associated with Inflammation Increased Early During Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging is associated with a predictable loss of cellular homeostasis, a decline in physiological function and an increase in various diseases. We hypothesized that similar age-related gene expression profiles would be observed in mice across independent studies. Employing a metaan...

  13. Developmental Exposure of Mice to Dioxin Promotes Transgenerational Testicular Inflammation and an Increased Risk of Preterm Birth in Unexposed Mating Partners

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Kallie B.; Archibong, Anthony; Arosh, Joe A.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, commonly known as dioxin) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Using a mouse model, we previously found that adult female mice exposed in utero to TCDD (F1 generation) as well as multiple subsequent generations (F2-F4) exhibited reduced fertility and an increased incidence of spontaneous preterm birth. Additional studies revealed that male F1 mice with a similar in utero/developmental TCDD exposure also exhibited diminished fertility and conferred an increased risk of preterm birth to their unexposed mating partners. Herein, we extend these previous observations, reporting that reduced fertility in male F1 mice is linked to testicular inflammation which coincides with apoptosis of developing spermatocytes, sub-fertility and an increased risk of preterm birth in their unexposed mating partners. Significantly, in the absence of additional toxicant exposure, testicular inflammation and reduced fertility persisted in F2 and F3 males and their control mating partners also frequently exhibited spontaneous preterm birth. Although a steady, global decline in male fertility has been noted over the last few decades, the reasons for these changes have not been firmly established. Likewise, the PTB rate in the U.S. and other countries has paralleled industrial development, suggesting a possible relationship between environmental toxicant exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most current clinical strategies to prevent preterm birth are focused solely on the mother and have yielded limited benefits. In contrast, our studies strongly suggest that the preconception testicular health of the father is a critical determinant of pregnancy outcomes in mice. Future clinical studies should examine the potential contribution of the male to gestation length in women and whether efforts to reduce the incidence of preterm birth should be initiated in both parents prior to pregnancy. PMID:25127480

  14. Genetic and Diet-Induced Obesity Increased Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the Double Mutant Mouse Model Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia X Obese via Disturbed Glucose Regulation and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha Thi; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

    2015-01-01

    We have studied how spontaneous or carcinogen-induced intestinal tumorigenesis was affected by genetic or diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ X C57BL/6J-Lepob/+ mice. Obesity was induced by the obese (ob) mutation in the lep gene coding for the hormone leptin, or by a 45% fat diet. The effects of obesity were examined on spontaneous intestinal tumors caused by the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and on tumors induced by the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). F1 ob/ob (homozygous mutated) mice had increased body weight (bw) and number of spontaneous and PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors (in ApcMin/+ mice), versus ob/wt (heterozygous mutated) and wt/wt mice (homozygous wild-type). A 45% fat diet exacerbated bw and spontaneous tumor numbers versus 10% fat, but not PhIP-induced tumors. Except for bw, ob/wt and wt/wt were not significantly different. The obesity caused hyperglucosemia and insulinemia in ob/ob mice. A 45% fat diet further increased glucose, but not insulin. Inflammation was seen as increased TNFα levels in ob/ob mice. Thus the results implicate disturbed glucose regulation and inflammation as mechanisms involved in the association between obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis. Ob/ob mice had shorter lifespan than ob/wt and wt/wt mice. PMID:26347815

  15. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. Objective To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Material and Methods Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin – acetic acid; guar gum – propionic acid; or a mixture – butyric acid). At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. Results and Discussion Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet. PMID:24236183

  16. Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Summa, Keith C; Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases - many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

  17. Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

  18. Vaccenic acid suppresses intestinal inflammation by increasing anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Vacca, Claudia; Mangat, Rabban; Diane, Abdoulaye; Nelson, Randy C; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Curtis, Jonathan M; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Igarashi, Miki; Piomelli, Daniele; Banni, Sebastiano; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-04-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA), the predominant ruminant-derivedtransfat in the food chain, ameliorates hyperlipidemia, yet mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether VA could influence tissue endocannabinoids (ECs) by altering the availability of their biosynthetic precursor, arachidonic acid (AA), in membrane phospholipids (PLs). JCR:LA-cprats were assigned to a control diet with or without VA (1% w/w),cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (1% w/w) or VA+CLA (1% + 0.5% w/w) for 8 weeks. VA reduced the EC, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) relative to control diet (P< 0.001), but did not change AA in tissue PLs. There was no additive effect of combining VA+CLA on 2-AG relative to VA alone (P> 0.05). Interestingly, VA increased jejunal concentrations of anandamide and those of the noncannabinoid signaling molecules, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, relative to control diet (P< 0.05). This was consistent with a lower jejunal protein abundance (but not activity) of their degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, as well as the mRNA expression of TNFα and interleukin 1β (P< 0.05). The ability of VA to reduce 2-AG in the liver and VAT provides a potential mechanistic explanation to alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation. The opposing regulation of ECs and other noncannabinoid lipid signaling molecules by VA suggests an activation of benefit via the EC system in the intestine.

  19. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J. ); Ciriacks, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia.

  20. Low-Grade Inflammation and Increased Arterial Stiffness in Chinese Youth and Adolescents with Newly-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Deng, You Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between low-grade inflammation (LI) and increased arterial stiffness in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Ninety-eight subjects aged 10 to 24 years with newly-diagnosed T2DM were investigated for findings of general inflammation. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Data related to arterial stiffness [brachial artery distensibility (Branch D), augmentation index (AIx), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV)] were collected. The subjects were divided into a non-LI group (NLI, n=42) and a LI group (n=56) according to their high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) levels. Results: There were no significant differences in age and gender between the LI group and the NLI group. CF-PWV and AIx values of the LI group were higher than those of the NLI group (p<0.01), while Branch D values were lower in the LI group (p<0.01). Branch D, CF-PWV, and AIx values correlated significantly with Hs-CRP overall (r=-0.32, 0.34, 0.33, all p<0.01). Multivariate models revealed that in either group (LI or NLI), Hs-CRP, as a continuous variable, was an independent determinant of arterial stiffness parameters even after adjusting for other risk factors. Conclusion: Newly-diagnosed T2DM youth and adolescents with LI present a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk profile and stiffer arteries. Hs-CRP levels correlated with arterial stiffness parameters and constituted an independent determinant of arterial stiffness. PMID:26777037

  1. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  2. Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Blancas, A.; Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

  3. The use of lasers for direct pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Ebihara, Arata; Aoki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Direct pulp capping helps extend the life of a diseased tooth by maintaining tooth vitality. Nowadays, lasers are more frequently used during direct pulp capping in the clinic, but their use has not been previously reviewed. This review presents the basic properties of currently available lasers, scientific evidence on the effects of laser application on direct pulp capping, and future directions for this technology. An extensive literature search was conducted in various databases for articles published up to January 2015. Original in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies, reviews, and book chapters published in English were included. Various laser systems have been increasingly and successfully applied in direct pulp capping. Lasers offer excellent characteristics in terms of hemostasis and decontamination for field preparation during direct pulp capping treatment; however, the sealing of exposed pulp with one of the dental materials, such as calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates, and bonded composite resins, is still required after laser treatment. Clinicians should consider the characteristics of each wavelength, the emission mode, irradiation exposure time, power, type of laser tip, and the distance between the laser tip and the surface being irradiated.

  4. Pneumocystis murina infection and cigarette smoke exposure interact to cause increased organism burden, development of airspace enlargement, and pulmonary inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Paul J; Preston, Angela M; Ling, Tony; Du, Ming; Fields, W Bradley; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Beck, James M

    2008-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction and lung destruction with airspace enlargement. In addition to cigarette smoking, respiratory pathogens play a role in pathogenesis, but specific organisms are not always identified. Recent reports demonstrate associations between the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in lung specimens or respiratory secretions and the presence of emphysema in COPD patients. Additionally, human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals who smoke cigarettes develop early emphysema, but a role for P. jirovecii in pathogenesis remains speculative. We developed a new experimental model using immunocompetent mice to test the interaction of cigarette smoke exposure and environmentally acquired Pneumocystis murina infection in vivo. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke and P. murina would interact to cause increases in total lung capacity, airspace enlargement, and pulmonary inflammation. We found that exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increases the lung organism burden of P. murina. Pulmonary infection with P. murina, combined with cigarette smoke exposure, results in changes in pulmonary function and airspace enlargement characteristic of pulmonary emphysema. P. murina and cigarette smoke exposure interact to cause increased lung inflammatory cell accumulation. These findings establish a novel animal model system to explore the role of Pneumocystis species in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:18490462

  5. Dual function of Ccr5 during Langat virus encephalitis - Reduction of neutrophil-mediated CNS inflammation and increase in T cell-mediated viral clearance

    PubMed Central

    Michlmayr, Daniela; Bardina, Susana V.; Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Pletnev, Alexander G.; Lim, Jean K.

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a vector-transmitted flavivirus that causes potentially fatal neurological infection. There are thousands of cases reported annually, and despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the incidence of TBEV is increasing worldwide. Importantly, up to thirty percent of affected individuals will develop long-term neurologic sequelae. We investigated the role of chemokine receptor Ccr5 in a mouse model of TBEV infection using the naturally attenuated tick-borne flavivirus, Langat virus (LGTV). Ccr5-deficient mice presented with an increase in viral replication within the CNS and decreased survival during LGTV encephalitis when compared to wild type (WT) controls. This enhanced susceptibility was due to the temporal lag in lymphocyte migration into the CNS. Adoptive transfer of WT T cells, but not Ccr5-deficient T cells, was able to significantly improve survival outcome in LGTV-infected Ccr5-deficient mice. Concomitantly, a significant increase in neutrophil migration into the CNS in LGTV-infected Ccr5−/− mice was documented at the late stage of infection. Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils in Ccr5−/− mice resulted in a significant improvement in mortality, a decrease in viral load, and a decrease in overall tissue damage in the CNS when compared to isotype control-treated mice. Ccr5 is crucial in not only directing T cells towards the LGTV-infected brain, but also in suppressing neutrophil-mediated inflammation within the CNS. PMID:27183602

  6. Dual Function of Ccr5 during Langat Virus Encephalitis: Reduction in Neutrophil-Mediated Central Nervous System Inflammation and Increase in T Cell-Mediated Viral Clearance.

    PubMed

    Michlmayr, Daniela; Bardina, Susana V; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Pletnev, Alexander G; Lim, Jean K

    2016-06-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a vector-transmitted flavivirus that causes potentially fatal neurologic infection. There are thousands of cases reported annually, and despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the incidence of TBEV is increasing worldwide. Importantly, up to 30% of affected individuals develop long-term neurologic sequelae. We investigated the role of chemokine receptor Ccr5 in a mouse model of TBEV infection using the naturally attenuated tick-borne flavivirus Langat virus (LGTV). Ccr5-deficient mice presented with an increase in viral replication within the CNS and decreased survival during LGTV encephalitis compared with wild-type controls. This enhanced susceptibility was due to the temporal lag in lymphocyte migration into the CNS. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells, but not Ccr5-deficient T cells, significantly improved survival outcome in LGTV-infected Ccr5-deficient mice. Concomitantly, a significant increase in neutrophil migration into the CNS in LGTV-infected Ccr5(-/-) mice was documented at the late stage of infection. Ab-mediated depletion of neutrophils in Ccr5(-/-) mice resulted in a significant improvement in mortality, a decrease in viral load, and a decrease in overall tissue damage in the CNS compared with isotype control-treated mice. Ccr5 is crucial in directing T cells toward the LGTV-infected brain, as well as in suppressing neutrophil-mediated inflammation within the CNS.

  7. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M.; Giera, Martin; el Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Lips, Mirjam A.; Pijl, Hanno; Willems van Dijk, Ko; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT. PMID:26378572

  8. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement. PMID:26523145

  9. Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

  10. Increased plasma DPP4 activity predicts new-onset hypertension in Chinese over a 4-year period: possible associations with inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Chen, T; Liu, Y; Gao, Y; Tian, H

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether increased dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity predicts new-onset hypertension in Chinese patients. A prospective study was conducted for 1884 adults (804 men/1080 women) aged 18-70 years without hypertension. Participants were examined in 2007 (baseline) and 2011 (follow-up) and circulating DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R) concentration, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress parameters were measured. After a 4-year follow-up, 296 individuals developed hypertension with an incidence of 39 per 1000 patient years. In multiple linear regression analyses, baseline DPP4 activity was an independent predictor of an increase in M6P-R, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress parameters over a 4-year period (all P < 0.01). Cox proportional hazards models revealed that DPP4 activity independently predicted the risk of developing hypertension (relative risk 2.68 (95% confidence interval 1.71-4.21) P < 0.01). Our results indicate that DPP4 activity is an important predictor of hypertension onset in apparently healthy Chinese individuals. This finding may have important implications for understanding the effects of DPP4 in promoting inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  11. [Inflammation and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Löbner, K; Füchtenbusch, M

    2004-09-01

    The focus of current diabetes research is the clarification of the pathogenetic relationships between subclinical inflammation, diabetes and arteriosclerosis. Even minimal disturbances in glucose tolerance are associated with a chronic, generalized inflammatory reaction that links components of the metabolic syndrome and contributes to the development of diabetic complications as well as to the development and progression of arteriosclerosis. The most important mediators and markers of this inflammation cascade are NF-kappaB, TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP and PAI-1. For the treatment of subclinical inflammation, substances with anti-inflammatory properties such as statins or ACE inhibitors are of increasing importance.

  12. [THE VITAL PULP THERAPY IN PERMANENT TEETH].

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Piotr; Trusewicz, Matylda; Tyszler, Lukasz; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    The vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to preserve vital, healthy pulp tissue. This therapy's foundation is the elimination of bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. The treatment option depends on the cause and extent of mineralised tooth tissue destruction. The outcome of such treatment is determined by accurate assessment of the pulp's status and the dentist's ability to predict the success of the therapy. The aim of this review is to facilitate the dentist in making a proper decision referring to vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth, and to provide an overview of new approaches in such treatment.

  13. Fenofibrate increases cardiac autophagy via FGF21/SIRT1 and prevents fibrosis and inflammation in the hearts of Type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Cheng, Yanli; Gu, Junlian; Wang, Shudong; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Yuehui; Tan, Yi; Feng, Wenke; Fu, Yaowen; Mellen, Nicholas; Cheng, Rui; Ma, Jianxing; Zhang, Chi; Li, Zhanquan; Cai, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Fenofibrate (FF), as a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, has been used clinically for decades to lower lipid levels. In the present study, we examined whether FF can be repurposed to prevent the pathogenesi of the heart in Type 1 diabetes and to describe the underlying mechanism of its action. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and their age-matched control mice were treated with vehicle or FF by gavage every other day for 3 or 6 months. FF prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction (e.g. decreased ejection fraction and hypertrophy), inflammation and remodelling. FF also increased cardiac expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in non-diabetic and diabetic conditions. Deletion of FGF21 gene (FGF21-KO) worsened diabetes-induced pathogenic effects in the heart. FF treatment prevented heart deterioration in the wild-type diabetic mice, but could not do so in the FGF21-KO diabetic mice although the systemic lipid profile was lowered in both wild-type and FGF21-KO diabetic mice. Mechanistically, FF treatment prevented diabetes-impaired autophagy, reflected by increased microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, in the wild-type diabetic mice but not in the FGF21-KO diabetic mice. Studies with H9C2 cells in vitro demonstrated that exposure to high glucose (HG) significantly increased inflammatory response, oxidative stress and pro-fibrotic response and also significantly inhibited autophagy. These effects of HG were prevented by FF treatment. Inhibition of either autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3MA) or Sirt1 by sirtinol (SI) abolished FF's prevention of HG-induced effects. These results suggested that FF could prevent Type 1 diabetes-induced pathological and functional abnormalities of the heart by increasing FGF21 that may up-regulate Sirt1-mediated autophagy. PMID:26795437

  14. Inflammation and haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Margetic, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and haemostasis are interrelated pathophysiologic processes that considerably affect each other. In this bidirectional relationship, inflammation leads to activation of the haemostatic system that in turn also considerably influences inflammatory activity. Such, the haemostatic system acts in concert with the inflammatory cascade creating an inflammation-haemostasis cycle in which each activated process promotes the other and the two systems function in a positive feedback loop. The extensive crosstalk between immune and haemostatic systems occurs at level of all components of the haemostatic system including vascular endothelial cells, platelets, plasma coagulation cascade, physiologic anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. During inflammatory response, inflammatory mediators, in particular proinflammatory cytokines, play a central role in the effects on haemostatic system by triggering its disturbance in a number of mechanisms including endothelial cell dysfunction, increased platelet reactivity, activation of the plasma coagulation cascade, impaired function of physiologic anticoagulants and suppressed fibrinolytic activity. The two examples of pathophysiologic processes in which the tight interdependent relationship between inflammation and haemostasis considerably contribute to the pathogenesis and/or progression of disease are systemic inflammatory response to infection or sepsis and acute arterial thrombosis as a consequence of ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Close links between inflammation and haemostasis help explain the prothrombotic tendency in these two clinical conditions in which inflammation shifts the haemostatic activity towards procoagulant state by the ability of proinflammatory mediators to activate coagulation system and to inhibit anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the complex interactions in the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and haemostasis.

  15. Quercetin transiently increases energy expenditure but persistently decreases circulating markers of inflammation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Laura K; Soileau, Jeff L; Ribnicky, David; Wang, Zhong Q; Raskin, Ilya; Poulev, Alexander; Majewski, Martin; Cefalu, William T; Gettys, Thomas W

    2008-07-01

    Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound and a major bioflavonoid in the human diet, has anti-inflammatory properties and has been postulated to enhance energy expenditure (EE). We sought to determine whether quercetin alters body weight, body composition, EE, and circulating markers of inflammation. At 6 weeks (W) of age, 2 cohorts of C57BL/6J mice (N = 80) were placed on one of 2 diets for 3W or 8W: (1) high fat (HF) (45% kcal fat) or (2) high fat + quercetin (HF + Q) (45% kcal fat + 0.8% quercetin). Quercetin concentrations in the diet and plasma were evaluated using mass spectrometry. Body weight, composition (nuclear magnetic resonance), and food consumption were measured weekly. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry at 3 and 8W, and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma obtained at 8W. The presence of quercetin in the HF diet did not alter food consumption over time in the HF + Q group and did not differ from the HF group at any time point. However, circulating plasma quercetin concentrations declined between 3 and 8W. At 3W, EE was higher during both day and night phases (P < .0001) in the HF + Q group compared with the HF group; but this difference was not detected at 8W and did not translate into significant differences between the HF + Q and HF groups with respect to body weight or body composition. During the night phase, concentrations of the inflammatory markers (interferon-gamma, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-4) were significantly lower when compared with HF treatment group (P < .05). Dietary supplementation with quercetin produces transient (3W) increases in EE that are not detected after 8W on the diet. A corresponding decrease in circulating quercetin between 3 and 8W suggests that metabolic adaptation may have diminished the impact of quercetin's early effect on EE and diminished its overall effect on nutrient partitioning and adiposity. However, quercetin at the levels provided was effective in reducing circulating

  16. Prenatal Stress-Induced Increases in Placental Inflammation and Offspring Hyperactivity Are Male-Specific and Ameliorated by Maternal Antiinflammatory Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, Stefanie L.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse experiences during gestation such as maternal stress and infection are known risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The mechanisms by which these distinct exposures may confer similar psychiatric vulnerability remain unclear, although likely involve pathways common to both stress and immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface. We hypothesized that maternal stress-induced activation of immune pathways within the placenta, the sex-specific maternal-fetal intermediary, may contribute to prenatal stress programming effects on the offspring. Therefore, we assessed for markers indicative of stress-induced placental inflammation, and examined the ability of maternal nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment to ameliorate placental effects and thereby rescue the stress-dysregulation phenotype observed in our established mouse model of early prenatal stress (EPS). As expected, placental gene expression analyses revealed increased levels of immune response genes, including the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β, specifically in male placentas. NSAID treatment partially ameliorated these EPS effects. Similarly, in adult offspring, males displayed stress-induced locomotor hyperactivity, a hallmark of dopaminergic dysregulation, which was ameliorated by maternal NSAID treatment. Fitting with these outcomes and supportive of dopamine pathway involvement, expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors was altered by EPS in males. These studies support an important interaction between maternal stress and a proinflammatory state in the long-term programming effects of maternal stress. PMID:24797632

  17. Role of Oxidized Lipids and TRP Channels in Orofacial Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, K M; Ruparel, S

    2016-09-01

    Acute or chronic inflammation comprises a highly prevalent type of orofacial pain and is mediated by the generation of endogenous agonists that activate numerous receptors expressed on terminals of trigeminal (TG) nociceptive afferent neurons. One such studied receptor is transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is a ligand-gated cation channel that is expressed on a major subclass of nociceptors and is found in many orofacial tissues, including dental pulp. Antagonists to TRPV1 reveal an important role for this channel in mediating hypersensitivity in preclinical models of inflammatory or neuropathic pain. Recent studies have demonstrated that endogenous TRPV1 agonists are generated by oxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including both linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. A major mechanism triggering the release of oxidative linoleic acid metabolites (OLAMs) and oxidative arachidonic acid metabolites (OAAMs) is the action of oxidative enzymes. Oxidative enzymes such as cytochrome P450 isozymes are rapidly upregulated in TG neurons after orofacial inflammation and increase the capacity of TG neurons to generate OLAMs. Cytochrome P450 isozymes are also increased in immune cells in irreversibly inflamed human dental pulp, and extracts of this tissue have significantly increased capacity to generate OLAMs. Together, these studies point to a novel pain mechanism involving the enzymatic generation of endogenous OLAM and OAAM agonists of TRPV1. This finding provides a rationale for an entirely new class of analgesics by inhibition of oxidative enzyme activity. PMID:27307050

  18. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production.

