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Sample records for pulp inflammation increases

  1. TOOTH PULP INFLAMMATION INCREASES BDNF EXPRESSION IN RODENT TRIGEMINAL GANGLION NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Tarsa, Leila; Bałkowiec-Iskra, Ewa; Kratochvil, F. James; Jenkins, Victoria K.; McLean, Anne; Brown, Alexandra; Smith, Julie Ann; Baumgartner, J. Craig; Balkowiec, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Nociceptive pathways with first-order neurons located in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) provide sensory innervation to the head, and are responsible for a number of common chronic pain conditions, including migraines, temporomandibular disorders and trigeminal neuralgias. Many of those conditions are associated with inflammation. Yet, the mechanisms of chronic inflammatory pain remain poorly understood. Our previous studies show that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed by adult rat TG neurons, and released from cultured newborn rat TG neurons by electrical stimulation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a well-established mediator of trigeminal inflammatory pain. These data suggest that BDNF plays a role in activity-dependent plasticity at first-order trigeminal synapses, including functional changes that take place in trigeminal nociceptive pathways during chronic inflammation. The present study was designed to determine the effects of peripheral inflammation, using tooth pulp inflammation as a model, on regulation of BDNF expression in TG neurons of juvenile rats and mice. Cavities were prepared in right-side maxillary first and second molars of 4-week-old animals, and left open to oral microflora. BDNF expression in right TG was compared with contralateral TG of the same animal, and with right TG of sham-operated controls, 7 and 28 days after cavity preparation. Our ELISA data indicate that exposing the tooth pulp for 28 days, with confirmed inflammation, leads to a significant upregulation of BDNF in the TG ipsilateral to the affected teeth. Double-immunohistochemistry with antibodies against BDNF combined with one of nociceptor markers, CGRP or TRPV1, revealed that BDNF is significantly upregulated in TRPV1-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in both rats and mice, and CGRP-IR neurons in mice, but not rats. Overall, the inflammation-induced upregulation of BDNF is stronger in mice compared to rats. Thus, mouse TG provides a

  2. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Michel; Njeh, Akram; Uzunoglu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically. PMID:26538825

  3. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  4. Scaffolds to control inflammation and facilitate dental pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John S; Moore, Amanda N; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D; D'Souza, Rena N

    2014-04-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance because teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. Although the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis because of their ability to switch to a proresolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a proresolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented.

  5. Melatonin attenuates inflammation of acute pulpitis subjected to dental pulp injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Guo; Lin, Jia-Ji; Wang, Zhao-Ling; Cai, Wen-Ke; Wang, Pei-Na; Jia, Qian; Zhang, An-Sheng; Wu, Gao-Yi; Zhu, Guo-Xiong; Ni, Long-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulpitis (AP), one of the most common diseases in the endodontics, usually causes severe pain to the patients, which makes the search for therapeutic target of AP essential in clinic. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is widely involved in the mechanism of pulp inflammation, while melatonin has been reported to have an inhibition for a various kinds of inflammation. We hereby studied whether melatonin can regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in the pulp tissue of AP and in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Two left dental pulps of the adult rat were drilled open to establish the AP model, and the serum levels of melatonin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), were assessed at 1, 3 and 5 d post injury. At the same time points, the expression of TLR4 signaling in the pulp was explored by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The AP rats were administered an abdominal injection of melatonin to assess whether melatonin rescued AP and TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling. Dental pulp injury led to an approximately five-day period acute pulp inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α in the serum. ELISA results showed that the level of melatonin in the serum decreased due to AP, while an abdominal injection of melatonin suppressed the increase in serum cytokines and the percentage of necrosis at the 5 d of the injured pulp. Consistent with the inflammation in AP rats, TLR4, NF-ĸB, TNF-α and IL-1β in the pulp were increased post AP compared with the baseline expression. And melatonin showed an inhibition on TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling as well as IL-1β and TNF-α production in the pulp of AP rats. Furthermore, melatonin could also regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in LPS-stimulated HDPCs. These data suggested that dental pulp injury induced AP and reduced the serum level of melatonin and that

  6. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  7. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jeng-Ting; Lee, Lin-Wen; Lin, Che-Tong

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs), and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF) can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability. PMID:25884030

  8. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838

  9. Chronic Inflammation and Angiogenic Signaling Axis Impairs Differentiation of Dental-Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Michael; Chun, Crystal; Strojny, Chelsee; Narayanan, Raghuvaran; Bartholomew, Amelia; Sundivakkam, Premanand; Alapati, Satish

    2014-01-01

    Dental-pulp tissue is often exposed to inflammatory injury. Sequested growth factors or angiogenic signaling proteins that are released following inflammatory injury play a pivotal role in the formation of reparative dentin. While limited or moderate angiogenesis may be helpful for dental pulp maintenance, the induction of significant level of angiogenesis is probably highly detrimental. Hitherto, several studies have addressed the effects of proinflammatory stimuli on the survival and differentiation of dental-pulp stem cells (DPSC), in vitro. However, the mechanisms communal to the inflammatory and angiogenic signaling involved in DPSC survival and differentiation remain unknown. Our studies observed that short-term exposure to TNF-α (6 and 12 hours [hrs]) induced apoptosis with an upregulation of VEGF expression and NF-κB signaling. However, long-term (chronic) exposure (14 days) to TNF-α resulted in an increased proliferation with a concomitant shortening of the telomere length. Interestingly, DPSC pretreated with Nemo binding domain (NBD) peptide (a cell permeable NF-κB inhibitor) significantly ameliorated TNF-α- and/or VEGF-induced proliferation and the shortening of telomere length. NBD peptide pretreatment significantly improved TNF-α-induced downregulation of proteins essential for differentiation, such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)-1 & 2, BMP receptor isoforms-1&2, trasnforming growth factor (TGF), osteoactivin and osteocalcin. Additionally, inhibition of NF-κB signaling markedly increased the mineralization potential, a process abrogated by chronic exposure to TNF-α. Thus, our studies demonstrated that chronic inflammation mediates telomere shortening via NF-κB signaling in human DPSC. Resultant chromosomal instability leads to an emergence of increased proliferation of DPSC, while negatively regulating the differentiation of DPSC, in vitro. PMID:25427002

  10. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  11. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in dental caries, pulp and periapical inflammation: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Atul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of more than 25 secreted and membrane bound enzymes that represent class of enzymes responsible for degradation of pericellular substrates. They have been isolated from dentine, odontoblasts, pulp and periapical tissue. They play an important role in dentine matrix formation, modulating caries progression and secondary dentine formation. Earlier microbial proteolytic enzymes were believed to be responsible for degradation of dentine organic matrix, but lately the accumulated body of evidence suggests that MMPs have an important role in the process. During normal tissue modelling, differentiation during development, in modulating the cell behaviour, maintaining homeostasis and in numerous extracellular pathologic conditions, MMPs tends to be an equally important participant. Odontoblasts secrete some of the essential MMPs for both physiologic and pathologic conditions. MMPs also appear to be a participant in the process of reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Although they tend to have low expression and activity in adult tissues but at the onset of any destructive pathologic process, their production shoots up. They appear to have a significant presence during times of inflammation in the periapical region as well. We take a look at the various factors and evidence pointing towards the role of MMPs in the progression of caries, pulpal and periapical inflammation. PMID:26605147

  12. Effect of miR-146a/bFGF/PEG-PEI Nanoparticles on Inflammation Response and Tissue Regeneration of Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Shu, Shan; Cheung, Gary Shunpan; Wei, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Inflammation in dental pulp cells (DPCs) initiated by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in dental pulp necrosis. So far, whether there is a common system regulating inflammation response and tissue regeneration remains unknown. miR-146a is closely related to inflammation. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important regulator for differentiation. Methods. To explore the effect of miR-146a/bFGF on inflammation and tissue regeneration, polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI) was synthesized, and physical characteristics were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and gel retardation analysis. Cell absorption, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Alginate gel was combined with miR-146a/PEG-PEI nanoparticles and bFGF. Drug release ratio was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotography. Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of DPCs with 1 μg/mL LPS treatment were determined. Results. PEG-PEI prepared at N/P 2 showed complete gel retardation and smallest particle size and zeta potential. Transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI was higher than lipo2000. Cell viability decreased as N/P ratio increased. Drug release rate amounted to 70% at the first 12 h and then maintained slow release afterwards. Proliferation and differentiation decreased in DPCs with LPS treatment, whereas they increased in miR-146a/bFGF gel group. Conclusions. PEG-PEI is a promising vector for gene therapy. miR-146a and bFGF play critical roles in inflammation response and tissue regeneration of DPCs. PMID:27057540

  13. Overexpression of receptor for advanced glycation end products and high-mobility group box 1 in human dental pulp inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tancharoen, Salunya; Tengrungsun, Tassanee; Suddhasthira, Theeralaksna; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Vechvongvan, Nuttavun; Tokuda, Masayuki; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1). RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection.

  14. Use of ascorbic and citric acids to increase dialyzable iron from vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) pulp.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, C; Freyre, M; Sambucetti, M E; Pirovani, M E

    2004-01-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is an ecologically important wild leguminous tree that grows spontaneously in Argentine deforested lands, the fruit of which is consumed by humans and animals. Because considerable iron content with low to intermediate availability has been previously reported in vinal pulps, its enhancement would be of interest. Iron availability was determined as iron dialyzability using an in vitro technique. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate iron availability increase after adding ascorbic and/or citric acids to vinal pulp at different mM acid/mM Fe ratios. Those ratios ranged from 0.05:1 to 9.95:1 and from 0.5:1 to 99.5:1 for ascorbic acid/Fe (AA:Fe) and citric acid/Fe (CA:Fe), respectively. The obtained second- and first-order polynomial equations showed that AA:Fe and CA:Fe molar ratios linear terms had a significant effect on iron dialyzability increase (P < or = 0.05). It was possible to enhance iron availability to a maximum of 4.6 times. Additional confirmatory experiments were made adding the same organic acids to different vinal pulps and to a traditional cake prepared with vinal pulp called "patay." There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between predicted values obtained by the model and experimental results.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata K. Schum in acute and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Igbe, Ighodaro; Ching, Fidelis P; Eromon, Aigbe

    2010-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata K. Schum (Apocynaceae) was evaluated using the carrageenan- and dextran-induced rat paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced arthritis inflammation tests. Oral administration of the extract produced significant (p < 0.05) antiedematogenic effect with a dose of 500 mg/kg throughout the period of the experiment in the dextran induced paw edema and at the 3 h in the carrageenan model. The extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-related and significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of xylene induced ear edema and the effect was similar to that produced by dexamethasone (1 mg/kg). In the chronic inflammation (formalin induced arthritis) the extract did not show any significant anti-inflammatory activity. Oral acute toxicity assays did not show any mortality at 15 g/kg of the plant extract. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of H. umbellata possesses acute inflammatory activity which may be mediated by either inhibition or by blocking the release of prostaglandins and histamine, thus supporting the usage of the plant in traditional medicine treatment of inflammation.

  16. [Non-contact measurement of the increase in pulp temperature during thermal debonding].

    PubMed

    Baumann, M; Ruppenthal, T

    1991-01-01

    Thermal debonding of ceramic brackets is now used for some time. In this context the possibility of a thermal damage of the pulp is one of the main questions. With the aid of a touchless infrared thermography device (SST/Theta 1,000; Heimann, FRG-Wiesbaden) the consequences of thermal debonding with the "Ceramic Debonding Unit" (Dentaurum, Pforzheim) have been studied. A use according to the manufacturer's device led to temperature changes up to 3 degrees C as maximum. Therefore our in vitro results indicate that the orderly use of the system is safe for the pulp. If the debonding fails, the temperature increase is much higher if the resistance wire is left in place. The influence of different composites is discussed.

  17. Pulp-temperature increases after selective ablation of caries by KTP:NdYAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammour, S.; Kowalyk, Kenneth; Valici, Ch.; Guillaume, Patrick

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this investigation is to define optimal parameters of KTP laser irradiation during caries removal. 12 decayed human teeth, recently extracted were used. Their rot canals were prepared for insertion of a thermocouple probe into the pulp chamber. The demineralized tissues have been colored by Acid Red 52 before proceeding to different conditions of irradiation. Pulpal temperature increases were found under the following parameters with 15 seconds continuous lasing: 400mw, 0.10 m sec pulse width, PRR pulp temperature to get back to its baseline.

  18. Peripheral inflammation increases the deleterious effect of CNS inflammation on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Ma Carmen; Delgado-Cortés, M José; Sarmiento, Manuel; de Pablos, Rocío M; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana María; Argüelles, Sandro; Bández, Manuel J; Villarán, Ruth F; Mauriño, Raquel; Santiago, Marti; Venero, José L; Herrera, Antonio J; Cano, Josefina; Machado, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Evidence supports the role of inflammation in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we are interested in inflammation as a risk factor by itself and not only as a factor contributing to neurodegeneration. We tested the influence of a mild to moderate peripheral inflammation (injection of carrageenan into the paws of rats) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in an animal model based on the intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammatory agent. Overall, the treatment with carrageenan increased the effect of the intranigral injection of LPS on the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN along with all the other parameters studied, including: serum levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and C-reactive protein; activation of microglia, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the adhesion molecule ICAM and the enzyme iNOS, loss of astrocytes and damage to the blood brain barrier (BBB). The possible implication of BBB rupture in the increased loss of dopaminergic neurons has been studied using another Parkinson's disease animal model based on the intraperitoneal injection of rotenone. In this experiment, loss of dopaminergic neurons was also strengthened by carrageenan, without affecting the BBB. In conclusion, our data show that a mild to moderate peripheral inflammation can exacerbate the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons caused by a harmful stimulus.

  19. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  20. Increasing efficiency of enzymatic hemicellulose removal from bamboo for production of high-grade dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingfeng; Yuan, Zhaoyang; Kapu, Nuwan Sella; Chang, Xue Feng; Beatson, Rodger; Trajano, Heather L; Martinez, D Mark

    2017-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hemicellulose removal from bamboo pre-hydrolysis kraft pulp, mechanical refining was conducted prior to enzyme treatment. Refining significantly improved the subsequent hemicellulose removal efficiency by xylanase treatment. Results showed that when PFI refining was followed by 3h xylanase treatment, the xylan content of the bamboo pre-hydrolysis kraft pulp (after first stage oxygen delignification) could be decreased to 2.72% (w/w). After bleaching of enzyme treated pulp, the alpha-cellulose content was 93.4% (w/w) while the xylan content was only 2.38%. The effect of refining on fibre properties was investigated in terms of freeness, water retention value, fibre length and fibrillation characteristics. The brightness, reactivity and viscosity were also determined to characterize the quality of final pulp. Results demonstrated the feasibility of combining refining and xylanase treatment to produce high quality bamboo dissolving pulp.

  1. Experimental model to measure the increase of dental pulp temperature in vivo during laser application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Junqueira, Silvio L. M.; Busato, Mara S.

    1994-09-01

    Carbon dioxide laser has been used in dental surgery. The existence of healthy teeth, which have pulp vitality needing to be preserved, is observed in a great number of cases. In this work we describe an experimental model which provides the measurement of temperature in pulp chamber `in vivo,' during oral surgeries in which the CO2 laser beam is applied to gingival tissue. The problems met during the search for the best way to place the thermal probe regarding the diameter and depth of pulp chamber and the thickness of the tissue layer formed by gum and maxillary bone are discussed. We use a thermocouple placed in the pulp chamber of superior canine teeth in dogs. After that, the probe was also placed between gum and dental root. Since the temperature at gingival surface was known, it was easy to determine the rise in temperature at pulp chamber and also to observe the thermal gradient from gum to tissue to bone, thus avoiding pulp damage during laser applications.

  2. Formulation and sensory evaluation of Prosopis alba (Algarrobo) pulp cookies with increased iron and calcium dialyzabilities.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, C; Drago, S; Sabbag, N; Sanchez, H; Freyre, M

    2006-03-01

    Prosopis alba (algarrobo) is an important indigenous specie, which fruits are used as food and feed since ancient times. Cookies containing algarrobo pulp (AP) with increased iron and calcium availabilities were formulated and sensory evaluated. AP is preferred as food ingredient because of its high sugar content and pleasant flavour. Formulated cookies mean proximal composition was 8.9 g/100 g protein, 7.2 g/100 g dietary fiber, 25 g/100 g total sugar, and 18.5 g/100 g crude fat with iron and calcium contents 30 ppm and 340 ppm, respectively. Ascorbic (AA) and citric (CA) acids at different mM acid: mM Fe were added in order to increase mineral availabilities being evaluated by an in vitro method. Those ratios were 5:1 and 10:1 for AA:Fe whereas for CA:Fe were 50:1 and 100:1 and combinations of them. After chosen the best AA:Fe and CA:Fe ratios (5:1 and 50:1, respectively), sensory evaluation with trained sensory panel and a consumer acceptability test with one hundred and seventy untrained judges were carried out. Acceptability test showed that 77.65% of the people (< 25 years old 41.76%, 25-50 years old 20.00% and > 50 years old 15.89%) tasting final formulated cookies indicated that they "like very much" or "moderately like" and there were not consumers rejecting them.

  3. Seed dispersal by pulp consumers, not "legitimate" seed dispersers, increases Guettarda viburnoides population growth.

    PubMed

    Loayza, Andrea P; Knight, Tiffany

    2010-09-01

    We examined the effect of seed dispersal by Purplish Jays (Cyanocorax cyanomelas; pulp consumers) and the Chestnut-eared Araçari (Pteroglossus castanotis; "legitimate" seed dispersers) on population growth of the small tree Guettarda viburnoides (Rubiaceae) in northeastern Bolivian savannas. Because each bird species differs with respect to feeding and post-feeding behavior, we hypothesized that seed dispersal by each species will contribute differently to the rate of increase of G. viburnoides, but that seed dispersal by either species will increase population growth when compared to a scenario with no seed dispersal. To examine the effects of individual dispersers on the future population size of G. viburnoides, we projected population growth rate using demographic models for G. viburnoides that explicitly incorporate data on quantitative and qualitative aspects of seed dispersal by each frugivore species. Our model suggests that seed dispersal by C. cyanomelas leads to positive population growth of G. viburnoides, whereas seed dispersal by P. castanotis has a detrimental effect on the population growth of this species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report negative effects of a "legitimate" seed disperser on the population dynamics of the plant it consumes. Our results stress the importance of incorporating frugivore effects into population projection matrices, to allow a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of different dispersers for plant population dynamics.

  4. Increased uptake by splenic red pulp macrophages contributes to rapid platelet turnover in WASP(-) mice.

    PubMed

    Prislovsky, Amanda; Strom, Ted S

    2013-09-01

    Thrombocytopenia caused by rapid platelet consumption contributes to the severe thrombocytopenia of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and to the milder thrombocytopenia seen in murine WAS. We show that rapid clearance of ¹¹¹In-labeled murine WASP(-) platelets correlates with enhanced splenic uptake. Using platelets labeled with a pH-sensitive fluorescent marker (pHrodo), we quantify normal platelet uptake by red pulp macrophages (RPMs), and demonstrate its enhancement after in vivo opsonization of platelets. The spleens of WASP(-) mice contain an increased number of RPM, and rapid clearance of WASP(-) platelets in WASP(-) mice in turn generates an increased number of pHrodo(+) splenic RPMs. To separately assess the platelet intrinsic and recipient-dependent functions involved in the clearance and splenic phagocyte uptake of WASP(-) platelets, we performed "crossed" pHrodo(+) platelet injection studies (wild type [WT] to WASP(-), WASP(-) to WT). We show that an extrinsic effect of recipient WASP deficiency on the clearance of WASP(-) platelets correlates with increased platelet uptake by RPMs. An intrinsic effect of platelet WASP deficiency on platelet clearance does not, however, correlate with increased total uptake by WT or WASP(-) RPMs. In contrast to other published findings, we find no evidence of a baseline or antibody-induced increase in phosphatidyl serine exposure on WASP(-) platelets. Our findings suggest that an increased number of RPMs in WASP(-) mice contributes significantly to the increased platelet consumption rate in WASP(-) mice. This might explain the consistent efficacy of splenectomy in murine and clinical WAS.

  5. VEGFR-2 reduces while combined VEGFR-2 and -3 signaling increases inflammation in apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Virtej, Anca; Papadakou, Panagiota; Sasaki, Hajime; Bletsa, Athanasia; Berggreen, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background In apical periodontitis, oral pathogens provoke an inflammatory response in the apical area that induces bone resorptive lesions. In inflammation, angio- and lymphangiogenesis take place. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs) are key players in these processes and are expressed in immune cells and endothelial cells in the lesions. Objective We aimed at testing the role of VEGFR-2 and -3 in periapical lesion development and investigated their role in lymphangiogenesis in the draining lymph nodes. Design We induced lesions by pulp exposure in the lower first molars of C57BL/6 mice. The mice received IgG injections or blocking antibodies against VEGFR-2 (anti-R2), VEGFR-3 (anti-R3), or combined VEGFR-2 and -3, starting on day 0 until day 10 or 21 post-exposure. Results Lesions developed faster in the anti-R2 and anti-R3 group than in the control and anti-R2/R3 groups. In the anti-R2 group, a strong inflammatory response was found expressed as increased number of neutrophils and osteoclasts. A decreased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was found in the anti-R2/R3 group. Lymphangiogenesis in the draining lymph nodes was inhibited after blocking of VEGFR-2 and/or -3, while the largest lymph node size was seen after anti-R2 treatment. Conclusions We demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect of VEGFR-2 signaling in periapical lesions which seems to involve neutrophil regulation and is independent of angiogenesis. Combined signaling of VEGFR-2 and -3 has a pro-inflammatory effect. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis is promoted through activation of VEGFR-2 and/or VEGFR-3. PMID:27650043

  6. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    PubMed

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved.

  7. Novel insights into the aetiology and pathophysiology of increased airway inflammation during COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Tsoumakidou, Maria; Siafakas, Nikolaos M

    2006-05-22

    Airway inflammation increases during acute exacerbations of COPD. Extrinsic factors, such as airway infections, increased air pollution, and intrinsic factors, such as increased oxidative stress and altered immunity may contribute to this increase. The evidence for this and the potential mechanisms by which various aetiological agents increase inflammation during COPD exacerbations is reviewed. The pathophysiologic consequences of increased airway inflammation during COPD exacerbations are also discussed. This review aims to establish a cause and effect relationship between etiological factors of increased airway inflammation and COPD exacerbations based on recently published data. Although it can be speculated that reducing inflammation may prevent and/or treat COPD exacerbations, the existing anti-inflammatory treatments are modestly effective.

  8. IL-6 signaling blockade increases inflammation but does not affect muscle function in the mdx mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that modulates inflammatory responses and plays critical roles in muscle maintenance and remodeling. In the mouse model (mdx) of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, IL-6 and muscle inflammation are elevated, which is believed to contribute to the chronic inflammation and failure of muscle regeneration in DMD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of blocking IL-6 signaling on the muscle phenotype including muscle weakness and pathology in the mdx mouse. Methods A monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor (IL-6r mAb) that blocks local and systemic IL-6 signaling was administered to mdx and BL-10 mice for 5 weeks and muscle function, histology, and inflammation were examined. Results IL-6r mAb treatment increased mdx muscle inflammation including total inflammation score and ICAM-1 positive lumens in muscles. There was no significant improvement in muscle strength nor muscle pathology due to IL-6r mAb treatment in mdx mice. Conclusions These results showed that instead of reducing inflammation, IL-6 signaling blockade for 5 weeks caused an increase in muscle inflammation, with no significant change in indices related to muscle regeneration and muscle function. The results suggest a potential anti-inflammatory instead of the original hypothesized pro-inflammatory role of IL-6 signaling in the mdx mice. PMID:22716658

  9. Focal adhesion kinase maintains, but not increases the adhesion of dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuyan; Shao, Meiying; Zou, Wenlin; Wang, Linyan; Cheng, Ran; Hu, Tao

    2017-02-25

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) functions as a key enzyme in the integrin-mediated adhesion-signalling pathway. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of FAK on adhesion of human dental pulp (HDP) cells. We transfected lentiviral vectors to silence or overexpress FAK in HDP cells ex vivo. Early cell adhesion, cell survival and focal contacts (FCs)-related proteins (FAK and paxillin) were examined. By using immunofluorescence, the formation of FCs and cytoskeleton was detected, respectively. We found that both adhesion and survival of HDP cells were suppressed by FAK inhibition. However, FAK overexpression slightly inhibited cell adhesion and exhibited no change in cell survival compared with the control. A thick rim of cytoskeleton accumulated and smaller dot-shaped FCs appeared in FAK knockdown cells. Phosphorylation of paxillin (p-paxillin) was inhibited in FAK knockdown cells, verifying that the adhesion was inhibited. Less cytoskeleton and elongated FCs were observed in FAK-overexpressed cells. However, p-paxillin had no significant difference compared with the control. In conclusion, the data suggest that FAK maintains cell adhesion, survival and cytoskeleton formation, but excessive FAK has no positive effects on these aspects.

  10. Maternal Inflammation Disrupts Fetal Neurodevelopment via Increased Placental Output of Serotonin to the Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Goeden, Nick; Velasquez, Juan; Arnold, Kathryn A.; Chan, Yen; Lund, Brett T.; Anderson, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy affects placental function and is associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. The molecular mechanisms linking placental dysfunction to abnormal fetal neurodevelopment remain unclear. During typical development, serotonin (5-HT) synthesized in the placenta from maternal l-tryptophan (TRP) reaches the fetal brain. There, 5-HT modulates critical neurodevelopmental processes. We investigated the effects of maternal inflammation triggered in midpregnancy in mice by the immunostimulant polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] on TRP metabolism in the placenta and its impact on fetal neurodevelopment. We show that a moderate maternal immune challenge upregulates placental TRP conversion rapidly to 5-HT through successively transient increases in substrate availability and TRP hydroxylase (TPH) enzymatic activity, leading to accumulation of exogenous 5-HT and blunting of endogenous 5-HT axonal outgrowth specifically within the fetal forebrain. The pharmacological inhibition of TPH activity blocked these effects. These results establish altered placental TRP conversion to 5-HT as a new mechanism by which maternal inflammation disrupts 5-HT-dependent neurogenic processes during fetal neurodevelopment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The mechanisms linking maternal inflammation during pregnancy with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring are poorly understood. In this study, we show that maternal inflammation in midpregnancy results in an upregulation of tryptophan conversion to serotonin (5-HT) within the placenta. Remarkably, this leads to exposure of the fetal forebrain to increased concentrations of this biogenic amine and to specific alterations of crucially important 5-HT-dependent neurogenic processes. More specifically, we found altered serotonergic axon growth resulting from increased 5-HT in the fetal forebrain. The data provide a new understanding of placental

  11. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  12. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of work absence, disability, and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances) can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium, and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:26029209

  13. Prolonged fasting does not increase oxidative damage or inflammation in postweaned northern elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Crocker, Daniel E; Forman, Henry Jay; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2010-07-15

    Elephant seals are naturally adapted to survive up to three months of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). Prolonged food deprivation in terrestrial mammals increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative damage and inflammation that can be induced by an increase in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). To test the hypothesis that prolonged fasting in elephant seals is not associated with increased oxidative stress or inflammation, blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected from early (2-3 weeks post-weaning) and late (7-8 weeks post-weaning) fasted seals. Plasma levels of oxidative damage, inflammatory markers and plasma renin activity (PRA), along with muscle levels of lipid and protein oxidation, were compared between early and late fasting periods. Protein expression of angiotensin receptor 1 (AT(1)), pro-oxidant (Nox4) and antioxidant enzymes (CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) was analyzed in muscle. Fasting induced a 2.5-fold increase in PRA, a 50% increase in AT(1), a twofold increase in Nox4 and a 70% increase in NADPH oxidase activity. By contrast, neither tissue nor systemic indices of oxidative damage or inflammation increased with fasting. Furthermore, muscle antioxidant enzymes increased 40-60% with fasting in parallel with an increase in muscle and red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activities. These data suggest that, despite the observed increases in RAS and Nox4, an increase in antioxidant enzymes appears to be sufficient to suppress systemic and tissue indices of oxidative damage and inflammation in seals that have fasted for a prolonged period. The present study highlights the importance of antioxidant capacity in mammals during chronic periods of stress to help avoid deleterious systemic consequences.

  14. Increase of oxidation and inflammation in nervous and immune systems with aging and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Vida, Carmen; González, Eva M; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    According to the oxidation-inflammation theory of aging, chronic oxidative stress and inflammatory stress situations (with higher levels of oxidant and inflammatory compounds and lower antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses) are the basis of the agerelated impairment of organism functions, including those of the nervous and immune systems, as well as of the neuroimmune communication, which explains the altered homeostasis and the resulting increase of morbidity and mortality. Overproduction of oxidant compounds can induce an inflammatory response, since oxidants are inflammation effectors. Thus, oxidation and inflammation are interlinked processes and have many feedback loops. However, the nature of their potential interactions, mainly in the brain and immune cells, and their key involvement in aging remain unclear. Moreover, in the context of the neuroimmune communication, it has been described that an oxidative-inflammatory situation occurs in subjects with anxiety, and this situation contributes to an immunosenescence, alteration of survival responses and shorter life span. As an example of this, a model of premature aging in mice, in which animals show a poor response to stress and high levels of anxiety, an oxidative stress in their immune cells and tissues, as well as a premature immunosenescence and a shorter life expectancy, will be commented in the present review. This model supports the hypothesis that anxiety can be a situation of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, especially in brain and immune cells, and this accelerates the rate of aging.

  15. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  16. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed.

  17. Ovariectomy in mature mice does not increase food intake, but increases adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, characterized by reduced estrogen (E2), is associated with increased adiposity and metabolic pathology. Molecular mechanisms underlying this association between low E2 status and metabolic disease are not fully elucidated. When mice are fed a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and diab...

  18. Significant increases in pulping efficiency in C4H-F5H-transformed poplars: improved chemical savings and reduced environmental toxins.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Shannon K; Ellis, Dave; Gilbert, Margarita; Chapple, Clint; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2003-10-08

    The gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) was overexpressed in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) using the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter to drive expression specifically in cells involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and was shown to significantly alter the mole percentage of syringyl subunits in the lignin, as determined by thioacidolysis. Analysis of poplar transformed with a C4H-F5H construct demonstrated significant increases in chemical (kraft) pulping efficiency from greenhouse-grown trees. Compared to wild-type wood, decreases of 23 kappa units and increases of >20 ISO brightness units were observed in trees exhibiting high syringyl monomer concentrations. These changes were associated with no significant modification in total lignin content and no observed phenotypic differences. C4H-F5H-transformed trees could increase pulp throughputs at mills by >60% while concurrently decreasing chemicals employed during processing (chemical pulping and bleaching) and, consequently, the amount of deleterious byproducts released into the environment.

  19. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy. PMID:26771651

  20. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Increases Cytokine Production and Cutaneous Inflammation in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Abaseri, Taghrid Bahig; Repertinger, Susan K.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated in cutaneous keratinocytes upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure and has been implicated in ultraviolet-(UV-)induced inflammation and skin tumorigenesis. Egfr mutant mice and EGFR inhibitors were used to investigate the hypothesis that EGFR activation augments inflammation following UV irradiation. Topical treatment of mouse skin with the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 before UV exposure suppressed UV-induced erythema, edema, mast cell infiltration, and neutrophil infiltration. Genetic ablation of Egfr and EGFR inhibition by AG1478 also suppressed the increase in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α, KC (murine IL-8), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after UV exposure of cultured keratinocytes. Finally, genetic ablation of inhibition of EGFR in cultured keratinocytes decreased p38 activation after UV, while inhibition of p38 kinase reduced COX-2 expression after UV. These data demonstrate that EGFR regulates multiple aspects of UV-induced inflammation and suggest activation of p38 kinase leading to increased COX-2 and cytokine expression as one mechanism through which it acts. PMID:23878744

  1. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Piepenbrink, Michael S.; Samuel, Memorie; Zheng, Bo; Carter, Brittany; Fucile, Christopher; Bunce, Catherine; Kiebala, Michelle; Khan, Atif A.; Thakar, Juilee; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Morse, Diane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Haughey, Norman J.; Valenti, William; Keefer, Michael C.; Kobie, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. Methods and Findings A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy. Conclusions These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing

  2. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  3. Inflammation and increased IDO in hippocampus contribute to depression-like behavior induced by estrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongjun; Sheng, Hui; Tang, Zhiping; Lu, Jianqiang; Ni, Xin

    2015-07-15

    Estrogen deficiency is involved in the development of depression. However, the mechanism underlying estrogen modulates depression-like behavior remains largely unknown. Inflammation and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) have been shown to play pivotal roles in various depression models. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether estrogen deficiency-induced depression-like behavior is associated with inflammation and IDO activation in brain. The results showed that ovariectomy resulted in depression-like behavior in female rats and caused a decrease in 5-HT content and an increase in levels of IDO, IFN-γ, IL-6, toll like receptor (TLR)-4 and phosphorylated NF-κB (p65 subunit) in hippocampus but not in prefrontal cortex (PFC). 17β-Estradiol (E2) treatment ameliorated depression-like behavior and restored above neurochemical alternations in hippocampus in ovariectomized rats. Partial correlation analysis showed that the levels of phosphorylated p65, IFN-γ and IL-6 in hippocampus correlated to serum E2 level. Our study suggests that estrogen inhibits inflammation and activates of IDO and maintains 5-HT level in hippocampus, thereby ameliorating depression-like behavior.

  4. Anticholinergics boost the pathological process of neurodegeneration with increased inflammation in a tauopathy mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yasumasa; Kojima, Ayako; Itoh, Kimiko; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Arai, Kimihito

    2012-01-01

    Anticholinergics, and drugs with anticholinergic properties, are widely and frequently prescribed, especially to the elderly. It is well known that these drugs decrease cognitive function and increase the risk of dementia. Although the mechanism of anticholinergic drug-induced cognitive impairment has been assumed to be functionally reduced acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission, some data have indicated that anticholinergics might enhance the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the pathological effects of anticholinergics on neurodegeneration. We chronically administered two anticholinergics, trihexyphenidyl (TP) and propiverine (PP) (the latter with less central anticholinergic action), to neurodegenerative tauopathy model mice 2 to 10 months old. Furthermore, because the ACh nervous system regulates both central and peripheral inflammation, we administered TP or PP to PS19 mice in which we had artificially induced inflammation by lipopolysaccharide injection. Tau pathology, synaptic loss, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampal region, as well as tau insolubility and phosphorylation, were markedly increased in TP-treated mice and mildly increased in PP-treated mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed microglial proliferation and activation. Moreover, anticholinergics increased interleukin-1β expression in both the spleen and brain of the tauopathy model mice intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce systemic inflammation. Interestingly, these alterations were more strongly observed in TP-treated mice than in PP-treated mice, consistent with the level of central anticholinergic action. Anticholinergic drugs not only impair cognitive function by decreased ACh neurotransmission, but also accelerate neurodegeneration by suppressing an ACh-dependent anti-inflammatory system. Anticholinergics should be less readily prescribed to reduce the risk of dementia.

  5. A novel glass ionomer cement containing MgCO(3 )apatite induced the increased proliferation and differentiation of human pulp cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Laiteerapong, Arunee; Lochaiwatana, Yossakit; Hirata, Isao; Okazaki, Masayuki; Mori, Kenta; Murakami, Shinya; Poolthong, Suchit

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro biological response of human dental pulp cells to glass ionomer cement (GIC, Fuji IX GP(®)) containing 2.5% magnesium carbonate apatite (MgCO(3)Ap). MgCO(3)Ap was synthesized by wet method and characterized using FT-IR, XPS, and SEM. Fuji IX GP(®) served as a control. Test and control cements were prepared by encapsulated mixing the powder with Fuji IX-liquid (P/L=3.6:1). Eluates from cements extracted by 1 mL culture medium were collected at day 1, 7 and 14, and used for WST-1 proliferation assay. For ALPase activity, cells were maintained with cements in transwells, harvested and enzyme activity was measured at day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21. We found a higher cell proliferation and increased ALPase activity by pulp cells in the test group compared to the control. This suggests the potential of GIC containing this novel biological apatite as a restorative material for pulp-dentin regeneration.

  6. [Multiple pulp stones: report of a case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-jie; Luo, Xin; Li, Ren; Dong, Wei; Qi, Meng-chun

    2015-08-01

    Pulp stones were denaturation of pulp tissue, which were usually found in the pulp chamber. Generally, they were associated with caries and pulposis, and the occurrence of pulp stone increased with age. Pulp stones were frequently found by radiographic examination, and appeared as radiopaque lesions which were round or ovoid in shape. We reported an unusual case of multiple pulp stones with normal clinical crowns in a young female patient and analyzed the possible etiology.

  7. Thiamylal sodium increased inflammation and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoka, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Thiamylal sodium is a common anesthetic barbiturate prepared in alkaline solution for clinical use. There is no previously reported study on the effects of barbiturates on the inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we examined the effects of clinical-grade thiamylal sodium solution (TSS) on the inflammation and proliferation of rat VSMCs. Methods Expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and toll-like receptors in rat VSMCs were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and microarray analyses. The production of IL-6 by cultured VSMCs or ex vivo-cultured rat aortic segments was detected in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VSMC proliferation and viability were determined by the water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay and trypan blue staining, respectively. Results TSS increased expression of IL-1α, IL-6, and TLR4 in VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced IL-1β expression. Ex vivo TSS stimulation of rat aorta also increased IL-6. Low concentrations of TSS enhanced VSMC proliferation, while high concentrations reduced both cell proliferation and viability. Expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist, which regulates cell proliferation, was not increased by TSS stimulation. Exposure of cells to the TSS additive, sodium carbonate, resulted in significant upregulation of IL-1α and IL-6 mRNA levels, to a greater extent than TSS. Conclusions TSS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by VSMCs is caused by sodium carbonate. However, pure thiamylal sodium has an anti-inflammatory effect in VSMCs. TSS exposure to VSMCs may promote vascular inflammation, leading to the progression of atherosclerosis or in-stent restenosis, resulting in vessel bypass graft failure. PMID:27274372

  8. Neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism is increased in the dorsal hippocampus and drives distinct depressive behaviors during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, J M; Redus, L; Santana-Coelho, D; Morales, J; Gao, X; O'Connor, J C

    2016-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has an important role in mediating the behavioral effects of inflammation, which has implications in understanding neuropsychiatric comorbidity and for the development of novel therapies. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prevents the development of many of these inflammation-induced preclinical behaviors. However, dysregulation in the balance of downstream metabolism, where neuroactive kynurenines are generated, is hypothesized to be a functionally important pathogenic feature of inflammation-induced depression. Here we utilized two novel transgenic mouse strains to directly test the hypothesis that neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism causes depressive-like behavior following peripheral immune activation. Wild-type (WT) or kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO)-deficient (KMO−/−) mice were administered either lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 mg kg−1) or saline intraperitoneally. Depressive-like behavior was measured across multiple domains 24 h after immune challenge. LPS precipitated a robust depressive-like phenotype, but KMO−/− mice were specifically protected from LPS-induced immobility in the tail suspension test (TST) and reduced spontaneous alternations in the Y-maze. Direct administration of 3-hydroxykynurenine, the metabolic product of KMO, caused a dose-dependent increase in depressive-like behaviors. Mice with targeted deletion of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase (HAAO), the enzyme that generates quinolinic acid, were similarly challenged with LPS. Similar to KMO−/− mice, LPS failed to increase immobility during the TST. Whereas kynurenine metabolism was generally increased in behaviorally salient brain regions, a distinct shift toward KMO-dependent kynurenine metabolism occurred in the dorsal hippocampus in response to LPS. Together, these results demonstrate that KMO is a pivotal mediator of hippocampal-dependent depressive-like behaviors induced by

  9. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth. PMID:25346831

  10. Mineral trioxide aggregate and portland cement for direct pulp capping in dog: a histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth.

  11. Increase in Levels of BDNF is Associated with Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Amoureux, Sébastien; Sicard, Pierre; Korandji, Claudia; Borey, Angélique; Benkhadra, Salima; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Vergely, Catherine; Girard, Claude; Rochette, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) is thought to generate reactive oxygen species associated with a systemic inflammation and neurotrophins seem to be involved in cardiovascular inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CPB on plasma neurotrophins levels and to appreciate the links existing between inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophins. Blood samples were taken from 27 patients undergoing cardiac surgery: before CPB, during ischemia and at reperfusion under CPB. Oxidative stress was evaluated using an Electron Spin Resonance technique by superoxide detection, and antioxidant defences by measurement of Endogenous Peroxidase Activity (EPA). The evolution of two neurotrophins: Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) was assessed with an ELISA method. An inflammatory index was determined by a multiplex flow cytometry method. The inflammatory index showed that MCP-1, P-selectin, t-PA and interleukins 6, 8 and 10 levels increased during CPB (p<0.05). Superoxide production and EPA were higher during ischemia and reperfusion than before CPB (p<0.05). BDNF plasma levels were higher at reperfusion (p<0.05). NGF levels did not change. Our study shows an increase of BDNF levels, associated with an inflammatory phenomenon and a redox modification, in the plasma of patients undergoing cardiac surgery under CPB. The role played by this neurotrophin in this complex situation still needs to be elucidated, in particular its cellular origin. It is also necessary to understand whether BDNF has a beneficial or deleterious effect during CPB. PMID:23675091

  12. Erythropoietin Exacerbates Inflammation and Increases the Mortality of Histoplasma capsulatum-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Locachevic, Gisele Aparecida; Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Secatto, Adriana; Fontanari, Caroline; Galvão, Alyne Fávero; Prado, Morgana Kelly Borges; Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Petta, Tânia; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; de Castro, Fabíola Attie; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a key hormone involved in red blood cell formation, but its effects on nonerythroid cells, such as macrophages, have not been described. Macrophages are key cells in controlling histoplasmosis, a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc). Considering that little is known about EPO's role during fungal infections and its capacity to activate macrophages, in this study we investigated the impact of EPO pretreatment on the alveolar immune response during Hc infection. The consequence of EPO pretreatment on fungal infection was determined by evaluating animal survival, fungal burden, activation of bronchoalveolar macrophages, inflammatory mediator release, and lung inflammation. Pretreatment with EPO diminished mononuclear cell numbers, increased the recruitment of F4/80+/CD80+ and F4/80+/CD86+ cells to the bronchoalveolar space, induced higher production of IFN-γ, IL-6, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and LTB4, reduced PGE2 concentration, and did not affect fungal burden. As a consequence, we observed an increase in lung inflammation with extensive tissue damage that might account for augmented mouse mortality after infection. Our results demonstrate for the first time that EPO treatment has a deleterious impact on lung immune responses during fungal infection. PMID:26538835

  13. BIIL 284 reduces neutrophils numbers but increases P. aeruginosa bacteraemia and inflammation in mouse lungs

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Gerd; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Paroni, Moira; Aktürk, Firdevs-Fatma; Cigana, Cristina; Schmidt, Annika; Gilpin, Deirdre; Heyder, Susanne; Born, Torsten; Smaczny, Christina; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Wagner, Thomas O. F.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Bilton, Diana; Tunney, Michael M.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Pier, Gerald B.; Konstan, Michael W.; Ulrich, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background A clinical study to investigate the leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-receptor antagonist BIIL 284 in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was prematurely terminated due to a significantly increased risk of adverse pulmonary events. We aimed to establish the effect of BIIL284 in models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, thereby contributing to a better understanding of what could have led to adverse pulmonary events in CF patients. Methods P. aeruginosa DNA in the blood of CF patients during and after acute pulmonary exacerbations and in stable patients with non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB) and healthy individuals was assessed by PCR. The effect of BIIL 284 treatment was tested in an agar beads murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Bacterial count and inflammation were evaluated in lung and other organs. Result Most CF patients (98%) and all patients with NCFB and healthy individuals had negative P. aeruginosa DNA in their blood. Similarly, the P. aeruginosa-infected mice showed bacterial counts in the lung but not blood or spleen. BIIL 284 treatment decreased pulmonary neutrophils and increased P. aeruginosa numbers in mouse lungs leading to significantly higher bacteremia rates and lung inflammation compared to placebo treated animals. Conclusions Decreased airway neutrophils induced lung proliferation and severe bacteraemia in a murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. These data suggest that caution should be taken when administering anti-inflammatory compounds to patients with bacterial infections. PMID:24183915

  14. Increased Myeloperoxidase Activity and Protein Nitration Are Indicators of Inflammation in Patients with Chagas' Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Monisha; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo; Pando, Jasmine M.; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Spratt, Heidi; Vazquez-Corzo, Sara; Perez-Molina, Gladys; Gallegos-Sandoval, Rosa; Moreno, Roberto; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether inflammatory responses contribute to oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with Chagas' disease. We used three tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-flow cytometry, and STAT-PAK immunochromatography) to screen human serum samples (n = 1,481) originating from Chiapas, Mexico, for Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies. We identified 121 subjects who were seropositive for T. cruzi-specific antibodies, a finding indicative of an 8.5% seroprevalence in the rural population from Chiapas. Seropositive and seronegative subjects were examined for plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation, i.e., myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and xanthine oxidase (XOD), as well as for oxidative (advanced oxidation protein products [AOPPs]) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine [3NT]) biomarkers. The seropositive subjects exhibited a significant increase in MPO activity and protein level, the indicator of neutrophil activation. Subsequently, a corresponding increase in AOPP contents, formed by MPO-dependent hypochlorous acid and chloramine formation, was noted in seropositive subjects. The plasma level of 3NT was significantly increased in seropositive subjects, yet we observed no change in XOD activity (O2− source) and nitrate/nitrite contents (denotes iNOS activation and NO production), which implied that direct peroxynitrite formation does not contribute to increased nitrosative damage in chagasic subjects. Instead, a positive correlation between increased MPO activity and protein 3NT formation was observed, which suggested to us that MPO-dependent formation of nitrylchloride that occurs in the presence of physiological NO and O2− concentrations contributes to protein nitration. Overall, our data demonstrate that T. cruzi-induced neutrophil activation is pathological and contributes to MPO-mediated collateral protein oxidative and nitrosative damage in human patients with Chagas' disease. Therapies

  15. Tendon overload results in alterations in cell shape and increased markers of inflammation and matrix degradation.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C T; Chaudhry, S; Lei, I I; Varone, A; Riley, G P; Birch, H L; Clegg, P D; Screen, H R C

    2015-08-01

    Tendon injury is thought to involve both damage accumulation within the matrix and an accompanying cell response. While several studies have characterized cell and matrix response in chronically injured tendons, few have assessed the initial response of tendon to overload-induced damage. In this study, we assessed cell response to cyclic loading. Fascicle bundles from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon were exposed to cyclic loading in vitro, designed to mimic a bout of high-intensity exercise. Changes in cell morphology and protein-level alterations in markers of matrix inflammation and degradation were investigated. Loading resulted in matrix damage, which was accompanied by cells becoming rounder. The inflammatory markers cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 were increased in loaded samples, as were matrix metalloproteinase-13 and the collagen degradation marker C1,2C. These results indicate upregulation of inflammatory and degradative pathways in response to overload-induced in vitro, which may be initiated by alterations in cell strain environment because of localized matrix damage. This provides important information regarding the initiation of tendinopathy, suggesting that inflammation may play an important role in the initial cell response to tendon damage. Full understanding of the early tenocyte response to matrix damage is critical in order to develop effective treatments for tendinopathy.

  16. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Sima, Corneliu; Gastfreund, Shoshi; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic coverage of the bone-periodontal ligament interface in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such as decreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis.

  17. The Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation: 
Role of Insulin Resistance and Increased Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Wajiha; Farwa, Umme; Khan, Faisal Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the role of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in the pathogenesis of inflammation in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Our study included 100 patients with MetS and 100 age and gender matched control patients who attended a tertiary care laboratory in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Anthropometric data was obtained including height and weight to calculate body mass index. A record of patient’s blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) was made. Biochemical analysis included measurements of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), insulin, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP). IR was determined by the homeostasis mode assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method. Results The levels of hs-CRP were found to be elevated in all patients with MetS where it correlated significantly with all its components including measures of obesity, fasting insulin and glucose levels, IR, TG and HDL-c. However, on linear regression analysis only WC, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR remained significantly correlated with hs-CRP. Conclusion MetS is a condition characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, which arises because of increased abdominal adiposity and IR. Large multicenter studies are needed to gain insight into its pathogenesis and derive treatment strategies. PMID:25960834

  18. Increased inflammation delays wound healing in mice deficient in collagenase-2 (MMP-8)

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Inada, Masaki; Balbín, Milagros; Fueyo, Antonio; Pitiot, Ana S.; Astudillo, Aurora; Hirose, Kenji; Hirata, Michiko; Shapiro, Steven D.; Noël, Agnès; Werb, Zena; Krane, Stephen M.; López-Otín, Carlos; Puente, Xose S.