  19. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

  20. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  1. Increasing maternal body mass index is associated with systemic inflammation in the mother and the activation of distinct placental inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Gaccioli, Francesca; Dudley, Donald J; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-06-01

    Obese pregnant women have increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in maternal circulation and placental tissues. However, the pathways contributing to placental inflammation in obesity are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that maternal body mass index (BMI) was associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines in maternal and fetal circulations and increased activation of placental inflammatory pathways. A total of 60 women of varying pre-/early pregnancy BMI, undergoing delivery by Cesarean section at term, were studied. Maternal and fetal (cord) plasma were collected for analysis of insulin, leptin, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1, and TNFalpha by multiplex ELISA. Activation of the inflammatory pathways in the placenta was investigated by measuring the phosphorylated and total protein expression of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-MAPK, signal transducer-activated transcription factor (STAT) 3, caspase-1, IL-1beta, IkappaB-alpha protein, and p65 DNA-binding activity. To determine the link between activated placental inflammatory pathways and elevated maternal cytokines, cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells were treated with physiological concentrations of insulin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, and inflammatory signaling analyzed by Western blot. Maternal BMI was positively correlated with maternal insulin, leptin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, whereas only fetal leptin was increased with BMI. Placental phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and STAT3, and the expression of IL-1beta protein, were increased with maternal BMI; phosphorylation of p38-MAPK was also correlated with birth weight. In contrast, placental NFkappaB, JNK and caspase-1 signaling, and fetal cytokine levels were unaffected by maternal BMI. In PHT cells, p38-MAPK was activated by MCP-1 and TNFalpha, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation was increased following TNFalpha treatment. Maternal BMI is associated with elevated maternal

  2. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hydrotropic Pulps at Different Substrate Loadings.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Marina N; Makarova, Ekaterina I; Pavlov, Igor N; Budaeva, Vera V; Sakovich, Gennady V

    2016-03-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic raw materials to produce nutrient broths for microbiological synthesis of ethanol and other valuable products is an important field of modern biotechnology. Biotechnological processing implies the selection of an effective pretreatment technique for raw materials. In this study, the hydrotropic treatment increased the reactivity of the obtained substrates toward enzymatic hydrolysis by 7.1 times for Miscanthus and by 7.3 times for oat hulls. The hydrotropic pulp from oat hulls was more reactive toward enzymatic hydrolysis compared to that from Miscanthus, despite that the substrates had similar compositions. As the initial substrate loadings were raised during enzymatic hydrolysis of the hydrotropic Miscanthus and oat hull pulps, the concentration of reducing sugars increased by 34 g/dm(3) and the yield of reducing sugars decreased by 31 %. The findings allow us to predict the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrotropic pulps from Miscanthus and oat hulls when scaling up the process by volume. PMID:26634840

  3. Increased function of the TRPV1 channel in small sensory neurons after local inflammation or in vitro exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine GRO/KC

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fei; Du, Yi-Ru; Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A.; He, Xi-Jing; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective Inflammation at the level of the sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) leads to robust mechanical pain behaviors and the local inflammation has direct excitatory effects on sensory neurons including small, primarily nociceptive, neurons. These neurons express the TRPV1 channel, which integrates multiple signals of pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to characterize regulation of the TRPV1 channel by local DRG inflammation and by GRO/KC (CXCL1), a cytokine known to be upregulated in inflamed DRGs. Methods Activation of the TRPV1 receptor with capsaicin was studied with patch clamp methods in acutely isolated small diameter rat sensory neurons in primary culture. In vivo, behavioral effects of TRPV1 and GRO/KC were examined by paw injections. Results Neurons isolated from lumbar DRGs 3 days after local inflammation showed enhanced TRPV1 function: tachyphylaxis (the decline in response to repeated applications of capsaicin) was significantly reduced. A similar effect on tachyphylaxis was observed in neurons pre-treated for 4 hours in vitro with GRO/KC. This effect was blocked by H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Consistent with the in vitro results, in vivo behavioral responses to paw injection of capsaicin were enhanced and prolonged by pre-injecting the paw with GRO/KC 4 hours before the capsaicin injection. GRO/KC paw injections alone did not elicit pain behaviors. Conclusions Function of the TRPV1 channel is enhanced by DRG inflammation and these effects are preserved in vitro during short-term culture. The effects (decreased tachyphylaxis) are mimicked by incubation with GRO/KC, which has previously been found to be strongly upregulated in this and other pain models. PMID:22466126

  4. Stability and microstructure of freeze-dried guava pulp (Psidium guajava L.) with added sucrose and pectin.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2016-06-01

    Freeze-dried guava pulp powders, formulated with the addition of sucrose (0-20 g/100 g pulp) and pectin (0-1.0 g/100 g pulp), were obtained, and their stability was evaluated with respect to the water adsorption isotherms, thermal analysis and microstructure. The GAB (Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer), Peleg and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) models were used to evaluate the water adsorption. The microstructure was examined using optical microscopy with polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GAB and BET parameters showed that the moisture content of the monolayer (Xm) increases with increasing pectin concentration in the adsorption isotherms. Optical microscopy micrographs showed that the pulp consisting of sucrose showed crystalline structures present in a higher amount and size, and this behavior is enhanced with increasing relative moisture. SEM showed that the increase in sucrose and pectin concentrations produced powders with lower porosity, providing greater stability to the product. The glass transition temperature increased slightly with increasing pectin concentration and decreased with increasing moisture content in the guava pulp powder. The kinetic curves, ratio of the increase of the water content against the storage time, of the guava pulp treated with 20 g sucrose per 100 g pulp and higher pectin concentration (0.5 or 1.0 g pectin per 100 g pulp) showed reduced adsorption and yielded freeze-dried pulps that were more stable.

  5. Stability and microstructure of freeze-dried guava pulp (Psidium guajava L.) with added sucrose and pectin.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2016-06-01

    Freeze-dried guava pulp powders, formulated with the addition of sucrose (0-20 g/100 g pulp) and pectin (0-1.0 g/100 g pulp), were obtained, and their stability was evaluated with respect to the water adsorption isotherms, thermal analysis and microstructure. The GAB (Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer), Peleg and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) models were used to evaluate the water adsorption. The microstructure was examined using optical microscopy with polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GAB and BET parameters showed that the moisture content of the monolayer (Xm) increases with increasing pectin concentration in the adsorption isotherms. Optical microscopy micrographs showed that the pulp consisting of sucrose showed crystalline structures present in a higher amount and size, and this behavior is enhanced with increasing relative moisture. SEM showed that the increase in sucrose and pectin concentrations produced powders with lower porosity, providing greater stability to the product. The glass transition temperature increased slightly with increasing pectin concentration and decreased with increasing moisture content in the guava pulp powder. The kinetic curves, ratio of the increase of the water content against the storage time, of the guava pulp treated with 20 g sucrose per 100 g pulp and higher pectin concentration (0.5 or 1.0 g pectin per 100 g pulp) showed reduced adsorption and yielded freeze-dried pulps that were more stable. PMID:27478221

  6. Increased chemerin and decreased omentin-1 levels in morbidly obese patients are correlated with insulin resistance, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    CĂTOI, ADRIANA FLORINELA; SUCIU, ŞOIMIŢA; PÂRVU, ALINA ELENA; COPĂESCU, CĂTĂLIN; GALEA, ROMEO FLORIN; BUZOIANU, ANCA DANA; VEREŞIU, IOAN ANDREI; CĂTOI, CORNEL; POP, IOANA DELIA

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Morbid obesity represents a proinflammatory and pro-oxidative state associated with dysregulation of adipokines. We aimed to evaluate the circulating levels of chemerin and omentin-1 in morbidly obese (MO) patients and to investigate the relationship between these two adipokines and between each of them and anthropometric, metabolic, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory parameters. Material and methods 32 MO patients and 20 controls were investigated in this study. Anthropometric, metabolism parameters, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress indicators as well as chemerin and omentin-1 were measured. Results Serum levels of chemerin were increased while omentin-1 levels were decreased in MO patients when compared with controls. Chemerin correlated positively with insulin, HOMA-IR, LDL cholesterol and negatively with total antioxidant response. Omentin-1 correlated negatively with tumor necrosis factor alpha and total cholesterol. In a multiple linear stepwise regression analysis we learnt that only HOMA-IR (β=0.70, p<0.001), total cholesterol (β=0.42, p<0.001) and triglycerides (β=0.31, p<0.05) remained significantly associated with chemerin changes. Using the same analysis we noticed that total cholesterol (β=−0.71, p<0.001), fasting glucose (β= −0.40, p<0.05) and body mass index (BMI) (β= −0.38, p<0.05) were considered to be significant predictors for omentin-1 changes. Conclusions Chemerin and omentin-1 synthesis was dysregulated in MO patients. Chemerin might play a role in insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Chemerin changes seemed to be predicted mainly by insulin resistance. Omentin-1 levels were inversely associated with chronic inflammation and dyslipidemia while the main modulating factors seemed to be dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and BMI. PMID:26527991

  7. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  8. Ultrasonic Sensor to Characterize Wood Pulp During Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Bond, Leonard J.; McCaw, M. W.

    2006-12-22

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the consistency, the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the consistency of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 minutes and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The consistency is obtained from a calibration, in which the attenuation of ultrasound through the pulp suspension is measured as a function of the solids weight percentage. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (consistency less than 0.5 Wt%) is observed, after the mixer that keeps the pulp uniformly distributed is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak, after a certain delay, defined as the “peak time.” The degree of refining increases with the peak time, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with different degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T2/T1, where T1 is an initial value of the peak time and T2 is the value after additional refining. This method offers an additional WRV test for the industry, because the freeness test is not specific for the WRV.

  9. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL.

  10. Nestin expressions of exposed pulp after direct pulp capping by calcium hydroxide and platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Puspita, Sartika; Utoro, Totok; Haniastuti, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate nestin expression of pulp tissue following direct pulp capping with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Materials and Methods: The thirty sound teeth from Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into two groups: Groups 1, teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide/Ca(OH)2 (n = 15) and Group 2 with PRP (n = 15). After 1st, 7th, and 21st days, respectively, 5 teeth each group (American Dental Association 41) were processed for light microscopic examination. Expressions of nestin were assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Results: Nestin expression of Ca(OH)2 on the distance place of exposure at 1st and 7th days were 80% and at 21st day were 60%. Nestin expression of PRP on the distance place at 1st day was 80%, 7th 100%, and 21st day was 80%. At day 21 observation, Kruskal–Wallis test shows nestin expression was increased significantly in PRP groups (P < 0.05), but it was not increase significantly compare with Ca(OH)2. Conclusion: PRP had ability as a direct pulp capping material to induce nestin expression. PMID:27403050

  11. C-myb Regulates Autophagy for Pulp Vitality in Glucose Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, H S; Kim, J S; Yu, M K; Cho, S D; Jeon, J G; Yi, H K

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is closely related to oral-complicated diseases by oxidative stress. This study investigates whether cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) could protect human dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress and regulate autophagy activity for pulp vitality. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and their pulp tissue in teeth was analyzed in terms of pulp cavity and molecules by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. Human dental pulp cells were serially subcultured and treated with glucose oxidase in the presence of elevated glucose to generate glucose oxidative stress. The replication-deficient adenovirus c-myb and small interfering RNA c-myb were introduced for c-myb expression. The pulp tissue from the diabetic rats was structurally different from normal tissue in terms of narrow pulp capacity, reduced c-myb, and dentinogenesis molecules. Glucose oxidase treatment decreased c-myb and dentinogenesis molecules (bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7, dentin matrix protein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein) in human dental pulp cells. However, overexpression of c-myb by adenovirus c-myb increased dentinogenesis, autophagy molecules (autophagy protein 5, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, and Beclin-1), and cell survival via p-AMPK/AKT signaling even with glucose oxidative stress. In contrast, the lack of c-myb decreased the above molecules and cell survival by downregulating p-AMPK/AKT signaling. The results indicate that diabetes leads to irreversible damage to dental pulp, which is related to downexpression of autophagy via the p-AMPK/AKT pathway by decline of c-myb. The findings of this study provide a new insight that c-myb could ameliorate autophagy activity and that it is applicable for monitoring complicated diseases of dental pulp. The involvement of c-myb in pulp pathology could serve a therapeutic target in oral-complicated diseases. PMID:26661713

  12. C-myb Regulates Autophagy for Pulp Vitality in Glucose Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, H S; Kim, J S; Yu, M K; Cho, S D; Jeon, J G; Yi, H K

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is closely related to oral-complicated diseases by oxidative stress. This study investigates whether cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) could protect human dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress and regulate autophagy activity for pulp vitality. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and their pulp tissue in teeth was analyzed in terms of pulp cavity and molecules by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. Human dental pulp cells were serially subcultured and treated with glucose oxidase in the presence of elevated glucose to generate glucose oxidative stress. The replication-deficient adenovirus c-myb and small interfering RNA c-myb were introduced for c-myb expression. The pulp tissue from the diabetic rats was structurally different from normal tissue in terms of narrow pulp capacity, reduced c-myb, and dentinogenesis molecules. Glucose oxidase treatment decreased c-myb and dentinogenesis molecules (bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7, dentin matrix protein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein) in human dental pulp cells. However, overexpression of c-myb by adenovirus c-myb increased dentinogenesis, autophagy molecules (autophagy protein 5, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, and Beclin-1), and cell survival via p-AMPK/AKT signaling even with glucose oxidative stress. In contrast, the lack of c-myb decreased the above molecules and cell survival by downregulating p-AMPK/AKT signaling. The results indicate that diabetes leads to irreversible damage to dental pulp, which is related to downexpression of autophagy via the p-AMPK/AKT pathway by decline of c-myb. The findings of this study provide a new insight that c-myb could ameliorate autophagy activity and that it is applicable for monitoring complicated diseases of dental pulp. The involvement of c-myb in pulp pathology could serve a therapeutic target in oral-complicated diseases.

  13. The prevalence of pulp stones in historical populations from the middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Szopiński, Kazimierz; Olczyk-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There are many reports in the literature concerning pulp stones in contemporary living populations, but there are no descriptions of cases of pulp stones and their prevalence in populations of the past. Here we present a study of pulp stones in a series of archaeologically derived samples from the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria) obtained from two sites: Terqa and Tell Masaikh. The specimens were assigned to five periods: Early Bronze (2650-2350 BC); Middle Bronze (2200-1700 BC); late Roman (AD 200-400); Islamic (AD 600-1200); and Modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950). A total of 529 teeth representing 117 adult individuals of both sexes were examined. Pulp stones were identified by X-ray and 10 selected specimens were sectioned for histological study. Pulp stones were found in 99 of 117 individuals (85%) and in 271 of 529 (51%) teeth. Pulp stone prevalence was found to increase with age, for individuals of older age classes have more pulp stones than younger individuals. Intriguingly, the prevalence of single pulp stones was higher among older individuals (36-45, >46), while younger individuals (17-25, 26-35) more often possessed multiple stones. Individuals with moderate to highly advanced dental wear have pulp stones significantly more often than individuals whose tooth wear is limited to invisible or very small facets. Though there is no statistical significance in the prevalence of pulp stones across chronological periods, it appears that a high level of calcium in the diet is accompanied by a greater prevalence of pulp stones.

  14. Deinked pulp manufacturers make a midwest market

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M. ); Meade, K.

    1993-09-01

    Deinked pulp manufacturers, a burgeoning trend in recycling, are opening up the market for office waste paper in the Midwest. Great Lakes Pulp and Fibre, Inc., (Menominee, Michigan), a new paper group formed by industry veterans, is planning a major deinked pulp mill in Michigan's Upper Peninsula that will recycle large amounts of office waste paper. The mill will have the capacity to process nearly 275,000 tons per year (tpy)-673 tpd-of mixed office paper into 182,000 tpd of sheet-dried, deinked pulp. That pulp would be sold to nearby fine paper manufacturers that want to have recycled content without adding their own deinking.

  15. Exposure to O-16 particle irradiation causes age-like decrements in rats through increased oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation, disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication, and alters cognitive behaviors. Even though exposure to these highly charged particles occurs at low fluence rates, p...

  16. Gene expression profiling by mRNA sequencing reveals increased expression of immune/inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus of individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y; Kim, J; Shin, J Y; Kim, J Ii; Seo, J S; Webster, M J; Lee, D; Kim, S

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome expression profiling in postmortem brain tissue has recently provided insight into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous microarray and RNA-Seq studies identified several biological processes including synaptic function, mitochondrial function and immune/inflammation response as altered in the cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Now using RNA-Seq data from the hippocampus, we have identified 144 differentially expressed genes in schizophrenia cases as compared with unaffected controls. Immune/inflammation response was the main biological process over-represented in these genes. The upregulation of several of these genes, IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, APOL1 (Apolipoprotein L1), ADORA2A (adenosine receptor 2A), IGFBP4 and CD163 were validated in the schizophrenia subjects using data from the SNCID database and with quantitative RT-PCR. We identified a co-expression module associated with schizophrenia that includes the majority of differentially expressed genes related to immune/inflammation response as well as with the density of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the hippocampus. The results indicate that abnormal immune/inflammation response in the hippocampus may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may be associated with abnormalities in the parvalbumin-containing neurons that lead to the cognitive deficits of the disease. PMID:24169640

  17. A Comparative Study of Lidocaine and Lidocaine­ Mannitol in Anesthetizing Human Teeth with Inflamed Pulps

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Ali; Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghi, Ghazal; Nezami, Hossein

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Failure to achieve adequate and profound anesthesia in teeth with acute pulp inflammation is a common condition during emergency visits in root canal therapy. Many different anesthetic solutions such as morphine and capsaicin have accordingly been examined. Mannitol­ an alcoholic sugar with high osmotic pressure level- is applicated for reducing intracranial and post retinal pressure in medicine. It has also been used for its diuretic effect. In combination with local anesthetic solution, it increases permeability of the nerve fiber sheath and leads to influx of the local anesthetic through cytoplasmic membrane .The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of routine local anesthesia with or without using mannitol in teeth with inflamed pulps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: one hundred patients with acute dental pain in posterior teeth were selected. Vials with 3 ml anesthetic solution containing 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine or 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine and 0.5 mol mannitol were used for anesthesia. For each patient, the routine injection technique was applied, during the removal of decay and dentine. Depth of anesthesia was evaluated and the supplementary injection was done in case of pain feeling and then pulpotomy was done. The analysis of data was done using chi-square statistical test. RESULTS: The results showed that complete anesthesia after the first injection was obtained with lidocaine mannitol in 46% and with lidocaine alone in 38% of cases. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: These finding suggest that the addition of mannitol to the standard anesthetic solution could insignificantly increase the level of anesthesia in teeth with inflamed pulps. PMID:24494021

  18. Indirect pulp capping: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the acceptance of the clinical practice of indirect pulp capping. State and regional dental boards and postgraduate dental education programs throughout the United States were surveyed. Results indicate that no clear consensus exists for the acceptance of this clinical procedure.

  19. Biological pretreatment for thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (CTMP) pulping processes

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.C.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.

    1996-10-01

    Treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to preparing a refiner mechanical pulp (RMP) has substantially reduced energy consumption and increased paper strength properties. This study reports on thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermo-mechanical pulping (CTMP) of fungus treated wood chips. Loblolly pine chips were innoculated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, strain L14807 SS-3, and incubated two weeks in a chip silo. A pressurized 305 mm diameter disk refiner was used to prepare TMP and CTMP`s from fungal treated and non-treated wood chips. Two procedures were used to prepare the CTMP`s, injecting a sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide solution into the pressurized refiner, and impregnating the wood chips with a sodium sulfite solution. Energy consumption during pulp preparation and handsheet strength and optical properties will be presented and discussed.

  20. Effects of dental trauma on the pulp.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1997-05-01

    Infection of the root canal system following dental trauma induces pulp and periapical disease and prevents healing of previously healthy pulp. A clinical goal in treating trauma is the maintenance of pulp vitality, and clinicians should be aware of factors that influence pulp healing. The learning objective of this article is to review the factors and techniques that influence pulp vitality and examine the influence pulp has on the healing of adjacent tissues. The potential routes for bacterial infection of the root canal system are discussed, with the clinical crown as the primary portal of entry. Uncomplicated and complicated crown fractures, as well as the crown-root and root fractures, are reviewed. Complications in pulp healing include canal obliteration, disturbed root development, apexogenesis, apexification, and the various forms of resorption. PMID:9550069

  1. Pulp reaction to vital bleaching.

    PubMed

    Fugaro, Jessica O; Nordahl, Inger; Fugaro, Orlando J; Matis, Bruce A; Mjör, Ivar A

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the histological changes in dental pulp after nightguard vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel. Fifteen patients between 12 and 26 years of age with caries-free first premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction were treated with 10% Opalescence (Ultradent Products, Inc). Tooth #5 had four days of bleaching, tooth #12 was treated for two weeks, tooth #21 was bleached for two weeks followed by two weeks without treatment and tooth #28, serving as the control, was without treatment. All teeth were extracted at the same time. Immediately after extraction, 4 mm of the most apical portion of the root was sectioned off and each specimen was placed in a vial containing 10% neutral buffered formalin. The samples were prepared for histological evaluation at the Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials (NIOM) and microscopically examined independently at both NIOM and Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD). Pulp reactions were semi-quantitatively graded as none, slight, moderate and severe. Slight pulpal changes were detected in 16 of the 45 bleached teeth. Neither moderate nor severe reactions were observed. The findings indicate that the slight histological changes sometimes observed after bleaching tend to resolve within two weeks post-treatment. Statistical differences existed only between the untreated control and the four-day (p=0.0109) and two-week (p=0.0045) treatment groups. The findings from this study demonstrated that nightguard vital bleaching procedures using 10% carbamide peroxide might cause initial mild, localized pulp reactions. However, the minor histological changes observed did not affect the overall health of the pulp tissue and were reversible within two weeks post-treatment. Therefore, two weeks of treatment with 10% carbamide peroxide used for nightguard vital bleaching is considered safe for dental pulp. PMID:15279473

  2. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers.

  3. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  4. Absence of parasympathetic vasodilatation in cat dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Sasano, T; Shoji, N; Kuriwada, S; Sanjo, D; Izumi, H; Karita, K

    1995-10-01

    The existence and nature of parasympathetic nerve fibers in the dental pulp have long been a subject for discussion; indeed, vasodilator responses mediated by such nerve fibers have yet to be conclusively demonstrated in the dental pulp. This study was designed to determine whether parasympathetic vasodilator mechanisms do or do not exist in the cat dental pulp. Dynamic changes in pulpal blood flow (PBF), with mandibular lip blood flow (LBF) recorded as a control, were investigated in cat mandibular canine teeth by means of laser Doppler velocimetry. Peripheral trigeminal afferents (see below) were stimulated electrically to confirm that somato-parasympathetic reflex vasodilatation could be induced. The peripheral cut ends of the facial and glossopharyngeal nerve roots, which have been reported to contain parasympathetic nerve fibers to the oral tissues, were then stimulated intracranially. Electrical stimulation of trigeminal afferents (in the infraorbital nerve or the maxillary buccal gingiva) caused no change in PBF but did increase ipsilateral LBF. Neither facial nor glossopharyngeal nerve root stimulation caused a PBF increase, though both elicited increases in ipsilateral LBF. The vasodilator responses in the lip were sensitive to ganglion blockade (with hexamethonium), indicating vasodilatation via activation of parasympathetic vasodilator fibers. In contrast, intracranial stimulation of the trigeminal nerve root induced increases in both PBF and LBF which were reduced by pre-treatment with tripelennamine, indicating antidromic vasodilatation via the trigeminal sensory nerve. These results suggest that a parasympathetic vasodilator mechanism is not present in feline dental pulp. PMID:7499589

  5. Permittivities of watermelon pulp and juice and correlation with quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permittivities from 10 to 4500 MHz at 24 'C were measured on pulp and juice of watermelons of different maturities with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. The dielectric constant of both materials decreased monotonically with increasing frequency and loss factor had minimum at ab...