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in numerous tissue-remodeling processes. The finding that mice deficient in collagenase-2 (MMP-8) are more susceptible to develop skin cancer, prompted us to investigate the role of this protease in cutaneous wound healing. We have observed a significant delay in wound closure in MMP8−/− mice and an altered inflammatory response in their wounds, with a delay of neutrophil infiltration during the first days and a persistent inflammation at later time points. These changes were accompanied by alterations in the TGF-β1 signaling pathway and by an apoptosis defect in MMP8−/− mice. The delay in wound healing observed in MMP8−/− mice was rescued by bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice. Analysis of other MMPs showed that MMP8−/− mice had a significant increase in the expression of MMP-9, suggesting that both proteases might act coordinately in this process. This possibility was further supported by the novel finding that MMP-8 and MMP-9 form specific complexes in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that MMP-8 participates in wound repair by contributing to the resolution of inflammation and open the possibility to develop new strategies for treating wound healing defects. PMID:17392479

  19. Inflammatory response of human dental pulp to at-home and in-office tooth bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Cardoso, Paula Carvalho; de Souza, João Batista; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Nádia Lago; Torres, Érica Miranda; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tooth bleaching is a technique of choice to obtain a harmonious smile, but bleaching agents may damage the dental pulp. Objective: This study evaluated the inflammatory responses of human dental pulp after the use of two bleaching techniques. Material and Methods: Pulp samples were collected from human third molars extracted for orthodontic reasons and divided into three groups: control - no tooth bleaching (CG) (n=7); at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide (AH) (n = 10), and in-office bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide (IO) (n=12). Pulps were removed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis of inflammation intensity, collagen degradation, and pulp tissue organization. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect mast cells (tryptase+), blood vessels (CD31+), and macrophages (CD68+). Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at p<.05. Results: The inflammation intensity and the number of macrophages were significantly greater in IO than in AH and CG (p<0.05). The results of CD31+ (blood vessels per mm2) were similar in CG (61.39±20.03), AH (52.29±27.62), and IO (57.43±8.69) groups (p>0.05). No mast cells were found in the pulp samples analyzed. Conclusion: In-office bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide resulted in more intense inflammation, higher macrophages migration, and greater pulp damage then at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide, however, these bleaching techniques did not induce migration of mast cells and increased the number of blood vessels. PMID:27812622

  20. Role of human pulp fibroblasts in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tran-Hung, L; Mathieu, S; About, I

    2006-09-01

    After pulp amputation, complete pulp healing requires not only reparative dentin production but also fibroblast proliferation, nerve fiber growth, and neoangiogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the role of pulp fibroblasts in angiogenesis. Human pulp fibroblasts from third molars co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced the organization of endothelial cells and the formation of tubular structures corresponding to capillaries in vivo. The direct contact between both cells was not necessary to induce angiogenesis, and the observed effect was due to soluble factors. This was confirmed with neutralizing antibodies against FGF-2 and VEGF, which decreased the angiogenic effects of these soluble factors. Immunohistochemistry showed that both FGF-2 and VEGF were expressed in human dental pulp fibroblasts, and this expression increased after injury. These results suggest that the pulp fibroblasts secrete angiogenic factors, which are necessary for complete pulp healing, particularly at the pulp injury site.

  1. Increased Blood Clotting, Microvascular Density, and Inflammation in Eotaxin-Secreting Tumors Implanted into Mice

    PubMed Central

    Samoszuk, Michael; Deng, Tom; Hamamura, Mark J.; Su, Min-Ying; Asbrock, Nicholas; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2004-01-01

    An important theme that is emerging in cancer research is the interaction between tumor cells and the host stroma. Because many types of human cancer are infiltrated by eosinophils that are believed to mediate an anti-tumor cytotoxic effect, we developed and studied a transfected B16 murine melanoma cell line that secretes high levels (510 pg/ml/100,000 cells/day) of eotaxin, a chemokine that recruits and activates primarily eosinophils. Here we report that there was increased inflammation (eosinophils, mast cells, mononuclear cells), blood clotting, and microvascular density within the tumors produced by subcutaneous implants of eotaxin-secreting tumor cells in 10 C57BL/6 compared to tumors produced by wild-type tumor cells. The extensive blood clotting in the eotaxin-transfected tumors was associated with significantly decreased blood flow to the tumors as measured by magnetic resonance imaging [(mean maximum signal enhancement of eotaxin-secreting tumors, 147 ± 57 (n = 7) compared to 202 ± 36 signal enhancement units (n = 8) for the wild-type melanoma cells; P = 0.04 by two-tailed, unpaired t-test]. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference between the growth rates or mean masses of the eotaxin-secreting tumors (750 ± 280 mg, n = 10) and the wild-type tumors (780 ± 290, n = 10) after 20 days of growth in vivo, despite the significantly slower growth rate in vitro of the eotaxin-secreting tumor cells. We conclude that eotaxin and the resultant tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are not likely to mediate a significant anti-tumor effect in vivo. Instead, elevated eotaxin is associated with increased inflammation, microvascular density, and blood clotting. Thus, eotaxin and eosinophils may play a more complex role in modulating the growth of tumors than the simple, anti-tumor cytotoxic effect that has been previously proposed. PMID:15277219

  2. Endodontic-orthodontic relationships: expression of no synthase in human dental pulp during orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    D ' Attilio, M; De Angelis, F; Vadini, M; Rodolfino, D; Trubiani, O; Di Nardo Di Maio, F; D' Arcangelo, C

    2012-01-01

    Inflamed human pulp tissue presents an increase in the level of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The aim of this study is to verify the presence of NOS in human pulp of teeth that are subject to orthodontic force. 20 healthy subjects, wearers of fixed braces on the upper arch, were selected. An open coil-spring in NiTi was applied on the upper premolar test tooth (TT); the controlateral control tooth (CCT) was subjected to orthodontic treatment but not to the further force of the open coil-spring; the antagonist control tooth (ACT) did not undergo any orthodontic treatment. Pulps were taken from test, contralateral control and antagonist control teeth immediately after the extractions which were done at 15 and 30 days from the start of application of the orthodontic force. The pulp tissue was analyzed through immunohistochemical and molecular biology examinations. The results showed tooth pulps subject to orthodontic treatment were very inflamed in the first 15 days with high levels of iNOS and low levels of eNOS; after 30 days a decrease of the inflammation and an increase of the pulp vascularization were observed together with a reduction of iNOS and an increase of eNOS respectively.

  3. SOME ASPECTS OF THE CHEMISTRY OF POLYSULFIDE PULPING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Kraft pulping with the addition of polysulfide, i.e. polysulfide pulping, is one of the few methods available which can be used to increase the yield...and change the properties of kraft pulp. The chemistry of aqueous polysulfide solutions and the concurrent reactions occurring in polysulfide pulping

  4. MBOAT7 rs641738 increases risk of liver inflammation and transition to fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Khaled; Asimakopoulos, Anastasia; Shojaei, Maryam; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Mangia, Alessandra; Irving, William L.; Berg, Thomas; Dore, Gregory J.; Grønbæk, Henning; Sheridan, David; Abate, Maria Lorena; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Weltman, Martin; Mollison, Lindsay; Cheng, Wendy; Riordan, Stephen; Fischer, Janett; Spengler, Ulrich; Nattermann, Jacob; Wahid, Ahmed; Rojas, Angela; White, Rose; Douglas, Mark W.; McLeod, Duncan; Powell, Elizabeth; Liddle, Christopher; van der Poorten, David; George, Jacob; Eslam, Mohammed; Gallego-Duran, Rocio; Applegate, Tanya; Bassendine, Margaret; Rosso, Chiara; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Leung, Reynold; Malik, Barbara; Matthews, Gail; Grebely, Jason; Fragomeli, Vincenzo; Jonsson, Julie R.; Santaro, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis likely shares common pathophysiological pathways despite arising from a variety of liver diseases. A recent GWAS identified rs641738, a polymorphism in the MBOAT7 locus, as being associated with the development of alcoholic cirrhosis. Here we explore the role of this variant on liver inflammation and fibrosis in two cohorts of patients with chronic hepatitis C. In 2,051 patients, rs641738 associated with severe hepatic inflammation and increased risk of fibrosis, as well as fast fibrosis progression. At functional level, rs641738 associated with MBOAT7 transcript and protein levels in liver and blood, and with serum inflammatory, oxidative stress and macrophage activation markers. MBOAT7 was expressed in immune cell subsets, implying a role in hepatic inflammation. We conclude that the MBOAT7 rs641738 polymorphism is a novel risk variant for liver inflammation in hepatitis C, and thereby for liver fibrosis. PMID:27630043

  5. Increasing Fatty Acid Oxidation Remodels the Hypothalamic Neurometabolome to Mitigate Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Joseph W.; Aja, Susan; Li, Qun; Bandaru, Veera V. R.; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Haughey, Norman J.; Kuhajda, Francis P.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of hypothalamic fatty acid (FA) metabolism can improve energy homeostasis and prevent hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in diet-induced obesity (DIO) from a diet high in saturated fatty acids. We have shown previously that C75, a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and fatty acid oxidation (FAOx), exerts at least some of its hypophagic effects via neuronal mechanisms in the hypothalamus. In the present work, we characterized the effects of C75 and another anorexigenic compound, the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) inhibitor FSG67, on FA metabolism, metabolomics profiles, and metabolic stress responses in cultured hypothalamic neurons and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines during lipid excess with palmitate. Both compounds enhanced palmitate oxidation, increased ATP, and inactivated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Lipidomics and untargeted metabolomics revealed that enhanced catabolism of FA decreased palmitate availability and prevented the production of fatty acylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesterol esters, lipids that are associated with lipotoxicity-provoked metabolic stress. This improved metabolic signature was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and yet favorable changes in oxidative stress, overt ER stress, and inflammation. We propose that enhancing FAOx in hypothalamic neurons exposed to excess lipids promotes metabolic remodeling that reduces local inflammatory and cell stress responses. This shift would restore mitochondrial function such that increased FAOx can produce hypothalamic neuronal ATP and lead to decreased food intake and body weight to improve systemic metabolism. PMID:25541737

  6. Side-stream smoking reduces intestinal inflammation and increases expression of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Hu, Nan; Ren, Jun; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of side-stream smoking on gut microflora composition, intestinal inflammation and expression of tight junction proteins. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoking for one hour daily over eight weeks. Cecal contents were collected for microbial composition analysis. Large intestine was collected for immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses of the inflammatory pathway and tight junction proteins. RESULTS: Side-stream smoking induced significant changes in the gut microbiota with increased mouse intestinal bacteria, Clostridium but decreased Fermicutes (Lactoccoci and Ruminococcus), Enterobacteriaceae family and Segmented filamentous baceteria compared to the control mice. Meanwhile, side-stream smoking inhibited the nuclear factor-κB pathway with reduced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα, accompanied with unchanged mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6. The contents of tight junction proteins, claudin3 and ZO2 were up-regulated in the large intestine of mice exposed side-stream smoking. In addition, side-stream smoking increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK kinase signaling, while inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase in the large intestine. CONCLUSION: Side-stream smoking altered gut microflora composition and reduced the inflammatory response, which was associated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. PMID:22611310

  7. Pleiotrophin triggers inflammation and increased peritoneal permeability leading to peritoneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hideki; Kasahara, Masato; Mori, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihisa; Kuwabara, Takashige; Imamaki, Hirotaka; Kawanishi, Tomoko; Koga, Kenichi; Ishii, Akira; Kato, Yukiko; Mori, Keita P; Toda, Naohiro; Ohno, Shoko; Muramatsu, Hisako; Muramatsu, Takashi; Sugawara, Akira; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2012-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal fibrosis with submesothelial fibrotic tissue. Although angiogenesis and inflammatory mediators are involved in peritoneal fibrosis, precise molecular mechanisms are undefined. To study this, we used microarray analysis and compared gene expression profiles of the peritoneum in control and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced peritoneal fibrosis mice. One of the 43 highly upregulated genes was pleiotrophin, a midkine family member, the expression of which was also upregulated by the solution used to treat mice by peritoneal dialysis. This growth factor was found in fibroblasts and mesothelial cells within the underlying submesothelial compact zones of mice, and in human peritoneal biopsy samples and peritoneal dialysate effluent. Recombinant pleiotrophin stimulated mitogenesis and migration of mouse mesothelial cells in culture. We found that in wild-type mice, CG treatment increased peritoneal permeability (measured by equilibration), increased mRNA expression of TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin, TNF-α and IL-1β expression, and resulted in infiltration of CD3-positive T cells, and caused a high number of Ki-67-positive proliferating cells. All of these parameters were decreased in peritoneal tissues of CG-treated pleiotrophin-knockout mice. Thus, an upregulation of pleiotrophin appears to play a role in fibrosis and inflammation during peritoneal injury.

  8. Splenic release of platelets contributes to increased circulating platelet size and inflammation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Li-Ping; Su, Yidan; Tsai, Alan; Xu, Qi; Zhang, Ming; Lambert, Gavin W; Kiriazis, Helen; Gao, Wei; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is characterized by a rapid increase in circulating platelet size but the mechanism for this is unclear. Large platelets are hyperactive and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We determined mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet-monocyte conjugation (PMC) using blood samples from patients, and blood and the spleen from mice with AMI. We further measured changes in platelet size, PMC, cardiac and splenic contents of platelets and leucocyte infiltration into the mouse heart. In AMI patients, circulating MPV and PMC increased at 1-3 h post-MI and MPV returned to reference levels within 24 h after admission. In mice with MI, increases in platelet size and PMC became evident within 12 h and were sustained up to 72 h. Splenic platelets are bigger than circulating platelets in normal or infarct mice. At 24 h post-MI, splenic platelet storage was halved whereas cardiac platelets increased by 4-fold. Splenectomy attenuated all changes observed in the blood, reduced leucocyte and platelet accumulation in the infarct myocardium, limited infarct size and alleviated cardiac dilatation and dysfunction. AMI-induced elevated circulating levels of adenosine diphosphate and catecholamines in both human and the mouse, which may trigger splenic platelet release. Pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme, β1-adrenergic receptor or platelet P2Y12 receptor reduced platelet abundance in the murine infarct myocardium albeit having diverse effects on platelet size and PMC. In conclusion, AMI evokes release of splenic platelets, which contributes to the increase in platelet size and PMC and facilitates myocardial accumulation of platelets and leucocytes, thereby promoting post-infarct inflammation.

  9. Rapamycin increases neuronal survival, reduces inflammation and astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Goldshmit, Yona; Kanner, Sivan; Zacs, Maria; Frisca, Frisca; Pinto, Alexander R; Currie, Peter D; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently leads to a permanent functional impairment as a result of the initial injury followed by secondary injury mechanism, which is characterised by increased inflammation, glial scarring and neuronal cell death. Finding drugs that may reduce inflammatory cell invasion and activation to reduce glial scarring and increase neuronal survival is of major importance for improving the outcome after SCI. In the present study, we examined the effect of rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor and an inducer of autophagy, on recovery from spinal cord injury. Autophagy, a process that facilitates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins, is also important for maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and plays a major role in neurodegeneration after neurotrauma. We examined rapamycin effects on the inflammatory response, glial scar formation, neuronal survival and regeneration in vivo using spinal cord hemisection model in mice, and in vitro using primary cortical neurons and human astrocytes. We show that a single injection of rapamycin, inhibited p62/SQSTM1, a marker of autophagy, inhibited mTORC1 downstream effector p70S6K, reduced macrophage/neutrophil infiltration into the lesion site, microglia activation and secretion of TNFα. Rapamycin inhibited astrocyte proliferation and reduced the number of GFAP expressing cells at the lesion site. Finally, it increased neuronal survival and axonogenesis towards the lesion site. Our study shows that rapamycin treatment increased significantly p-Akt levels at the lesion site following SCI. Similarly, rapamycin treatment of neurons and astrocytes induced p-Akt elevation under stress conditions. Together, these findings indicate that rapamycin is a promising candidate for treatment of acute SCI condition and may be a useful therapeutic agent.

  10. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  11. Central autonomic network mediates cardiovascular responses to acute inflammation: Relevance to increased cardiovascular risk in depression?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neil A.; Cooper, Ella; Voon, Valerie; Miles, Ken; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a risk factor for both depression and cardiovascular disease. Depressed mood is also a cardiovascular risk factor. To date, research into mechanisms through which inflammation impacts cardiovascular health rarely takes into account central effects on autonomic cardiovascular control, instead emphasizing direct effects of peripheral inflammatory responses on endothelial reactivity and myocardial function. However, brain responses to inflammation engage neural systems for motivational and homeostatic control and are expressed through depressed mood state and changes in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Here we combined an inflammatory challenge, known to evoke an acute reduction in mood, with neuroimaging to identify the functional brain substrates underlying potentially detrimental changes in autonomic cardiovascular control. We first demonstrated that alterations in the balance of low to high frequency (LF/HF) changes in heart rate variability (a measure of baroreflex sensitivity) could account for some of the inflammation-evoked changes in diastolic blood pressure, indicating a central (rather than solely local endothelial) origin. Accompanying alterations in regional brain metabolism (measured using 18FDG-PET) were analysed to localise central mechanisms of inflammation-induced changes in cardiovascular state: three discrete regions previously implicated in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity, the dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate and pons, strongly mediated the relationship between inflammation and blood pressure. Moreover, activity changes within each region predicted the inflammation-induced shift in LF/HF balance. These data are consistent with a centrally-driven component originating within brain areas supporting stressor evoked blood pressure reactivity. Together our findings highlight mechanisms binding psychological and physiological well-being and their perturbation by peripheral inflammation. PMID:23416033

  12. Characteristics of dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth based on immunohistochemical and morphometric examinations.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Joanna Maria; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Wierzbicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons are commonly considered as healthy. Therefore, it is possible to examine structure of the dental pulp can be fully recognized and how it is affected by malocclusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and morphometry dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The material comprised 36 teeth of 20 patients in the age range 16-26 years. By the use of IHC markers the presence of immunocompetent cells (CD20, CD45RO, and CD68), blood vessels (CD31) and nerves (PGP9.5) were examined in the pulp. Inflammatory infiltrates and tissue atrophy were observed in 24 and 10 teeth, respectively. Strong positive correlation between the width of the odontoblastic layer, the number of rows of odontoblast nuclei and the increase of MVA (microvessel area) in the pulp of atrophic teeth was found. The cellular infiltrations found in H&E-stained sections were identified by IHC as memory T cells (CD45RO+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+) with macrophages (CD68+) present at the periphery. The CD20 antigen was intensively expressed in 13 teeth, CD45RO in 33 teeth, and CD68 in 20 teeth. Thus, despite the lack of any clinical signs of pulp disease many teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons show focal pulp inflammation and atrophy which probably results from the malocclusion stress accompanying teeth crowding.

  13. Increased inflammation in sanctuary sites may explain viral blips in HIV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Piovoso, Michael J.; Cardozo, E. Fabian; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2016-08-01

    Here, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppress HIV-1 viral replication, such that viral load in plasma remains below the limit of detection in standard assays. However, intermittent episodes of transient viremia (blips) occur in a set of HIV-patients. Given that follicular hyperplasia occurs during lymphoid inflammation as a normal response to infection, it is hypothesised that when the diameter of the lymph node follicle (LNF) increases and crosses a critical size, a viral blip occurs due to cryptic viremia. To study this hypothesis, a theoretical analysis of a mathematical model is performed to find the conditions for virus suppression in all compartments and different scenarios of LNF size changes are simulated. According to the analysis, blips with duration of around 30 days arise when the diameter rise rate is between 0.02 and 0.03 days–1. Moreover, the final diameter of the site is directly related to the steady states of the virus load after the occurrence of a blip. When the value of R0 is around 2.1, to have a steady-state below the limit of detection after the viral blip, the maximum final diameters should be greater than 0.7 mm so that there is a relative loss of connection between compartments.

  14. Increased inflammation in sanctuary sites may explain viral blips in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, E Fabian; Piovoso, Michael J; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2016-08-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppress HIV-1 viral replication, such that viral load in plasma remains below the limit of detection in standard assays. However, intermittent episodes of transient viremia (blips) occur in a set of HIV-patients. Given that follicular hyperplasia occurs during lymphoid inflammation as a normal response to infection, it is hypothesised that when the diameter of the lymph node follicle (LNF) increases and crosses a critical size, a viral blip occurs due to cryptic viremia. To study this hypothesis, a theoretical analysis of a mathematical model is performed to find the conditions for virus suppression in all compartments and different scenarios of LNF size changes are simulated. According to the analysis, blips with duration of around 30 days arise when the diameter rise rate is between 0.02 and 0.03 days(-1). Moreover, the final diameter of the site is directly related to the steady states of the virus load after the occurrence of a blip. When the value of R0 is around 2.1, to have a steady-state below the limit of detection after the viral blip, the maximum final diameters should be greater than 0.7 mm so that there is a relative loss of connection between compartments.

  15. Increased inflammation in sanctuary sites may explain viral blips in HIV infection

    DOE PAGES

    Piovoso, Michael J.; Cardozo, E. Fabian; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2016-08-01

    Here, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppress HIV-1 viral replication, such that viral load in plasma remains below the limit of detection in standard assays. However, intermittent episodes of transient viremia (blips) occur in a set of HIV-patients. Given that follicular hyperplasia occurs during lymphoid inflammation as a normal response to infection, it is hypothesised that when the diameter of the lymph node follicle (LNF) increases and crosses a critical size, a viral blip occurs due to cryptic viremia. To study this hypothesis, a theoretical analysis of a mathematical model is performed to find the conditions for virus suppression in allmore » compartments and different scenarios of LNF size changes are simulated. According to the analysis, blips with duration of around 30 days arise when the diameter rise rate is between 0.02 and 0.03 days–1. Moreover, the final diameter of the site is directly related to the steady states of the virus load after the occurrence of a blip. When the value of R0 is around 2.1, to have a steady-state below the limit of detection after the viral blip, the maximum final diameters should be greater than 0.7 mm so that there is a relative loss of connection between compartments.« less

  16. Heterozygosity in the glutathione synthesis gene Gclm increases sensitivity to diesel exhaust particulate induced lung inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Weldy, Chad S.; White, Collin C.; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Larson, Timothy V.; Stewart, James A.; Gill, Sean E.; Parks, William C.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Inhalation of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects. A major fraction of PM2.5 in urban settings is diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), and DEP-induced lung inflammation is likely a critical event mediating many of its adverse health effects. Oxidative stress has been proposed to be an important factor in PM2.5-induced lung inflammation, and the balance between pro- and antioxidants is an important regulator of this inflammation. An important intracellular antioxidant is the tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH). Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) carries out the first step in GSH synthesis. In humans, relatively common genetic polymorphisms in both the catalytic (Gclc) and modifier (Gclm) subunits of GCL have been associated with increased risk for lung and cardiovascular diseases. Objective This study was aimed to determine the effects of Gclm expression on lung inflammation following DEP exposure in mice. Materials and methods We exposed Gclm wild type, heterozygous, and null mice to DEP via intranasal instillation and assessed lung inflammation as determined by neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in lung lavage, inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels in lung tissue, as well as total lung GSH, Gclc, and Gclm protein levels. Results The Gclm heterozygosity was associated with a significant increase in DEP-induced lung inflammation when compared to that of wild type mice. Discussion and conclusion This finding indicates that GSH synthesis can mediate DEP-induced lung inflammation and suggests that polymorphisms in Gclm may be an important factor in determining adverse health outcomes in humans following inhalation of PM2.5. PMID:21967497

  17. POZONE technology to bleach pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Shi, Y.; Le, L.; Wang, S.M.; Wei, J.; Chang, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    Currently, there has been a move in the pulp and paper industry to reduce or eliminate chlorine-based bleaching due to environmental concerns. The POZONE process, a chemical means of ozone production, has been used to bleach wood pulp. The brightness, Kappa number, and viscosity of wood pulp subjected to POZONE treatment have been determined. Brightness increases of up to 44 points and Kappa number decreases of as much as 22 points have been achieved. Promise for effective industrial application has been demonstrated.

  18. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded.

  19. The effect of unilateral sympathectomy and cavity preparation on peptidergic nerves and immune cells in rat dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Haug, S R; Berggreen, E; Heyeraas, K J

    2001-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests interactions between primary afferent nociceptors and postganglionic sympathetic efferents in the pathogenesis of inflammation. The effect of unilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglion on the innervation pattern of nerve fibers immunoreactive (IR) to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY), as well as the occurrence of immune cells in the injured and uninjured rat molar pulp, was investigated. Light microscopic immunocytochemistry demonstrated that the molar pulps contralateral to the sympathectomy contained a NPY-IR nerve fiber network more dense and heavily stained than unoperated control rats. The NPY-IR fibers showed, however, no sprouting after deep cavity preparation. There was no compensatory increase in CGRP- and SP-IR nerve fibers in the dental pulp after unilateral sympathectomy, although a significant increase in cells IR to CGRP and SP was found in the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion. Unilateral sympathectomy induced a significant increase in immune cell density both in the inflamed and in the uninflamed dental pulp bilaterally. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a trophic effect of the sympathetic nerves on immune cells in the dental pulp, indicating that an imbalance of sympathetic nerves may induce inflammation and pain in teeth.

  20. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates. PMID:27422938

  1. Enrichment of lung microbiome with supraglottic taxa is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lung microbiome of healthy individuals frequently harbors oral organisms. Despite evidence that microaspiration is commonly associated with smoking-related lung diseases, the effects of lung microbiome enrichment with upper airway taxa on inflammation has not been studied. We hypothesize that the presence of oral microorganisms in the lung microbiome is associated with enhanced pulmonary inflammation. To test this, we sampled bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from the lower airways of 29 asymptomatic subjects (nine never-smokers, 14 former-smokers, and six current-smokers). We quantified, amplified, and sequenced 16S rRNA genes from BAL samples by qPCR and 454 sequencing. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), BAL lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Results BAL had lower total 16S than supraglottic samples and higher than saline background. Bacterial communities in the lower airway clustered in two distinct groups that we designated as pneumotypes. The rRNA gene concentration and microbial community of the first pneumotype was similar to that of the saline background. The second pneumotype had higher rRNA gene concentration and higher relative abundance of supraglottic-characteristic taxa (SCT), such as Veillonella and Prevotella, and we called it pneumotypeSCT. Smoking had no effect on pneumotype allocation, α, or β diversity. PneumotypeSCT was associated with higher BAL lymphocyte-count (P= 0.007), BAL neutrophil-count (P= 0.034), and eNO (P= 0.022). Conclusion A pneumotype with high relative abundance of supraglottic-characteristic taxa is associated with enhanced subclinical lung inflammation. PMID:24450871

  2. Increased acylated plasma ghrelin, but improved lipid profiles 24-h after consumption of carob pulp preparation rich in dietary fibre and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Garcia, Ada L; Otto, Baerbel; Wagner, Karen; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Burget, Lukas; Weickert, Martin O; Dongowski, Gerhard; Speth, Maria; Katz, Norbert; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-12-01

    We have recently shown that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (Ceratonia siliqua L; carob fibre) decreased postprandial acylated ghrelin, TAG and NEFA during an acute liquid meal challenge test. However, delayed effects of carob fibre consumption are unknown. Therefore, a randomized controlled crossover study in nineteen healthy volunteers consuming foods with or without 50 g carob fibre was conducted. On the subsequent day (day 2), glucose, TAG, total and acylated ghrelin as well as insulin, NEFA and leptin were assessed at baseline and at timed intervals for 300 min after ingestion of standardized bread. Consumption of carob fibre-enriched foods did not affect fasting concentrations of glucose, TAG, total ghrelin, NEFA, insulin and leptin. Fasting acylated ghrelin was increased on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption compared with control (P = 0.046). After consumption of the standard bread on day 2, glucose response (P = 0.029) was increased, and TAG (P = 0.033) and NEFA (P < 0.001) responses were decreased compared with control. Postprandial responses of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin and leptin on day 2 were unaffected by carob fibre consumption the previous day. In conclusion, an increase in total and acylated plasma ghrelin accompanied by enhanced lipid metabolism after carob fibre consumption suggests higher lipid utilization and suppressed lipolysis on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption. However, elevated glucose levels after carob fibre consumption need to be addressed in future studies.

  3. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  4. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  5. Inflammation increases plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 in patients with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Jonker, Jacqueline T; van Glabbeek, Marjolijn; Dehnavi, Reza Alizadeh; Tamsma, Jouke T; Smit, Johannes W A; Kersten, Sander; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase and associates with dyslipidemia. The expression of ANGPTL4 is regulated by free fatty acids (FFA) that activate lipid-sensing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but FFA can also activate pattern recognition receptors including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. Objective To assess whether systemic low-grade inflammation is a determinant for plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design We studied 335 male participants: healthy controls (Controls), patients with the MetS without inflammation (MetS−I) and with low-grade inflammation (MetS+I), and patients with T2DM. All patients without diabetes included in the present study were initially matched for waist circumference. In plasma, ANGPTL4, C reactive protein (CRP) and metabolic parameters were determined. Underlying mechanisms were examined using human macrophages in vitro. Results As compared with Controls, plasma ANGPTL4 levels were increased in patients with MetS−I, MetS+I, and T2DM. Furthermore, ANGPTL4 was increased in T2DM compared with MetS−I. In fact, plasma CRP correlated positively with plasma ANGPTL4. In vitro studies showed that TLR 3/4 activation largely increased the expression and release of ANGPTL4 by macrophages. Conclusions Plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans are predicted by CRP, a marker of inflammation, and ANGPTL4 expression by macrophages is increased by inflammatory stimuli. PMID:25512873

  6. Root maturation and dentin–pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Sherif S; Abd El Meguid, Shadia H; Wahba, Nadia A; Mohamed, Ahmed A-R; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin–pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain® gel) compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs’ teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino–pulpal complex regeneration. PMID:24551447

  7. Dicarbonyl stress in the absence of hyperglycemia increases endothelial inflammation and atherogenesis similar to that observed in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tikellis, Chris; Pickering, Raelene J; Tsorotes, Despina; Huet, Olivier; Cooper, Mark E; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Thomas, Merlin C

    2014-11-01

    The deleterious effects of high glucose levels and enhanced metabolic flux on the vasculature are thought to be mediated by the generation of toxic metabolites, including reactive dicarbonyls like methylglyoxal (MG). In this article, we demonstrate that increasing plasma MG to levels observed in diabetic mice either using an exogenous source (1% in drinking water) or generated following inhibition, its primary clearance enzyme, glyoxalase-1 (with 50 mg/kg IP bromobenzyl-glutathione cyclopentyl diester every second day), was able to increase vascular adhesion and augment atherogenesis in euglycemic apolipoprotein E knockout mice to a similar magnitude as that observed in hyperglycemic mice with diabetes. The effects of MG appear partly mediated by activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), as deletion of RAGE was able to reduce inflammation and atherogenesis associated with MG exposure. However, RAGE deletion did not completely prevent inflammation or vascular damage, possibly because the induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress by dicarbonyls also contributes to inflammation and atherogenesis. Such data would suggest that a synergistic combination of RAGE antagonism and antioxidants may offer the greatest utility for the prevention and management of diabetic vascular complications.

  8. Changes are in Store for Pulping Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry are being forced by economic considerations and air pollution regulations to consider alternatives to the use of sulfur systems, be they kraft, acid or neutral sulfite. To meet environmental requirements and combat erosion of profits, modernized non-sulfur pulping methods will increasingly appear on the scene. (BT)

  9. Unilateral hindpaw inflammation produces a bilateral increase in NADPH-diaphorase histochemical staining in the rat lumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Solodkin, A; Traub, R J; Gebhart, G F

    1992-12-01

    Tissue injury results in several changes in spinal cord neurons that contribute to hyperalgesia arising from the injured tissue. In models of unilateral hindpaw inflammation, changes in the neurochemistry and electrophysiology of dorsal horn neurons ipsilateral, and to a much lesser extent contralateral, to the inflamed paw have been reported. For example, the excitability of dorsal horn neurons increases, receptive field size increases, and the content of various proteins and neuropeptides in the dorsal horn (e.g. FOS, dynorphin, enkephalin) are affected following peripheral inflammatory insult. These changes are typically interpreted on the basis of their relevance to nociception.

  10. Aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis and aging in response to high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Hee; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Koyama, Yukinori; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Diggle, Karin; You, Young-Hyun; Schilling, Jan M; Jeste, Dilip; Sharma, Kumar; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic and renal inflammation or fibrosis in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and explore the underlying genetic alterations. Middle (10 months old) and old (20 months old) aged, male C57BL/6N mice were fed either a low-fat diet (4 % fat) or HFD (60 % fat) for 4 months. Young (3 months old) aged mice were included as control group. HFD-induced liver and kidney injuries were analyzed by serum and urine assay, histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA sequencing with next-generation technology was done with RNA extracted from liver tissues. With HFD feeding, aged was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, marked infiltration of hepatic macrophages, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A). Importantly, aged mice showed more advanced hepatic fibrosis and increased expression of fibrogenic markers (Col-I-α1, αSMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGFβRII, PDGF, PDGFRβII, TIMP1) in response to HFD. Aged mice fed on HFD also showed increased oxidative stress and TLR4 expression. In the total RNA seq and gene ontology analysis of liver, old-aged HFD group showed significant up-regulation of genes linked to innate immune response, immune response, defense response, inflammatory response compared to middle-aged HFD group. Meanwhile, aging and HFD feeding showed significant increase in glomerular size and mesangial area, higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and advanced renal inflammation or fibrosis. However, the difference of HFD-induced renal injury between old-aged group and middle-aged group was not significant. The susceptibility of hepatic fibrosis as well as hepatic inflammation in response to HFD was significantly increased with aging. In addition, aging was associated with glomerular alterations and increased renal inflammation or

  11. Sugarcane bagasse pulps: biobleaching with commercial cartazyme HS and with Bacillus pumilus xylanase.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Duarte, Marta C T

    2005-01-01

    Organosolv (ethanol/water and acetosolv) pulps were treated with Bacillus pumilus xylanase for 4, 8, and 12 h and compared with commercial Cartazyme HS xylanase-treated pulps. Treatment of ethanol/water pulps with B. pumilus xylanase increased viscosity by 40% in 8 h of treatment compared with pulps treated without enzyme. However, acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus xylanase lost viscosity. Ethanol/water pulps treated with Cartazyme had a viscosity of 18.5 cP in 4 h of treatment. In the acetosolv pulps treated with commercial enzyme, the loss of viscosity was 20% compared with pulps treated without enzyme. Ethanol/water pulps treated with B. pumilus and Cartazyme had similar effects: a 44% reduction in kappa number for pulps treated with enzyme followed by alkaline extraction compared with pulps treated with alkaline extraction. In acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus, the kappa number was from 12 to 18, compared with pulps treated without enzyme, which had a 40% reduction in 4 and 12 h and a 60% reduction in 8 h. Cartazyme-treated acetosolv pulps had a kappa number of 14 in 4 and 8 h of treatment. For 12 h of treatment, the kappa number was 8. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the pulps showed that enzyme-treated pulps had changes in the 1000 cm-1 absorption owing to a C-O bond present in esters. Using principal component analysis, it is possible to differentiate the unbleached pulps and enzyme-treated pulps.

  12. Increase in Sialylation and Branching in the Mouse Serum N-glycome Correlates with Inflammation and Ovarian Tumour Progression

    PubMed Central

    Saldova, Radka; Piccard, Helene; Pérez-Garay, Marta; Harvey, David J.; Struwe, Weston B.; Galligan, Marie C.; Berghmans, Nele; Madden, Stephen F.; Peracaula, Rosa; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Rudd, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological cancer and is often diagnosed in late stage, often as the result of the unavailability of sufficiently sensitive biomarkers for early detection, tumour progression and tumour-associated inflammation. Glycosylation is the most common posttranslational modification of proteins; it is altered in cancer and therefore is a potential source of biomarkers. We investigated the quantitative and qualitative effects of anti-inflammatory (acetylsalicylic acid) and pro-inflammatory (thioglycolate and chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose) drugs on glycosylation in mouse cancer serum. A significant increase in sialylation and branching of glycans in mice treated with an inflammation-inducing compound was observed. Moreover, the increases in sialylation correlated with increased tumour sizes. Increases in sialylation and branching were consistent with increased expression of sialyltransferases and the branching enzyme MGAT5. Because the sialyltransferases are highly conserved among species, the described changes in the ovarian cancer mouse model are relevant to humans and serum N-glycome analysis for monitoring disease treatment and progression might be a useful biomarker. PMID:24023608

  13. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Otto, Baerbel; Garcia, Ada L; Wagner, Karen; Mueller, Corinna; Weickert, Martin O; Heldwein, Walter; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre consumption is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary polyphenols have been suggested to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Recently, we reported that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (carob fibre) resulted in lower postprandial acylated ghrelin levels after a liquid meal challenge test compared with a control meal without supplementation. The effects may, however, differ when a different food matrix is used. Thus, we investigated the effects of carob fibre on glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses in healthy humans in combination with a glucose load. In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P < 0.001), and serum insulin by 19.9 and 24.8 % (P < 0.001), compared with the control. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations did not change significantly after the consumption of carob-enriched glucose solution. Total ghrelin decreased only after 10 g carob fibre (P < 0.001) compared with control. In conclusion, we showed that polyphenol-rich carob fibre, administered within a water-glucose solution, increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, suggesting a deterioration in glycaemic control.

  14. The influence of pulping and washing conditions on the properties of Eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps treated with chelants.

    PubMed

    Area, M C; Carvalho, M G V S; Ferreira, P J; Felissia, F E; Barboza, O M; Bengoechea, D I

    2010-03-01

    The influence of different addition points of a chelating agent and a counter-ion exchange on the properties of Eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps is studied. Seven pulps were considered: two laboratory kraft pulps with or without the inclusion of the chelant DTPMPA (diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid)), a mill kraft pulp and four mill pulps after Ca(+2) or Na(+) counter-ion exchange followed, or not, by washing with DTPMPA addition. The laboratory pulps required lower beating energy than the industrial pulps for achieving 30 degrees SR, and the corresponding handsheets also showed better strength and optical properties, as well as a more homogeneous and smooth surface. The counter-ion exchange decreases the mechanical resistances and increases brightness. However, the effects of Ca(+2) are deeper than those of Na(+). DTPMPA added to pulping causes a decrease in calcium content whereas as a washing additive does not have a relevant impact on the mechanical and optical properties.

  15. Increased levels of calprotectin in obesity are related to macrophage content: impact on inflammation and effect of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Victor; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-01-01

    Calprotectin has been recently described as a novel marker of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the circulating concentrations and expression levels of calprotectin subunits (S100A8 and S100A9) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), exploring its impact on insulin resistance and inflammation and the effect of weight loss. We included 53 subjects in the study. Gene expression levels of the S100A8/A9 complex were analyzed in VAT as well as in both adipocytes and stromovascular fraction cells (SVFCs). In addition, circulating calprotectin and soluble receptor for the advanced glycation end product (sRAGE) concentrations were measured before and after weight loss achieved by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 26). Circulating concentrations and VAT expression of S100A8/A9 complex were increased in normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic obese patients (P < 0.01) and associated with markers of inflammation (P < 0.01). Oppositely, concentrations of sRAGE were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in both obese groups compared to lean volunteers. Elevated calprotectin levels in obese patients decreased (P < 0.00001) after RYGB, whereas sRAGE concentrations tended to increase. Calprotectin was mainly expressed by SVFCs, and its expression was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with mRNA levels of the monocyte-macrophage-related molecules macrophage-specific antigen CD68 (CD68), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), integrin α-M (CD11B), and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). Tumor necrosis factor-α treatment significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) of human visceral adipocytes. The increased levels of calprotectin in obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, its positive association with inflammation as well as the higher expression levels in the SVFCs in VAT suggests a potential role of this protein as a chemotactic factor in the recruitment of macrophages to VAT, increasing inflammation and the development of obesity

  16. Central sensitization in thalamic nociceptive neurons induced by mustard oil application to rat molar tooth pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Chiang, C Y; Xie, Y F; Park, S J; Lu, Y; Hu, J W; Dostrovsky, J O; Sessle, B J

    2006-10-27

    We have recently demonstrated that application of mustard oil (MO), a small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant, to the rat maxillary molar tooth pulp induces central sensitization that is reflected in changes in spontaneous activity, mechanoreceptive field (RF) size, mechanical activation threshold, and responses to graded mechanical stimuli applied to the neuronal RF in trigeminal brainstem subnucleus caudalis and subnucleus oralis. The aim of this study was to test whether central sensitization can be induced in nociceptive neurons of the posterior thalamus by MO application to the pulp. Single unit neuronal activity was recorded in the ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPM) or posterior nuclear group (PO) of the thalamus in anesthetized rats, and nociceptive neurons were classified as wide dynamic range (WDR) or nociceptive-specific (NS). MO application to the pulp was studied in 47 thalamic nociceptive neurons and found to excite over 50% of the 35 VPM neurons tested and to produce significant long-lasting (over 40 min) increases in spontaneous activity, cutaneous pinch RF size and responses to graded mechanical stimuli, and a decrease in threshold in the 29 NS neurons tested; a smaller but statistically significant increase in mean spontaneous firing rate and decrease in activation threshold occurred following MO in the six WDR neurons tested. Vehicle application to the pulp did not produce any significant changes in six VPM NS neurons tested. MO application to the pulp produced pronounced increases in spontaneous activity, pinch RF size, and responses to mechanical stimuli, and a decrease in threshold in three of the six PO neurons. In conclusion, application of the inflammatory irritant MO to the tooth pulp results in central sensitization of thalamic nociceptive neurons and this neuronal hyperexcitability likely contributes to the behavioral consequences of peripheral inflammation manifesting as pain referral, hyperalgesia and allodynia.

  17. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization. PMID:20454445

  18. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  19. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  20. Increased von Willebrand factor levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reflect inflammation rather than increased propensity for platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren D; Eilertsen, Gro Østli

    2016-01-01

    Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in platelet plug formation and protein transport. Increased VWF levels in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are considered risk factors for vascular events. VWF protein levels, however, do not accurately reflect its platelet-aggregating function, which has not been examined in SLE. Methods Cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data obtained in patients with SLE (n=92) from a regional lupus registry. VWF function was determined by ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (VWF ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo) and VWF levels by turbidimetric assay (VWF antigen, VWF:Ag). The platelet-aggregating activity per VWF unit was estimated by the VWF RCo/Ag ratio. Healthy controls served as comparators and associations were evaluated by non-parametric methods. Results VWF:Ag (142% vs 107%, p=0.001) and VWF:RCo levels (123% vs 78%, p<0.041) were increased in patients with SLE, but VWF RCo/Ag ratio was similar as in controls (0.83 vs 0.82, p=0.8). VWF:Ag levels were higher in patients experiencing serositis but unrelated to other manifestations, thrombotic disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematous Disease Activity Index 2000 or Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics-Damage Index. VWF:Ag levels correlated significantly with VWF:RCo levels (Rs 0.8, p<0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Rs 0.32, p<0.01), anti-dsDNA Ab (Rs 0.27, p<0.01), total IgG (Rs 0.33 p<0.01), fibrinogen (Rs 0.28, p<0.01) and ceruloplasmin (Rs 0.367, p<0.01) levels. VWF:RCo levels were not related to clinical findings but were correlated with ESR, anti-dsDNA and transferrin levels. No serological associations existed for VWF RCo/Ag ratio (all p>0.2). Conclusions In this SLE cohort, VWF:Ag behaved similarly to acute-phase reactants, but VWF:Ag increases were not matched by increases in functional activity per unit of VWF. Thus, more VWF did not increase the propensity for platelet aggregation in SLE. PMID:27651919

  1. Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts.

    PubMed

    Botta, Amy; Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Decoffe, Daniella; Brown, Kirsty; Halder, Swagata; Devlin, Angela; Gibson, Deanna L; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, controls inflammation and mitochondrial gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues following exercise intervention. However, attributing such effects to PGC-1α is counfounded by exercise-induced fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin or bodyweight in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α on inflammation and mitochondrial protein expressions in aging db/db mice hearts, independent of changes in glycemic parameters. In 8-month-old db/db mice hearts with diabetes lasting over 22 weeks, short-term, moderate-intensity exercise upregulated PGC-1α without altering body weight or glycemic parameters. Nonetheless, such a regimen lowered both cardiac (macrophage infiltration, iNOS and TNFα) and systemic (circulating chemokines and cytokines) inflammation. Curiously, such an anti-inflammatory effect was also linked to attenuated expression of downstream transcription factors of PGC-1α such as NRF-1 and several respiratory genes. Such mismatch between PGC-1α and its downstream targets was associated with elevated mitochondrial membrane proteins like Tom70 but a concurrent reduction in oxidative phosphorylation protein expressions in exercised db/db hearts. As mitochondrial oxidative stress was predominant in these hearts, in support of our in vivo data, increasing concentrations of H2O2 dose-dependently increased PGC-1α expression while inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes and downstream transcription factors in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. We conclude that short-term exercise-induced oxidative stress may be key in attenuating cardiac inflammatory genes and impairing PGC-1α mediated gene transcription of downstream transcription factors in type 2 diabetic hearts at an advanced age.