  6. [Structural features of the pulp ground substance and its significance for acute and chronic pulpitis].

    PubMed

    Davarashvili, Capital Ka Cyrillich; Dgebuadze, M; Melikadze, E; Zhvitiashvili, T; Jandieri, K

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the research study is an analysis of amorphous material, fibers and cellular elements of the dental pulp and evaluation of their interactions with a variety of fibrouse structures in the norm and inflammation. To solve this problem used dental pulp tissue bioptats (10 cases) of patients with acute and chronic pulpitis and 10 control specimens (orthodontic operations). The material was studied by histological and electron microscopic methods of research. It was determined that in acute pulpitis develope changes promoting dissociation of fibrouse and cellular structures of pulp components, and thus, loss the cementing binding role of the ground substance. Acute pulpitis characterized by the recruitment of mast cells. ; The reorganization and remodeling of ground substance associated with neoangiogenesis, especially capillaries, and the replacement of collagen fibers by the fibrouse structures are major points in chronic pulpitis. PMID:23293226

  7. Prediction of early HBeAg seroconversion by decreased titers of HBeAg in the serum combined with increased grades of lobular inflammation in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Kwan; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Motoyoshi, Yasuhide; Ozawa, Eisuke; Nagaoka, Shinya; Abiru, Seigo; Komori, Atsumasa; Migita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Minoru; Ito, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Ishibashi, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is an important hallmark in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B. This study was designed to predict early HBeAg seroconversion within 1 year, by not only biochemical and virological markers, but also pathological parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Material/Methods In a retrospective cohort study, 234 patients with HBeAg were reviewed for demographic, biochemical, virological and pathological data at the time of liver biopsy. Then, the patients who accomplished HBeAg seroconversion within 1 year thereafter were compared with those who did not, for sorting out factors predictive of early HBeAg seroconversion. Results Early HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 58 (24.8%) patients. In univariate analysis, factors predictive of early HBeAg seroconversion were: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p=0.002), IP-10 (p=0.029), HBsAg (p=0.003), HBeAg (p<0.001), HBV DNA (p=0.001), HBcrAg (p=0.001), core-promoter mutations (p=0.040), fibrosis (p=0.033) and lobular inflammation (p=0.002). In multivariate analysis, only serum HBeAg levels <100 Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) U/ml and grades of lobular inflammation ≥2 were independent factors for early HBeAg seroconversion (odds ratio 8.430 [95% confidence interval 4.173–17.032], p<0.001; and 4.330 [2.009–9.331], p<0.001; respectively). Conclusions HBeAg levels < 100 PEIU/ml combined with grades of lobular inflammation ≥2 are useful for predicting early HBeAg seroconversion. In patients without liver biopsies, high ALT levels (≥200 IU/L) can substitute for lobular inflammation (grades ≥2). PMID:23197230

  8. Urethane dimethacrylate induces cytotoxicity and regulates cyclooxygenase-2, hemeoxygenase and carboxylesterase expression in human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Chang, Mei-Chi; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Huang, Guay-Fen; Lee, Yuan-Ling; Wang, Yin-Lin; Chan, Chiu-Po; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-02-01

    The toxic effect of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), a major dental resin monomer, on human dental pulp is not fully clear. In this study, we investigated the influence of UDMA on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and related gene expression of dental pulp cells. The role of reactive oxygen species, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and carboxylesterase (CES) in UDMA cytotoxicity, was evaluated. UDMA induced morphological changes of pulp cells and decreased cell viability by 29-49% at concentrations of 0.1-0.35 mM. UDMA induced G0/G1, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The expression of cdc2, cyclinB1 and cdc25C was inhibited by UDMA. Moreover, UDMA stimulated COX-2, HO-1 and CES2 mRNA expression of pulp cells. The cytotoxicity of UDMA was attenuated by N-acetyl-l-cysteine, catalase and esterase, but was enhanced by Zn-protoporphyrin (HO-1 inhibitor), BNPP (CES inhibitor) and loperamide (CES2 inhibitor). Exposure of UDMA may potentially induce the inflammation and toxicity of dental pulp. These findings are important for understanding the clinical response of human pulp to resin monomers after operative restoration and pulp capping, and also provide clues for improvement of dental materials. PMID:24140606

  9. Immunolocalization of fibronectin during reparative dentinogenesis in rat molor teeth after pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Bal, Cenkhan; Oztas, Nurhan; Cincik, Mehmet; Baris, Emre

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunolocalization of fibronectin during reparative dentinogenesis in rat teeth after pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). The pulps of 72 upper and lower first molar teeth from 18 male Wistar rats were experimentally exposed. The pulps were capped with MTA or (Ca(OH)2); final restoration followed with zinc oxide and eugenol cement. The animals were euthanized at, respectively, one, three, seven and fourteen days postoperatively. At day one, all groups showed varying degrees of inflammation, from mild to severe. There was no positive reaction for fibronectin at day one. After three days, a partial acute pulpitis was observed in the Ca(OH)2 group. There was less inflammation in the MTA group (p<0.05), and a layer of fibrin barrier was observed along the pulp walls of the MTA material. The layer of fibrodentin formation showed positive reaction for fibronectin. At seven days, the Ca(OH)2 group showed mild inflammation and demonstrated more immunostaining for fibronectin than the Ca(OH)2 group (p<0.05) at three days. Pulps capped with MTA at seven days showed thicker fibrin barrier formation than the MTA group at three days and more immunostaining for fibronectin in whole groups (p<0.05). At fourteen days, there was no positive reaction for fibronectin in either the MTA or Ca(OH)2 group. It seems MTA showed better biocompability properties with the dental pulp tissue, inducing the expression of reparative molecule fibronectin compared with Ca(OH)2. Therefore, MTA may be a better choice for pulp capping procedures. PMID:22338817

  10. New Approaches in Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of new approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth. PMID:24396371

  11. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    PubMed

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  12. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of beet pulp fiber.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1997-05-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a design based on a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with the last period removed to determine the influence of particle size of beet pulp neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on its effectiveness as a replacement for alfalfa NDF. Diets were a low forage, low fiber diet [12.1 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dry matter (DM)], a normal forage diet (low forage plus 7.8 g of additional alfalfa NDF/100 g of DM), and two low forage diets with 5.3 g of NDF/100 g of DM from either whole or finely ground dried sugar beet pulp. Replacement of alfalfa fiber with beet pulp fiber increased milk protein yield because of the tendencies toward increased milk yield and protein concentration. However, milk fat concentration and yield were unaffected. The addition of beet pulp fiber, either whole or ground, to the basal low forage, low fiber diet did not affect yields of milk, protein, or fat, but milk protein concentration tended to be lower for cows fed the beet pulp diets than for cows fed the basal diet. Reducing the particle size of beet pulp increased DM intake but did not affect any of the milk yield measurements. Particle size reduction of beet pulp did not reduce its effectiveness as a fiber source as measured by changes in milk fat content.

  13. Caffeine reduction in coffee pulp through silage.

    PubMed

    Porres, C; Alvarez, D; Calzada, J

    1993-01-01

    Silage tests to study reductions of antiphysiological compounds (caffeine and polyphenols) of fresh coffee pulp during the anaerobic fermentation were done. A concrete silo divided in compartments, with a total capacity of 9 tons of fresh material was utilized. The silage periods ranged between 99-224 days and the following materials were ensiled: 1) coffee pulp, 2) coffee pulp with sugar cane molasses, 3) coffee pulp with a mixture of molasses and ammonia and 4) screw pressed coffee pulp with molasses. Reductions in caffeine, total polyphenols and condensed polyphenols ranged between 13-63%, 28-70% and 51-81% respectively. It was concluded that in the case of coffee pulp, silage presents and ideal method to preserve the material and partially reduce the contents of antiphysiological compounds.

  14. Using Ultrasound to Characterize Pulp Slurries with Entrained Air

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2006-08-06

    The development of fast and practical methods for inspecting fiber suspensions is of great interest in the paper making industry. For process control and paper quality prediction, several elements of the refining process during paper making must be accurately monitored, including specific fiber properties, weight percent fiber (composition), degree of refining, amount of solids, and entrained air content. The results of previous ultrasonic studies applied to wood pulp provide guidance that ultrasound attenuation is information rich, and it does potentially provide a tool for consistency measurement. Ultrasound has the ability to penetrate dense suspensions such as wood pulp slurries. It is has been shown, in some studies, that ultrasound is sensitive to degree of refining. The effects of entrained air, additives, the origin and treatment of the fibers do however all influence the measured data. A series of measurements were made with hardwood and softwood slurries to evaluate the ability of measuring pulp consistency, solids, and entrained air. The attenuation through the slurry was measured as the ultrasound travels from one transducer through the slurry to the other. The measurements identified the presence of entrained air in the pulp samples. To better understand the effects of air, measurements were made at increasing pressures to show how increased pressure reduced the amount of air observed in the spectrum.

  15. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hee Woong; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR). The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation. PMID:26576076

  16. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hee Woong; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR). The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation.

  17. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product.

  18. Waste paper and pulp sludge as feedstock for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Sosulski, K.; Swerhone, B.

    1993-12-31

    Samples of newsprint, office, cardboard and magazine paper, paper towels, pulp waste and sludge were evaluated for their cellulose contents and rates of cellulose conversion to glucose. Several pretreatments were evaluated to increase the rate of conversion of newsprint cellulose to glucose. The influence of printers` inks on enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation were determined for printed newsprint and magazine paper and corresponding imprinted controls. Two streams of mixed paper were formed to determine the need for separation of paper prior to processing. A modified, two-stage process was evaluated for hydrolyses of paper samples. The process consisted of sample hydrolysis with one-half of total enzymes for 24 hr, separation of sugars by filtration and hydrolysis of the residue with fresh enzymes for an additional 24 hr. In this way, at the same enzyme loading, the rates of cellulose conversion were increased by 18 to 59%, depending on sample. The maximum cellulose conversion rates were: 62.4% for newsprint, 65.4% for cardboard, 65.7% for office paper, 54.5% for magazine paper and 55.0% for paper towel. Bleached pulp waste was hydrolysed to the level of 62.7%, and the rates of conversion of pulp sludge cellulose were 32.4 to 74.6%, depending on paper waste used for reprocessing by pulp mills. The degrees of saccharification determined for the mixed paper samples were comparable or slightly lower than those calculated based on the best conversion rates for each of the constituents and their contents in mixed sample. Based on the findings of this study, it became apparent that ethanol plants would be able to process all types of paper and pulp wastes blends, at varying ratios, without the need for separation of waste streams. Also, there was no need for other pretreatments than particle size reduction by grinding, prior to enzyme hydrolysis. Printers` inks had no adverse affect on enzyme hydrolysis or yeast fermentation.

  19. Expression and Function of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pulp Tissue of Teeth under Orthodontic Movement

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fulan; Yang, Shuangyan; Xu, Hui; Guo, Qingyuan; Li, Qi; Hu, Lihua; Liu, Dongxu; Wang, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic force may lead to cell damage, circulatory disturbances, and vascular changes of the dental pulp, which make a hypoxic environment in pulp. In order to maintain the homeostasis of dental pulp, hypoxia will inevitably induce the defensive reaction. However, this is a complex process and is regulated by numerous factors. In this study, we established an experimental animal model of orthodontic tooth movement to investigate the effects of mechanical force on the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α in dental pulp. Histological analysis of dental pulp and expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins in dental pulp were examined. The results showed that inflammation and vascular changes happened in dental pulp tissue in different periods. Additionally, there were significant changes in the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins under orthodontic force. After application of mechanical load, expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was markedly positive in 1, 3, 7 d, and 2 w groups, and then it weakened in 4 w group. These findings suggested that the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was enhanced by mechanical force. HIF-1α and VEGF may play an important role in retaining the homeostasis of dental pulp during orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:26441483

  20. Hypothermic machine perfusion increases A20 expression which protects renal cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing inflammation, apoptosis and necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZIXUAN; ZHONG, ZIBIAO; LI, MINGXIA; XIONG, YAN; WANG, YANFENG; PENG, GUIZHU; YE, QIFA

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the quality of donor organs obtained after cardiac death. In the present study, we examined the potential mechanisms through which A20 protects renal cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) following either hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) or static cold storage (CS) of the kidneys in a rabbit model. The expression of markers of apoptosis, necroptosis and inflammation in frozen kidney tissues were detected by western blot analysis, RT-qPCR and ELISA. Compared with the CS group, A20 expression was significantly higher in the tissue from the HMP group (P<0.01). By contrast, the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly lower in HMP group (P<0.01), whereas IκBα expression was significantly higher (P<0.01). The expression of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), phosphorylated (p-)c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and activated caspase-3 in the HMP group was significantly downregulated compared with that in the CS group (all P<0.01). In addition, A20 inhibited receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated necroptosis in the kidney. RIPK3 expression in the HMP group was significantly lower than that in the CS group (P<0.01), although the levels in both groups were higher than those in the sham group (P<0.01). Based on these findings, we propose a novel mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effect of A20 in renal cells in which A20 binds to ASK1 and promotes the degradation of ASK1 leading to the suppression of JNK activation and eventually, to the blockade of apoptosis. Thus, HMP reduces inflammation, apoptosis and necroptosis by upregulating the expression of A20; this mechanism may be responsible for protecting the kidney against IRI. PMID:27177159

  1. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-initiated alcohol-promoted hepatic inflammation and precancerous lesions by flavonoid luteolin is associated with increased sirtuin 1 activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rafacho, Bruna Paola Murino; Stice, Camilla Peach; Liu, Chun; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Ausman, Lynne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption is an established risk for hepatic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Luteolin is one of the most common flavonoids present in plants and has potential beneficial effects against cancer. In this study, we examined the effect and potential mechanisms of luteolin supplementation in a carcinogen initiated alcohol-promoted pre-neoplastic liver lesion mouse model. Methods C57BL/6 mice were injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) [i.p. 25 mg/kg of body weight (BW)] at 14 days of age. At 8 weeks of age mice were group pair-fed with Lieber-DeCarli liquid control diet or alcoholic diet [ethanol (EtOH) diet, 27% total energy from ethanol] and supplemented with a dose of 30 mg luteolin/kg BW per day for 21 days. Results DEN-injected mice fed EtOH diet displayed a significant induction of pre-neoplastic lesions, a marker associated with presence of steatosis and inflammation. Dietary luteolin significantly reduced the severity and incidence of hepatic inflammatory foci and steatosis in DEN-injected mice fed EtOH diet, as well the presence of preneoplastic lesions. There was no difference on hepatic protein levels of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) among all groups; however, luteolin supplementation significantly reversed alcohol-reduced SIRT1 activity assessed by the ratio of acetylated and total forkhead box protein O1 (FoXO1) and SIRT1 target proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). Conclusions Dietary intake of luteolin prevents alcohol promoted pre-neoplastic lesions, potentially mediated by SIRT1 signaling pathway. PMID:26005679

  2. Clinical and Histological Evaluation of Direct Pulp Capping on Human Pulp Tissue Using a Dentin Adhesive System

    PubMed Central

    Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna; Sobolewska, Ewa; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study presents a clinical and histological evaluation of human pulp tissue responses after direct capping using a new dentin adhesive system. Methods. Twenty-eight caries-free third molar teeth scheduled for extraction were evaluated. The pulps of 22 teeth were mechanically exposed and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Single Bond Universal or calcium hydroxide. Another group of 6 teeth acted as the intact control group. The periapical response was assayed, and a clinical examination was performed. The teeth were extracted after 6 weeks, and a histological analysis was performed. The pulp status was assessed, and the thickness of the dentin bridge was measured and categorized using a histological scoring system. Results. The clinical phase was asymptomatic for Single Bond Universal patients. Patients in the calcium hydroxide group reported mild symptoms of pain, although the histological examination revealed that dentin bridges with or without limited pulpitis had begun forming in each tooth. The universal adhesive system exhibited nonsignificantly increased histological signs of pulpitis (P > 0.05) and a significantly weaker thin mineralized tissue layer (P < 0.001) compared with the calcium hydroxide group. Conclusion. The results suggest that Single Bond Universal is inappropriate for human pulp capping; however, further long-term studies are needed to determine the biocompatibility of this agent. PMID:27803922

  3. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  4. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1673 Pulp....

  6. In situ testing of CO2 laser on dental pulp function: Effects on microcirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.; Liu, M.; Doerscher-Kim, J.K.; Kim, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The effect of CO2 laser irradiation on pulpal microcirculation was studied in cat canines. The enamel surfaces of 4 teeth were exposed with energy densities of 304-1440J/cm2, using either a handpiece or a microslad, with a focal spot of 0.21mm and 0.33mm respectively. Pulpal blood flow (PBF) before and following lasing was recorded through the intact tooth surface by a laser Doppler flowmeter. CO2 laser irradiation caused an increase in PBF, which was immediate and transient. The PBF increase was higher in a large pulp than in a small pulp, and it was inversely related to the focal spot size. These findings confirm that the dental pulp is thermally affected by CO2 lasing of the tooth surface, however, without extensive pulp coagulation. It is concluded that the effects of laser irradiation on the pulpal microcirculation may be studied in situ by means of the presented methodology.

  7. Nerve Growth Factor Secretion From Pulp Fibroblasts is Modulated by Complement C5a Receptor and Implied in Neurite Outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, Fanny; Ayaz, Warda; Appiah, James; About, Imad; Chung, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of sensory innervation in tooth vitality, the identification of signals that control nerve regeneration and the cellular events they induce is essential. Previous studies demonstrated that the complement system, a major component of innate immunity and inflammation, is activated at the injured site of human carious teeth and plays an important role in dental-pulp regeneration via interaction of the active Complement C5a fragment with pulp progenitor cells. In this study, we further determined the role of the active fragment complement C5a receptor (C5aR) in dental nerve regeneration in regards to local secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) upon carious injury. Using ELISA and AXIS co-culture systems, we demonstrate that C5aR is critically implicated in the modulation of NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts, which is negatively regulated by C5aR activation, has a role in the control of the neurite outgrowth length in our axon regeneration analysis. Our data provide a scientific step forward that can guide development of future therapeutic tools for innovative and incipient interventions targeting the dentin-pulp regeneration process by linking the neurite outgrowth to human pulp fibroblast through complement system activation. PMID:27539194

  8. Nerve Growth Factor Secretion From Pulp Fibroblasts is Modulated by Complement C5a Receptor and Implied in Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chmilewsky, Fanny; Ayaz, Warda; Appiah, James; About, Imad; Chung, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of sensory innervation in tooth vitality, the identification of signals that control nerve regeneration and the cellular events they induce is essential. Previous studies demonstrated that the complement system, a major component of innate immunity and inflammation, is activated at the injured site of human carious teeth and plays an important role in dental-pulp regeneration via interaction of the active Complement C5a fragment with pulp progenitor cells. In this study, we further determined the role of the active fragment complement C5a receptor (C5aR) in dental nerve regeneration in regards to local secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) upon carious injury. Using ELISA and AXIS co-culture systems, we demonstrate that C5aR is critically implicated in the modulation of NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts, which is negatively regulated by C5aR activation, has a role in the control of the neurite outgrowth length in our axon regeneration analysis. Our data provide a scientific step forward that can guide development of future therapeutic tools for innovative and incipient interventions targeting the dentin-pulp regeneration process by linking the neurite outgrowth to human pulp fibroblast through complement system activation. PMID:27539194

  9. Delivery of Human EV71 Receptors by Adeno-Associated Virus Increases EV71 Infection-Induced Local Inflammation in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Tao, Mi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system. PMID:25243194

  10. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  11. Modification in the properties of paper by using cellulase-free xylanase produced from alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 in biobleaching of wheat straw pulp.

    PubMed

    Walia, Abhishek; Mehta, Preeti; Guleria, Shiwani; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-09-01

    Alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 isolated from mushroom compost is an actinomycete that produces industrially important and environmentally safer thermostable cellulase-free xylanase, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as an alternative to the use of toxic chlorinated compounds. Strain CKMX1 was previously characterized by metabolic fingerprinting, whole-cell fatty acids methyl ester analysis, and 16S rDNA and was found to be C. cellulans CKMX1. Crude enzyme (1027.65 U/g DBP) produced by C. cellulans CKMX1, having pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively, in solid state fermentation of apple pomace, was used in the production of bleached wheat straw pulp. Pretreatment with xylanase at a dose of 5 U/g after pulping decreased pulp kappa points by 1.4 as compared with the control. Prebleaching with a xylanase dose of 5 U/g pulp reduced the chlorine charge by 12.5%, increased the final brightness points by approximately 1.42% ISO, and improved the pulp strength properties. Xylanase could be substituted for alkali extraction in C-Ep-D sequence and used for treating chemically bleached pulp, resulting in bleached pulp with higher strength properties. Modification of bleached pulp with 5 U of enzyme/g increased pulp whiteness and breaking length by 1.03% and 60 m, respectively; decreased tear factor of pulp by 7.29%; increased bulk weight by 3.99%, as compared with the original pulp. Reducing sugars and UV-absorbing lignin-derived compound values were considerably higher in xylanase-treated samples. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 has a potential application in the pulp and paper industries.

  12. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    To examine the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature changes in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum temperature rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the temperature rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of temperature in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of temperature was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the temperature rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.