  2. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) Strongly Correlates with Increasing HIV-1 Viremia and Markers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sanjay; Qiu, Ju; Rupert, Adam W.; Hu, Zonghui; Higgins, Jeanette; Dewar, Robin L.; Stevens, Randy; Rehm, Catherine A.; Metcalf, Julia A.; Sherman, Brad T.; Baseler, Michael W.; Lane, H. Clifford; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective IL-15 has been postulated to play an important role in HIV-1 infection, yet there are conflicting reports regarding its expression levels in these patients. We sought to measure the level of IL-15 in a large, well characterised cohort of HIV-1 infected patients and correlate this with well known markers of inflammation, including CRP, D-dimer, sCD163 and sCD14. Design and Methods IL-15 levels were measured in 501 people (460 patients with HIV-1 infection and 41 uninfected controls). The HIV-1 infected patients were divided into 4 groups based on viral load: <50 copies/ml, 51–10,000 copies/ml, 10,001–100,000 copies/ml and >100,000 copies/ml. The Mann Whitney test (non-parametric) was used to identify significant relationships between different patient groups. Results IL-15 levels were significantly higher in patients with viral loads >100,000 copies/ml (3.02 ± 1.53 pg/ml) compared to both uninfected controls (1.69 ± 0.37 pg/ml, p<0.001) or patients with a viral load <50 copies/ml (1.59 ± 0.40 pg/ml (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between HIV-1 viremia and IL-15 levels (Spearman r = 0.54, p<0.001) and between CD4+ T cell counts and IL-15 levels (Spearman r = -0.56, p<0.001). Conclusions IL-15 levels are significantly elevated in HIV-1 infected patients with viral loads >100,000 copies/ml compared to uninfected controls, with a significant direct correlation noted between IL-15 and HIV-1 viremia and an inverse correlation between IL-15 levels and CD4+ T cell counts. These data support a potential role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated immune activation. PMID:27880829

  3. PET-Scan Shows Peripherally Increased Neurokinin 1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow: Visualizing Neurogenic Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Magnus; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Aarnio, Mikko; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1 specific radioligand [11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:24155873

  4. Acute Joint Pathology and Synovial Inflammation is Associated with Increased Intra-Articular Fracture Severity in the Mouse Knee

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John S.; Hembree, W. Chad; Furman, Bridgette D.; Tippets, Lauren; Cattel, Dennis; Huebner, Janet L.; Little, Dianne; DeFrate, Louis E.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Post-traumatic arthritis is a frequent cause of disability and occurs most commonly and predictably after articular fracture. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of fracture severity on acute joint pathology in a novel murine model of intra-articular fracture. DESIGN Low and high energy articular fractures (n=25 per group) of the tibial plateau were created in adult male C57BL/6 mice. The acute effect of articular fracture severity on synovial inflammation, bone morphology, liberated fracture area, cartilage pathology, chondrocyte viability, and systemic cytokines and biomarkers levels was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-fracture. RESULTS Increasing intra-articular fracture severity was associated with greater acute pathology in the synovium and bone compared to control limbs, including increased global synovitis and reduced periarticular bone density and thickness. Applied fracture energy was significantly correlated with degree of liberated cortical bone surface area, indicating greater comminution. Serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) were significantly increased one day post-fracture. While articular fracture significantly reduced chondrocyte viability, there was no relationship between fracture severity and chondrocyte viability, cartilage degeneration, or systemic levels of cytokines and biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that articular fracture is associated with a loss of chondrocyte viability and increased levels of systemic biomarkers, and that increased intra-articular fracture severity is associated with increased acute joint pathology in a variety of joint tissues, including synovial inflammation, cortical comminution, and bone morphology. Further characterization of the early events following articular fracture could aid in the treatment of post-traumatic arthritis. PMID:21619936

  5. Kupffer cells-dependent inflammation in the injured liver increases recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Chen; Lai, Fobao; Zhu, Pengxi; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lu; Ye, Fei; Zhao, Qiudong; Li, Rong; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) repair tissue injury and may be used to treat immune associated diseases. In carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury murine model, we administered MSCs. When MSCs were transmitted to young and old mice with liver injury, more MSCs were recruited in old mice. In old mice, inflammation, characterized by TNF-α and IL-6, was increased due to hyper-activation and hyper-function of Kupffer cells. Blocking Kupffer cells decreased MSCs migration in old mice. In vitro, Kupffer cells isolated from old mice secreted more inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Thus, hyper-activation of Kupffer cells in old mice increased recruitment of MSCs after their therapeutic administration. PMID:26716516

  6. INFLAMMATION IS INCREASED WITH ANXIETY- AND DEPRESSION-LIKE SIGNS IN A RAT MODEL OF SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Bouchard, Sioui; Peters, Kelsey; Woller, Sarah A.; Madahian, Behrouz; Faghihi, Usef; Patel, Shivani; Bake, Shameena; Hook, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to increased anxiety and depression in as many as 60% of patients. Yet, despite extensive clinical research focused on understanding the variables influencing psychological well-being following SCI, risk factors that decrease it remain unclear. We hypothesized that excitation of the immune system, inherent to SCI, may contribute to the decrease in psychological well-being. To test this hypothesis, we used a battery of established behavioral tests to assess depression and anxiety in spinally contused rats. The behavioral tests, and subsequent statistical analyses, revealed three cohorts of subjects that displayed behavioral characteristics of 1) depression, 2) depression and anxiety, or 3) no signs of decreased psychological well-being. Subsequent molecular analyses demonstrated that the psychological cohorts differed not only in behavioral symptoms, but also in peripheral (serum) and central (hippocampi and spinal cord) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Subjects exhibiting a purely depression-like profile showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines peripherally, whereas subjects exhibiting a depression- and anxiety-like profile showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines centrally (hippocampi and spinal cord). These changes in inflammation were not associated with injury severity; suggesting that the association between inflammation and the expression of behaviors characteristic of decreased psychological well-being was not confounded by differential impairments in motor ability. These data support the hypothesis that inflammatory changes are associated with decreased psychological well-being following SCI. PMID:26296565

  7. Inflammation is increased with anxiety- and depression-like signs in a rat model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Bouchard, Sioui; Peters, Kelsey; Woller, Sarah A; Madahian, Behrouz; Faghihi, Usef; Patel, Shivani; Bake, Shameena; Hook, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to increased anxiety and depression in as many as 60% of patients. Yet, despite extensive clinical research focused on understanding the variables influencing psychological well-being following SCI, risk factors that decrease it remain unclear. We hypothesized that excitation of the immune system, inherent to SCI, may contribute to the decrease in psychological well-being. To test this hypothesis, we used a battery of established behavioral tests to assess depression and anxiety in spinally contused rats. The behavioral tests, and subsequent statistical analyses, revealed three cohorts of subjects that displayed behavioral characteristics of (1) depression, (2) depression and anxiety, or (3) no signs of decreased psychological well-being. Subsequent molecular analyses demonstrated that the psychological cohorts differed not only in behavioral symptoms, but also in peripheral (serum) and central (hippocampi and spinal cord) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Subjects exhibiting a purely depression-like profile showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines peripherally, whereas subjects exhibiting a depression- and anxiety-like profile showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines centrally (hippocampi and spinal cord). These changes in inflammation were not associated with injury severity; suggesting that the association between inflammation and the expression of behaviors characteristic of decreased psychological well-being was not confounded by differential impairments in motor ability. These data support the hypothesis that inflammatory changes are associated with decreased psychological well-being following SCI.

  8. The distinct distributions of immunocompetent cells in rat dentin pulp after pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nakatomi, Chihiro; Sugiyama, Goro; Matsuo, Kou; Jimi, Eijiro

    2015-04-01

    Pulpotomy involves the removal of the coronal portion of pulp, including the diseased tissue, with the intent of maintaining the vitality of the remaining pulpal tissue via a therapeutic dressing. Once odontoblasts suffer injuries, the differentiation of mesenchymal cells is induced from the precursor cell population in the dental pulp, and these cells are recruited to the injured site to differentiate into odontoblasts. However, the involvement of immunocompetent cells during pulpal regeneration remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of macrophages that infiltrated wound healing sites in rats between 1 and 28 days after pulpotomy (dap). During the inflammatory phase, ED1(+) (CD68(+) ) macrophages significantly increased throughout root pulp, especially apical to the demarcation zone, and this population persisted until 3 dap before decreasing gradually until 28 dap. OX6(+) macrophages expressing class II MHC also increased in the apical pulp at 1 dap and declined thereafter. However, OX6(+) cells appeared prior to dentin bridge formation at 3 dap and appeared again apical to the dentin bridge during the healing stage at 14 dap. The shift from ED1(+) cells in the inflammation phase to OX6(+) cells during dentin bridge formation might contribute to wound healing.

  9. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Increased Scalp Sweating: Is Neurogenic Inflammation the Common Link?

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Matthew J.; Wong, Sharon; Farrant, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an uncommon scarring hair loss disorder that is characterized by a band-like recession of the frontal hair line with eyebrow hair loss. We present a series of patients with FFA and increased sweating predominantly localized to the scalp, and potential explanations for this association are discussed. We hypothesize that the reported increase in sweating seen in our patients may be in part related to the inflammatory process occurring locally within the skin, either inducing a local axonal sweating reflex or through direct modulation of sweat gland secretion by neuropeptides. PMID:27386462

  10. xCT increases tuberculosis susceptibility by regulating antimicrobial function and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Wang, Wenfei; Zhang, Mingxia; Wu, Junying; Deng, Guofang; Deng, Qunyi; Liu, Haiying; Zhou, Boping; Jin, Qi; Feng, Carl G; Sassetti, Christopher M; Wang, Fudi; Chen, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    The physiological functions of macrophage, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, depend on its redox state. System xc-, a cystine-glutamate transporter, which consists of xCT and CD98, influences many ROS-dependent pathways by regulating the production of the antioxidant glutathione. xCT's ability to alter this critical host redox balance by increasing the glutathione synthesis aspect of phagocyte physiology suggested that it might influence tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this study, we found that the xCT expression was increased in peripheral blood monocyte of active tuberculosis. xCT expression in macrophage was induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through TLR2/Akt- and p38-dependent signaling pathway. Importantly, xCT deficiency conferred protection against tuberculosis, as xCT knock out mice displayed increased Mtb load and reduced pulmonary pathology in lung compared to wild type mice. xCT disruption enhanced the mycobateriacidal activity of macrophage through increasing the mycothiol oxidation. Importantly, chemical inhibition of xCT with sulfasalazine, a specific xCT inhibitor that is already approved by the FDA for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, produces similar protective effects in vivo and in vitro, indicating xCT might be a novel and useful target for host-directed TB treatment strategy. PMID:27129162

  11. Inflammation-induced increase in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor current in cutaneous nociceptive DRG neurons from the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-L; Albers, K M; Gold, M S

    2015-01-22

    The goals of the present study were to determine (1) the properties of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) currents in rat cutaneous dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons; (2) the impact of nAChR activation on the excitability of cutaneous DRG neurons; and (3) the impact of inflammation on the density and distribution of nAChR currents among cutaneous DRG neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study retrogradely labeled DRG neurons from naïve and complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats. Nicotine-evoked currents were detectable in ∼70% of the cutaneous DRG neurons, where only one of two current types, fast or slow currents based on rates of activation and inactivation, was present in each neuron. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of the fast current were consistent with nAChRs containing an α7 subunit while those of the slow current were consistent with nAChRs containing α3/β4 subunits. The majority of small diameter neurons with fast current were IB4- while the majority of small diameter neurons with slow current were IB4+. Preincubation with nicotine (1 μM) produced a transient (1 min) depolarization and increase in the excitability of neurons with fast current and a decrease in the amplitude of capsaicin-evoked current in neurons with slow current. Inflammation increased the current density of both slow and fast currents in small diameter neurons and increased the percentage of neurons with the fast current. With the relatively selective distribution of nAChR currents in putative nociceptive cutaneous DRG neurons, our results suggest that the role of these receptors in inflammatory hyperalgesia is likely to be complex and dependent on the concentration and timing of acetylcholine release in the periphery.

  12. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-10-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

  13. Apolipoprotein CIII Overexpression-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia Increases Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Association with Inflammation and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Adriene A.; Raposo, Helena F.; Wanschel, Amarylis C. B. A.; Nardelli, Tarlliza R.

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the principal manifestation of liver disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. By comparing hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein (apo) CIII with control nontransgenic (NTg) littermates, we demonstrated that overexpression of apoCIII, independent of a high-fat diet (HFD), produces NAFLD-like features, including increased liver lipid content; decreased antioxidant power; increased expression of TNFα, TNFα receptor, cleaved caspase-1, and interleukin-1β; decreased expression of adiponectin receptor-2; and increased cell death. This phenotype is aggravated and additional NAFLD features are differentially induced in apoCIII mice fed a HFD. HFD induced glucose intolerance together with increased gluconeogenesis, indicating hepatic insulin resistance. Additionally, the HFD led to marked increases in plasma TNFα (8-fold) and IL-6 (60%) in apoCIII mice. Cell death signaling (Bax/Bcl2), effector (caspase-3), and apoptosis were augmented in apoCIII mice regardless of whether a HFD or a low-fat diet was provided. Fenofibrate treatment reversed several of the effects associated with diet and apoCIII expression but did not normalize inflammatory traits even when liver lipid content was fully corrected. These results indicate that apoCIII and/or hypertriglyceridemia plays a major role in liver inflammation and cell death, which in turn increases susceptibility to and the severity of diet-induced NAFLD. PMID:28163820

  14. Pulp stones: a review.

    PubMed

    Goga, R; Chandler, N P; Oginni, A O

    2008-06-01

    Pulp stones are a frequent finding on bitewing and periapical radiographs but receive relatively little attention in textbooks. A review of the literature was therefore performed, initially using the PubMed database and beginning the search with 'pulp calcifications' and 'pulp stones'. Each term provided more than 400 references, many of which related to pulp calcification in general rather than pulp stones, and focussed largely on the problems these changes presented to clinicians. A manual search using references from this source was carried out. Contemporary textbooks in endodontology were also consulted, and an historic perspective gained from a number of older books and references. The factors involved in the development of the pulp stones are largely unknown. Further research may determine the reasons for their formation, but with current endodontic instruments and techniques this is unlikely to alter their relevance to clinicians.

  15. Lysophosphatidic acid triggers mast cell-driven atherosclerotic plaque destabilization by increasing vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bot, Martine; de Jager, Saskia C A; MacAleese, Luke; Lagraauw, H Maxime; van Berkel, Theo J C; Quax, Paul H A; Kuiper, Johan; Heeren, Ron M A; Biessen, Erik A L; Bot, Ilze

    2013-05-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, accumulates in the atherosclerotic plaque. It has the capacity to activate mast cells, which potentially exacerbates plaque progression. In this study, we thus aimed to investigate whether LPA contributes to plaque destabilization by modulating mast cell function. We here show by an imaging mass spectrometry approach that several LPA species are present in atherosclerotic plaques. Subsequently, we demonstrate that LPA is a potent mast cell activator which, unlike other triggers, favors release of tryptase. Local perivascular administration of LPA to an atherosclerotic carotid artery segment increases the activation status of perivascular mast cells and promotes intraplaque hemorrhage and macrophage recruitment without impacting plaque cell apoptosis. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn could prevent intraplaque hemorrhage elicited by LPA-mediated mast cell activation. Finally, the involvement of mast cells in these events was further emphasized by the lack of effect of perivascular LPA administration in mast cell deficient animals. We demonstrate that increased accumulation of LPA in plaques induces perivascular mast cell activation and in this way contributes to plaque destabilization in vivo. This study points to local LPA availability as an important factor in atherosclerotic plaque stability.

  16. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    PubMed

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented.

  17. Pulpal vascular changes in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Changes in pulpal vessels in experimentally induced acute and chronic pulpitis in dog tooth were investigated using corrosive resin casts and scanning electron microscopic examination. Following a cavity preparation without water spray, increased permeability of blood vessels occurred in the primary stage of acute pulpitis. This was evidenced by the extravasation of resin from the vessel. This phenomenon was found initially in the venular network as well as in the capillary network located under the dentin. The morphological change was minimal in the vascular network underneath the cavity. This is in contrast to an expanded and tortuous vascular network representing an ulceration which was found around an abscess in chronic pulpitis. Furthermore, formation of vascular loops and AVAlc close to the inflamed region may represent a protective change in the pulp against inflammation.

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. The confluence of increased permeability, inflammation, and pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Lasch, Karen; Zhou, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal ailments among those seeking health care for gastrointestinal disorders. Despite its prevalence, IBS pathophysiology is still not completely understood. Continued elucidation of IBS etiological mechanisms will lead to a greater appreciation of possible therapeutic targets. In the past decade, there has been increasing focus on the possible connection between increased intestinal mucosal permeability, inflammation, and visceral hypersensitivity. Increased permeability in subsets of IBS patients has been observed and the possible mechanisms underlying this defect are just beginning to be understood. The objectives of this review are to summarize the role of the healthy intestinal epithelium as a barrier between the lumen and the rest of the body with a focus on tight junctions; to examine the lines of evidence that suggest that different triggers lead to increased intestinal mucosal permeability and disruption of tight junctions in IBS patients; and to explore how this increased permeability may elicit immune responses that affect afferent nerves, resulting in the pain associated with IBS.

  19. OPN‐a induces muscle inflammation by increasing recruitment and activation of pro‐inflammatory macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Many, Gina M.; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Nghiem, Peter P.; Bello, Luca; Dadgar, Sherry; Yin, Ying; Damsker, Jesse M.; Cohen, Heather B.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Mosser, David M.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2016-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? What is the functional relevance of OPN isoform expression in muscle pathology? What is the main finding and its importance? The full‐length human OPN‐a isoform is the most pro‐inflammatory isoform in the muscle microenvironment, acting on macrophages and myoblasts in an RGD‐integrin‐dependent manner. OPN‐a upregulates expression of tenascin‐C (TNC), a known Toll‐like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist. Blocking TLR4 signalling inhibits the pro‐inflammatory effects of OPN‐a, suggesting that a potential mechanism of OPN action is by promoting TNC–TLR4 signalling. Although osteopontin (OPN) is an important mediator of muscle remodelling in health and disease, functional differences in human spliced OPN variants in the muscle microenvironment have not been characterized. We thus sought to define the pro‐inflammatory activities of human OPN isoforms (OPN‐a, OPN‐b and OPN‐c) on cells present in regenerating muscle. OPN transcripts were quantified in normal and dystrophic human and dog muscle. Human macrophages and myoblasts were stimulated with recombinant human OPN protein isoforms, and cytokine mRNA and protein induction was assayed. OPN isoforms were greatly increased in dystrophic human (OPN‐a > OPN‐b > OPN‐c) and dog muscle (OPN‐a = OPN‐c). In healthy human muscle, mechanical loading also upregulated OPN‐a expression (eightfold; P < 0.01), but did not significantly upregulate OPN‐c expression (twofold; P > 0.05). In vitro, OPN‐a displayed the most pronounced pro‐inflammatory activity among isoforms, acting on both macrophages and myoblasts. In vitro and in vivo data revealed that OPN‐a upregulated tenascin‐C (TNC), a known Toll‐like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist. Inhibition of TLR4 signalling attenuated OPN‐mediated macrophage cytokine production. In summary, OPN‐a is the most abundant and functionally active human spliced isoform in the skeletal muscle

  20. Acid-Sensitive Sheddable PEGylated PLGA Nanoparticles Increase the Delivery of TNF-α siRNA in Chronic Inflammation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Aldayel, Abdulaziz M; Naguib, Youssef W; O'Mary, Hannah L; Li, Xu; Niu, Mengmeng; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing interest in utilizing small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), in chronic inflammation therapy. However, delivery systems that can increase the distribution of the siRNA in chronic inflammation sites after intravenous administration are needed. Herein we report that innovative functionalization of the surface of siRNA-incorporated poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles significantly increases the delivery of the siRNA in the chronic inflammation sites in a mouse model. The TNF-α siRNA incorporated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by the standard double emulsion method, but using stearoyl-hydrazone-polyethylene glycol 2000, a unique acid-sensitive surface active agent, as the emulsifying agent, which renders (i) the nanoparticles PEGylated and (ii) the PEGylation sheddable in low pH environment such as that in chronic inflammation sites. In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation, the acid-sensitive sheddable PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles showed significantly higher accumulation or distribution in chronic inflammation sites than PLGA nanoparticles prepared with an acid-insensitive emulsifying agent (i.e., stearoyl-amide-polyethylene glycol 2000) and significantly increased the distribution of the TNF-α siRNA incorporated into the nanoparticles in inflamed mouse foot. PMID:27434685

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Accelerates Wound Healing following Dental Pulp Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li; Amano, Kazuharu; Iohara, Koichiro; Ito, Masataka; Imabayashi, Kiyomi; Into, Takeshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Misako

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including morphogenesis, wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer. Angiogenesis is essential for reparative dentin formation during pulp wound healing. The mechanism of angiogenesis, however, still remains unclear. We hypothesized that certain MMPs expressed during pulp wound healing may support recovery processes. To address this issue, a rat pulp injury model was established to investigate expression of MMPs during wound healing. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that expression MMP-3 and MMP-9 (albeit lower extent) was up-regulated at 24 and 12 hours after pulp injury, respectively, whereas expression of MMP-2 and MMP-14 was not changed. MMP-3 mRNA and protein were localized in endothelial cells and/or endothelial progenitor cells in injured pulp in vivo. In addition, MMP-3 enhanced proliferation, migration, and survival of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the topical application of MMP-3 protein on the rat-injured pulp tissue in vivo induced angiogenesis and reparative dentin formation at significantly higher levels compared with controls at 24 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Inhibition of endogenous MMP-3 by N-Isobutyl-N-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)-glycylhydroxamic acid resulted in untoward wound healing. These results provide suggestive evidence that MMP-3 released from endothelial cells and/or endothelial progenitor cells in injured pulp plays critical roles in angiogenesis and pulp wound healing. PMID:19834065

  2. Adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized mice occurs in the absence of increased adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause promotes central obesity, adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Both obesity and the loss of estrogen can activate innate and adaptive immune cells (macrophages (M's), T-cells). The respective impacts of weight gain and loss of ovarian hormones on AT inflammation an...

  3. TMJ inflammation increases Fos expression in the nucleus raphe magnus induced by subsequent formalin injection of the masseter or hindpaw of rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Hoon; Imbe, Hiroki; Iwai-Liao, Yasutomo

    2006-08-01

    The study was designed to examine the effect of persistent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation on neuronal activation in the descending pain modulatory system in response to noxious stimulus. Formalin was injected into the left masseter muscle or hindpaw of rats 10 days after injection of the left TMJ with saline or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The results showed that 10-day persistent TMJ inflammation (induced by CFA) alone did not induce a significant increase in Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-LI) neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) or locus coeruleus (LC), but that formalin injection of the masseter muscle or hindpaw induced a significant increase in Fos-LI neurons in the RVM and LC of rats with and without TMJ inflammation (P < 0.05). However, persistent TMJ inflammation significantly increased Fos-LI neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) induced by subsequent formalin injection of the masseter muscle and hindpaw (70.2% increase and 53.8% increase, respectively, over the control TMJ-saline-injected rats; P < 0.05). The results suggest that persistent TMJ inflammation increases neuronal activity, in particularly in the NRM, by the plastic change of the descending pain modulatory system after ipsilateral application of a noxious stimulus to either orofacial area or a spatially remote body area.

  4. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by respiratory syncytial virus results in increased inflammation and delayed apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Monick, Martha M; Cameron, Kelli; Staber, Janice; Powers, Linda S; Yarovinsky, Timur O; Koland, John G; Hunninghake, Gary W

    2005-01-21

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) preferentially infects lung epithelial cells. Infection by RSV leads to an extended inflammatory response, characterized by the release of interleukin-8 (IL-8). Activation of ERK MAP kinase is required for both RSV-induced inflammation and the extended survival of infected cells. In this study, we analyzed the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in RSV activation of ERK. We demonstrate for the first time that RSV activates EGFR in lung epithelial cells. Activation of EGFR results in increased ERK activity, contributing to both the inflammatory response (IL-8 release) and prolonging the survival of RSV-infected cells. Inhibition of EGFR with siRNA decreased both ERK activation and IL-8 production after RSV. In analyzing the effect of EGFR activation on survival of RSV-infected cells, we found that EGFR activation by RSV resulted in ERK-dependent alterations in the balance of pro- versus anti-apoptotic Bcl2 proteins. RSV altered the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl2 proteins (increased BclxL and decreased BimEL) increasing the relative amount of pro-survival proteins. This occurred in an EGFR-dependent manner. This study supports an important role for EGFR activity in the lifespan and inflammatory potential of RSV-infected epithelial cells.

  5. Protectin DX increases survival in a mouse model of sepsis by ameliorating inflammation and modulating macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xia, Haifa; Chen, Lin; Liu, Hong; Sun, Zhipeng; Yang, Wen; Yang, Yiyi; Cui, Shunan; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Yaxin; Song, Limin; Abdelgawad, Amro Fayez; Shang, You; Yao, Shanglong

    2017-12-01

    Recently, a serial of studies have demonstrated that lipid mediators derived from Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid have pro-resolving or anti-inflammatory effects in many inflammatory diseases. Here, we sought to evaluate whether Protectin DX (PDX, an isomer of Protecin D1), a newly identified lipid mediator, could protect mice against sepsis and explore the underling mechanism. Animal model of sepsis was established by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that PDX increased overall survival rate within eight days and attenuated multiple organ injury in septic mice. In addition, PDX reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial load 24 h after CLP. Moreover, PDX promoted phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages and increased the percentage of M2 macrophages in peritoneum of septic mice. In vitro, M2 macrophage markers (Arg1 and Ym1) and its transcriptional regulator (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, PPAR-γ) were upregulated in Raw264.7 macrophages challenged with PDX. GW9662 (a PPAR-γ inhibitor) and PPAR-γ siRNA abrogated the induction of Arg1 and Ym1 by PDX in Raw264.7 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PDX is able to promote M2 polarization, enhance phagocytosis activity of macrophage and accelerate resolution of inflammation, finally leading to increased survival rate of septic mice.

  6. A Chimeric Cfh Transgene Leads to Increased Retinal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Accumulation of Activated Subretinal Microglia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aredo, Bogale; Li, Tao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Kaiyan; Wang, Cynthia Xin-Zhao; Gou, Darlene; Zhao, Biren; He, Yuguang; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Variants of complement factor H (Cfh) affecting short consensus repeats (SCRs) 6 to 8 increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to explore the effect of expressing a Cfh variant on the in vivo susceptibility of the retina and RPE to oxidative stress and inflammation, using chimeric Cfh transgenic mice (chCfhTg). Methods. The chCfhTg and age-matched C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to oxidative stress by either normal aging, or by exposure to a combination of oral hydroquinone (0.8% HQ) and increased light. Eyes were collected for immunohistochemistry of RPE–choroid flat mounts and of retinal sections, ELISA, electron microscopy, and RPE/microglia gene expression analysis. Results. Aging mice to 2 years led to an increased accumulation of basal laminar deposits, subretinal microglia/macrophages (MG/MΦ) staining for CD16 and for malondialdehyde (MDA), and MDA-modified proteins in the retina in chCfhTg compared to B6 mice. The chCfhTg mice maintained on HQ diet and increased light showed greater deposition of basal laminar deposits, more accumulation of fundus spots suggestive of MG/MΦ, and increased deposition of C3d in the sub-RPE space, compared to controls. In addition, chCfhTg mice demonstrated upregulation of NLRP3, IP-10, CD68, and TREM-2 in the RNA isolates from RPE/MG/MΦ. Conclusions. Expression of a Cfh transgene introducing a variant in SCRs 6 to 8 was sufficient to lead to increased retinal/RPE susceptibility to oxidative stress, a proinflammatory MG/MΦ phenotype, and a proinflammatory RPE/MG/MΦ gene expression profile in a transgenic mouse model. Our data suggest that altered interactions of Cfh with MDA-modified proteins may be relevant in explaining the effects of the Cfh variant. PMID:26030099

  7. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  8. Inflammation neither increases hepatic hepcidin nor affects intestinal (59)Fe-absorption in two murine models of bowel inflammation, hemizygous TNF(ΔARE/+) and homozygous IL-10(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Buffler, M; Becker, C; Windisch, W; Schümann, K

    2015-10-01

    Hepcidin-synthesis was reported to be stimulated by inflammation. In contrast, hepcidin synthesis was inhibited by TNFα and serum hepcidin was low. To elucidate these contradictions, we compare data on hepcidin expression, on iron absorption and homoeostasis and markers of inflammation between two murine models of intestinal inflammation and corresponding wild-types as determined by standard methods. In TNF(ΔARE/+) and IL-10(-/-)-mice hepatic hepcidin expression and protein content was significantly lower than in corresponding wild-types. However, (59)Fe whole-body retention showed no difference between knock-outs and corresponding wild-types 7d after gavage, in neither strain. Compared to wild-types, body weight, hepatic non-haem iron content, hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly decreased in TNF(ΔARE/+) mice, while erythropoiesis increased. These differences were not seen in IL-10(-/-) mice. Duodenal IL-6 and TNFα content increased significantly in TNF(ΔARE/+) mice, while ferritin-H decreased along with hepatic hepcidin expression, ferritin L, and non-haem iron. In IL-10(-/-) mice, these changes were less marked or missing for non-haem iron. Duodenal ferritin-L and ferroportin increased significantly, while HFE decreased. Our results corroborate the conflicting combination of low hepcidin with inflammation and without increased intestinal iron absorption. Speculating on underlying mechanism, decreased hepcidin may result from stimulated erythropoiesis. Unaltered intestinal iron-absorption may compromise between the stimulation by increased erythropoiesis and inhibition by local and systemic inflammation. The findings suggest intense interaction between counterproductive mechanisms and ask for further research.

  9. Dental Pulp Reaction to Exposure at Different Time Intervals in Open Apex Canine Teeth of Cats

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Bidar, Maryam; Zarrabi, Mohammad Hasan; Talati, Ali

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Open-apex teeth with irreversible pulpitis require complex and difficult treatment. Providing the right environment for apexogenesis and pulp protection is vital for their long term prognosis. The young pulp of open apex tooth, however, is better equipped against irritation and assault. The aim of this study was to evaluate pulp inflammation in open apex canine teeth of cats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vivo study, twelve cats with open apex canines were used. Pulps were iatrogenically exposed and the animals were sacrificed at one, seven, thirty and ninety days after pulp exposure. Samples were prepared for histological evaluations. RESULTS: During the first and seventh day, changes were limited to acute inflammation in the coronal pulp. During the first month pulp changes in 45.5% of samples were similar to the seventh day. In the other samples necrosis and abscess spread to the end of the root, and internal resorption and periapical abscess were observed. In 45.5% of samples in the apical region vital tissue was barely observed (during 90 days); in 54.5% of samples however, complete pulp necrosis, internal resorption and a large periapical lesion was observed. CONCLUSION: In one and seven-day periods pulp tissue was vital, however, in the thirty and ninety-day periods, minority of the pulp samples were vital. PMID:23940485

  10. Systemic alterations in the metabolome of diabetic NOD mice delineate increased oxidative stress accompanied by reduced inflammation and hypertriglyceremia.

    PubMed

    Fahrmann, Johannes; Grapov, Dmitry; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Bell, Graeme I; Hara, Manami

    2015-06-01

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are a commonly used model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, not all animals will develop overt diabetes despite undergoing similar autoimmune insult. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomic approach, consisting of gas chromatography time-of-flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-accurate mass quadruple time-of-flight (UHPLC-qTOF) MS and targeted UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-based methodologies, was used to capture metabolic alterations in the metabolome and lipidome of plasma from NOD mice progressing or not progressing to T1D. Using this multi-platform approach, we identified >1,000 circulating lipids and metabolites in male and female progressor and nonprogressor animals (n = 71). Statistical and multivariate analyses were used to identify age- and sex-independent metabolic markers, which best differentiated metabolic profiles of progressors and nonprogressors. Key T1D-associated perturbations were related with 1) increases in oxidation products glucono-δ-lactone and galactonic acid and reductions in cysteine, methionine and threonic acid, suggesting increased oxidative stress; 2) reductions in circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid signaling mediators, most notably arachidonic acid (AA) and AA-derived eicosanoids, implying impaired states of systemic inflammation; 3) elevations in circulating triacylglyercides reflective of hypertriglyceridemia; and 4) reductions in major structural lipids, most notably lysophosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Taken together, our results highlight the systemic perturbations that accompany a loss of glycemic control and development of overt T1D.

  11. Colonic insult impairs lymph flow, increases cellular content of the lymph, alters local lymphatic micro-environment and leads to sustained inflammation in the rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Walter; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, Scott D.; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Newell Rogers, M. Karen; Zawieja, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic dysfunction has been linked to inflammation since the 1930’s. Lymphatic function in the gut and mesentery is grossly underexplored in models of IBD despite the use of lymphatic occlusion in early models of IBD. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune system is a hallmark of TNBS-induced inflammation and is linked to disruption of the intrinsic lymph pump. Recent identification of crosstalk between lymphatic vessel resident immune cells and regulation of lymphatic vessel contractility underscore the importance of the timing of lymphatic dysfunction during tissue inflammation in response to TNBS. Methods To evaluate lymphatic function in TNBS induced inflammation, lymph was collected and flow measured from mesenteric lymphatics. Cellularity and cytokine profile of the lymph was also measured. Histopathology was performed to determine severity of injury and immunofluorescent staining of the mesentery was done to evaluate changes in the population of immune cells that reside near and on gastro-intestinal collecting lymphatics. Results Lymph transport fell 24hrs after TNBS administration and began recovering at 72hrs. Significant reduction of lymph flow preceded significant increase in histopathological score and occurred simultaneously with increased MPO activity. These changes were preceded by increased MHCII+ cells surrounding mesenteric lymphatics leading to an altered lymphatic environment that would favor dysfunction. Conclusions Alterations in environmental factors that effect lymphatic function occur before the development of gross GI inflammation. Reduced lymphatic function in TNBS-mediated inflammation is likely an early factor in the development of injury and that recovery of function is associated with resolution of inflammation. PMID:25939039

  12. Increased taurine in pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice greatly reduces the acute onset of myofibre necrosis and dystropathology and prevents inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terrill, Jessica R.; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to increase taurine availability to pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice (from 14 days of age), to evaluate the impact on levels of myofibre necrosis and inflammation (at 22 days) during the acute period of severe dystropathology. Results: Untreated 22 day old mdx muscle was not deficient in taurine, with similar levels to normal C57 control muscle. However taurine treatment, which increased the taurine content of young dystrophic muscle (by 40%), greatly reduced myofibre necrosis (by 75%) and prevented significant increases in 3 markers of inflammation. Conclusion: Taurine was very effective at preventing the acute phase of muscle damage that normally results in myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice, supporting continued research into the use of taurine as a therapeutic intervention for protecting growing muscles of young DMD boys PMID:27679740

  13. Increased inflammation and intracellular calcium caused by ultrafine carbon black is independent of transition metals or other soluble components

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D; Stone, V; Findlay, P; MacNee, W; Donaldson, K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Particulate air pollution has been shown to cause adverse health effects, and the ultrafine particle component has been implicated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ultrafine particle exerted its effects through transition metals or other soluble factors released from the surface of the particles.
METHODS—Both in vitro and in vivo models were used to test the imflammogenicity of carbon black (CB) and ultrafine carbon black (UfCB) and the role of transition metals was investigated by treating the particles with desferrioxamine mesylate (desferal), a transition metal chelator. Rats were instilled with particles and the cell population assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Calcium homeostasis in macrophages was assessed with a fluorimetric technique.
RESULTS—UfCB was inflammogenic compared with CB when instilled into Wistar rat lungs, an effect which could not be ameliorated by desferal treatment of the particles. Particle leachates produced no significant inflammation in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that the cytosolic calcium ion concentration in Mono Mac 6 cells was increased significantly after UfCB treatment and treatment of particles with desferal did not alter these effects. Particle leachates had no effect on cytosolic calcium ion concentration. Iron was not detected in leachates of the particles with the desferal assay, however, ng/mg of particles were detectable in citrate leachates with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
CONCLUSIONS—The increased inflammogenicity of UfCB compared with CB cannot be explained by soluble transition metals released from or by accumulation of iron at the particle surface. Differences may be accounted for by increased surface area or particle number.


Keywords: ultrafine; calcium; transition metals PMID:10984341

  14. Shorter Duration of Post-Operative Antibiotics for Cecal Ligation and Puncture Does Not Increase Inflammation or Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Iskander, Kendra N.; Vaickus, Max; Duffy, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy for sepsis has beneficial effects, but prolonged use fosters emergence of resistant microorganisms, increases cost, and secondary infections. We tested whether 3 days versus 5 days of antibiotics in the murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) negatively influences outcomes. Following CLP mice were randomized to receive the antibiotic imipenem-cilastatin (25mg/kg) in dextrose 5% in Lactated Ringer’s solution every 12 hours for either three or five days. Serial monitoring over 28 days included body weight, temperature, pulse oximetry, and facial vein sampling for hematological analysis and glucose. A separate group of mice were euthanized on post-CLP day 5 to measure cytokines and peritoneal bacterial counts. The first study examined no antimicrobial therapy and demonstrated that antibiotics significantly improved survival compared to fluids only (p = 0.004). We next tested imipenem-cilastatin therapy for 3 days versus 5 days. Body weight, temperature, glucose, and pulse oximetry measurements remained generally consistent between both groups as did the hematological profile. Pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines were comparable between both groups for IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-2 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, and TNF SRI. At 5 days post-CLP, i.e. 2 days after the termination of antibiotics in the 3 day group, there were no differences in the number of peritoneal bacteria. Importantly, shortening the course of antibiotics by 40% (from 5 days to 3 days) did not decrease survival. Our results indicate that reducing the duration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in murine sepsis did not increase inflammation or mortality. PMID:27669150

  15. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with an increase of inflammation-related colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory processes and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF ...

  16. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P < 0.05), the decreases were not consistent with the degree of periodontitis. Furthermore, the cells did not necessarily show significantly diminished in vitro multi-differentiation potential. Only DPSCs from Group A and the Control group formed dentin-like matrix in vivo when cell-seeded biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases reactive oxygen species by inducing spermine oxidase in human lung epithelial cells: a potential mechanism for inflammation-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Naveen; Casero, Robert A

    2006-12-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the development of many human epithelial cancers, including those of the stomach, lung, colon, and prostate. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine produced by many cells in response to injury and inflammation. Here, we show that TNF-alpha exposure results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with a concomitant increase in the production of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, a marker for oxidative DNA damage, in human lung bronchial epithelial cells. The source of the ROS in TNF-alpha-treated cells was determined by both pharmacologic and small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategies to be spermine oxidase (SMO/PAOh1). SMO/PAOh1 oxidizes spermine into spermidine, 3-aminopropanal, and H(2)O(2). Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced SMO/PAOh1 activity with MDL 72,527 or with a targeted siRNA prevented ROS production and oxidative DNA damage. Further, similar induction in SMO/PAOh1 is observed with treatment of another inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6. The data are consistent with a model that directly links inflammation and DNA damage through the production of H(2)O(2) by SMO/PAOh1. Further, these results suggest a common mechanism by which inflammation from multiple sources can lead to the mutagenic changes necessary for the development and progression of epithelial cancers.

  18. Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Leads to Increased Proportions of F4/80+ Red Pulp Macrophages and Decreased Proportions of B and T Lymphocytes in the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Rosche, Kristin L.; Aljasham, Alanoud T.; Kipfer, James N.; Piatkowski, Bryan T.; Konjufca, Vjollca

    2015-01-01

    Infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) causes systemic inflammatory disease and enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). Splenomegaly has been attributed to a general increase in the numbers of phagocytes, lymphocytes, as well as to the expansion of immature CD71+Ter119+ reticulocytes. The spleen is important for recycling senescent red blood cells (RBCs) and for the capture and eradication of blood-borne pathogens. Conservation of splenic tissue architecture, comprised of the white pulp (WP), marginal zone (MZ), and red pulp (RP) is essential for initiation of adaptive immune responses to captured pathogens. Using flow cytometry and four color immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM), we show that Salmonella-induced splenomegaly is characterized by drastic alterations of the splenic tissue architecture and cell population proportions, as well as in situ cell distributions. A major cause of splenomegaly appears to be the significant increase in immature RBC precursors and F4/80+ macrophages that are important for recycling of heme-associated iron. In contrast, the proportions of B220+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, as well as MZ MOMA+ macrophages decrease significantly as infection progresses. Spleen tissue sections show visible tears and significantly altered tissue architecture with F4/80+ macrophages and RBCs expanding beyond the RP and taking over most of the spleen tissue. Additionally, F4/80+ macrophages actively phagocytose not only RBCs, but also lymphocytes, indicating that they may contribute to declining lymphocyte proportions during Salmonella infection. Understanding how these alterations of spleen microarchitecture impact the generation of adaptive immune responses to Salmonella has implications for understanding Salmonella pathogenesis and for the design of more effective Salmonella-based vaccines. PMID:26068006

  19. Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Leads to Increased Proportions of F4/80+ Red Pulp Macrophages and Decreased Proportions of B and T Lymphocytes in the Spleen.

    PubMed

    Rosche, Kristin L; Aljasham, Alanoud T; Kipfer, James N; Piatkowski, Bryan T; Konjufca, Vjollca

    2015-01-01

    Infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) causes systemic inflammatory disease and enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). Splenomegaly has been attributed to a general increase in the numbers of phagocytes, lymphocytes, as well as to the expansion of immature CD71+Ter119+ reticulocytes. The spleen is important for recycling senescent red blood cells (RBCs) and for the capture and eradication of blood-borne pathogens. Conservation of splenic tissue architecture, comprised of the white pulp (WP), marginal zone (MZ), and red pulp (RP) is essential for initiation of adaptive immune responses to captured pathogens. Using flow cytometry and four color immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM), we show that Salmonella-induced splenomegaly is characterized by drastic alterations of the splenic tissue architecture and cell population proportions, as well as in situ cell distributions. A major cause of splenomegaly appears to be the significant increase in immature RBC precursors and F4/80+ macrophages that are important for recycling of heme-associated iron. In contrast, the proportions of B220+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, as well as MZ MOMA+ macrophages decrease significantly as infection progresses. Spleen tissue sections show visible tears and significantly altered tissue architecture with F4/80+ macrophages and RBCs expanding beyond the RP and taking over most of the spleen tissue. Additionally, F4/80+ macrophages actively phagocytose not only RBCs, but also lymphocytes, indicating that they may contribute to declining lymphocyte proportions during Salmonella infection. Understanding how these alterations of spleen microarchitecture impact the generation of adaptive immune responses to Salmonella has implications for understanding Salmonella pathogenesis and for the design of more effective Salmonella-based vaccines.

  20. Loss-of-function of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase reversibly increases the severity of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aich, Jyotirmoi; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ahmad, Tanveer; Agrawal, Anurag; Ghosh, Balaram

    2012-06-06

    Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases regulate the magnitude of phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling output. Although inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase is known to regulate phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling, little is known regarding its role in asthma pathogenesis. Here we show that modulation of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase alters the severity of asthma. Allergic airway inflammation in mice led to calpain-mediated degradation of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase. In allergic airway inflammation models, preventing inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase degradation by inhibiting calpain activity, or overexpression of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase in mouse lungs, led to attenuation of the asthma phenotype. Conversely, knockdown of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase severely aggravated the allergic airway inflammation and the asthma phenotype. Interestingly, inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase knockdown in lungs of naive mice led to spontaneous airway hyper-responsiveness, suggesting that inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase could be vital in maintaining the lung homeostasis. We suggest that inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase has an important role in modulating inflammatory response in asthma, and thus, uncover a new understanding of the complex interplay between inositol signalling and asthma, which could provide alternative strategies in asthma management.

  1. Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Independent of Body Adiposity in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Controls in falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon

    2016-01-01

    Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana. Also, body adiposity index, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were computed. Before and during falciparum malaria, diabetes patients exhibited higher (P < 0.05) levels of CRP and peroxides than controls but TAP and BAI were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Baseline CRP correlated positively (r = 0.341, P = 0.002) with peroxide only in the diabetic group. During malaria, TAP level in both study groups declined (P < 0.05) by 80% of their baseline levels. CRP correlated negatively (r = −0.352, P = 0.011) with TAP in the control but not the diabetic group. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria elevated inflammation and peroxidation but decreased antioxidant power independent of adiposity. This finding may have implication on cardiovascular health. PMID:27298824

  2. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eugene; Abbott, Paul V.

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry are examples of vitality tests. Whilst the prospect is promising, there are still many practical issues that need to be addressed before vitality tests can replace sensibility tests as the standard clinical pulp diagnostic test. With all pulp tests, the results need to be carefully interpreted and closely scrutinised as false results can lead to misdiagnosis which can then lead to incorrect, inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment. PMID:20339575

  3. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D'Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-02-11

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA.

  4. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D’Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA. PMID:26864323

  5. FGF23 and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf El Din, Usama A A; Salem, Mona M; Abdulazim, Dina O

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a recognized feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification was recently settled. FGF23 was recently accused as a direct stimulus of systemic inflammation. This finding explains the strong association of FGF23 to vascular calcification and increased mortality among CKD. PMID:28101453

  6. Pilot study of correlation of pulp stones with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Edds, A C; Walden, J E; Scheetz, J P; Goldsmith, L J; Drisko, C L; Eleazer, P D

    2005-07-01

    We propose that calcification of dental pulp may have a similar pathogenesis as calcified atheromas and could lead to use of routine dental radiographs as a rapid screening method for early identification of potential cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fifty-five dental patients ages 20 to 55 were chosen because pulp stones in pulpally noninflamed teeth were not expected in this age group. They completed a questionnaire regarding their CVD status and that of their parents and siblings. Entry criteria included at least one asymptomatic, minimally restored, noncarious molar and no history of gout, renal disease, or renal lithiasis. Patients' periapical radiographs of record were viewed to determine the presence of pulp stones. There was a significant relationship between pre-existing CVD and pulp stones (odds ratio of 4.4 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.1, 18.7), but no relationship was found for family history of CVD and pulp stones (odds ratio of 1.7 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.5, 5.5). Seventy-four percent (14/19) of patients with reported CVD had detectable pulp stones while only 39% (14/36) of patients without a history of CVD had pulp stones. This pilot study demonstrates that patients with CVD have an increased incidence of pulp stones in teeth with noninflamed pulps compared to patients with no history of CVD. No relationship was found between presence of pulp stones and family history of CVD. The findings suggest that dental radiographic determination of the presence or absence of pulp stones may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  7. Axonal Degeneration in Dental Pulp Precedes Human Primary Teeth Exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Lovera, M; Schmachtenberg, O; Couve, E

    2015-10-01

    The dental pulp in human primary teeth is densely innervated by a plethora of nerve endings at the coronal pulp-dentin interface. This study analyzed how the physiological root resorption (PRR) process affects dental pulp innervation before exfoliation of primary teeth. Forty-four primary canine teeth, classified into 3 defined PRR stages (early, middle, and advanced) were fixed and demineralized. Longitudinal cryosections of each tooth were stained for immunohistochemical and quantitative analysis of dental pulp nerve fibers and associated components with confocal and electron microscopy. During PRR, axonal degeneration was prominent and progressive in a Wallerian-like scheme, comprising nerve fiber bundles and nerve endings within the coronal and root pulp. Neurofilament fragmentation increased significantly during PRR progression and was accompanied by myelin degradation and a progressive loss of myelinated axons. Myelin sheath degradation involved activation of autophagic activity by Schwann cells to remove myelin debris. These cells expressed a sequence of responses comprising dedifferentiation, proliferative activity, GAP-43 overexpression, and Büngner band formation. During the advanced PRR stage, increased immune cell recruitment within the dental pulp and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II upregulation by Schwann cells characterized an inflammatory condition associated with the denervation process in preexfoliative primary teeth. The ensuing loss of dental pulp axons is likely to be responsible for the progressive reduction of sensory function of the dental pulp during preexfoliative stages.

  8. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Monjok, Emmanuel; Kouamou, Ghislaine; Ohia, Sunny E; Bagchi, Debasis; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2007-10-01

    Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Male Zucker rats (5-week old) were supplemented with vehicle (control) and HCA-SX in drinking water for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress markers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (DNPH), and protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-NO(2)) were measured in the liver and kidney tissues using biochemical and immunoblotting techniques. Compared to controls, the levels of MDA, DNPH and tyr-NO(2) were lower in the liver and kidney of HCA-SX-treated animals. Furthermore, the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, were lower in the plasma of HCA-SX-supplemented animals compared to controls, as were levels of fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. Interestingly, insulin resistance did not develop in HCA-SX-supplemented rats. Food-intake and body weight gain was also lower in rats supplemented with HCA-SX compared to their control counterparts. These results suggest that HCA-SX supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

  9. Microarray profiling of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from obese vs non-obese Pima Indians: increased expression of inflammation-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. H.; Nair, S.; Rousseau, E.; Tataranni, P. A.; Bogardus, C.; Allison, D. B.; Page, G. P.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Obesity increases the risk of developing major diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue, particularly adipocytes, may play a major role in the development of obesity and its comorbidities. The aim of this study was to characterise, in adipocytes from obese people, the most differentially expressed genes that might be relevant to the development of obesity. Methods: We carried out microarray gene profiling of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from 20 non-obese (BMI 25±3 kg/m2) and 19 obese (BMI 55± 8 kg/m2) non-diabetic Pima Indians using Affymetrix HG-U95 GeneChip arrays. After data analyses, we measured the transcript levels of selected genes based on their biological functions and chromosomal positions using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The most differentially expressed genes in adipocytes of obese individuals consisted of 433 upregulated and 244 downregulated genes. Of these, 410 genes could be classified into 20 functional Gene Ontology categories. The analyses indicated that the inflammation/immune response category was over-represented, and that most inflammation-related genes were upregulated in adipocytes of obese subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the transcriptional upregulation of representative inflammation-related genes (CCL2 and CCL3) encoding the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α. The differential expression levels of eight positional candidate genes, including inflammation-related THY1 and C1QTNF5, were also confirmed. These genes are located on chromosome 11q22-q24, a region with linkage to obesity in the Pima Indians. Conclusions/interpretation: This study provides evidence supporting the active role of mature adipocytes in obesity-related inflammation. It also provides potential candidate genes for susceptibility to obesity. PMID:16059715

  10. The treatment of nonunions with application of BMP-7 increases the expression pattern for angiogenic and inflammable cytokines: a matched pair analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haubruck, Patrick; Kammerer, Andreas; Korff, Sebastian; Apitz, Philipp; Xiao, Kai; Büchler, Axel; Biglari, Bahram; Zimmermann, Gerald; Daniel, Volker; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Moghaddam, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The local application of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in combination with the transplantation of autologous bone graft improves the outcome in nonunion treatment; however, the specific reasons remain unclear. In this study, we sought to determine if the local application of BMP-7 contributes to improved bone regeneration in nonunion therapy by modulation of the angiogenic and inflammable cytokine expression patterns of the early inflammation response. Therefore, we utilized the analysis of serological cytokine expression patterns. As a matched pair analysis, best-fitting patients who were treated with transplantation of autologous bone graft (G1, n=10) were compared with patients who were treated with additional application of BMP-7 (G2, n=10). The changes in the cytokine expression patterns were monitored and correlated to clinical data of bone healing. Significant differences in angiogenesis potential (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] serum levels) could be found in the first days after surgery (P<0.05). Furthermore, the increase and absolute amount of VEGF levels in the BMP-7 group were considerably higher than in the control group during the first 2 weeks after surgery. The expression pattern of inflammable cytokines showed noticeable differences in the time point of significant elevated levels, in particular, inflammable cytokines showed an earlier peak in G2. Furthermore, interleukin-6 was significantly elevated within the first week only, comparing G2 to G1 (P<0.05). Our findings indicate that BMP-7 induces an early and more intense expression of VEGF via a direct and postulated indirect pathway, thereby providing a favorable environment for bone healing. Moreover, application of BMP-7 leads to an earlier expression of known proinflammatory cytokines. The results of this study show that application of BMP-7 leads to costimulatory effect on both angiogenic and inflammable cytokine expression patterns that may serve as a possible stimulus for

  11. Effect of immunologic reactions on rat intestinal epithelium. Correlation of increased permeability to chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ovalbumin during acute inflammation and anaphylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramage, J.K.; Stanisz, A.; Scicchitano, R.; Hunt, R.H.; Perdue, M.H.