  13. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Zhang, Q Z; Karabucak, B; Le, A D

    2016-10-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be isolated from inflamed pulp derived from carious teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (I-DPSCs), which possess stemness and multidifferentiation potentials similar to DPSCs from healthy pulp. Since macrophages-essential cell players of the pulpal innate immunity-can regulate pulpal inflammation and repair, the authors investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs/I-DPSCs on macrophage functions and their underlying mechanisms. Similar to DPSCs, I-DPSCs were capable of colony-forming efficiency and adipogenic and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation under in vitro induction conditions. I-DPSCs also expressed a similar phenotypic profile of mesenchymal stem cell markers, except a relatively higher level of CD146 as compared with DPSCs. Coculture of DPSCs or I-DPSCs with differentiated THP-1 cells, the human monocyte cell line, markedly suppressed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or nigericin. However, unlike TNF-α, the secreted level of interleukin 1β was not affected by coculture with DPSCs or I-DPSCs. Furthermore, DPSC/I-DPSC-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion by macrophages was abolished by pretreatment with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but not by NSC-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, suggesting IDO as a mediator. Interestingly, IDO expression was significantly augmented in macrophages and mesenchymal stromal cells in inflamed human pulp tissues. Collectively, these findings show that I-DPSCs, similar to DPSCs, possess stem cell properties and suppress macrophage functions via the TNF-α/IDO axis, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for their innate immunomodulatory activity in the dental pulp and their capability for pulp repair.

  14. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vidya; Sivadas, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% This report presents the case of a 10-year-old patient with a nonvital young permanent tooth which was managed by pulp revascularization. Following disinfection of the canal by irrigation with NaOCl and use of a triantibiotic paste, a scaffold was created by inducing the formation of a blood clot within the canal. At the subsequent follow-up visits, the patient was asymptomatic, with normal response to percussion, normal periodontal probing depths, and no abnormal mobility. The radiographs showed evidence of continued apical root development with increase in root length, signs of apical closure and increase in thickness of dentinal walls. Thus, this case adds to the growing evidence supporting the revascularization approach as an option for management of nonvital young permanent teeth. How to cite this article: Chandran V, Chacko V, Sivadas G. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):213-216. PMID:25709305

  15. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have hypothesized that replacing barley with high proportions of dried citrus pulp in a concentrate-based diet for lambs could increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids and could reduce the rate of the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA, with a consequent improvement of the intramuscular fatty acid composition. To test this hypothesis, 26 Comisana lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 56 d were fed a barley-based concentrate diet (CON; 8 lambs) or 2 diets in which barley was replaced with 24% (CIT24; 9 lambs) or 35% (CIT35; 9 lambs) dried citrus pulp. An overall improvement of the fatty acid composition of LM from lambs fed citrus pulp-containing diets was found. The PUFA/SFA ratio was lower (P < 0.05) in the LM from lambs in the CON group compared with both the CIT24 and CIT35 groups. The thrombogenic index was lower (P < 0.05) in meat from lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. The CIT35 diet increased the proportion of C20:5 n-3 in the LM (P < 0.05), whereas the CIT24 diet enhanced that of C22:6 -3 (P < 0.05) compared with the CON diet. Some of these results might be explained considering that feeding the CIT24 and CIT35 diets increased the intake of total fatty acids (P < 0.05) and of C18:3 n-3 (P < 0.01) compared with feeding the CON treatment. On the other hand, phenolic compounds present in citrus pulp could have inhibited the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. This is supported by the fact that regardless of the level of inclusion in the diet, citrus pulp increased the proportion of rumenic acid (P < 0.001) in LM compared with the CON diet. The plasma from lambs fed both CIT24 and CIT35 diets had a greater percentage of vaccenic acid (VA; < 0.001) compared with that from lambs fed the CON diet, and the CIT35 diet increased the proportion of rumenic acid in plasma compared with the CON treatment (P < 0.05). In the ruminal fluid, stearic acid (SA) tended to decrease, and the sum of CLA tended to increase

  16. CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement ‘peppering’ the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long

  17. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). Methods hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. Results The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. Conclusions The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin. PMID:24098955

  18. Enzymatic and fungal treatments on sugarcane bagasse for the production of mechanical pulps.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan; Rojas, Teresa; Navarro, Fernando; Dávalos, Florentina; Sanjuán, Rubén; Rutiaga, José; Young, Raymond A

    2004-08-11

    Crude ligninolytic enzyme extracts from Phanerochaete chrysosporium fungi were applied to sugarcane bagasse, prior to thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical pulping (CTMP), and their properties were compared with the normal TMP and CTMP and also with TMP and CTMP pretreated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and P. chrysosporium fungi. The sugarcane bagasse was impregnated with the crude enzyme extract containing lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and laccase (Lac). The results show that pretreatment with enzyme crude extract is an advantageous way to produce TMP and CTMP from sugarcane bagasse, as compared with only fungal pretreatment. Enzymatic pretreatments need only hours to enhance pulping and paper properties, compared with the weeks necessary for fungal treatments. Higher pulp yields were obtained compared with the fungal pretreatments. Enzymatic pretreatment reduced the energy consumption in a proportion similar to that of C. subvermispora fungal pretreatment and increased the pulp tensile index compared with the normal TMP and CTMP pulps, although the tensile strength was somewhat lower than that for pulps from C. subvermispora fungal pretreatment before CTMP processing. An advantage of enzymatic pretreatment is that brightness is increased compared with normal TMP and CTMP processes, whereas fungal pretreatments reduce the brightness. PMID:15291475

  19. A Diagnostic Aid To Pulp Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Allan; Lebensold, Julian M.

    1989-03-01

    Pitch deposits in the production of pulp from wood are a very significant problem in the pulp and paper industry. Conservative estimates place the annual cost at around $30 million a year. At the present time problems in this domain are handled by human experts, whose time might otherwise be available for research. Development of an expert system in this area would be expected to have several beneficial effects. Quantitatively, it will decrease down time, thus allowing for greater production, and qualitatively it will decrease the occurrence of contamination in the final pulp.

  20. Biological modification of loblolly pine chips with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora prior to kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, Laura L.

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to selectively degrade lignin in loblolly pine chips and the effect on kraft pulps was investigated. The effect of fungal treatment was assessed by comparing changes in untreated wood chips with chips incubated for two and four weeks. The kraft pulping step included two different cooking times and two levels of chemical dosage as the variables, 16 and 22% for the effective alkali and 60 and 90 min at 170°C. The other cooking variables were kept constant for all the experiments and were: sulfidity, 22%; liquor/wood ratio 4:1; time to Tmax 90 min.; Tmax 170°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the colonization introduced significant chemical and physical changes. Pore size distribution analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in the average pore size as fungal treatment progressed. Significant reduction in the extractives content (23%) was found in the first 2 weeks, after which the reduction leveled off. Lignin losses reached 2% in the first 2 weeks of incubation, followed by an 11% loss after 4 weeks of treatment. Lignin phenolic hydroxyl groups increased 14% after 4 weeks of incubation. Fungal treatment caused 4 and 6% carbohydrate loss in 2 and 4 weeks-treated chips, respectively. The selectivity of the fungal treatment was emphasized in the subsequent kraft pulping. The best response regarding improved delignification was found in kraft pulps processed at the mildest pulping conditions without affecting pulp viscosity. Benefits of fungal treatment regarding freeness of kraft pulps were evidenced after 4 weeks of incubation with a maximum of 35% freeness reduction in kraft pulps refined at 12,000 rev in a PFI mill. Strength properties of kraft pulps of fungal treated chips were superior to those of the control. This method involves chemical and physical modification of wood chips using fungi. The approach improved chip impregnation, which in turn, led to more uniform

  1. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  2. Monosodium glutamate neonatal intoxication associated with obesity in adult stage is characterized by chronic inflammation and increased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Roman-Ramos, Ruben; Almanza-Perez, Julio C; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Fortis-Barrera, Angeles; Jasso, Edgar I; Garcia-Lorenzana, Mario; Campos-Sepulveda, Alfonso E; Cruz, Miguel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J

    2011-06-01

    The monosodium glutamate (MSG) neonatal administration in mice provides a model of obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance. However, the inflammatory profile of cytokines produced from fat tissue and its relationship to the metabolic dysfunction induced by MSG have not yet been revealed. The aim of this study was to establish the inflammatory profile attributed to MSG by measuring the expression of adipokines in visceral fat and serum of 19-week-old mice as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma (PPARα and γ). Some metabolic and biochemical parameters were also quantified. The MSG increased mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), resistin and leptin, but adiponectin did not exhibit any changes. In addition, impaired glucose tolerance, increased levels of insulin, resistin and leptin were observed in serum. Both PPARα and PPARγ were activated in MSG-induced obese mice, which might explain its inflammatory profile. However, liver transaminases were severely depressed, indicating that MSG may also induce liver injury, contributing to inflammation. The MSG neonatal neuro-intoxication in mice may thus provide a model of obesity and inflammation characterized by the dual activation of PPARα and PPARγ, which might offer new insights into the mechanism of inflammatory diabetes in obesity leading to steatohepatitis, as well as a suitable model to study the role of new therapeutic agents to prevent or reduce insulin resistance, the inflammatory state and liver steatosis.

  3. Nanocrystalline cellulose from aspen kraft pulp and its application in deinked pulp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinghua; Gao, Yang; Qin, Menghua; Wu, Kaili; Fu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from bleached aspen kraft pulp was characterized, and its application as pulp strengthening additive and retention aid was investigated. Results showed that NCC with high crystallinity of more than 80% can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The structure of nanocrystalline cellulose is parallelepiped rod-like, and their cross-sectional dimension is in the nanometer range with a high aspect ratio. The formation of microparticle retention systems during the application of NCC together with cationic polyacrylamide and cationic starch in deinked pulp was able to further improve pulp retention and strength properties without negative influence on the drainage.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How This Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    McEneny, Jane; Daniels, Jane-Ann; McGowan, Anne; Gunness, Anjuli; Moore, Kevin; Stevenson, Michael; Young, Ian S.; Gibney, James

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL) protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA-) related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P = 0.088), and significantly in HDL2(P = 0.003) and HDL3(P = 0.005). When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%), serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was <8.34% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, regression analysis illustrated, that for every 1%-unit increase in HbA1c, SAA increased by 20% and 23% in HDL2 and HDL3, respectively, independent of BMI. HsCRP did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk. PMID:26557720

  5. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 1. Effects on feed intake, chewing behavior, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on intake, milk production, and chewing behavior were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) d in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a dry matter basis. Diet concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0 and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Increasing beet pulp in the diet caused a linear decrease in dry matter intake (DMI). Time spent eating per day and per kilogram of DMI increased, and sorting against NDF tended to increase, with added beet pulp. Substituting beet pulp for corn caused a quadratic response in milk fat yield, with the highest yield for the 6% beet pulp treatment. A tendency was detected for a similar quadratic response in 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield. Lower plasma insulin concentration may have resulted in lower body condition gain for cows fed diets with higher beet pulp concentration. Partial substitution of pelleted beet pulp for high-moisture corn decreased intake but also may have permitted greater fat-corrected milk yield.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of pulp capping agents with direct contact test method

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Muhammet; Arslan, Ugur; Dundar, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Calcium hydroxide has been used in dentistry as a major capping material having the capacity to introduce the formation of a mineralized dentin bridge, but it has no direct inducing effect to the pulp cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of three different pulp capping agents using a direct contact test (DCT). Materials and Methods: The antibacterial properties of three pulp capping agents were evaluated a DCT. For the DCT, wells (n = 12) of 96-microtiter plates were coated with the tested cements (Dycal, Dentsply, USA; DiaRoot BioAggregate, Diadent, Holland; Calcimol LC, Voco, Germany) and Kalzinol (zinc oxide/eugenol cement, Dentsply, USA) was used as control material. A Lactobacillus casei suspension was placed on the surface of each specimen for 1 h at 37°C. Bacterial growth was monitored for 16 h with a temperature-controlled microplate spectrophotometer. The kinetics of the outgrowth in each well were recorded continuously at 650 nm every 30 min. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and Tamhane's T2 multiple comparison test. The level of significance was determined as P < 0.05. Results: All pulp capping agents showed an increase in the logarithmic growth rate of L. casei when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Therefore, all pulp capping agents did not show antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The tested pulp capping agents haven't got antibacterial properties. Therefore, they should be used carefully when pulp is exposed or only very thin dentin remained over the pulp to avoid bacterial contamination. PMID:24966754

  7. Pulp waste processing prior to hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Kosareva, I.M.; Savushkina, M.K.; Revenko, Y.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with possible treatments of solid phases of radioactive pulp wastes for the purpose of solidification. Described are the methods for full or partial solid phase dissolving for isolation of radionuclides and/or making the macrocomposition more homogeneous. The ultimate aim is the highest possible degree of localization of radionuclides in solid compounds. The radioactive heterogeneous wastes of the radiochemical production are pulp wastes from the main process or processing of drain-desorping solutions as well as high-activity wastes. As a rule, pulp wastes are high- activity wastes radiating significant amounts of heat. Most long-lived radionuclides are found in the solid phase, and their distribution in this phase is irregular. As a result, the emergence of local high-temperature zones is a normal development. The possible consequences are boiling, emission of the vapor phase, and aerosol carry-over. This explains why such storage of pulp wastes is a technologically complicated and dangerous process.

  8. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  9. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  10. Enhancing fermentable sugar yield from cassava pulp for bioethanol production: microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis approach.

    PubMed

    Sudha, A; Sivakumar, V; Sangeetha, V; Devi, K S Priyenka

    2015-08-01

    Cassava pulp, a potential biological feedstock for ethanol production has been subjected to microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. Liquid to solid ratio for the pretreatment of cassava pulp was found to be 20:1. Cassava pulp was pretreated at various NaOH concentration, microwave temperature and gave maximum yield of reducing sugar with 1.5% NaOH at 90 °C in 30 min than conventional alkali pretreatment after enzymatic hydrolysis. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated cassava pulp using α amylase dosage of 400 IU at microwave temperature of 90 °C resulted in highest reducing sugar yield of 723 mg/g pulp. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp by increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis are found to be efficient for improving the yield of reducing sugar.

  11. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution. PMID:25965499

  12. Effect of pulp reduction and pasteurization on the release of aroma compounds in industrial orange juice.

    PubMed

    Berlinet, C; Guichard, E; Fournier, N; Ducruet, V

    2007-10-01

    Release of aroma compounds in orange juice according to pulp content and pasteurization was performed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), HS-SPME-GC-olfactometry, and by the determination of partition coefficients of aroma compounds between the juice and the headspace. Orange juices with 12% and 6% pulp contents were collected from a processing line before and after pasteurization. HS-SPME revealed that the 6% pulp juice was the most affected by pasteurization, with an increase in the release of several aroma compounds that are generated by heat treatment (that is, alpha- and beta-terpinéol) and a decrease in the release of compounds sensitive to pasteurization (that is, neral and geranial). Principal component analysis of olfactometric data allowed discriminating fresh and pasteurized juices, regardless of the pulp content. The determination of the gas/liquid partition coefficients by the phase ratio variation method was possible for 7 aroma compounds. For the most hydrophobic ones, the release of aroma compounds in fresh juices was higher in the 6% pulp juice than in the 12% pulp juice. However, in pasteurized juices, the difference between their partition coefficients was less marked. Potential interactions between cloud proteins and hydrophobic aroma compounds may explain this phenomenon.

  13. A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage. PMID:24242252

  14. Inflammation and hemostasis: a bidirectional interaction.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that inflammation is a potent activator of coagulation pathways. In fact, inflammatory mediators upregulate procoagulant factors, inhibit endogenous anticoagulants and attenuate fibrinolytic response. In addition, systemic inflammation appears to increase platelet reactivity. However, the interaction between these two systems is bidirectional as coagulation is also capable of modulating inflammatory activity. This review focuses on the current understanding of the complex interactions between inflammation and coagulation.

  15. Increased accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in female GSTA4/PPAR alpha double knockout mice enhance steatosis and inflammation in a model of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatocellular injury resulting from increased lipid peroxidation products and oxidative stress is considered a potential mechanism driving the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitsis (NASH). To test the significance of lipid peroxidation and protein...

  16. Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung and liver tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Attas, Omar S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Ibrahim, Shebl; Vinodson, Benjamin; Ansari, Mohammed G; El-Din, Khaled I Alam

    2014-06-01

    Incense smoke is increasingly being recognized as a potential environmental contaminant and is linked to malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. The detoxification of environmental contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) involves the induction of cytochrome P-450 family enzymes (CYPs) by PAHs. However, the detoxification of PAHs also results in the generation of reactive and unstable intermediary metabolites which are implicated in the oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation. It is unclear whether CYPs are similarly induced by incense smoke, which incidentally contains substantial amounts of PAHs. Here, we examined the impact of long-term incense smoke exposure on the induction of CYPs in male Wister Albino rats. Incense smoke exposure significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs in both lung and liver tissues. The extent of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction was significantly higher in the liver compared to that in the lung, while that of CYP1A2 was greater in the lung than in liver. Incense smoke exposure also increased malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels in lung and liver tissues, and the catalase activity in the liver tissues to significant levels. Furthermore incense smoke exposure led to a marked increase in TNF-α and IL-4 levels. The data demonstrate for the first time the capacity of incense smoke to induce CYP1 family enzymes in the target and non-target tissues. Induction of CYPs increased oxidative stress and inflammation appear to be intimately linked to promote the carcinogenesis and health complications in people chronically exposed to incense smoke.

  17. Protective Effects of Guava Pulp on Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jian; Yue, Chunyan; Qiu, Kai; Chen, Jie; Aller, Maria-Angeles; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cholestatic liver injury is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases involved with oxidative stress changes and inflammation; thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammation compound-rich guava may play a pivotal role in protecting against the cholestatic liver damages. Our aims for this study are to determine whether guava pulp (GP) has protective effects on cholestatic liver injury-induced mouse model and on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated proliferation of QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Methods. Mice were induced to cholestatic liver damage by left and median bile duct ligation (LMBDL) surgery and then treated with GP. Plasma and liver samples were collected for biochemical and pathological assays. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and Western blots were used to detect proliferation and gene expression in QBC939 cells, respectively. Results. Compared with LMBDL only group, in GP-treated mice, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin decreased, biliary epithelial cell proliferation and liver fibrogenesis were suppressed, Src/MEK/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway and expressions of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases TIMP), and procollagen 1α1(COL1α1) were downregulated significantly. Moreover, the GP extract reduced IL-6-enhanced QBC939 cell proliferation, p-ERK, and c-Myc expression as well. Conclusions. GP may provide a new perspective for the treatment of cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27335829

  18. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process. PMID:26771596

  19. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  20. [Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].

    PubMed

    Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

    1976-03-01

    Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and

  1. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup

    PubMed Central

    Nullens, Sara; Staessens, Michael; Peleman, Cédric; Plaeke, Philip; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Francque, Sven; De Man, Joris G.; De Winter, Benedicte Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model. Methods OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed. Results Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant. Conclusions Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro

  2. Biomechanical and biochemical pulping of sugarcane bagasse with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora fungal and xylanase pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J; González, M; Ramírez, F; Young, R; Zúñiga, V

    2001-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with both the white-rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, and xylanase enzyme for 2 weeks before soda chemithermomechanical (CTMP) and soda chemical (CP) cooking. For fungi-CTMP (BCTMP) and enzyme-fungi-CTMP (EBCTMP), the bagasse, after bio-pretreatment, was cooked with 5% sodium hydroxide, at 130 degrees C for 20 min. For the chemical pulping (CP), after fungi pretreatment (BCP) or after xylanase and fungal pretreatment (EBCP), the bagasse was cooked with 14.5% sodium hydroxide. With the BCTMP, the Klason lignin was reduced, all of the pulp strength properties were increased, and a 28% savings in refining energy consumption was obtained, but the brightness was reduced 5 points compared to the control. With the EBCTMP, the brightness losses were overcome but with a mild reduction in the pulp strength properties compared to the BCTMP. The energy savings were 5% greater than from BCTMP and 33% over the control. The BCP treatment increases somewhat the pulp strength properties, reduces the energy consumption 23%, and reduces the brightness by 9 points compared to the control; however, the kappa no. was 5.5 points higher than the control. EBCP treatment reduces brightness losses and increases the pulp yield 2% compared to the control, but with some reduction in the strength properties compared to BCP.

  3. Responses of macrophage-associated antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp of rat molars to experimental tooth replantation.

    PubMed

    Rungvechvuttivittaya, S; Okiji, T; Suda, H

    1998-09-01

    Bacterial infection of the dental pulp is a major hindrance to successful pulp regeneration after tooth replantation. This study examined how macrophages and class II molecule-expressing cells of the pulp respond to tooth replantation, on the hypothesis that they contribute to the defence and repair of the traumatized pulp. Upper right first molars of 5-week-old male Wistar rats were replanted immediately after extraction; contralateral untreated teeth served as controls. Pulpal cells expressing macrophage-associated antigens were immunohistochemically demonstrated at 0 h (immediately after the replantation) to 84 days postoperatively using antirat monoclonal antibodies OX6 (anti-class II molecules), ED1 (pan-macrophage antibody, reactive also with dendritic cells) and ED2 (anti-resident macrophages). Between 3 and 7 days postoperatively, ED1+ and OX6+ cells, but not ED2+ cells, were concentrated in areas of degeneration formed in the coronal pulp, and frequently showed a marked accumulation along the pulp-dentine border of the cuspal area. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that some of the OX6+ cells with a dendritic profile extended several cytoplasmic processes into the dentinal tubules communicating with the enamel-free area at the tip of the cusp. From 14-84 days, approx. two-thirds of specimens exhibited pulp-tissue regeneration with increasing formation of reparative dentine. Following the formation of sound reparative dentine, cells positive to each antibody were distributed more centrally in the pulp than in the controls, and thus did not show any accumulation along the pulp-dentine border. However, in the other specimens where a bone-like hard tissue had formed in the pulp chamber, many ED1+ and OX6+ cells were still concentrated in the remaining pulp tissue and showed a marked accumulation along the pulp dentine border. Few ED2+ cells were observed in these specimens. These findings suggest that, following tooth replantation, exudative

  4. Increased expression of HCN2 channel protein in L4 dorsal root ganglion neurons following axotomy of L5- and inflammation of L4-spinal nerves in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Al Otaibi, M; Sathish, J; Djouhri, L

    2015-06-01

    A hallmark of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) is chronic spontaneous pain and/or hypersensitivity to normally painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) or normally nonpainful stimuli (allodynia).This pain results partly from abnormal hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We have previously shown, using a modified version of the lumbar 5 (L5)-spinal nerve ligation model of PNP (mSNA model involving L5-spinal nerve axotomy plus loose ligation of the lumbar 4 (L4)-spinal nerve with neuroinflammation-inducing chromic-gut), that L4 DRG neurons exhibit increased spontaneous activity, the key characteristic of neuronal hyperexcitability. The underlying ionic and molecular mechanisms of the hyperexcitability of L4 DRG neurons are incompletely understood, but could result from changes in expression and/or function of ion channels including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which are active near the neuron's resting membrane potential, and which produce an excitatory inward current that depolarizes the membrane potential toward the threshold of action potential generation. Therefore, in the present study we used the mSNA model to investigate whether: (a) expression of HCN1-HCN3 channels is altered in L4 DRG neurons which, in the mSNA model, are essential for transmission of the evoked pain, and which contribute to chronic spontaneous pain, and (b) local (intraplantar) blockade of these HCN channels, with a specific blocker, ZD7288, attenuates chronic spontaneous pain and/or evoked pain in mSNA rats. We found 7days after mSNA: (1) a significant increase in HCN2-immunoreactivity in small (<30μm) DRG neurons (predominantly IB4-negative neurons), and in the proportion of small neurons expressing HCN2 (putative nociceptors); (2) no significant change in HCN1- or HCN3-immunoreactivity in all cell types; and (3) attenuation, with ZD7288 (100μM intraplantar), of chronic spontaneous pain behavior (spontaneous foot lifting) and mechanical

  5. Gold ions bio-released from metallic gold particles reduce inflammation and apoptosis and increase the regenerative responses in focal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Agnete; Kolind, Kristian; Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Doering, Peter; Pedersen, Mie Ostergaard; Danscher, Gorm; Penkowa, Milena; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2008-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury results in loss of neurons caused as much by the resulting neuroinflammation as by the injury. Gold salts are known to be immunosuppressive, but their use are limited by nephrotoxicity. However, as we have proven that implants of pure metallic gold release gold ions which do not spread in the body, but are taken up by cells near the implant, we hypothesize that metallic gold could reduce local neuroinflammation in a safe way. Bio-liberation, or dissolucytosis, of gold ions from metallic gold surfaces requires the presence of disolycytes i.e. macrophages and the process is limited by their number and activity. We injected 20-45 mum gold particles into the neocortex of mice before generating a cryo-injury. Comparing gold-treated and untreated cryolesions, the release of gold reduced microgliosis and neuronal apoptosis accompanied by a transient astrogliosis and an increased neural stem cell response. We conclude that bio-liberated gold ions possess pronounced anti-inflammatory and neuron-protective capacities in the brain and suggest that metallic gold has clinical potentials. Intra-cerebral application of metallic gold as a pharmaceutical source of gold ions represents a completely new medical concept that bypasses the blood-brain-barrier and allows direct drug delivery to inflamed brain tissue.

  6. Leptin and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Iikuni, Noriko; Lam, Queenie Lai Kwan; Lu, Liwei; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The past few years of research on leptin have provided important information on the link between metabolism and immune homeostasis. Adipocytes influence not only the endocrine system but also the immune response through several cytokine-like mediators known as adipokines, which include leptin. It is widely accepted that leptin can directly link nutritional status and pro-inflammatory T helper 1 immune responses, and that a decrease of leptin plasma concentration during food deprivation can lead to an impaired immune function. Additionally, several studies have implicated leptin in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, and the elevated circulating leptin levels in obesity appear to contribute to the low-grade inflammatory background which makes obese individuals more susceptible to increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, or degenerative disease including autoimmunity and cancer. Conversely, reduced levels of leptin such as those found in malnourished individuals have been linked to increased risk of infection and reduced cell-mediated immune responses. We discuss here the functional influences of leptin in the physiopathology of inflammation, and the effects of leptin in the modulation of such responses. PMID:20198122

  7. Peripartum changes of the sacroiliac joints on MRI: increasing mechanical load correlating with signs of edema and inflammation kindling spondyloarthropathy in the genetically prone.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Iris; Miloh-Raz, Hadar; Dulitzki, Mordechai; Lidar, Zvi; Aharoni, Dvora; Liberman, Boaz; Lidar, Merav

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the MRI changes of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) during pregnancy and following labor and to correlate them with clinical symptoms. Ninety-three pelvic and hip MRIs of pregnant and ≤6 months postpartum women were retrospectively evaluated (Berlin method), for the presence of acute and structural SIJ changes. A telephone questionnaire focusing on pain characterization, co-morbidities, and clinical outcome was conducted with 52 subjects. Findings were correlated with pregnancy week/postpartum time and clinical parameters. SIJ-bone marrow edema (BME) and subchondral sclerosis were a prevalent peripartum finding (46/26 % subjects, respectively), and their frequency increased with pregnancy age. Also, BME, joint fluid, capsulitis, and enthesitis total score were correlated with pregnancy age/postpartum time (r = 0.2-0.31, P = 0.013-0.036). Significant correlation was noted between BME and subchondral sclerosis scores (r = 0.485, P < 0.0001). A sizable proportion of women showed diffuse SIJ BME (7.6 %) and this correlated with slower resolution of symptoms. Indeed, in half of the cases in which MRI was performed due to pregnancy-induced low-back pain (LBP) and diffuse BME was found-spondyloarthropathy ensued. In conclusion, pregnancy and puerperium are associated with a host of acute findings in and around the SIJ, including BME, capsulitis, and enthesitis, reflecting most probably, mechanical load and hormonal changes. While the vast majority of symptoms abate within weeks to several months postpartum, 3.8 % of women go on to develop spondyloarthropathy. Diffuse SIJ BME and the presence of risk factors for spondyloarthropathy are predictive of a chronic course. PMID:26006255

  8. [Pulp treatment of young permanent teeth after traumatic dental injury].

    PubMed

    Qin, Man

    2009-06-01

    Dental trauma could be largely classified into three groups: Hard tissue injuries, pulp injuries and periodontal tissue injuries. Since pulp injuries are reported in tooth fracture, displacement and avulsion, it is commonly thought that pulp injuries were involved in almost every type of dental injuries. The sequelae of pulp tissue after dental injuries include pulp survival, pulp calcification and pulp necrosis. Dental trauma mostly occurs in 7-15 year-old children. The treatment and prognosis of dental trauma in children are more complicated than those in adults because of the developmental nature of the young permanent teeth. The evaluation of pulp damage and treatment after dental injuries in growing young permanent teeth are discussed in this paper.

  9. Pulp and paper NESHAP: A plain English description

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This document focuses on the NESHAP and describes; the pulping and bleaching processes; the requirements of the NESHAP; the scope of effluent limitations guidelines and standards revisions; and additional references and sources of information about pulp and paper mills.

  10. Effect of adaptation and pulp density on bioleaching of mine waste using indigenous acidophilic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K.; Kim, B.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Adaptation to environment is a natural phenomena that takes place in many animals, plants and microorganisms. These adapted organisms achieve stronger applicability than unadapted organisms after habitation in a specific environment for a long time. In the biohydrometallurgical industry, adaptation to special environment conditions by selective culturing is the most popular method for improving bioleaching activity of strains-although that is time consuming. This study investigated the influence of the bioleaching efficiency of mine waste under batch experimental conditions (adaptation and pulp density) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at the influences of parameters, such as the adaptation of bacteria and pulp density of the mine waste. In the adaptation case, the value of pH in 1'st adaptation bacteria sample exhibited lower than in 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. And the content of both Cu and Zn at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample appeared lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. In the SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed on the filter paper (pore size - 0.45μm). The results of pulp density experiments revealed that the content of both Cu and Zn increased with increasing pulp density, since the increment of pulp density resulted in the enhancement of bioleaching capacity.

  11. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  12. Potential dental pulp revascularization and odonto-/osteogenic capacity of a novel transplant combined with dental pulp stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jin; Zhao, Yin-Hua; Zhao, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nan-Xia; Lv, Xin; Li, Qiang; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Min

    2015-08-01

    Our aim is to investigate the cytobiological effects of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and to explore the ectopic and orthotopic possibilities of dental pulp revascularization and pulp-dentin complex regeneration along the root canal cavities of the tooth by using a novel tissue-engineered transplant composed of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules. Canine DPSCs were isolated and characterized by assaying their colony-forming ability and by determining their cell surface markers and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential. The biological effects of autologous PRF on DPSCs, including cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and odonto-/osteogenic gene expression, were then investigated and quantified. A novel transplant consisting of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules was adopted to regenerate pulp-dentin-like tissues in the root canal, both subcutaneously in nude mice and in the roots of canines. PRF promoted the proliferation of DPSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced the differentiation of DPSCs to odonto-/osteoblastic fates by increasing the expression of the Alp, Dspp, Dmp1 and Bsp genes. Transplantation of the DPSC/PRF construct led both to a favorable regeneration of homogeneous and compact pulp-like tissues with abundantly distributed blood capillaries and to the deposition of regenerated dentin along the intracanal walls at 8 weeks post-operation. Thus, the application of DPSC/PRF tissue constructs might serve as a potential therapy in regenerative endodontics for pulp revitalization or revascularization.

  13. Effects of a 15% orange-pulp diet on tumorigenesis and immune response in rats with colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Kossoy, G; Ben-Hur, H; Stark, A; Zusman, I; Madar, Z

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the feeding of rats with a 15% orange-pulp diet affects the lymphatic system and the tumorigenic response in rats exposed to a high dose of carcinogen. Five-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups fed a control chow diet or the same diet with 15% orange pulp. All rats were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg) weekly for 6 weeks. At 8 months, tumors, spleens and descending colon were taken from each group for analyses. Feeding rats the 15% orange-pulp diet did not reduce the tumor number but modified the number of adenocarcinomas found in the orange-pulp group compared to controls: 66.7% vs. 93.7%. The number of endophytic tumors was also significantly lower in the experimental group: 6.3% vs. 32.3% in controls. DMH affected the size of the splenic structures. The size of follicles and germinal centers decreased significantly in tumor-bearing rats compared to tumor-free rats. This effect was changed in rats fed the orange-pulp diet. In tumor-bearing rats from this group, only the area of the marginal zone decreased and the red pulp increased compared to tumor-free rats. The size of germinal centers significantly increased compared to tumor-bearing rats in controls. The total number of lymphoid cells decreased in germinal centers of spleens obtained from control tumor-bearing rats compared to tumor-free rats. DMH alone significantly increased the total number of cells in the colon mucosa of the rats fed the control diet. In tumor-bearing rats exposed to the carcinogen and fed the 15% orange-pulp diet, the total number of cells and the number of Ki-67+ cells increased in the depth of tumors whereas the number of CD8+ T cells increased in the colon mucosa, at the border of tumors and its depth. The caspase-3 protein a cysteine protease was elevated in tumors from rats fed the orange-pulp diet. Although the 15% orange-pulp diet did not change the number of tumors in the tumor-bearing rats, feeding rats orange

  14. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth.

  15. Effect of microwave power on kinetics and characteristics of microwave vacuum-dried longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yuanyuan

    2015-03-01

    The drying kinetics of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp processed by microwave vacuum under different microwave levels (2.67, 5.33, 8.00, and 10.67 W/g) was investigated (pressure controlled at -85 ± 2 kPa) in the present study. It was found that the drying rate of longan pulp was dependent on the microwave power, and the rehydration rate increased from 1.96 to 2.17 with the increase of microwave power from 2.67 to 10.67 W/g. Among nine selected thin layer models, the microwave vacuum drying of longan pulp was well represented by five models, which were Page, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Wang and Singh, Logarithmic, and Midilli models. Furthermore, the results of statistical analysis indicated that the Midilli model could describe the best experimental data. In addition, scanning electron microscope observation showed that the microwave vacuum-dried longan pulp had a porous structure.

  16. ESCA (XPS) study on light-induced yellowing of thermomechanical and chemothermomechanical pulps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, András; Faix, Oskar; Rachor, Georg; Bertóti, Imre; Székely, Tamás

    1993-11-01

    Thermomechanical and chemothermomechanical pulp samples have been derived from Norway spruce ( Picea abies) and characterized by brightness measurements and ESCA before and after exposure to artificial light irradiation. The surface O/C atomic ratios of the non-irradiated pulps were found to be between 0.3 and 0.37, which was interpreted as being due to their high surface lignin contents. The brightness reversion was accompanied by a considerable increase in the surface O/C ratio, by a decrease in the relative intensity of the C1 component of the C1s peak ( BE = 285.0 eV), and by increases in those of the C2 ( BE = 286.6 eV) and C3 ( BE = 288.2 eV) parts. It had no effect on the shapes of the O 1s peaks. The results were related to the photo-oxidation and photoyellowing of high-yield pulps.

  17. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  18. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  20. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... emissions data that will enable a broader understanding of condensable PM emissions from pulp and paper... first review of the kraft pulp mills NSPS was completed on May 20, 1986 (51 FR 18544). The 1986 review..., 2000 (65 FR 61759); and September 21, 2006 (71 FR 55127)). The current kraft pulp mills NSPS...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  2. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  3. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  4. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  5. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  7. Analyses of dental pulp in restored teeth.

    PubMed

    Lentz, D L; Buchanan, J T; Basinger, D R

    1989-03-01

    Restored teeth were extracted from test animals at four time intervals (1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, and 3 months) following amalgam insertion. Extracted teeth were frozen in liquid nitrogen, cryo-fractured so as to expose the pulps and then freeze-dried. Pulps were analyzed for mercury content by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Mercury levels appeared below the detection limits of EDS but could be detected by AAS which showed the highest readings seven days after amalgam insertion. PMID:2740863

  8. Surgical inflammation: a pathophysiological rainbow

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jose-Ignacio; Aller, María-Angeles; Arias, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Tetrapyrrole molecules are distributed in virtually all living organisms on Earth. In mammals, tetrapyrrole end products are closely linked to oxygen metabolism. Since increasingly complex trophic functional systems for using oxygen are considered in the post-traumatic inflammatory response, it can be suggested that tetrapyrrole molecules and, particularly their derived pigments, play a key role in modulating inflammation. In this way, the diverse colorfulness that the inflammatory response triggers during its evolution would reflect the major pathophysiological importance of these pigments in each one of its phases. Therefore, the need of exploiting this color resource could be considered for both the diagnosis and treatment of the inflammation. PMID:19309494

  9. New Pulp Biobleaching System Involving Manganese Peroxidase Immobilized in a Silica Support with Controlled Pore Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Toshiya; Kajino, Tsutomu; Li, Bo; Sugiyama, Hidehiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    Attempts have been made to use manganese peroxidase (MnP) for chlorine-free pulp biobleaching, but they have not been commercially viable because of the enzyme's low stability. We developed a new pulp biobleaching method involving mesoporous material-immobilized manganese peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. MnP immobilized in FSM-16, a folded-sheet mesoporous material whose pore size is nearly the same as the diameter of the enzyme, had the highest thermal stability and tolerance to H2O2. MnP immobilized in FSM-16 retained more than 80% of its initial activity even after 10 days of continuous reaction. We constructed a thermally discontinuous two-stage reactor system, in which the enzyme (39°C) and pulp-bleaching (70°C) reactions were performed separately. When the treatment of pulp with MnP by means of the two-stage reactor system and alkaline extraction was repeated seven times, the brightness of the pulp increased to about 88% within 7 h after completion of the last treatment. PMID:11319102

  10. Aroma biogenesis and distribution between olive pulps and seeds with identification of aroma trends among cultivars.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-11-01

    The two constitutive parts of four cultivars (Arbequina, Picual, Local and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in Spain were separately analysed in order to establish the role of pulp and seed in the biogenesis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) aroma through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. C6 and C5 volatile compounds responsible of EVOO aroma were produced by endogenous enzymes in both parts of olive fruits and the differences can be attributed to different enzymes distribution in pulp and seed. According to results, C6 and C5 volatile compounds have mainly their biogenesis in pulp (80-90%) vs. seed (20-10%), independently of the cultivar considered. A linear discriminant analysis was used to establish discriminant aroma compounds between pulp and seed related to the maturity index. A decrease in trans-2-hexen-1-al and an increase in 1-hexanol with ripeness were observed independently of the cultivar considered. Finally, Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis between pulp and seed aroma compounds allowed to establish those volatile compounds that better describe each cultivar. PMID:23768404

  11. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P < 0.05) during storage. The surface redness (a* value) increased (P < 0.05) with the incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp. Furthermore, metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation were lower (P < 0.05) in tomato- and guava-treated emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration. PMID:26396313

  12. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  13. Pulp Revascularization- It’s your Future Whether you Know it or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Grover, Shibani; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pulpal regeneration after tooth injury is not easy to accomplish. In teeth with immature apices and exposed vital pulp tissue, partial or complete pulpotomy is indicated to preserve pulpal function and allow continued root development. In many cases, injury causes loss of pulp vitality and arrested root development leading to a tooth with poor crown root ratio, a root with very thin walls, an open blunderbuss apex and development of apical pathosis. The ideal treatment in such cases would be to obtain further root development and thickening of dentinal walls by stimulating the regeneration of a functional pulp dentin complex. This outcome has been observed after reimplantation in avulsed immature permanent teeth but has been thought impossible in a necrotic infected tooth. This case series evaluates the efficacy of revascularization procedure in immature, non vital permanent teeth. Pulp regeneration was attempted in four patients at Department of Conservative Dentistry, ESIC Dental College, New Delhi using blood clotting approach. The cases were treated and followed up regularly at regular intervals ranging from 6 months to 3 years to assess the treatment response clinically and radiographically. The patients remained clinically asymptomatic with three out of four patients even responding positively to pulp responsiveness tests. Radiographic examination also revealed increased root formation and thickening of dentinal walls. It was concluded that the triad of a disinfected canal, a matrix (blood clot) in to which new tissue could grow and an effective coronal seal produced the desirable environment for successful revascularization. PMID:26023665

  14. [Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the

  15. Expression of DMP-1 in the human pulp tissue using low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Oliveira Rodini, Camila; Cruvinel Silva, Thiago; Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade; Marchini Oliveira, Thais

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on DMP-1 expression in pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I—Buckley’s Formocresol (FC); Group II—Calcium Hydroxide (CH); Group III—LLLT + CH and Group IV—LLLT + Zinc oxide/Eugenol. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Descriptive analysis was performed on the dentin pulp complex. Histopathological assessment showed internal resorption in group FC. Groups CH and LLLT + CH provided better pulpal repair due to the absence of inflammation and the formation of hard tissue barrier. These two groups presented odontoblastic layer expressing DMP-1. According to this study, low level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory bio-inductive activity on pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. However, other histological and cellular studies are needed to confirm the laser tissue action and efficacy.

  16. A combination of vermiculite and paper pulp supporting material for the photoautotrophic micropropagation of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Afreen-Zobayed; Zobayed; Kubota; Kozai; Hasegawa

    2000-08-22

    A mixture of vermiculite (hydrous silicates) and paper pulp (waste product of paper industry) was used as a supporting material for the in vitro photoautotrophic micropropagation of plantlets. Sweet potato was used as a model plant to find out the appropriate proportion of vermiculite and paper pulp for the optimum growth of the plantlets. The plantlets grown in the conventional supporting material, agar, were used as the control. The study revealed that in all aspects, the plantlets grown in vermiculite mixed with 30% (w/w) paper pulp exhibited the highest growth performance. The shoot and root fresh mass were x2.7 greater than those in agar (control); the leaf, stem and root dry mass were also greater and at least two fold in this treatment compared with those in the control. The net photosynthetic rate per plantlet was highest in this treatment, and on day 20 it was 15.3 µmol CO(2) h(-1) as compared with 9.8 µmol CO(2) h(-1) in the control. The growth of both shoots and roots decreased gradually with the increase or decrease of percentage of paper pulp in the supporting material. In general, the growth was significantly poorer in the plantlets grown in 100% vermiculite than that in vermiculite mixed with 30% paper pulp but still greater than in the control. The porosity of the supporting materials increased with the increase in the percentage of paper pulp in the supporting material. After transplanting to the ex vitro condition the survival percentage did not vary significantly (90-100%) among the treatments, except in control where it was only 73%. The number of unfolded leaves and the stem height were similar among the treatments except those in the control. PMID:10960736

  17. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  18. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  19. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  20. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2010-11-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted.

  1. Influence of process variables on the properties of laccase biobleached pulps.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Miranda, Jesús; García-Fuentevilla, Luisa L; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, Maria E; Diaz, Manuel J; Eugenio, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    A laccase stage can be used as a pre-treatment of a standard chemical bleaching sequence to reduce environmental concerns associated to this process. The importance of each independent variable and its influence on the properties of the bleached pulp have been studied in depth in this work, using an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with four independent variables (laccase, buffer, mediator and oxygen) as input. Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp was biobleached using a laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus and a natural mediator (acetosyringone). Later, an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide treatment were applied. Most biobleaching processes showed a decrease in kappa number and an increase in brightness with no significant impact on the viscosity values, compared with the control. Oxygen was the variable with the smallest influence on the final pulp properties while the laccase and buffer solution showed a significant influence. PMID:25085529

  2. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alamy, Marya; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Results Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents. Key words:Dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, isolation method. PMID:26946201

  3. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp.

  4. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. PMID:27518034

  5. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. PMID:24698687

  6. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  7. Biological approaches toward dental pulp regeneration by tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Jin, Tao; Yu, Qing; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2011-04-01

    Root canal therapy has been the predominant approach in endodontic treatment, wherein the entire pulp is cleaned out and replaced with a gutta-percha filling. However, living pulp is critical for the maintenance of tooth homeostasis and essential for tooth longevity. An ideal form of therapy, therefore, might consist of regenerative approaches in which diseased/necrotic pulp tissues are removed and replaced with regenerated pulp tissues to revitalize the teeth. Dental pulp regeneration presents one of the most challenging issues in regenerative dentistry due to the poor intrinsic ability of pulp tissues for self-healing and regrowth. With the advent of modern tissue engineering and the discovery of dental stem cells, biological therapies have paved the way to utilize stem cells, delivered or internally recruited, to generate dental pulp tissues, where growth factors and a series of dentine extracellular matrix molecules are key mediators that regulate the complex cascade of regeneration events to be faithfully fulfilled.