    1988-06-01

    In these studies we compared jejunal permeability to two probes--chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) (mol wt, 360) and ovalbumin (mol wt, 45,000)--under control conditions, during acute intestinal inflammation, and in response to systemic anaphylaxis. Acute inflammation was produced after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and rats were studied at day 0 (control), day 4 (early), day 10 (acute), and day 35 (postinfection). At the latter stage, immune rats were also studied during anaphylaxis induced by i.v. N. brasiliensis antigen. In each study, blood and urine were sampled over 5 h after the probes were simultaneously injected into ligated loops in anesthetized rats. In controls, small quantities (less than 0.04% and 0.002% of the administered dose for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively) appeared in the circulation and plateaued at 1 h. During acute inflammation, the appearance of both probes continued to increase with time. Compared with controls, 5-h values for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin were (a) significantly elevated at day 4 (p less than 0.005), (b) increased approximately 20-fold at day 10 (p less than 0.005 and less than 0.01, respectively), and (c) normal at day 35. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA followed the same pattern. During anaphylaxis, appearance of the probes in the circulation increased at 1 h to values approximately 10-fold those in controls (p less than 0.001 and less than 0.01, for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively), and then declined. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA over 5 h was also significantly increased. We conclude that epithelial barrier function becomes impaired during both acute inflammation and anaphylaxis. In this rat model, gut permeability changes to 51Cr-EDTA reflect gut permeability changes to macromolecular antigens.

  12. Increases in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 mRNA and protein in primary afferent neurons stimulated by protein kinase C and their possible role in neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xijin; Wang, Peng; Zou, Xiaoju; Li, Dingge; Fang, Li; Lin, Qing

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by our group demonstrates pharmacologically that the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is activated by intradermal injection of capsaicin to initiate neurogenic inflammation by the release of neuropeptides in the periphery. In this study, expression of TRPV1, phosphorylated protein kinase C (p-PKC) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were visualized using immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blots to examine whether increases in TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels evoked by capsaicin injection are subject to modulation by the activation of PKC and to analyze the role of this process in the pathogenesis of neurogenic inflammation. Capsaicin injection into the hindpaw skin of anesthetized rats evoked increases in the expression of TRPV1, CGRP and p-PKC in mRNA and/or protein levels and in the number of single labeled TRPV1, p-PKC and CGRP neurons in ipsilateral L4–5 DRGs. Co-expressions of TRPV1 with p-PKC and/or CGRP in DRG neurons were also significantly increased after CAP injection. These evoked expressions both at molecular and cellular levels were significantly inhibited after TRPV1 receptors were blocked by 5′-iodoresiniferatoxin (5 μg) or PKC was inhibited by chelerythrine chloride (5 μg). Taken together, these results provide evidence that up-regulation of TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels under inflammatory conditions evoked by capsaicin injection is subject to modulation by the PKC cascade in which increased CGRP level in DRG neurons may be related to the initiation of neurogenic inflammation. Thus, up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in DRG neurons seems critical for initiating acute neurogenic inflammation. PMID:18752301

  13. Human Pulp Response to Direct Pulp Capping and Miniature Pulpotomy with MTA after Application of Topical Dexamethasone: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Amir; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Shahnaseri, Shirin; Paymanpour, Payam; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the histologic pulp tissue response to one-step direct pulp capping (DPC) and miniature pulpotomy (MP) with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after application of dexamethasone in healthy human premolars. Methods and Materials: Forty intact premolars from 10 orthodontic patients, were randomly chosen for DPC (n=20) or MP (n=20). In 10 teeth from each group, after exposure of the buccal pulp horn, topical dexamethasone was applied over the pulp. In all teeth the exposed/miniaturely resected pulp tissue was covered with MTA and cavities were restored with glass ionomer. Teeth vitality was evaluated during the next 7, 21, 42, and 60 days. Signs and/or symptoms of irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis were considered as failure. According to the orthodontic schedule, after 60 days the teeth were extracted and submitted for histological examination. The Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis of the data (P=0.05). Results: Although dexamethasone specimens showed less inflammation, calcified bridge, pulpal blood vasculature, collagen fibers and granulation tissue formation were not significantly different between the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Topical dexamethasone did not hindered pulp healing but reduced the amount of underlying pulpal tissue inflammation after DPC and MP in healthy human premolars. PMID:27141213

  14. Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue but not liver inflammation and insulin resistance after weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, J.; Evers, N.; Awazawa, M.; Nicholls, H.T.; Brönneke, H.S.; Dietrich, A.; Mauer, J.; Blüher, M.; Brüning, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and certain cancer entities. Treatment of obesity is hindered by the long-term maintenance of initially reduced body weight, and it remains unclear whether all pathologies associated with obesity are fully reversible even upon successfully maintained weight loss. Methods We compared high fat diet-fed, weight reduced and lean mice in terms of body weight development, adipose tissue and liver insulin sensitivity as well as inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, we assessed similar parameters in a human cohort before and after bariatric surgery. Results Compared to lean animals, mice that demonstrated successful weight reduction showed increased weight gain following exposure to ad libitum control diet. However, pair-feeding weight-reduced mice with lean controls efficiently stabilized body weight, indicating that hyperphagia was the predominant cause for the observed weight regain. Additionally, whereas glucose tolerance improved rapidly after weight loss, systemic insulin resistance was retained and ameliorated only upon prolonged pair-feeding. Weight loss enhanced insulin action and resolved pro-inflammatory gene expression exclusively in the liver, whereas visceral adipose tissue displayed no significant improvement of metabolic and inflammatory parameters compared to obese mice. Similarly, bariatric surgery in humans (n = 55) resulted in massive weight reduction, improved hepatic inflammation and systemic glucose homeostasis, while adipose tissue inflammation remained unaffected and adipocyte-autonomous insulin action only exhibit minor improvements in a subgroup of patients (42%). Conclusions These results demonstrate that although sustained weight loss improves systemic glucose homeostasis, primarily through improved inflammation and insulin action in liver, a remarkable obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue

  15. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  16. Anthocyanin-rich açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Fisher, Derek R; Larson, Jessica; Bielinski, Donna F; Rimando, Agnes M; Carey, Amanda N; Schauss, Alexander G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Age-related diseases of the brain compromise memory, learning, and movement and are directly linked with increases in oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berries can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of their high polyphenolic content, fruit pulp fractions of açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were explored for their protective effect on BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Freeze-dried açai pulp was fractionated using solvents with different polarities and analyzed using HPLC for major anthocyanins and other phenolics. Fractions extracted using methanol (MEOH) and ethanol (ETOH) were particularly rich in anthocyanins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin, whereas the fraction extracted using acetone (ACE) was rich in other phenolics such as catechin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol, and synergic and vanillic acids. Studies were conducted to investigate the mitigating effects of açai pulp extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) induced oxidative stress and inflammation; treatment of BV-2 cells with acai fractions resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decreases in nitrite production, accompanied by a reduction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The inhibition pattern was emulated with the ferulic acid content among the fractions. The protection of microglial cells by açai pulp extracts, particularly that of MEOH, ETOH, and ACE fractions, was also accompanied by a significant concentration-dependent reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The current study offers valuable insights into the protective effects of açai pulp fractions on brain cells, which could have implications for improved cognitive and motor functions.

  17. Increased expression of inflammation-related genes in cultured preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells from obese compared with non-obese Pima Indians

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. H.; Rousseau, E.; Tataranni, P. A.; Baier, L. J.; Bogardus, C.; Cam, M.; Permana, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The specific contributions made by the various cell types in adipose tissue to obesity, particularly obesity-related inflammation, need to be clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential role of adipocyte precursor cells (preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells [SVC]). Methods: We performed Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray expression profiling of cultured abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes/SVC isolated from the adipose tissue of 14 non-obese (BMI 25±4 kg/m2) and 14 obese (55±8 kg/m2) non-diabetic Pima Indian subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to verify the differential expression of several genes in an independent group of subjects. Results: We identified 218 differentially expressed genes with p values less than 0.01. Microarray expression profiling revealed that the expression of inflammation-related genes was significantly upregulated in preadipocytes/SVC of obese individuals. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of IL8, CTSS, ITGB2, HLA-DRA, CD53, PLA2G7 and MMP9 in preadipocytes/SVC of obese subjects. Conclusions/interpretation: The upregulation of inflammation-related genes in preadipocytes/SVC of obese subjects may increase the recruitment of immune cells into adipose tissue and may also result in changes in the extracellular matrix (tissue remodelling) to accommodate adipose tissue expansion in obesity. PMID:16034612

  18. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    PubMed

    Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Stewart, Michael S; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02), and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05), while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02), as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively) and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02), which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02). The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05), body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05), these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results suggest that

  19. Relationship between lignin structure and delignification degree in Pinus pinaster kraft pulps.

    PubMed

    Baptista, C; Robert, D; Duarte, A P

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the structure of residual and dissolved lignins from Pinus pinaster pulps obtained at different degrees of delignification by laboratory conventional kraft pulping. The cooking H factor was varied from 85 to 8049. The residual and dissolved lignin samples were characterised by elemental analysis, residual carbohydrate content, permanganate oxidation and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The reflectance factor of the pulps was also determined in order to tentatively correlate the delignification degree and residual lignin structure with the pulp colour. The obtained results confirmed that the delignification degree increases the condensation of the lignin structure, which might have an influence upon the observed increased pulp colour. The lack of selectivity of kraft pulping process in the case of more delignified pulps was also shown.

  20. Enzymatic treatment of mechanical pulp fibers for improving papermaking properties.

    PubMed

    Wong, K K; Richardson, J D; Mansfield, S D

    2000-01-01

    Three enzyme preparations (crude cellulase, laccase, and proteinase) were evaluated for their potential to improve the papermaking properties of mechanical pulp. After treating a long fibre-rich fraction of the pulp with enzyme, the fibres were recombined with untreated fines for handsheet making and testing. None of the enzymes altered the retention of fines or the consolidation of the furnish mix during handsheet formation. All three enzymes increased tensile stiffness index, which is a measure of the initial resistance of the handsheets to strain. Only the laccase preparation, an enzyme that modifies pulp lignin, consistently increased fibre bonding to enhance other strength properties of the handsheets.

  1. Ultrastructural changes, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expressions in heart tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Omar S; Hussain, Tajamul; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Gambhir, Dikshit; Sumague, Terrance S

    2015-07-01

    Incense smoke exposure has recently been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, heart rate variability, and endothelial dysfunction. To test the possible underlying mechanisms, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, gene expressions of cardiac hypertrophic and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and ultrastructural changes were measured, respectively, using standard, ELISA-based, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscope procedures in heart tissues of Wistar rats after chronically exposing to Arabian incense. Malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF)-α, and IL-4 levels were significantly increased, while catalase and glutathione levels were significantly declined in incense smoke-exposed rats. Incense smoke exposure also resulted in a significant increase in atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Rats exposed to incense smoke displayed marked ultrastructural changes in heart muscle with distinct cardiac hypertrophy, which correlated with the augmented hypertrophic gene expression as well as markers of cardiac damage including creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Increased oxidative stress, inflammation, altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expression, tissue damage, and architectural changes in the heart may collectively contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals exposed to incense smoke. Increased gene expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 may be instrumental in the incense smoke-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, incense smoke can be considered as a potential environmental pollutant and its long-term exposure may negatively impact human health.

  2. Impact of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (3-AT)-Derived Increase in Hydrogen Peroxide Levels on Inflammation and Metabolism in Human Differentiated Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepción María; Gil, Angel; Rupérez, Azahara Iris

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, which is associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Excessive H2O2 levels are degraded by catalase (CAT), the activity of which is decreased in obesity. We investigated the effects of inhibition of catalase activity on metabolism and inflammation by incubating human differentiated adipocytes with 10 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) for 24 h. As expected, the treatment decreased CAT activity and increased intracellular H2O2 levels significantly. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was also reduced, and the gene expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes GPX4 and peroxiredoxins (1, 3 and 5) were inhibited. Interestingly, this occurred along with lower mRNA levels of the transcription factors nuclear factor (erythroid 2-like 2) and forkhead box O, which are involved in redox homeostasis. However, superoxide dismutase activity and expression were increased. Moreover, 3-AT led to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and increased tumor necrosis alpha and interleukin 6 protein and gene expression levels, while lowering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA and protein levels. These alterations were accompanied by an altered glucose and lipid metabolism. Indeed, adipocytes treated with 3-AT showed reduced basal glucose uptake, reduced glucose transporter type 4 gene and protein expression, reduced lipolysis, reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activation and reduced gene expression of lipases. Our results indicate that increased H2O2 levels caused by 3-AT treatment impair the antioxidant defense system, lower PPARγ expression and initiate inflammation, thus affecting glucose and lipid metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes. PMID:27023799

  3. Impact of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (3-AT)-Derived Increase in Hydrogen Peroxide Levels on Inflammation and Metabolism in Human Differentiated Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepción María; Gil, Angel; Rupérez, Azahara Iris

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, which is associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Excessive H2O2 levels are degraded by catalase (CAT), the activity of which is decreased in obesity. We investigated the effects of inhibition of catalase activity on metabolism and inflammation by incubating human differentiated adipocytes with 10 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) for 24 h. As expected, the treatment decreased CAT activity and increased intracellular H2O2 levels significantly. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was also reduced, and the gene expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes GPX4 and peroxiredoxins (1, 3 and 5) were inhibited. Interestingly, this occurred along with lower mRNA levels of the transcription factors nuclear factor (erythroid 2-like 2) and forkhead box O, which are involved in redox homeostasis. However, superoxide dismutase activity and expression were increased. Moreover, 3-AT led to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and increased tumor necrosis alpha and interleukin 6 protein and gene expression levels, while lowering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA and protein levels. These alterations were accompanied by an altered glucose and lipid metabolism. Indeed, adipocytes treated with 3-AT showed reduced basal glucose uptake, reduced glucose transporter type 4 gene and protein expression, reduced lipolysis, reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activation and reduced gene expression of lipases. Our results indicate that increased H2O2 levels caused by 3-AT treatment impair the antioxidant defense system, lower PPARγ expression and initiate inflammation, thus affecting glucose and lipid metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes.

  4. [Coffee hulls and pulp. XII. Effect of storage of coffee pulp on its nutritive value for calves].

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M T; Estrada, E; Murillo, B; González, J M; Bressani, R

    1976-06-01

    Coffee pulp, dehydrated and stored for 7, 13 and 17 months or ensiled for 4, 10 and 14 months, was studied in calves with a rapid growing rate. Storage of dehydrated coffee pulp did not affect its chemical composition, but ensiling reduced crude fiber and increased its nitrogen free extract content after 10 and 14 months. Three growth trials were carried out with Holstein calves averaging 95 kg in the first and second trials, and 130 kg in the third. Eighteen calves were used in the first trial and 24 in each of the other two. In each trial the animals were divided into three equal groups and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, which contained 48% cottonseed hulls, and the other two, with 30% dehydrated coffee pulp or 30% ensiled coffee pulp. Basically, the difference between trials consisted in the time of storage or ensiling of coffee pulp. In all trials, weight gains of calves fed coffee pulp (1.00, 0.90 and 0.98 kg/day, and 1.06, 0.94 and 1.08 kg/day, respectively) were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the weight gains induced by the control ration (1.21, 1.08 and 1.19 kg/day). Feed intake was also lower, but feed conversion ratio was higher for those rations containing coffee pulp. Calf performance was better with ensiled than with deydrated coffee pulp, particularly in the third trial, where the differences in weight gains were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that storage time does not change nutritive value of coffee pulp; and the ensiling is an adequate process for storing pulp during coffee harvesting, and, possibly also, for improving its nutritive value.

  5. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) Reduces Muscle Growth in Response to Acute Injury and Increases Muscle Inflammation and Pathology in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Singhal, Neha; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Joshi, Mandar; Bauer, John A.; Janssen, Paulus M.L.; Martin, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Skeletal muscle Galgt2 gene expression is also normally increased in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy compared with the wild-type mice. To assess whether this increased endogenous Galgt2 expression could affect disease, we quantified muscular dystrophy measures in mdx mice deleted for Galgt2 (Galgt2−/−mdx). Galgt2−/− mdx mice had increased heart and skeletal muscle pathology and inflammation, and also worsened cardiac function, relative to age-matched mdx mice. Deletion of Galgt2 in wild-type mice also slowed skeletal muscle growth in response to acute muscle injury. In each instance where Galgt2 expression was elevated (developing muscle, regenerating muscle, and dystrophic muscle), Galgt2-dependent glycosylation of αDG was also increased. Overexpression of Galgt2 failed to inhibit skeletal muscle pathology in dystroglycan-deficient muscles, in contrast to previous studies in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles. This study demonstrates that Galgt2 gene expression and glycosylation of αDG are dynamically regulated in muscle and that endogenous Galgt2 gene expression can ameliorate the extent of muscle pathology, inflammation, and dysfunction in mdx mice. PMID:26435413

  6. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  7. Delayed increases in microvascular pathology after experimental traumatic brain injury are associated with prolonged inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and progressive white matter damage.

    PubMed

    Glushakova, Olena Y; Johnson, Danny; Hayes, Ronald L

    2014-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant risk factor for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral microbleeds, focal inflammation, and white matter damage are associated with many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders including CTE, AD, PD, vascular dementia, stroke, and TBI. This study evaluates microvascular abnormalities observed at acute and chronic stages following TBI in rats, and examines pathological processes associated with these abnormalities. TBI in adult rats was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) of two magnitudes. Brain pathology was assessed in white matter of the corpus callosum for 24 h to 3 months following injury using immunohistochemistry (IHC). TBI resulted in focal microbleeds that were related to the magnitude of injury. At the lower magnitude of injury, microbleeds gradually increased over the 3 month duration of the study. IHC revealed TBI-induced focal abnormalities including blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage (IgG), endothelial damage (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]), activation of reactive microglia (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 [Iba1]), gliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) and macrophage-mediated inflammation (cluster of differentiation 68 [CD68]), all showing different temporal profiles. At chronic stages (up to 3 months), apparent myelin loss (Luxol fast blue) and scattered deposition of microbleeds were observed. Microbleeds were surrounded by glial scars and co-localized with CD68 and IgG puncta stainings, suggesting that localized BBB breakdown and inflammation were associated with vascular damage. Our results indicate that evolving white matter degeneration following experimental TBI is associated with significantly delayed microvascular damage and focal microbleeds that are temporally and regionally associated with development of punctate BBB breakdown and progressive inflammatory responses. Increased

  8. Increased Serum and Musculotendinous Fibrogenic Proteins following Persistent Low-Grade Inflammation in a Rat Model of Long-Term Upper Extremity Overuse

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Helen G. L.; Fisher, Paul W.; Lambi, Alex G.; Wade, Christine K.; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E.; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between grip strength declines and muscle-tendon responses induced by long-term performance of a high-repetition, low-force (HRLF) reaching task in rats. We hypothesized that grip strength declines would correlate with inflammation, fibrosis and degradation in flexor digitorum muscles and tendons. Grip strength declined after training, and further in weeks 18 and 24, in reach limbs of HRLF rats. Flexor digitorum tissues of reach limbs showed low-grade increases in inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β after training and in week 18, IL-1α in week 18, TNF-α and IL-6 after training and in week 24, and IL-10 in week 24, with greater increases in tendons than muscles. Similar cytokine increases were detected in serum with HRLF: IL-1α and IL-10 in week 18, and TNF-α and IL-6 in week 24. Grip strength correlated inversely with IL-6 in muscles, tendons and serum, and TNF-α in muscles and serum. Four fibrogenic proteins, TGFB1, CTGF, PDGFab and PDGFbb, and hydroxyproline, a marker of collagen synthesis, increased in serum in HRLF weeks 18 or 24, concomitant with epitendon thickening, increased muscle and tendon TGFB1 and CTGF. A collagenolytic gelatinase, MMP2, increased by week 18 in serum, tendons and muscles of HRLF rats. Grip strength correlated inversely with TGFB1 in muscles, tendons and serum; with CTGF-immunoreactive fibroblasts in tendons; and with MMP2 in tendons and serum. Thus, motor declines correlated with low-grade systemic and musculotendinous inflammation throughout task performance, and increased fibrogenic and degradative proteins with prolonged task performance. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, TGFB1, CTGF and MMP2 may serve as serum biomarkers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, although further studies in humans are needed. PMID:24015193

  9. Dietary Vitamin D Increases Percentages and Function of Regulatory T Cells in the Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes and Suppresses Dermal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Geldenhuys, Sian; Judge, Melinda; Weeden, Clare E.; Waithman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Skin inflammatory responses in individuals with allergic dermatitis may be suppressed by dietary vitamin D through induction and upregulation of the suppressive activity of regulatory T (TReg) cells. Vitamin D may also promote TReg cell tropism to dermal sites. In the current study, we examined the capacity of dietary vitamin D3 to modulate skin inflammation and the numbers and activity of TReg cells in skin and other sites including lungs, spleen, and blood. In female BALB/c mice, dietary vitamin D3 suppressed the effector phase of a biphasic ear swelling response induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in comparison vitamin D3-deficient female BALB/c mice. Vitamin D3 increased the percentage of TReg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLN). The suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and blood was upregulated by vitamin D3. However, there was no difference in the expression of the naturally occurring TReg cell marker, neuropilin, nor the expression of CCR4 or CCR10 (skin-tropic chemokine receptors) on TReg cells in skin, SDLN, lungs, and airway-draining lymph nodes. These data suggest that dietary vitamin D3 increased the percentages and suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, which are poised to suppress dermal inflammation. PMID:27672666

  10. Characterisation of mechanical pulp fines from alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaludin, Nurul Hasanah; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan

    2012-09-01

    EFB (empty fruit bunch) was subjected to alkaline peroxide pulping for generation of fibrous mass as raw material for the making of pulp-based products. During refining, co-produced fines were collected by fractionation on square-mesh screens of 200-, 250-, 300- and 400- mesh sizes, placed at the refining discharge by order of increasing mesh. Each set of the produced paper was incorporated with 12% fines for microscopic analysis. It appears that sheared vessel elements and fibrils were predominant and they make up the mass rendering collapsibility of cell wall for good product formation. The study acknowledged the form of fines functioning as natural filler in pulp network and worthy of utilization for reduction of total suspended solid.

  11. Role of Angiogenesis in Endodontics: Contributions of Stem Cells and Proangiogenic and Antiangiogenic Factors to Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental pulp regeneration is a part of regenerative endodontics, which includes isolation, propagation, and re-transplantation of stem cells inside the prepared root canal space. The formation of new blood vessels through angiogenesis is mandatory to increase the survival rate of re-transplanted tissues. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting capillaries, which has great importance in pulp regeneration and homeostasis. Here the contribution of human dental pulp stem cells and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to angiogenesis process and regeneration of dental pulp is reviewed. Methods A search was performed on the role of angiogenesis in dental pulp regeneration from January 2005 through April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between angiogenesis, human dental pulp stem cells, and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in regeneration of dental pulp were assessed. Results Many studies have indicated an intimate relationship between angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration. The contribution of stem cells and mechanical and chemical factors to dental pulp regeneration has been previously discussed. Conclusions Angiogenesis is an indispensable process during dental pulp regeneration. The survival of inflamed vital pulp and engineered transplanted pulp tissue are closely linked to the process of angiogenesis at sites of application. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of angiogenesis in pulp tissue require investigation. PMID:25649306

  12. Retroperitoneal inflammation

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001255.htm Retroperitoneal inflammation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Retroperitoneal inflammation is swelling that occurs in the retroperitoneal space. ...