  8. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  9. IMMEDIATE HUMAN PULP RESPONSE TO ETHANOL-WET BONDING TECHNIQUE

    PubMed Central

    Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Pashley, David Henry; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short-term response of human pulps to ethanol-wet bonding technique associated with an etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Methods Deep class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 17 sound premolars scheduled for extraction for orthodontics. The teeth were assigned into three groups: Ethanol-wet bonding (G1), water-wet bonding (G2) and calcium hydroxide (G3, control). Two teeth were used as intact control. After acid-etching, the cavities from G1 were filled with 100% ethanol for 60s and blot-dried before the application of Single Bond 2. In G2, the cavities were filled with distilled water for 60s previously to adhesive application and in G3, the cavity floor was lined with calcium hydroxide before etching and bonding. All cavities were restored with resin composite. The teeth were extracted 48h after the clinical procedures. From each tooth 6 μm-thick serial sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H/E) and Masson's trichrome. Bacteria microleakage was assessed using Brown & Brenn. All sections were blindly evaluated and scored for five histological features. Results Mean remaining dentin thickness was 463±65μm (G1); 425±184μm (G2); and 348±194μm (G3). Similar pulp reactions followed ethanol- or water-wet bonding techniques. Slight inflammatory responses and disruption of the odontoblast layer related to the cavity floor were seen in all groups. Stained bacteria were not detected in any cavities. Normal pulp tissue was observed in G3 except for one case. Conclusions After 48 h, ethanol-wet bonding technique applied on deep cavities prepared in vital teeth does not increase pulpal damage compared to water-wet bonding technique. Clinical significance Ethanol-wet bonding has been considered an experimental technique that may increase resin-dentin bond durability. This study reported the in vivo response of human pulp tissue when 100% ethanol was applied previously to an etch-and-rinse simplified adhesive

  10. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  11. Inflammation in Tendon Disorders.

    PubMed

    Speed, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The role of inflammation in tendon disorders has long been a subject of considerable debate. Developments in our understanding of the basic science of inflammation have provided further insight into its potential role in specific forms of tendon disease, and the circumstances that may potentiate this. Such circumstances include excessive mechanical stresses on tendon and the presence of systemic inflammation associated with chronic diseases. In this chapter a brief review of the basic science of inflammation is provided and the influence that it may play on tendons is discussed. PMID:27535263

  12. Inflammation, Sanitation, and Consternation

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Rook, Graham A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Context Inflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD), even in individuals who are otherwise medically healthy. Most studies in search of sources for this increased inflammation have focused on factors such as psychosocial stress and obesity that are known to activate inflammatory processes and increase the risk for depression. However, MDD may be so prevalent in the modern world not just because proinflammatory factors are widespread, but also because we have lost contact with previously available sources of anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory signaling. Objective To examine evidence that disruptions in co-evolved relationships with a variety of tolerogenic microorganisms that were previously ubiquitous in soil, food, and the gut, but that are largely missing from industrialized societies, may contribute to increasing rates of MDD in the modern world. Data Sources Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. Study Selection Included were laboratory animal and human studies relevant to immune functioning, the hygiene hypothesis, and major depressive disorder identified via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE searches. Data Extraction Studies were reviewed by all authors, and data considered to be potentially relevant to the contribution of hygiene-related immune variables to major depressive disorder were extracted. Data Synthesis Significant data suggest that a variety of microorganisms (frequently referred to as the “old friends”) were tasked by coevolutionary processes with training the human immune system to tolerate a wide array of nonthreatening but potentially proinflammatory stimuli. Lacking such immune training, vulnerable individuals in the modern world are at significantly increased risk of mounting inappropriate inflammatory attacks on harmless environmental antigens (leading to asthma), benign food contents and commensals in the gut (leading to inflammatory bowel disease), or

  13. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    PubMed

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks. PMID:25447553

  14. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    PubMed

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  15. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    PubMed

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Digestion coefficient of organic matter in dry matter and metabolisable energy were also decreased in treated lemon pulp (p < 0.05). Compared with untreated lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p < 0.05), but digestibility of crude fat was lower (p < 0.05). In general, processing of lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF.

  16. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway in response to pulp capping of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Løvschall, H; Tummers, M; Thesleff, I; Füchtbauer, E-M; Poulsen, K

    2005-08-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls the developmental choices made by individual cells. Cells communicate via Notch receptors and their ligands, which direct decisions on the fate of stem cells according to the states of their neighbors. In this study we explored Notch signaling after the pulp capping of adult first upper rat molars. The wound was capped with calcium hydroxide. In situ hybridization revealed an increased expression of Notch signaling genes on day 1, which showed a tendency to decrease on day 3. Notch1 increased in the subodontoblast zone and close to the lesion limited to a few cells. Notch2 increased in pulp stroma surrounded by coronal odontoblasts. Notch1 and, especially, Notch3 expression increased, corresponding to perivascular cell groups. A low increase of ligand expression was observed near the injury with Delta1 expression along the dentin wall and Jagged1 in the stroma. Expression of the downstream target, Hes1, was observed along the lesion and adjacent dentin walls. Hes5 expression was not observed. The results indicate that Notch signaling is activated in response to injury and associated with the differentiation of pulp cells into perivascular cells and odontoblasts. The findings are consistent with the concept that the Notch pathway controls stem cell fate during pulp regeneration. PMID:16048523

  17. Polyphenol compounds and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean black raspberry ( Rubus coreanus Miquel) wines produced from juice supplemented with pulp and seed.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Woong; Hwang, Hyun Joo; Shin, Chul Soo

    2012-05-23

    Three types of Korean black raspberry wine were produced via alcoholic fermentation from juice, juice-pulp, and juice-pulp-seed, respectively. These wines were compared in terms of their anti-inflammatory activities and polyphenol contents. The total content of polyphenol compounds in wines was increased by 22.4% after supplementation with pulp and by 56.7% after supplementation with both pulp and seed. The reduction rate of NO evolution was highest in the order juice-pulp-seed wine, juice-pulp wine, and juice wine. Addition of the juice-pulp-seed wine at a level of 62.5-500 mg/L decreased the NO evolution rate by 40.5-94.2%. Eight fractions were obtained from juice-pulp-seed wine via ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography. Of these, the AF fraction, which exhibited the highest in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, exerted inhibitory effects on ear edema, writhing response, and vein membrane vascular permeability in mice. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid accounted for 37.6% of the total polyphenol content in the AF fraction.

  18. Process modeling and analysis of pulp mill-based integrated biorefinery with hemicellulose pre-extraction for ethanol production: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Ramaswamy, Shri; Al-Dajani, Waleed Wafa; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform to use more effectively an abundant, renewable bio-resource - wood. Modification of the modern day pulp mills into integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) presents an excellent opportunity to produce, in addition to valuable cellulose fiber, co-products including fuel grade ethanol and additional energy, thus resulting in increased revenue streams and profitability and potentially lower the greenhouse gas emissions. A process model to simulate the integrate forest biorefinery manufacturing pulp and other co-products has been developed. This model has been used to compare three integrated biorefinery scenarios: the conventional Kraft pulping process, the pulp mill-based IFBR with hemicelluloses extraction prior to pulping for ethanol production, and the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber for ethanol production. Based on a fixed feedstock throughput of 2000 dry Mg wood/day, results show that the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber cellulose converted to ethanol can produce 0.038 MM m(3) (10.04 MM gal) ethanol per year at a minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) of $491/m(3) ($1.86/gal). The economic feasibility of IFBR can be further improved by using further improvements in the pre-extraction process, other biomass such as corn stover for producing ethanol, and taking advantage of the economies of scale.

  19. The Effect of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Chlorhexidine as Direct Pulp Capping Agent in Dogs Teeth: A Histologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Manochehrifar, Hamed; Parirokh, Masoud; Kakooei, Sina; Oloomi, Mohammad Mehdi; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present investigation was to compare the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) mixture to pure MTA, as a pulp capping material. Methods and Materials: The pulp of 24 lateral incisors and canines from four dogs were exposed and capped either with MTA or MTA+0.2% CHX. After 2 months the animals were sacrificed and the teeth were prepared for histological evaluation in terms of calcified bridge formation, the degree of inflammation and presence of necrosis. The Fisher’s exact test was used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that formation of complete calcified bridge in MTA specimens was significantly more than MTA+CHX (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the degree of inflammation and necrosis between MTA and MTA+CHX groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Mixing MTA with CHX as pulp capping agent had a significant negative impact on formation of calcified bridge on directly capped dog’s teeth. PMID:27790263

  20. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  1. Genetic aspects of inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hold, Georgina L; El-Omar, Emad M

    2008-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of most common cancers. The aetiology of the inflammation is varied and includes microbial, chemical and physical agents. The chronically inflamed milieu is awash with pro-inflammatory cytokines and is characterized by the activation of signalling pathways that cross-talk between inflammation and carcinogenesis. Many of the factors involved in chronic inflammation play a dual role in the process, promoting neoplastic progression but also facilitating cancer prevention. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and cellular inflammatory mechanisms involved is vital for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies against cancer. The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the mechanistic pathways that underlie chronic inflammation and cancer with particular emphasis on the role of host genetic factors that increase the risk of carcinogenesis.

  2. Mobilized dental pulp stem cells for pulp regeneration: initiation of clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro

    2014-04-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex, enabling the conservation and restoration of functional teeth. We assessed the efficacy and safety of pulp stem cell transplantation as a prelude before the initiation of clinical trials. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces subsets of dental pulp stem cells to form mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs). Good manufacturing practice is a prerequisite for the isolation and expansion of MDPSCs that are enriched in stem cells, expressing a high level of trophic factors with properties of high proliferation, migration, and antiapoptotic effects and endowed with regenerative potential. The quality of clinical-grade MDPSCs was assured by the absence of abnormalities/aberrations in karyotype and the lack of tumor formation after transplantation in immunodeficient mice. Autologous transplantation of MDPSCs with G-CSF in pulpectomized teeth in dogs augmented the regeneration of pulp tissue. The combinatorial trophic effects of MDPSCs and G-CSF on cell migration, antiapoptosis, immunosuppression, and neurite outgrowth were also confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, MDPSCs from the aged donors were as potent as the young donors. It is noteworthy that there were no significant age-related changes in biological properties such as stability, regenerative potential, and expression of the senescence markers in MDPSCs. On the other hand, autologous transplantation of MDPSCs with G-CSF induced less regenerated pulp tissue in the aged dogs compared with the young dogs. In conclusion, the preclinical safety, feasibility, and efficacy of pulp regeneration by MDPSCs and G-CSF were established. Therefore, the standardization and establishment of regulatory guidelines for stem cell therapy in clinical endodontics is now a reality.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. pulp and paper industry consumes over $7 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pulp and paper industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR(R) for Industry energy efficiency guidebook (a.k.a. the"Energy Guide") for pulp and paper manufacturers. The Energy Guide discusses a wide range of energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Also provided is a discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pulp and paper industry along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Many energy efficiency measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in pulp and paper mills and related industries worldwide. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. pulp and paper industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  4. Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.H.

    1997-12-01

    Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

  5. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 2. Effects on digestion and ruminal digestion kinetics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on digestion and ruminal digestion kinetics were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) d in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a dry matter basis. Diet concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0 and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Ruminal dry matter pool decreased and NDF turnover rate increased as dietary beet pulp content increased. Potentially digestible NDF was digested more extensively and at a faster rate in the rumen with increasing beet pulp, resulting in increased total tract NDF digestibility. Passage rates of potentially digestible NDF and of indigestible NDF were not affected by treatment. True ruminal digestibility of starch decreased with increasing beet pulp substitution. This was caused by a linear increase in starch passage rate, possibly because of increasing ruminal fill, and a linear decrease in digestion rate of starch in the rumen, possibly because of reduced amylolytic enzyme activity for lower-starch diets. Although true ruminal starch digestibility decreased when more beet pulp was fed, whole tract starch digestibility was not affected because of compensatory digestion of starch in the intestines. Due to more thorough digestion of fiber in diets containing more beet pulp, whole-tract digestibility of organic matter increased linearly, and intake of digestible organic matter was not affected. Partially replacing high-moisture corn with beet pulp in low-forage diets increased fiber digestibility without

  6. Evaluation of dental pulp temperature rise during photo-activated decontamination (PAD) of caries: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nammour, Samir; Zeinoun, T; Bogaerts, I; Lamy, M; Geerts, S O; Bou Saba, S; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Limme, M

    2010-09-01

    Photo-activated decontamination (PAD) has been reported in caries treatment as an aid in dentine decontamination. The aim of this study is to verify the harmlessness for pulp vitality of photo-activated decontamination (PAD) in caries treatment. Twenty freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were used. Deep class I cavities with a pulp were prepared. Following the manufacturer's instructions, cavities were filled with a photo-sensitizer (Phenothiazinechloride: 10 mg /ml), irradiated during 30 s with a 660-nm diode laser (output power: 40 mW in continuous wave; total delivered energy density: 4.87 J/cm(2)). Pulp temperature raises were recorded using a thermocouple (ALCr). Measurements were recorded every second during the irradiation and 150 s afterwards. Six records were repeated for each tooth. After 30 s of irradiation, the mean of temperature rise was 0.83 degrees C +/- 0.22 degrees C. All records showed temperature increases lower than the 3 degrees C (safety level for pulp injury). Based on our in vitro study, we can conclude that the dental pulp temperature rise following the use of PAD technique for the decontamination of dentine can be considered as save procedure for pulp vitality.

  7. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Gasull, Xavier; Diebold, Yolanda; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101) have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases) can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation. PMID:25132732

  8. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    PubMed

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  9. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  10. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms. PMID:3533597

  11. Differential repair responses in the coronal and radicular areas of the exposed rat molar pulp induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (osteogenic protein 1).

    PubMed

    Six, Ngampis; Lasfargues, Jean-Jacques; Goldberg, Michel

    2002-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP 7), also termed osteogenic protein 1, a member of the transforming growth-factor superfamily, was examined for its efficacy in inducing reparative dentinogenesis in the exposed pulps of rat molars. To determine if the reaction was dose-dependent, collagen pellets containing 1, 3 or 10 microgram of recombinant BMP 7 were inserted in intentionally perforated pulps (10-12 pulps per group) in the deepest part of half-moon class V-like cavities cut in the mesial aspect of upper first molars. As controls, the collagen carrier (CC group) alone and calcium hydroxide (Ca group) were used as capping agents. All cavities were then restored with a glass-ionomer cement. Half of the animals were killed after 8 days and the other half after 28 days, by intracardiac perfusion of fixative. The molars were processed for histological evaluation by light microscopy. No difference in effect could be detected between the three concentrations of BMP 7 groups at either time interval. After 8 days, all groups showed varying inflammation, from mild of severe, and the Ca group demonstrated early formation of a reparative dentine bridge. At 28 days the CC group displayed irregular osteodentine formation, leaving some unmineralized areas at the exposure site and interglobular unmineralized areas containing pulp remnants. In the Ca-treated pulps, the initial formation of thick reparative osteodentine bridges that sealed more or less completely the pulp perforation was followed, in the deeper part, by irregular tubular dentine. In most BMP 7-treated specimens, the initial inflammation has resolved at 8 days and at 28 days heterogeneous mineralization or osteodentine filled the mesial coronal pulp. They also had complete filling of the radicular pulp by homogenous mineralization in the mesial root; this reaction was found in 11 teeth in the BMP 7 group, one tooth in the CC group an none of the Ca group. These results emphasize the biological differences the

  12. Analysis of the effect of wash water reduction on bleached pulp characteristics.

    PubMed

    Frigieri, Tânia Cristina; Ventorim, Gustavo; Savi, Antônio Francisco; Favaro, Jaqueline Silveira Comelato

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse cost reduction by reducing the use of fresh water in the cellulose bleaching process and to make it easier to obtain water in a closed circuit. Eucalyptus oxygen delignified industrial pulp was used. The pulp was bleached 10 times in the D(E+P)DP sequence in the same conditions. Counter current washing was used in the bleaching stages, and each sequence was carried out with different wash factors: 9, 6, 3, and 0 m³ of distilled water/ton of oven dry pulp. The goal was to reach brightness of 92±0.5% ISO. The results showed that there was a chemical oxygen demand (COD) increase and brightness reversion, but the kappa number and viscosity did not change. The apparent colour was increased by increasing COD in the effluent during the cycles and by decreasing the wash water. Up to 3 m³/t of water was tolerable and even recommended to wash pulp. Nine cubic metre per tonne of fresh water is most commonly used in the industry, so water savings make the implementation of the process possible.

  13. Solid-state fermentation: an alternative to improve the nutritive value of coffee pulp.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, W; Molina, M R; Brenes, R G; Bressani, R

    1985-02-01

    Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = -0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35 degrees C, and an aeration of 8 liters/min per kg as fermentation conditions, it was found that the maximum concentration of total amino acids was attained after 43 h. The fermented product had a higher total amino acid content and a lower cell wall constituent value (primarily cellulose and hemicellulose) than the original pulp. A growing chicken's ration containing 10% of the fermented product had a feed efficiency (2.14) similar to that of the standard ration (2.19) and was significantly better than that of the diet containing 10% of the original pulp (2.53). The difference observed in feed intake and weight gain between the standard diet and that with 10% of the fermented product is considered to be due to palatability factors which should be studied further.

  14. Solid-State Fermentation: an Alternative to Improve the Nutritive Value of Coffee Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza, Walter; Molina, Mario R.; Brenes, Roberto Gomez; Bressani, Ricardo

    1985-01-01

    Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = −0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35°C, and an aeration of 8 liters/min per kg as fermentation conditions, it was found that the maximum concentration of total amino acids was attained after 43 h. The fermented product had a higher total amino acid content and a lower cell wall constituent value (primarily cellulose and hemicellulose) than the original pulp. A growing chicken's ration containing 10% of the fermented product had a feed efficiency (2.14) similar to that of the standard ration (2.19) and was significantly better than that of the diet containing 10% of the original pulp (2.53). The difference observed in feed intake and weight gain between the standard diet and that with 10% of the fermented product is considered to be due to palatability factors which should be studied further. PMID:16346724

  15. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunil; Shin, Su-Jung; Song, Yunjung; Kim, Euiseong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration. PMID:26688616

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. PMID:27107340

  17. Novel fiber optic dental pulp vitalometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiniemi, Matti; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-02-01

    Since the diagnosis of the intradental blood supply is difficult in dental trauma, we have designed and built a new dental pulp vitalometer based on optical reflectance measurement and exploiting the different absorption spectra of haemoglobins. The device comprises light transmitters, a receiver, electronics and a PC. Pulsed light is transmitted along the fiber optic probe, which illuminates the tooth being tested. The same probe collects the reflected light from the tooth pulp and transfers the light to the receiver. The received signal is divided into AC and DC components and a data acquisition card reads these signals, performs an A/D conversion and writes the results in a text file. A reference plethysmogram signal from a finger is used to help in processing the measured dental signal. The computer program calculates an estimate for the oxygen saturation.

  18. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 3. Effects on ruminal fermentation, pH, and microbial protein efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on ruminal fermentation, pH, and microbial efficiency were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) DIM at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a DM basis. Diet concentrations of NDF and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0, and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Substituting beet pulp for corn did not affect daily mean or minimum ruminal pH but tended to reduce pH range. Ruminal acetate:propionate responded in a positive exponential relationship to added beet pulp. Rate of valerate absorption from the rumen was not affected by treatment. Substituting beet pulp for corn up to 24% of diet DM did not affect efficiency of ruminal microbial protein production, expressed as microbial N flow to the duodenum as a percentage of OM truly digested in the rumen. Microbial efficiency was not correlated to mean pH or daily minimum pH. While microbial efficiency was not directly related to concentration of beet pulp fed, it was positively correlated with passage rate of particulate matter, as represented by starch and indigestible NDF, probably due to reduced turnover of microbial protein in the rumen.

  19. Activation of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenkai; Lv, Haipeng; Wang, Haijing; Wang, Diya; Sun, Shukai; Jia, Qian; Wang, Peina; Song, Bing; Ni, Longxing

    2015-08-01

    The NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway plays an important role in cellular immune defence against bacterial infection; however, its function in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that NLRP3 protein expression occurs to a greater extent in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis than in normal pulp tissue and in tissue with reversible pulpitis. Caspase-1 is present in its active (cleaved) form only in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis. NLRP3 and caspase-1 are expressed in the odontoblast layers in normal human dental pulp tissue, whereas in inflamed pulp tissue, the odontoblast layers are disrupted and dental pulp cells are positive for NLRP3 and caspase-1. Additionally, we investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway in human dental pulp fibroblasts and show that ATP activates the P2X7 receptor on the cell membrane triggering K(+) efflux and inducing the gradual recruitment of the membrane pore pannexin-1. Extracellular lipopolysaccharide is able to penetrate the cytosol and activate NLRP3. Furthermore, the low intracellular K(+) concentration in the cytosol triggers reactive oxygen species generation, which also induces the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway has a biological role in the innate immune response mounted by human dental pulp fibroblasts.

  20. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  1. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. PMID:26642109

  2. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  3. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. PMID:25665859

  4. Optical measurement of pulp quantity in a rotating disc refiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahautala, Taito; Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf; Härkönen, Esko; Vuorio, Petteri

    2004-11-01

    An optical method based on light extinction was used in measuring pulp quantity in the plate gap of a 10 MW thermomechanical pulping refiner for the first time. The relationship between pulp quantity and light extinction was determined by empirical laboratory experiments. The empirical relationship was then applied to interpret the image data obtained from field measurements. The results show the local distribution of pulp in the refiner plate gap for different rotor plate positions and refiner operation points. The maximum relative uncertainty in the measured pulp quantity was 50%. Relative pulp distributions were measured at higher accuracy. The measurements have influenced the development of a laser-based optical diagnostic method that can be applied to the quantitative visualization of technically demanding industrial processes.

  5. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp.

    PubMed

    Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K; Lyberatos, G

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

  6. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on human pulp cells: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Essner, Mark D.; Javed, Amjad; Eleazer, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on human pulp cells to provide an aid in determining its optimum concentration in maintaining the viability of remaining pulp cells in the revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. Study design Human pulp tissue cells taken from extracted third molars were plated, incubated, and subjected to various concentrations of NaOCl (0.33%, 0.16%, 0.08%, and 0.04%) for 5-, 10-, and 15-minute time intervals to simulate possible contact times in vivo. The Cell Titer–Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay was used to determine the number of viable cells present in culture following treatment. Results The results showed an increase in cell viability with the lowering of NaOCl concentration. The use of 0.04% NaOCl was similar to the control, indicating nearly complete preservation of cell viability at all time intervals tested. As sodium hypochlorite concentration increased from 0.04% to 0.33%, cell viability decreased correspondingly. Conclusions The results indicate that the lowest concentration of NaOCl tested did not affect the viability of cells. This may prove beneficial in developing a new treatment protocol to help preserve existing vital pulp cells in revascularization cases. PMID:21821446

  7. Effect of steam explosion and enzymatic pre-treatments on pulping and bleaching of Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Villar, J C

    2012-05-01

    A non-wood raw material with high potential for pulp and paper applications (Hesperaloe funifera) was subjected to a steam explosion pre-treatment, and the subsequent effect of this pretreatment on biopulping and biobleaching was studied. An increase in the delignification rate, bigger than that reported for autohydrolysis and acid hydrolysis pre-treatments, and a reduction in chemical consumption were found during kraft pulping of the exploded samples. However, biopulping with the laccase-mediator system (LMS) did not lead to a reduction in the kappa number in either non-exploded or exploded unbleached pulps. On the other hand, the steam explosion pretreatment boosted the advantages of the LMS pre-treatment (decrease in kappa number and increase in brightness) favored biobleaching, with a 53.1% delignification rate and a final brightness of 67% ISO. Finally, the steam explosion pre-treatment also improved the color properties of the bleached pulp and reduced the hydrogen peroxide consumption by 24.6%.

  8. Acid hydrolysis of cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp, dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose.

    PubMed

    Palme, Anna; Theliander, Hans; Brelid, Harald

    2016-01-20

    The behaviour of different cellulosic fibres during acid hydrolysis has been investigated and the levelling-off degree of polymerisation (LODP) has been determined. The study included a bleached kraft pulp (both never-dried and once-dried) and two dissolving pulps (once-dried). Additionally, cotton cellulose from new cotton sheets and sheets discarded after long-time use was studied. Experimental results from the investigation, together with results found in literature, imply that ultrastructural differences between different fibres affect their susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis. Drying of a bleached kraft pulp was found to enhance the rate of acid hydrolysis and also result in a decrease in LODP. This implies that the susceptibility of cellulosic fibres towards acid hydrolysis is affected by drying-induced stresses in the cellulose chains. In cotton cellulose, it was found that use and laundering gave a substantial loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP), but that the LODP was only marginally affected.

  9. Indirect pulp capping in young patients: immunohistological study of pulp-dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Ţuculină, Mihaela Jana; Răescu, Mihaela; Dascălu, Ionela Teodora; Popescu, Mihaela; Andreescu, Claudia Florina; Dăguci, C; Cumpătă, C N; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2013-01-01

    Indirect capping is a complex therapy exclusively needed in deep cavities that provides, using biomaterials, a disinfection of the dentinary sore and seals the dentinary tubules, protects the pulp of physical mechanisms and chemical agents and stimulates the mechanisms that produce new dentin. Following this idea, we studied the histological changes in the dental pulp tissue and also the specific immunohistochemical response in various structures when an indirect capping technique was used. We used special histological techniques followed by classical staining or by immunohistochemical reaction in order to assess the odontoblastic, and the vascular reaction. The immunohistochemical study allows us to evaluate the changes in the pulp-dentin complex, as the result of the changes in the dentinal tubules permeability and the biological reactions at this level. PMID:24399005

  10. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    sludge) and primary sludge is still in its infancy. Current research is mainly focused on developing efficient pretreatment methods that enable fast hydrolysis of complex organic matter, shorter sludge residence times and as a consequence, smaller sludge digesters. Previous experimental studies indicate that the anaerobic digestibility of non-pretreated biosludge from pulp and paper mills varies widely, with volatile solids (VS) removal rates of 21-55% and specific methane yields ranging between 40 and 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Pretreatment can increase the digestibility to some extent, however in almost all reported cases, the specific methane yield of pretreated biosludge did not exceed 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Increases in specific methane yield mostly range between 0 and 90% compared to non-pretreated biosludge, whereas larger improvements were usually achieved with more difficult-to-digest biosludge. Thermal treatment and microwave treatment are two of the more effective methods. The heat required for the elevated temperatures applied in both methods may be provided from surplus heat that is often available at pulp and paper mills. Given the large variability in specific methane yield of non-pretreated biosludge, future research should focus on the links between anaerobic digestibility and sludge properties. Research should also involve mill-derived primary sludge. Although biosludge has been the main target in previous studies, primary sludge often constitutes the bulk of mill-generated sludge, and co-digestion of a mixture between both types of sludge may become practical. The few laboratory studies that have included mill primary sludge indicate that, similar to biosludge, the digestibility can range widely. Long-term studies should be conducted to explore the potential of microbial adaptation to lignocellulosic material which can constitute more than half of the organic matter in pulp and paper mill sludge.

  11. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  12. The ups and downs of the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    The ``Up`s and Down`s of the Pulp and Paper Industry`` deals with the design, fabrication, and installation elements of upflow and downflow bleach (retention) towers utilized in the Pulp and Paper industry. Fabrication processes for the shop and field components of these systems are reviewed. In addition, an overview of the advantages of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP), considering the changing chemistries for pulp bleaching is presented, and a number of case histories are reviewed.

  13. Bioceramic Materials and the Changing Concepts in Vital Pulp Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yangpei; Bogen, George; Lim, Jung; Shon, Won-Jun; Kang, Mo K

    2016-05-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is devised to preserve and maintain vitality of pulpally involved teeth challenged by a variety of intraoral conditions. Notable progress has been made in this field due to a better understanding of pulp physiology, improved clinical protocols and advanced bioceramic materials paired with adhesive technology. With focused case selection, conservative VPT can provide reliable treatment options for permanent teeth diagnosed with normal pulps or reversible pulpitis. PMID:27290822

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of different pulp capping materials

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct pulp capping involves the application of a dental material to seal communications between the exposed pulp and the oral cavity (mechanical and carious pulp exposures) in an attempt to act as a barrier, protect the dental pulp complex and preserve its vitality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by the agar disc diffusion test, the antimicrobial activity of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), Biodentine (Septodont). Material and Methods Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion test of different pulp capping materials. Paper disks were impregnated whit each pulp capping materials and placed onto culture agar-plates pre-adsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each pulp capping materials were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. Results For the investigation of the antibacterial properties the ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various materials. Tukey test showed that MTA-based materials induced lower growth inhibition zones. Conclusions MTA-based products show a discrete antibacterial activity varying from calcium hydroxide-based materials which present an higher antibacterial activity. Key words:Agar disc diffusion test, antimicrobial activity, calcium hydroxide, MTA, pulp capping materials. PMID:26644833

  15. Pulp Fibroblasts Control Nerve Regeneration through Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; About, I; Chung, S-H

    2016-07-01

    Dentin-pulp regeneration is closely linked to the presence of nerve fibers in the pulp and to the healing mechanism by sprouting of the nerve fiber's terminal branches beneath the carious injury site. However, little is known about the initial mechanisms regulating this process in carious teeth. It has been recently demonstrated that the complement system activation, which is one of the first immune responses, contributes to tissue regeneration through the local production of anaphylatoxins such as C5a. While few pulp fibroblasts in intact teeth and in untreated fibroblast cultures express the C5a receptor (C5aR), here we show that all dental pulp fibroblasts, localized beneath the carious injury site, do express this receptor. This observation is consistent with our in vitro results, which showed expression of C5aR in lipoteichoic acid-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The interaction of C5a, produced after complement synthesis and activation from pulp fibroblasts, with the C5aR of these cells mediated the local brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) secretion. Overall, this activation guided the neuronal growth toward the lipoteichoic acid-stimulated fibroblasts. Thus, our findings highlight a new mechanism in one of the initial steps of the dentin-pulp regeneration process, linking pulp fibroblasts to the nerve sprouting through the complement system activation. This may provide a useful future therapeutic tool in targeting the fibroblasts in the dentin-pulp regeneration process. PMID:27053117

  16. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  17. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  18. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ

  19. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of inflammation, is decreased but plasma lipids are increased, especially with magnesium (Mg) deprivation, in rats made obese by high dietary butter oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic low-grade inflammation and low Mg status often are concomitant in obesity. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine whether Mg deprivation exacerbates inflammatory stress in obesity. Groups of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6 wk were fed dietary Mg at 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg...

  20. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films.

  1. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films. PMID:26572370

  2. Estrogens, inflammation and cognition.

    PubMed

    Au, April; Feher, Anita; McPhee, Lucy; Jessa, Ailya; Oh, Soojin; Einstein, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The effects of estrogens are pleiotropic, affecting multiple bodily systems. Changes from the body's natural fluctuating levels of estrogens, through surgical removal of the ovaries, natural menopause, or the administration of exogenous estrogens to menopausal women have been independently linked to an altered immune profile, and changes to cognitive processes. Here, we propose that inflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and cognitive decline. In order to determine what is known about this connection, we review the literature on the cognitive effects of decreased estrogens due to oophorectomy or natural menopause, decreased estrogens' role on inflammation--both peripherally and in the brain--and the relationship between inflammation and cognition. While this review demonstrates that much is unknown about the intersection between estrogens, cognition, inflammation, we propose that there is an important interaction between these literatures.

  3. Vitamin D and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, John J; Grant, William B; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Several studies found an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of inflammation. A controversy exists as to whether vitamin D lowers inflammation or whether inflammation lowers 25(OH)D concentrations. Certainly 25(OH)D concentrations fall after major surgery. However, is this due to inflammation lowering 25(OH)D or is 25(OH)D being metabolically cleared by the body to quell inflammation. We searched the literature and found 39 randomized controlled trials (RCT) of vitamin D and markers of inflammation. Seventeen found significantly reduced inflammatory markers, 19 did not, one was mixed and one showed adverse results. With few exceptions, studies in normal subjects, obesity, type 2 diabetics, and stable cardiovascular disease did not find significant beneficial effects. However, we found that 6 out of 7 RCTS of vitamin D3 in highly inflammatory conditions (acute infantile congestive heart failure, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, SLE, active TB and evolving myocardial infarction) found significant reductions. We found baseline and final 25(OH)D predicted RCTs with significant reduction in inflammatory markers. Vitamin D tends to modestly lower markers of inflammation in highly inflammatory conditions, when baseline 25(OH)D levels were low and when achieved 25(OH)D levels were higher. Future inquiries should: recruit subjects with low baseline 25(OH)D levels, subjects with elevated markers of inflammation, subjects with inflammatory conditions, achieve adequate final 25(OH)D levels, and use physiological doses of vitamin D. We attempted to identify all extant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D that used inflammatory markers as primary or secondary endpoints. PMID:26413186

  4. Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first.

    PubMed

    Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.

  5. Obesity, inflammation, and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has become a universal and major public health problem with increasing prevalence in both adults and children in the 21st century, even in developing countries. Extensive epidemiological studies reveal a strong link between obesity and development and progression of various types of cancers. The connection between obesity and liver cancer is particularly strong and obesity often results in liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by fatty liver inflammation and is believed to cause fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latter is a known liver cancer risk factor. In fact due to its much higher prevalence obesity may be a more substantial contributor to overall hepatocellular carcinoma burden than infection with hepatitis viruses. Here we review and discuss recent advances in elucidation of cellular and molecular alterations and signaling pathways associated with obesity and liver inflammation and their contribution to hepatocarcinogenesis.

  6. Epidemic inflammation: pondering obesity.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, inflammation has been recognized as a major driver in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and asthma. Over the same period, there has been a steep rise in the incidence of obesity, a major risk factor for these disorders. Inflammation of adipose tissue is now recognized to accompany obesity and contribute to its sequelae. Thus, whereas obesity is primarily a disorder of energy balance, it may be helpful to consider it also as a form of epidemic inflammation that predisposes to other forms of epidemic inflammation. It is a fundamental biologic challenge to understand how a positive energy balance and inflammation are linked. This work reviews evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates (ROI and RNI) help drive chronic inflammation in the obese. This is proposed to be a maladaptive instance of our evolved dependence on ROI and RNI for both homeostatic signaling and host defense. ROI and RNI are well suited for these seemingly contradictory dual functions by their metabolic origin, high diffusibility in water and lipid, atomic specificity, and large number of molecular targets. When we eat so much and work so little that we repeatedly generate reactive compounds at levels normally reserved for emergencies, we treat our own cells like invading microbes.

  7. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  8. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  9. In vitro fermentation of juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) by human colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Guergoletto, Karla Bigetti; Costabile, Adele; Flores, Gema; Garcia, Sandra; Gibson, Glenn R

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential fermentation properties of juçara pulp, using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Effects upon major groups of the microbiota were monitored over 24h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured by HPLC. Phenolic compounds, during an in vitro simulated digestion and fermentation, were also analysed. Juçara pulp can modulate the intestinal microbiota in vitro, promoting changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifts in the production of SCFA. Fermentation of juçara pulp resulted in a significant increase in numbers of bifidobacteria after a 24h fermentation compared to a negative control. After in vitro digestion, 46% of total phenolic content still remained. This is the first study reporting the potential prebiotic effect of juçara pulp; however, human studies are necessary to prove its efficacy.

  10. Stage-specific effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth FGF2 increased expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of DMP1-GFP+ functional odontoblasts and DSPP-Cerulean+ odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization, expression of markers of dentinogenesis, and expression of DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells and provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration. PMID:25823776

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure.

    PubMed

    Glanpracha, Naraporn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide-containing cassava pulp with pig manure was evaluated using laboratory scale mesophilic digester. The digester was operated in a semi-continuous mode with the mixed feedstock having C/N ratio of 35:1. Digester startup was accomplished in 60days with loading of 0.5-1kgVS/m(3)d. Subsequently, the loading to digester was increased step-wise from 2 to 9kgVS/m(3)d. Digester performance was stable at loading between 2 and 6kgVS/m(3)d with an average volatile solid removal and methane yield of 82% and 0.38m(3)/kgVSadded, respectively. However, beyond loading of 7kgVS/m(3)d, solubilization of particulate matter did not take place efficiently. Cyanide present in cassava pulp was successfully degraded indicating that anaerobic sludge in the digester was well acclimatized to cyanide. The results show that cassava pulp can be successfully digested anaerobically with pig manure as co-substrate without any inhibitory effect of cyanide present in the cassava pulp. PMID:27128196

  12. Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union

    SciTech Connect

    Monte, M.C.

    2009-01-15

    Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics. Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes. Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain. For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure.

    PubMed

    Glanpracha, Naraporn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide-containing cassava pulp with pig manure was evaluated using laboratory scale mesophilic digester. The digester was operated in a semi-continuous mode with the mixed feedstock having C/N ratio of 35:1. Digester startup was accomplished in 60days with loading of 0.5-1kgVS/m(3)d. Subsequently, the loading to digester was increased step-wise from 2 to 9kgVS/m(3)d. Digester performance was stable at loading between 2 and 6kgVS/m(3)d with an average volatile solid removal and methane yield of 82% and 0.38m(3)/kgVSadded, respectively. However, beyond loading of 7kgVS/m(3)d, solubilization of particulate matter did not take place efficiently. Cyanide present in cassava pulp was successfully degraded indicating that anaerobic sludge in the digester was well acclimatized to cyanide. The results show that cassava pulp can be successfully digested anaerobically with pig manure as co-substrate without any inhibitory effect of cyanide present in the cassava pulp.

  14. Effect of Cellulases and Xylanases on Refining Process and Kraft Pulp Properties

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz Buzała, Kamila; Kalinowska, Halina; Derkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities) or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp’s susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time), increased water retention value (WRV) and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced. These changes of pulp parameters caused deterioration of paper strength properties. The treatment with the xylanase, which partially hydrolyzed xylan, small amounts of which are associated with cellulose fibers, only slightly loosened the structure of fibers. These subtle changes positively affected the susceptibility of the pulp to refining (refining energy was significantly reduced) and improved the static strength properties of paper. Thus, the treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases may lead to substantial savings of refining energy without negative effects on paper characteristics. PMID:27557079

  15. Anaerobic treatment of residual lemon pulp in digesters with semi-continuous feed.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A R; Lopez, Z; Salguero, J; Maldonado, M C

    2013-01-01

    Lemon growing areas in the north of Argentina have industries that produce concentrated juice, peel and essential oil and generate a significant amount of liquid and solid waste as lemon pulp. In Argentina, despite the potential applications that the pulp has as animal feed and human and industrial raw material, only 10% is used for these purposes and the rest is discarded into the environment causing many ecological and economic problems. There is little information in the literature on biotechnologies for the treatment of this industrial waste. This paper shows that lemon pulp is a suitable substrate to be treated by anaerobic digestion. We obtained 86 and 92% reduction of chemical oxygen demand in a digester with a semi-continuous feed and retention time of 10 and 20 days respectively and a productivity of 0.406 g CH(4)/g VS h. Comparative tests showed that pre-digesting the pulp improved the process of digestion and increased biogas generation by 20%. PMID:23202554

  16. The rheological properties of bamboo cellulose pulp/ionic liquid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. F.; Zhang, P. R.; Wu, J.; Jia, Q. X.; Liu, X. Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, two kinds of spinning solutions were prepared by dissolving bamboo cellulose pulp into 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazole chloride salt ([EMIM] Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazole diethyl phosphate salt ([BMIM]DEP) ionic liquids, respectively. Furthermore, the rotational rheometer was used to test the steady-state rheological properties of above as-prepared spinning solutions. The research results show that both of these two ionic liquids exhibit better solubility to the bamboo cellulose pulp. The apparent viscosities(ηa) decrease with the increased temperature(T) and shear rate(γ) and increase with the increased concentration. The non-Newtonian index(n) declined with the increase of both shear rate and concentration, as well as increased with the build-up temperature. The structural viscosity index(Δη) increased with the increased concentration and tended to decrease with temperature rise. Meanwhile, viscous flow activation energy(Eη) decreases with the increased share rate as well as the concentration. According to the results, it can be seen that the bamboo cellulose pulp/[EMIM]Cl with the concentration of 6% at 70°C exhibits better spinnability.

  17. [Clinico-pathological studies on the effects of calcium hydroxide eugenol preparations to the human vital pulp tissues].

    PubMed

    Minagawa, M

    1989-05-01

    . Group CE: 14 cases (70%) were good, 4 cases (20%) were satisfactory, and 2 cases (10%) were failure. Group E: 20 cases (100%) were good. 3) Histopathological observations. Various kinds and degree of pulp changes were occurred in each group. Hyperemia and round-cell infiltration resulting from damage caused by treatment and medicaments were frequent in each group. No suppurative inflammation occurred in group CE. Pulp cicatrization and apposition of dentin on pulp chamber walls were observed frequently in each groups. Hard tissue formation was observed in numerous cases of group CE and in some cases in group CRCS and KEZ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  18. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry.

  19. Extracellular fluid movement in the pulp; the pulp/dentin permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M A

    1992-01-01

    Fluid movement in the pulp depends largely upon the physiology of the blood vessels; normally there is a net efflux of fluid and proteins from the capillaries into the extracellular environment. Most pulp capillaries lie close to the odontoblast layer and in order to see whether fluid can pass between the odontoblasts into the predentin we have perfused the vessels of molar tooth germs in anesthetized piglets with the electron dense tracer lanthanum. The results show that the tracer permeates the capillaries but encounters a barrier to permeability at the apical (predentinal) ends of the odontoblasts. The completeness of the barrier to the tracer lanthanum is discussed together with structural evidence of tight junctions between odontoblasts in both pigs and humans and the presence of collagen fibers through the tight junctional zone. It is concluded that there is little or no evidence that pulp fluid is normally confluent with predentin. An advantage of this arrangement may be that by maintaining an enclosed microenvironment it permits regulation of the orderly process of matrix deposition and mineralization of predentin to dentin. In order to maintain constant vascular and extracellular fluid pressures the capillary efflux has to be balanced by fluid removal; recent work in cats has shown that lymphatic vessels are available to transport fluid out of the pulp. In this paper the differences in the intrapulpal distribution of these vessels have been extrapolated to human teeth in an attempt to explain certain variations in the symptoms and progress of pulpal inflammatory conditions. PMID:1508889

  20. Problems in Pulps: A Study of Special Collections in Pulp Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, George

    Heads of special collections of pulp magazines, the medium for popular fiction prior to the introduction of mass market paperbacks in 1939, were surveyed to help analyze and address the problems facing these collections. A survey mailed to special collections administrators gathered background information from the four largest collections…

  1. Chemical composition and protein enrichment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp after fermentation by two Trichoderma species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, F; Zamiri, M. J.; Khorvash, M; Banihashemi, Z; Bayat, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at increasing orange peel and sugar beet pulp protein content through solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride. In vitro digestibility and changes in the chemical composition of the fermented products were determined after seven days of fungal cultivation using gas production tests. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on orange peels decreased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and increased cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents (P<0.01). Changes in fiber fractions were found to be more pronounced with T. viride. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on sugar beet pulp increased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and decreased cellulose and hemicellulose contents (P<0.01). These changes were more pronounced with T. reesei. The cultivation of T. reesei or T. viride on orange peels or sugar beet pulp increased crude protein content (P<0.01) compared with the unfermented materials; however, the increase was more pronounced for orange peels fermented with T. viride when corrected for weight loss (P<0.05). After 24 and 48 h of incubation, significant decreases in cumulative gas production (P<0.01) were observed in fermented sugar beet pulp and orange peels compared with the unfermented materials. Fungal treatment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp reduced the digestibility of in vitro organic matter, metabolizable energy and average fermentation and gas production rates (P<0.01). The data showed that seven days of solid-state fermentation of orange peels and sugar beet pulp by T. reesei or T. viride can increase their crude protein content. PMID:27175146

  2. Chemical composition and protein enrichment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp after fermentation by two Trichoderma species.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, F; Zamiri, M J; Khorvash, M; Banihashemi, Z; Bayat, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at increasing orange peel and sugar beet pulp protein content through solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride. In vitro digestibility and changes in the chemical composition of the fermented products were determined after seven days of fungal cultivation using gas production tests. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on orange peels decreased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and increased cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents (P<0.01). Changes in fiber fractions were found to be more pronounced with T. viride. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on sugar beet pulp increased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and decreased cellulose and hemicellulose contents (P<0.01). These changes were more pronounced with T. reesei. The cultivation of T. reesei or T. viride on orange peels or sugar beet pulp increased crude protein content (P<0.01) compared with the unfermented materials; however, the increase was more pronounced for orange peels fermented with T. viride when corrected for weight loss (P<0.05). After 24 and 48 h of incubation, significant decreases in cumulative gas production (P<0.01) were observed in fermented sugar beet pulp and orange peels compared with the unfermented materials. Fungal treatment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp reduced the digestibility of in vitro organic matter, metabolizable energy and average fermentation and gas production rates (P<0.01). The data showed that seven days of solid-state fermentation of orange peels and sugar beet pulp by T. reesei or T. viride can increase their crude protein content. PMID:27175146

  3. Chemical composition and protein enrichment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp after fermentation by two Trichoderma species.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, F; Zamiri, M J; Khorvash, M; Banihashemi, Z; Bayat, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at increasing orange peel and sugar beet pulp protein content through solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride. In vitro digestibility and changes in the chemical composition of the fermented products were determined after seven days of fungal cultivation using gas production tests. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on orange peels decreased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and increased cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents (P<0.01). Changes in fiber fractions were found to be more pronounced with T. viride. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on sugar beet pulp increased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and decreased cellulose and hemicellulose contents (P<0.01). These changes were more pronounced with T. reesei. The cultivation of T. reesei or T. viride on orange peels or sugar beet pulp increased crude protein content (P<0.01) compared with the unfermented materials; however, the increase was more pronounced for orange peels fermented with T. viride when corrected for weight loss (P<0.05). After 24 and 48 h of incubation, significant decreases in cumulative gas production (P<0.01) were observed in fermented sugar beet pulp and orange peels compared with the unfermented materials. Fungal treatment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp reduced the digestibility of in vitro organic matter, metabolizable energy and average fermentation and gas production rates (P<0.01). The data showed that seven days of solid-state fermentation of orange peels and sugar beet pulp by T. reesei or T. viride can increase their crude protein content.

  4. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility.

  5. Macrophages in Vascular Inflammation: Origins and Functions.

    PubMed

    Decano, Julius L; Mattson, Peter C; Aikawa, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Macrophages influence various processes of cardiovascular inflammation. Whether they are of embryonic or post-natal hematopoietic origin, their balance in differential activation may direct the course of inflammation. Accelerated macrophage activation and accumulation through a pro-inflammatory signaling pathway may result in extensive tissue damage, adverse repair, and worsened clinical outcomes. Attenuation of such a mechanism and/or promotion of the anti-inflammatory macrophage activation may lead to early resolution of inflammation. Elucidating multiple novel mechanisms of monocyte and macrophage activation leads to a better understanding of their roles in vascular inflammation. In turn, this begets better therapeutic target identification and biomarker discovery. Combined with increasingly sensitive and specific imaging techniques, we continue to push back early detection and monitoring to provide us with a greater window for disease modification. The potential success of cytokine-targeted therapy will be solid proof of the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis. PMID:27125207

  6. Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, N; Tsutsumi, Y; Nishida, T

    1995-01-01

    Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccase activities assayed by using fungus-treated pulp and the filtrate after homogenizing the fungus-treated pulp in buffer solution indicated that enzymes secreted from fungi were adsorbed onto the UKP and that assays of these enzyme activities should be carried out with the treated pulp. Time course studies of brightness increase and MnP activity during treatment with P. chrysosporium suggested that it was difficult to correlate them on the basis of data obtained on a certain day of incubation, because the MnP activity fluctuated dramatically during the treatment time. When brightness increase and cumulative MnP, LiP, and laccase activities were determined, a linear relationship between brightness increase and cumulative MnP activity was found in the solid-state fermentation system with both P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor. This result suggests that MnP is involved in brightening of UKP by white rot fungi. PMID:7574600

  7. Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine Long, R.; Griffin, Katie M.; Saito, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated cloacal swab, vascular pulp of flight feather, and kidney and spleen pool samples from carcasses of members of the family Corvidae as sources of West Nile virus (WNV). The cloacal swab, kidney and spleen pool, and feather pulp were the source of WNV in 38%, 43%, and 77%, respectively, of the carcasses.

  8. Role of inflammation in cardiopulmonary health effects of PM

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Ken . E-mail: ken.donaldson@ed.ac.uk; Mills, Nicholas; MacNee, William; Robinson, Simon; Newby, David

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between increased exposure to PM and adverse cardiovascular effects is well documented in epidemiological studies. Inflammation in the lungs, caused by deposited particles, can be seen as a key process that could mediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. There are at least three potential pathways that could lead from pulmonary inflammation to adverse cardiovascular effects. Firstly, inflammation in the lung could lead to systemic inflammation, which is well known to be linked to sudden death from cardiovascular causes. Systemic inflammation can lead to destabilization by activation of inflammatory processes in atheromatous plaques. Secondly, inflammation can cause an imbalance in coagulation factors that favor propagation of thrombi if thrombosis is initiated. Thirdly, inflammation could affect the autonomic nervous system activity in ways that could lead to alterations in the control of heart rhythm which could culminate in fatal dysrhythmia.

  9. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue.

  10. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue. PMID:26588184

  11. Effect of 24-epibrassinolide treatment on the metabolism of eggplant fruits in relation to development of pulp browning under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Kang, LiNa; Liu, Qing; Cheng, Ni; Wang, BiNi; Cao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the metabolism in relation to development of chilling injury-induced pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The fruits were dipped for 10 min in solutions containing 10 μmM EBR and then stored at 1 °C for 15 days. Chilling injury index, weight loss, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of control fruit increased during storage. Chilling injury improved phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) activities, which are correlated with the increase of total phenolic content and pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The inhibition of pulp browning by EBR treatment was possibly attributed to preserving the cell membrane integrity, reducing total phenolic content, and decreasing PAL, PPO, and POD activities. These results suggest that EBR may inhibit chilling injury and pulp browning in eggplant fruit during cold storage.

  12. Effect of 24-epibrassinolide treatment on the metabolism of eggplant fruits in relation to development of pulp browning under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Kang, LiNa; Liu, Qing; Cheng, Ni; Wang, BiNi; Cao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the metabolism in relation to development of chilling injury-induced pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The fruits were dipped for 10 min in solutions containing 10 μmM EBR and then stored at 1 °C for 15 days. Chilling injury index, weight loss, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of control fruit increased during storage. Chilling injury improved phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) activities, which are correlated with the increase of total phenolic content and pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The inhibition of pulp browning by EBR treatment was possibly attributed to preserving the cell membrane integrity, reducing total phenolic content, and decreasing PAL, PPO, and POD activities. These results suggest that EBR may inhibit chilling injury and pulp browning in eggplant fruit during cold storage. PMID:26028720

  13. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  14. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Swati A; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma.

  15. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Swati A.; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma. PMID:25657533

  16. Lignin oxidation and pulp delignification by laccase and mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Bourbonnais, R.; Paice, M.G.; Reid, I.D.

    1996-10-01

    The phenol oxidizing enzyme laccase is produced abundantly by the lignin-degrading fungus Trametes versicolor. We found previously that laccase can oxidize veratryl alcohol and other non-phenolic lignin model compounds when a mediator such as 2,2{prime}-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-5-sulphonate) (ABTS) was present. The laccase/mediator couple was also shown to be effective for delignification of kraft pulps. Two different isozymes of laccase produced by this fungus were purified and their reactivities towards lignins and kraft pulps were studied. The mediator ABTS was shown to be essential for pulp delignification and to reverse the polymerization of kraft lignin by either laccase. Pulp delignification with laccase and ABTS was also optimized. resulting in up to 55% lignin removal from kraft pulp following sequential enzyme treatments and alkaline extractions. Several variables were surveyed including enzyme and mediator dosage, oxygen pressure, temperature, reaction time, and pH.

  17. Nemesia Root Hair Response to Paper Pulp Substrate for Micropropagation

    PubMed Central

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp. PMID:22312323

  18. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, aril and seed) of Thai gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Kubola, Jittawan; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2011-08-01

    Three fractions (peel, pulp and aril) of gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) were investigated for their phytochemicals (lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein and phenolic compounds) and their antioxidant activity. The results showed that the aril had the highest contents for both lycopene and beta-carotene, whilst peel (yellow) contained the highest amount of lutein. Two major phenolic acid groups: hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic were identified and quantified. Gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were found in all fractions. Ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most evident in pulp. Myricetin was the only flavonoid found in all fractions. Apigenin was the most predominant flavonoid in pulp (red), whereas rutin and luteolin gave the highest content in aril. The extracts of different fractions exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The aril extract showed the highest FRAP value. The greatest antioxidant activities of peel and pulp extracts were at immature stage, whereas those in the seed extracts increased from mature stage to ripe stage. The contents of total phenolic and total flavonoid in peel and pulp decreased during the fruit development stage (immature>ripe fruit) and subsequently displayed lower antioxidant capacity, except for the seed. PMID:25214106

  19. Evaluation of the antihypertensive properties of yellow passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Konta, Eliziane Mieko; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2014-01-01

    Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation.

  20. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, aril and seed) of Thai gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Kubola, Jittawan; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2011-08-01

    Three fractions (peel, pulp and aril) of gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) were investigated for their phytochemicals (lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein and phenolic compounds) and their antioxidant activity. The results showed that the aril had the highest contents for both lycopene and beta-carotene, whilst peel (yellow) contained the highest amount of lutein. Two major phenolic acid groups: hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic were identified and quantified. Gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were found in all fractions. Ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most evident in pulp. Myricetin was the only flavonoid found in all fractions. Apigenin was the most predominant flavonoid in pulp (red), whereas rutin and luteolin gave the highest content in aril. The extracts of different fractions exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The aril extract showed the highest FRAP value. The greatest antioxidant activities of peel and pulp extracts were at immature stage, whereas those in the seed extracts increased from mature stage to ripe stage. The contents of total phenolic and total flavonoid in peel and pulp decreased during the fruit development stage (immature>ripe fruit) and subsequently displayed lower antioxidant capacity, except for the seed.

  1. Methods for Facilitating Microbial Growth on Pulp Mill Waste Streams and Characterization of the Biodegradation Potential of Cultured Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L.; Ayoub, Ali S.; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  2. Inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, Lisa M.; Werb, Zena

    2009-01-01

    Recent data have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression. Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration. In addition, tumour cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system, such as selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. These insights are fostering new anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches to cancer development. PMID:12490959

  3. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity. PMID:26999194

  4. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-01

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity. PMID:26999194

  5. Application of enzyme for improvement of Acacia APMP pulping and refining of mixed pulp for printing papermaking in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dien, Le Quang; Hoang, Phan Huy; Tu, Do Thanh

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of commercial enzyme (FibreZyme LBR) treatment applied to APMP pulp and to the mixture of 55% Acacia CTMP75 pulp, 30% soft-wood bleached chemical pulp (LBKP 90 from Chile) and 15% hard-wood bleached chemical pulp (NPKP 90 from Indonesia). The treatment was conducted at different temperatures, reaction times and enzyme dosages. The APMP and mixed pulp treated with the enzyme showed a significant decrease of refining time to achieve the same refining degree (Schopper-Riegler freeness, °SR) and better mechanical-physical properties due to the development of fibrillation. The fibre morphology difference between before and after treatment was revealed by the microscopic observations performed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM analysis showed that the surface of the enzyme-treated fibre had some swelling and fibrillar phenomenon that lead to strong paper properties such as tear index, tensile index and burst index.

  6. Effect of an experimental adhesive resin containing multi-ion releasing fillers on direct pulp-capping.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Satoki; Shinkai, Koichi; Suzuki, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulpal healing and reparative dentin formation after 14 and 28 days in exposed rat pulp directly capped with an experimentally developed all-in-one adhesive containing surface reaction-type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler. The four experimental groups and the control group were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Steel-Dwass post-hoc test to compare the histopathological score. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the histopathological score at 14 and 28 days for each observation item. All experimental adhesives containing S-PRG fillers developed for direct pulp capping showed no pulpal inflammation. After 14 days, the experimental adhesives containing S-PRG fillers and the control group formed tertiary dentin around the exposed pulp. After 28 days, the experimental adhesives containing 13 and 27 wt% of S-PRG fillers formed dentin bridge equal to the control. PMID:27252005

  7. Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourão, J L; Pinheiro, V M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ponte, P I P

    2008-04-01

    Some feedstuffs containing significant levels of fiber may be a good source of bioactive compounds that may contribute to improving broiler meat quality. However, high fiber level can have a negative impact on broiler performance. A study was undertaken to investigate the impact of incorporating citrus pulp (5 or 10%) or dehydrated pasture (5 or 10%) on the performance, carcass yield, and characteristics of broiler chickens. A diet containing neither citrus pulp nor dehydrated pasture was used as control. The results on growth performances showed that daily weight gain was reduced by 26% in birds of the 10% citrus pulp treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the control treatment, increases in feed intake occurred in birds consuming diets with 5 or 10% citrus pulp, which resulted in significantly higher feed conversion rates with the 10% level. Under the same incorporation rate, dehydrated pasture had effects less evident on the performances of broiler chicken. In addition, diets containing citrus pulp, displaying higher percentages of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides, increased small intestine relative length, and reduced carcass yield. Inclusion of 10% dehydrated pasture in diets resulted in improved breast skin yellowness (P<0.05). Finally, the results revealed that incorporation of the nonstarch polysaccharide-rich feedstuffs had a major impact on the fatty acid profile (affected 16 of 21 fatty acids) of broiler meat. Polyunsaturated fatty acids content in meat was higher in birds consuming the highest levels of both citrus pulp and dehydrated pasture, leading to increased ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Together, the results suggest that incorporation of moderate levels of dehydrated pastures in poultry diets has a minor impact on broiler performance and can contribute significantly to improve breast skin yellowness and fatty acid composition of meat.

  8. Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourão, J L; Pinheiro, V M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ponte, P I P

    2008-04-01

    Some feedstuffs containing significant levels of fiber may be a good source of bioactive compounds that may contribute to improving broiler meat quality. However, high fiber level can have a negative impact on broiler performance. A study was undertaken to investigate the impact of incorporating citrus pulp (5 or 10%) or dehydrated pasture (5 or 10%) on the performance, carcass yield, and characteristics of broiler chickens. A diet containing neither citrus pulp nor dehydrated pasture was used as control. The results on growth performances showed that daily weight gain was reduced by 26% in birds of the 10% citrus pulp treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the control treatment, increases in feed intake occurred in birds consuming diets with 5 or 10% citrus pulp, which resulted in significantly higher feed conversion rates with the 10% level. Under the same incorporation rate, dehydrated pasture had effects less evident on the performances of broiler chicken. In addition, diets containing citrus pulp, displaying higher percentages of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides, increased small intestine relative length, and reduced carcass yield. Inclusion of 10% dehydrated pasture in diets resulted in improved breast skin yellowness (P<0.05). Finally, the results revealed that incorporation of the nonstarch polysaccharide-rich feedstuffs had a major impact on the fatty acid profile (affected 16 of 21 fatty acids) of broiler meat. Polyunsaturated fatty acids content in meat was higher in birds consuming the highest levels of both citrus pulp and dehydrated pasture, leading to increased ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Together, the results suggest that incorporation of moderate levels of dehydrated pastures in poultry diets has a minor impact on broiler performance and can contribute significantly to improve breast skin yellowness and fatty acid composition of meat. PMID:18339996

  9. In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23894592

  10. High consistency cellulase treatment of hardwood prehydrolysis kraft based dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    For enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp, there is a need to improve the process to facilitate its commercialization. For this purpose, the high consistency cellulase treatment was conducted based on the hypothesis that a high cellulose concentration would favor the interactions of cellulase and cellulose, thus improves the cellulase efficiency while decreasing the water usage. The results showed that compared with a low consistency of 3%, the high consistency of 20% led to 24% increases of cellulase adsorption ratio. As a result, the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase at consistency of 20% were enhanced from 510 mL/g and 70.3% to 471 mL/g and 77.6%, respectively, compared with low consistency of 3% at 24h. The results on other properties such as alpha cellulose, alkali solubility and molecular weight distribution also supported the conclusion that a high consistency of cellulase treatment was more effective than a low pulp consistency process.

  11. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  12. The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose films from wood pulps: mechanical processing and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Spence, Kelley L; Venditti, Richard A; Habibi, Youssef; Rojas, Orlando J; Pawlak, Joel J

    2010-08-01

    Films of microfibrillated celluloses (MFCs) from pulps of different yields, containing varying amounts of extractives, lignin, and hemicelluloses, were produced by combining refining and high-pressure homogenization techniques. MFC films were produced using a casting-evaporation technique and the physical and mechanical properties (including density, roughness, fold endurance and tensile properties) were determined. Homogenization of bleached and unbleached Kraft pulps gave rise to highly individualized MFCs, but not for thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). The resulting MFC films had a roughness equivalent to the surface upon which the films were cast. Interestingly, after homogenization, the presence of lignin significantly increased film toughness, tensile index, and elastic modulus. The hornification of fibers through a drying and rewetting cycle prior to refining and homogenization did not produce any significant effect compared to films from never-dried fibers, indicating that MFC films can potentially be made from low-cost recycled cellulosic materials.

  13. Are great tits (Parus major) inhabiting the vicinity of a pulp mill healthy? Impacts on physiology and breeding performance.

    PubMed

    Norte, Ana Cláudia; Sheldon, B C; Sousa, J P; Tavares, P C; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Ramos, J A

    2010-10-01

    The evaluation of pollution effects on wildlife provides biologically meaningful information concerning environmental quality and possible impacts on populations and can be used as an early warning of environmental change. We aimed to assess the potential effects of exposure to atmospheric pollution from pulp mill emissions on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive performance of the great tit (Parus major). Great tits from a population inhabiting the vicinity of a pulp mill had significantly higher feather mercury levels and were physiologically distinct from other birds not under the direct influence of the pollution source. This distinction, due to significantly higher levels of red blood cell-glutathione peroxidase antioxidant activity, in birds from the vicinity of the pulp mill, was observed both in autumn and winter and was repeatable between years. No detectable effects were observed on breeding performance or nestling morphology and physiology. The effects of pollution in this study seem to be related to increased levels of oxidative stress.

  14. Dietary modulation of inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation is heightened innate immune response caused by infection or wound. It is a part of essential immune responses for host defense against invading pathogens and wound healing which are the key biological processes necessary for the survival of all multi-cellular organisms. In mammals, it i...

  15. Periostin in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Kenji; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Inamitsu, Masako; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  16. Effective saccharification of kraft pulp by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yoshie, Toshihide; Sakai, Shoji; Wakai, Satoshi; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp is a promising feedstock for bioproduction. The efficiency of kraft pulp saccharification was improved by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae. Application of the cellulase cocktail was demonstrated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, using kraft pulp and non-cellulolytic yeast. Such application would make possible to do an efficient production of other chemicals from kraft pulp.

  17. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not...

  18. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes,...

  19. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes,...

  20. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not...

  1. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes,...

  2. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  3. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  4. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    PubMed

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Digestion coefficient of organic matter in dry matter and metabolisable energy were also decreased in treated lemon pulp (p < 0.05). Compared with untreated lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p < 0.05), but digestibility of crude fat was lower (p < 0.05). In general, processing of lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. PMID:24842042

  5. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, Richard; Callis, James B.; Mathews, Jeffrey D.; Robinson, John; Bruckner, Carsten A.; Suvamakich, Kuntinee

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  6. [Study progress of dental pulp stem cells in tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Shiyu, Shi; Jiamin, Xie

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, modern tissue engineering is becoming emerging and developing rapidly, and the acquisition, cultivation and differentiation of seed cells is the premise and foundation of the construction of tissue engineering, so more and more scholars pay attention to stem cells as seed cells for tissue engineering construction. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) is a kind of adult stem cells derived from dental pulp, and as a new kind of seed cells of tissue engineering, the study of DPSCs presents important significance in tissue and organ regeneration. In this review, we introduced the progress of studies on dental pulp stem cells and discussed their clinical application prospects. PMID:27051964

  7. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic analysis of the effects of acemannan used in direct pulp capping of human primary teeth: short-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Songsiripradubboon, Siriporn; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Trairatvorakul, Chutima; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2016-09-01

    Acemannan has been previously reported as a direct pulp-capping agent in animal study. This natural material demonstrated its biocompatibility and enhanced reparative dentin formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of acemannan as a direct pulp-capping material in human primary teeth with deep caries. Forty-two deeply carious mandibular primary molars from 37 children, aged 7-11 years old diagnosed with reversible pulpitis were studied. After completely removing the infected dentine, teeth with a pinpoint pulpal exposure were randomly divided into two treatment groups: acemannan or calcium hydroxide. A glass-ionomer cement base was applied to all teeth prior to restoration with stainless steel crowns. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed 6 months post-treatment. The teeth due to exfoliate were extracted and histopathologically evaluated for inflammation, dentine bridge formation, and soft tissue organization. At 6 months, the overall clinical and radiographic success rates of direct pulp capping with acemannan and calcium hydroxide at 6 months were 72.73 and 70.0 %, respectively. The histopathological results indicated that the acemannan-treated group had significantly better histopathological responses compared with the calcium hydroxide-treated group (p < 0.05). These data suggest acemannan offers a valuable alternative biomaterial for vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

  8. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  9. Homeostasis, Inflammation, and Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kotas, Maya E.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed the increasing prevalence of diseases such as obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Such chronic, acquired diseases result when normal physiologic control goes awry and may thus be viewed as failures of homeostasis. However, while nearly every process in human physiology relies on homeostatic mechanisms for stability, only some have demonstrated vulnerability to dysregulation. Additionally, chronic inflammation is a common accomplice of the diseases of homeostasis, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we review the design of homeostatic systems and discuss universal features of control circuits that operate at the cellular, tissue and organismal levels. We suggest a framework for classification of homeostatic signals that is based on different classes of homeostatic variables they report on. Finally, we discuss how adaptability of homeostatic systems with adjustable set points creates vulnerability to dysregulation and disease. This framework highlights the fundamental parallels between homeostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the physiological origin of inflammation. PMID:25723161

  10. Enzyme resistant carbohydrate based micro-scale materials from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pulp for food and pharmaceutical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-based micro scale materials are increasingly used in functional food and pharmaceutical applications. The present study produced carbohydrate-based micro scale tubular materials from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pulp (SBP), a by-product of sugar beet processing. The isolated carbohydrates wer...

  11. Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Salmones, Dulce; Mata, Gerardo; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2005-03-01

    The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period of up to 36 days. Analysis were made of changes during the mycelium incubation period (16 days) and throughout different stages of fructification. Greater metabolic activity was observed in the wheat straw samples, with a significant increase between 4 and 12 days of incubation. The degradation of polysaccharide compounds was associated with the fruiting stage, while the reduction in phenolic contents was detected in both substrates samples during the first eight days of incubation. A decrease was observed in caffeine content of the coffee pulp samples during fruiting stage, which could mean that some caffeine accumulates in the fruiting bodies.

  12. Mortality pattern among pulp and paper mill workers in Sweden: a case-r