  13. SGLT2 Expression is increased in Human Diabetic Nephropathy: SGLT2 Inhibition Decreases Renal Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation and the Development of Nephropathy in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxin X; Levi, Jonathan; Luo, Yuhuan; Myakala, Komuraiah; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Qiu, Liru; Wang, Dong; Peng, Yingqiong; Grenz, Almut; Lucia, Scott; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; D'Agati, Vivette D; Koepsell, Hermann; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Rosenberg, Avi; Levi, Moshe

    2017-02-14

    There is very limited human renal sodium gradient dependent glucose transporter protein SGLT2 mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. Aim 1 of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice which had no changes in renal SGLT-2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known. Aim 2 of this study was to determine the potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition in progression of diabetic renal disease. We treated db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor JNJ 39933673. We found that SGLT2 inhibition caused marked decreases in systolic blood pressure, kidney weight/body weight ratio, urinary albumin and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS). SGLT2 inhibition prevented renal lipid accumulation via inhibition of ChREBP-β, LPK, SCD-1 and DGAT1, key transcriptional factors and enzymes that mediate fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. SGLT2 inhibition also prevented inflammation via inhibition of CD68 macrophage accumulation, and expression of p65, TLR4, MCP-1 and OPN. These effects were associated with reduced mesangial expansion, accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and type IV collagen, and loss of podocyte markers WT1 and synaptopodin, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In summary, our study showed that SGLT2 inhibition modulates renal lipid metabolism and inflammation and prevents the development of nephropathy in db/db mice.

  14. Urothelial Dysfunction and Increased Suburothelial Inflammation of Urinary Bladder Are Involved in Patients with Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis – Clinical and Immunohistochemistry Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the urothelial dysfunction and inflammation of urinary bladder in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) urolithiasis through the results of cystoscopic hydrodistension and immunohistochemistry study. Methods Ninety-one patients with UUT urolithiasis underwent cystoscopic hydrodistension before the stone surgery. Immunofluorescence staining of E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), tryptase (mast cell activation), and TUNEL (urothelial apoptosis) were performed in 42 patients with glomerulations after hydrodistension, 10 without glomerulations, and 10 controls. Results Of the 91 patients, 62 (68.2%) developed glomerulations after hydrodistension. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were present in 53.8% patients, in whom significantly smaller maximal anesthetic bladder capacity (MBC) was noted. Patients with middle or lower 1/3 ureteral stones had a significantly higher glomerulation rate (88.6% vs. 55.4%, p<0.01) and lower MBC (618.4±167.6 vs. 701.2±158.4 ml, p = 0.027) than those with upper 1/3 ureteral or renal stones. Patients with UUT urolithiasis had significantly lower expression of E-cadherin (26.2±14.8 vs. 42.4±16.7) and ZO-1 (5.16±4.02 vs. 11.02±5.66); and higher suburothelial mast cell (13.3±6.8 vs. 1.3±1.2) and apoptotic cell (2.6±2.5 vs. 0.1±0.3) numbers than in controls (all p<0.01). Conclusions Urothelial dysfunction and increased suburothelial inflammation and apoptosis are highly prevalent in the bladders of UUT urolithiasis patients, indicating inflammation cross-talk between UUT and urinary bladder. Patients with UUT urolithiaisis concomitant with LUTS had a smaller MBC, which may explain the presence of irritative bladder symptoms. PMID:25329457

  15. Increased microRNA-155 and decreased microRNA-146a may promote ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaijun; Du, Yi; Jiang, Ben-Li; He, Jian-Feng

    2014-04-18

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the orbit, characterized by inflammation and proliferation of the orbital tissue caused by CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts. Despite recent substantial findings regarding its cellular and molecular foundations, the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy remains unclear. Accumulating data suggest that microRNAs play important roles in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and proliferation. Specifically, microRNA-155 (miR-155) can promote autoimmune inflammation by enhancing inflammatory T cell development. In contrast to miR-155, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) can inhibit the immune response by suppressing T cell activation. Furthermore, miR-155 and miR-146a are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and many other life processes. Thus, miR-155 and miR-146a, with opposite impacts on inflammatory responses carried out by T lymphocytes, appear to have multiple targets in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Our previous work showed that the expression of miR-146a was significantly decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Graves' ophthalmopathy patients compared with normal subjects. Accordingly, we proposed that the expression of miR-155 increased and the expression of miR-146a decreased in the target cells (CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts), thus promoting ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy. The proposed hypothesis warrants further investigation of the function of the differentially expressed microRNAs, which may shed new light on the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy and lead to new strategies for its management.

  16. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-05-11

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation.

  17. Reduced energy expenditure and increased inflammation are early events in the development of ovariectomy-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, an age-related loss of ovarian hormone production, promotes increased adiposity and associated metabolic pathologies. However, the diet-independent mechanism(s) by which loss of ovarian function promotes increased adipose tissue mass and insulin resistance remain unclear. We investigate...

  18. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    PubMed

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  19. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  20. Mice lacking epidermal PPARγ exhibit a marked augmentation in photocarcinogenesis associated with increased UVB-induced apoptosis, inflammation and barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ravi P.; DaSilva, Sonia C.; Rashid, Badri; Martel, Kellie Clay; Jernigan, Danielle; Mehta, Shama R.; Mohamed, Deena R.; Rezania, Samin; Bradish, Joshua R.; Armstrong, Andrew B.; Warren, Simon; Konger, Raymond L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists may have cancer chemopreventive activity. Other studies have shown that loss of epidermal PPARγ results in enhanced chemical carcinogenesis in mice via unknown mechanisms. However, ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure represents the primary etiological agent for skin cancer formation and the role of PPARγ in photobiology and photocarcinogenesis is unknown. In previous studies, we demonstrated that UVB irradiation of cells results in the formation of oxidized glycerophosphocholines that exhibit PPARγ ligand activity. We therefore hypothesized that PPARγ would prove to be a chemopreventive target in photocarcinogenesis. We first showed that UVB irradiation of mouse skin causes generation of PPARγ agonist species in vivo. We then generated SKH-1 hairless, albino mice deficient in epidermal Pparg (Pparg−/−epi) using a cytokeratin 14 driven Cre-LoxP strategy. Using a chronic model of UVB photocarcinogenesis, we next showed that Pparg−/−epi mice exhibit an earlier onset of tumor formation, increased tumor burden, and tumor progression. Increased tumor burden in Pparg−/−epi mice was accompanied by a significant increase in epidermal hyperplasia and p53 positive epidermal cells in surrounding skin lacking tumors. Following acute UVB irradiation, Pparg−/−epi mice exhibited an augmentation of both UVB-induced caspase 3/7 activity and inflammation. Increased apoptosis and inflammation was also observed following treatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. With chronic UVB irradiation, Pparg−/−epi mice exhibited a sustained increase in erythema and transepidermal water loss relative to wildtype littermates. This suggests that PPARγ agonists could have possible chemopreventive activity in non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:22467332

  1. Increased βTrCP are associated with imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice via NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruilian; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Mei; Ma, Huiqun; Xiao, Shengxiang

    2016-10-30

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by T cell-mediated hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, increased angiogenesis and inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests that some keratinocyte differentiation events are controlled by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. β-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTrCP) serve as substrate recognition component of E3 ubiquitin ligases that control stability of important regulators of signal transduction including the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, a key regulatory element in inflammatory pathways related to psoriasis, suggesting a potential role of βTrCP in psoriasis pathogenesis. However, no published study has investigated the role of βTrCP in the etiology of psoriasis. Here, we combined an in vitro cell model of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced keratinocyte inflammation and an animal model of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms in psoriasis-like dermatitis and assess its βTrCP/NF-κB dependency. Daily application of IMQ on mouse back skin induced inflamed scaly skin lesions resembling plaque type psoriasis. These lesions were associated with elevated βTrCP levels, reduced inhibitor κB (IκB), and enhanced NF-κB activation in epidermal tissues. Furthermore, βTrCP knockdown via siRNA in in TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) cells significantly inhibited the over-activation of NF-κB and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), demonstrating a pivotal role of βTrCP in regulation the TNF-α-activated NF-κB inflammatory pathways. Moreover, downregulation of βTrCP through lentiviral shRNA ameliorates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in vivo. In conclusion, βTrCP is involved in the NF-κB signaling mediated-, psoriasis-related inflammation and represent a novel target for developing agents to treat psoriasis.

  2. Simvastatin versus Calcium Hydroxide Direct Pulp Capping of Human Primary Molars: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Maljaei, Ensiyeh; Erfanparast, Leila; Ala Aghbali, Amir; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Najafpour, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of present study was to investigate pulp-dentin complex reactions following direct pulp capping (DPC) with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and simvastatin as pulp-capping materials in the primary human molars. Materials and methods 120 primary molar teeth which had to be extracted for orthodontic reasons were randomly allocated into four groups. Group Ι as a control, underwent DPC with calcium hydroxide. The dental pulp in group ІІ, ІІІ and ІV were directly capped with simvastatin-based materials at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 µM, respectively. All of the teeth were restored with stainless steel crown. After a mean period of 7.41 months teeth were extracted and processed for histological examination and categorized in terms of hard tissue formation and pulp inflammation. Results Teeth in group I had statistically favorable outcomes in hard tissue formation and pulp inflammation than did the groups ІІ, ІІІ and ІV (P < 0.001). Considering three different concentrations of simvastatin, the result showed a dose dependent trend. Teeth in group ІV showed significantly lower rates of hard tissue formation and higher rates of pulp inflammation and necrosis compared to those of groups ІІ (P < 0.05). Conclusion The findings of this study depicted that healing with no inflammation and hard tissue formation following statin treatment occurs with a lower rate than that with the calcium hydroxide. PMID:23487477

  3. Effect of Increased Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and Decreased Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) Values on Inflammation in Acute Mania

    PubMed Central

    MAYDA, Hasan; AHSEN, Ahmet; BAĞCIOĞLU, Erman; ÖZTÜRK, Ahmet; BAHÇECİ, Bülent; SOYUÇOK, Etem; BAŞPINAR, Erol; ULU, Memnune Sena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are simple, low-cost, and useful inflammatory markers detected in routine complete blood count (CBC), and their use has recently become widespread. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of an inflammatory state in manic patients on the basis of NLR and MPV values. Methods This retrospective study was performed on 76 patients with acute mania who were admitted to the Inpatients Psychiatry Clinic of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital in Turkey. Diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental disorder (DSM-IV). The control group consisted of 74 healthy individuals recruited from the community. They were age- and sex-matched with the study group. Results NLR values of the manic patient group were 2.2±1.4 and those of the control group were 1.6±0.5. NLR values were significantly higher (p=0.004) and MPV values were significantly lower in the manic patient group than in the control group (10.0±1.2 vs. 10.9±2.3, p=0.027). Conclusion Increased NLR and decreased MPV levels may reflect inflammation in manic patients, and inflammation may play a role in the complex pathophysiology of acute mania. PMID:28360805

  4. Leptin Administration Downregulates the Increased Expression Levels of Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Skeletal Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a low-grade chronic inflammation together with a low muscle mass. Our aim was to analyze the changes in muscle expression levels of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in leptin deficiency and to identify the effect of in vivo leptin administration. Ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control ob/ob, leptin-treated ob/ob (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Gastrocnemius weight was lower in control ob/ob than in wild type mice (P < .01) exhibiting an increase after leptin treatment compared to control and pair-fed (P < .01) ob/ob animals. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, markers of oxidative stress, were higher in serum (P < .01) and gastrocnemius (P = .05) of control ob/ob than in wild type mice and were significantly decreased (P < .01) by leptin treatment. Leptin deficiency altered the expression of 1,546 genes, while leptin treatment modified the regulation of 1,127 genes with 86 of them being involved in oxidative stress, immune defense and inflammatory response. Leptin administration decreased the high expression of Crybb1, Hspb3, Hspb7, Mt4, Cat, Rbm9, Serpinc1 and Serpinb1a observed in control ob/ob mice, indicating that it improves inflammation and muscle loss. PMID:20671928

  5. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Álvarez, K.; Solís-Lozano, L.; Leon-Cabrera, S.; González-Chávez, A.; Gómez-Hernández, G.; Quiñones-Álvarez, M. S.; Serralde-Zúñiga, A. E.; Hernández-Ruiz, J.; Ramírez-Velásquez, J.; Galindo-González, F. J.; Zavala-Castillo, J. C.; De León-Nava, M. A.; Robles-Díaz, G.; Escobedo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-(IL-) 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r = 0.5154), serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r = 0.4481), body fat percentage (r = 0.5625), serum glucose (r = 0.3158), triglyceride (r = 0.3714), and TNF-α (r = 0.4717). Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans. PMID:23533314

  6. Meta-analysis of Gene Expression in the Mouse Liver Reveals Biomarkers Associated with Inflammation Increased Early During Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging is associated with a predictable loss of cellular homeostasis, a decline in physiological function and an increase in various diseases. We hypothesized that similar age-related gene expression profiles would be observed in mice across independent studies. Employing a metaan...

  7. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult.

  8. Obesity increases the production of proinflammatory mediators from adipose tissue T cells and compromises TCR repertoire diversity: implications for systemic inflammation and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyunwon; Youm, Yun-Hee; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Ravussin, Anthony; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Greenway, Frank; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Mynatt, Randall L; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that increases in activated T cell populations in adipose tissue may contribute toward obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. The present study investigates three unanswered questions: 1) Do adipose-resident T cells (ARTs) from lean and obese mice have altered cytokine production in response to TCR ligation?; 2) Do the extralymphoid ARTs possess a unique TCR repertoire compared with lymphoid-resident T cells and whether obesity alters the TCR diversity in specific adipose depots?; and 3) Does short-term elimination of T cells in epididymal fat pad without disturbing the systemic T cell homeostasis regulate inflammation and insulin-action during obesity? We found that obesity reduced the frequency of naive ART cells in s.c. fat and increased the effector-memory populations in visceral fat. The ARTs from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice had a higher frequency of IFN-gamma(+), granzyme B(+) cells, and upon TCR ligation, the ARTs from DIO mice produced increased levels of proinflammatory mediators. Importantly, compared with splenic T cells, ARTs exhibited markedly restricted TCR diversity, which was further compromised by obesity. Acute depletion of T cells from epididymal fat pads improved insulin action in young DIO mice but did not reverse obesity-associated feed forward cascade of chronic systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in middle-aged DIO mice. Collectively, these data establish that ARTs have a restricted TCR-Vbeta repertoire, and T cells contribute toward the complex proinflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue in obesity. Development of future long-term T cell depletion protocols specific to visceral fat may represent an additional strategy to manage obesity-associated comorbidities.

  9. Obesity Increases the Production of Proinflammatory Mediators from Adipose Tissue T Cells and Compromises TCR Repertoire Diversity: Implications for Systemic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyunwon; Youm, Yun-Hee; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Ravussin, Anthony; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Greenway, Frank; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that increases in activated T cell populations in adipose tissue may contribute toward obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. The present study investigates three unanswered questions: 1) Do adipose-resident T cells (ARTs) from lean and obese mice have altered cytokine production in response to TCR ligation?; 2) Do the extralymphoid ARTs possess a unique TCR repertoire compared with lymphoid-resident T cells and whether obesity alters the TCR diversity in specific adipose depots?; and 3) Does short-term elimination of T cells in epididymal fat pad without disturbing the systemic T cell homeostasis regulate inflammation and insulin-action during obesity? We found that obesity reduced the frequency of naive ART cells in s.c. fat and increased the effector-memory populations in visceral fat. The ARTs from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice had a higher frequency of IFN-γ+, granzyme B+ cells, and upon TCR ligation, the ARTs from DIO mice produced increased levels of proinflammatory mediators. Importantly, compared with splenic T cells, ARTs exhibited markedly restricted TCR diversity, which was further compromised by obesity. Acute depletion of T cells from epididymal fat pads improved insulin action in young DIO mice but did not reverse obesity-associated feed forward cascade of chronic systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in middle-aged DIO mice. Collectively, these data establish that ARTs have a restricted TCR-Vβ repertoire, and T cells contribute toward the complex proinflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue in obesity. Development of future long-term T cell depletion protocols specific to visceral fat may represent an additional strategy to manage obesity-associated comorbidities. PMID:20581149

  10. Chemotherapy Necessitates Increased Immune Control of HHVs: A Cause of Persistent Inflammation Enabling Protracted Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    found a significant increase in CRP levels between EBV + and EBV /CMV double positive subjects. Moreover, EBV /CMV double positive individuals showed...higher levels of hs-CRP. Similarly, CMV/ EBV double positive breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy showed higher hs-CRP levels than CMV-/ EBV ...TERMS breast cancer, chemotherapy, immunology, human herpes viruses, survivor fatigue 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mardare, Cornelia; Krüger, Karsten; Liebisch, Gerhard; Seimetz, Michael; Couturier, Aline; Ringseis, Robert; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weissmann, Norbert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST) or a high fat diet (HFD) and subjected to regular endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT). After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs), circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p < 0.05). An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p < 0.05). Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p < 0.05) and reduced serum ceramides (p < 0.005). While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT) expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p < 0.001), respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p < 0.001), ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Effects of increase in fish oil intake on intestinal eicosanoids and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases affecting about 1% of western populations. New eating behaviors might contribute to the global emergence of IBD. Although the immunoregulatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been well characterized in vitro, their role in IBD is controversial. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the impact of increased fish oil intake on colonic gene expression, eicosanoid metabolism and development of colitis in a mouse model of IBD. Rag-2 deficient mice were fed fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids i.e. EPA and DHA or control diet for 4 weeks before colitis induction by adoptive transfer of naïve T cells and maintained in the same diet for 4 additional weeks. Onset of colitis was monitored by colonoscopy and further confirmed by immunological examinations. Whole genome expression profiling was made and eicosanoids were measured by HPLC-MS/MS in colonic samples. Results A significant reduction of colonic proinflammatory eicosanoids in FO fed mice compared to control was observed. However, neither alteration of colonic gene expression signature nor reduction in IBD scores was observed under FO diet. Conclusion Thus, increased intake of dietary FO did not prevent experimental colitis. PMID:23725086

  13. DAAs Rapidly Reduce Inflammation but Increase Serum VEGF Level: A Rationale for Tumor Risk during Anti-HCV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Rosanna; Facciorusso, Antonio; Bellanti, Francesco; Tamborra, Rosanna; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Landriscina, Matteo; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Serviddio, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Background Novel direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have completely changed the panorama of hepatitis C due to their high efficacy and optimal safety profile. Unfortunately, an unexpectedly high rate of early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported within weeks of starting treatment, but the mechanism is not known. Methods We monitored the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and changes in the pattern of circulating interleukins in 103 chronic hepatitis C patients during antiviral treatment with DAA-regimens. VEGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and several interleukins were assessed at baseline, during treatment, and after treatment. The biological effect of DAA-treated patient serum on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation was also confirmed. Results After 4 weeks of therapy, VEGF increased approximately 4-fold compared to baseline, remained elevated up to the end of treatment, and returned to the pre-treatment level after the end of therapy. In contrast, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha significantly decreased during therapy, which was coincident with HCV clearance. The levels of both remained low after treatment. The addition of serum from patients collected during therapy induced HUVEC proliferation; however, this disappeared after the end of therapy. Conclusions DAA administration induces an early increase in serum VEGF and a change in the inflammatory pattern, coinciding with HCV clearance. This may alter the balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes and modify the antitumor surveillance of the host. Fortunately, such modifications return reverse to normal after the end of treatment. PMID:27997563

  14. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. Objective To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Material and Methods Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin – acetic acid; guar gum – propionic acid; or a mixture – butyric acid). At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. Results and Discussion Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet. PMID:24236183

  15. Vaccenic acid suppresses intestinal inflammation by increasing anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Vacca, Claudia; Mangat, Rabban; Diane, Abdoulaye; Nelson, Randy C; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Curtis, Jonathan M; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Igarashi, Miki; Piomelli, Daniele; Banni, Sebastiano; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-04-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA), the predominant ruminant-derivedtransfat in the food chain, ameliorates hyperlipidemia, yet mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether VA could influence tissue endocannabinoids (ECs) by altering the availability of their biosynthetic precursor, arachidonic acid (AA), in membrane phospholipids (PLs). JCR:LA-cprats were assigned to a control diet with or without VA (1% w/w),cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (1% w/w) or VA+CLA (1% + 0.5% w/w) for 8 weeks. VA reduced the EC, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) relative to control diet (P< 0.001), but did not change AA in tissue PLs. There was no additive effect of combining VA+CLA on 2-AG relative to VA alone (P> 0.05). Interestingly, VA increased jejunal concentrations of anandamide and those of the noncannabinoid signaling molecules, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, relative to control diet (P< 0.05). This was consistent with a lower jejunal protein abundance (but not activity) of their degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, as well as the mRNA expression of TNFα and interleukin 1β (P< 0.05). The ability of VA to reduce 2-AG in the liver and VAT provides a potential mechanistic explanation to alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation. The opposing regulation of ECs and other noncannabinoid lipid signaling molecules by VA suggests an activation of benefit via the EC system in the intestine.

  16. Effects of topical glucocorticoid medication on collagen biosynthesis in the dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Uitto, V J; Antila, R; Ranta, R

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the study was to observe pulpal collagen synthesis in response to trauma and to glucocorticoid medication. The material consisted of 290 rabbit pulps and 76 human premolar pulps. Collagen synthesis was determined by incubating whole pulps in a medium containing [14C]proline, and measuring the formation of [14C]hydroxyproline. The effect of glucocorticoids was studied in vitro using rabbit pulps. Hydrocortisone and dexamethasone inhibited collagen synthesis, whereas prednisolone had no marked effect. Hydrocortisone was found to inhibit the synthesis of [14C]hydroxyproline in neutral salt soluble and insoluble non-dialyzable collagen fractions. [14C]hydroxyproline in the dialyzable fraction was increased, suggesting that hydrocortisone increased collagen degradation. In the human material, premolar pulps were experimentally exposed and then medicated with capping agents. The contralateral teeth were exposed and capped with other capping materials, in some cases they were left as intact controls. The exposure led to an increase in the collagen synthesis as indicated by increased [14C]hydroxyproline formation and elevated protocollagen proline hydroxylase activity in the pulp. This enzyme activity was suppressed in pulps capped with a glucocorticoid paste. In addition, the collagen synthesis rate was lower in pulps treated with another glucocorticoid containing compound, when compared to pulps capped with a calcium hydroxide preparation.

  17. Folic acid protects motor neurons against the increased homocysteine, inflammation and apoptosis in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Sheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Le, Weidong

    2008-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by selective degeneration of motor neurons. Mutations in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) account for 20% cases of familial ALS (fALS), but the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are largely unknown. Using SOD1(G93A) mice model of ALS, we demonstrated that mutation in SOD1 caused a significant increase in the level of plasma homocysteine (Hcy). To investigate whether Hcy-lowering therapy is beneficial to this disease, we applied folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 which are important factors involved in the Hcy metabolism to assess the neuroprotective effect of FA and B12 in the SOD1(G93A) mice. Our results showed FA or FA+B12 treatment significantly delayed the disease onset and prolonged the lifespan, accompanied by the significant reduction of motor neuron loss. Furthermore, we found that FA or FA+B12 treatment significantly attenuated the plasma Hcy level, suppressed the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in spinal cord. Moreover, FA or FA+B12 treatment decreased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) but up-regulated the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, B12 treatment alone did not show any significant benefit to this disease. These results provide evidence to demonstrate that elevated Hcy is involved in the pathogenesis of fALS and FA therapy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of the disease.

  18. Hypoxia-increased expression of genes involved in inflammation, dedifferentiation, pro-fibrosis, and extracellular matrix remodeling of human bladder smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wiafe, Bridget; Adesida, Adetola; Churchill, Thomas; Adewuyi, Esther Ekpe; Li, Zack; Metcalfe, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO) is characterized by exaggerated stretch, hydrodynamic pressure, and inflammation which cause significant damage and fibrosis to the bladder wall. Several studies have implicated hypoxia in its pathophysiology. However, the isolated progressive effects of hypoxia on bladder cells are not yet defined. Sub-confluent normal human bladder smooth muscle cells (hbSMC) were cultured in 3% O2 tension for 2, 24, 48, and 72 h. RNA, cellular proteins, and secreted proteins were used for gene expression analysis, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Transcription of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α and HIF2α were transiently induced after 2 h of hypoxia (p < 0.05), whereas HIF3 was upregulated after 72 h (p < 0.005). HIF1 and HIF3α proteins were significantly induced after 2 and 72 h, respectively. VEGF mRNA increased significantly after 24 and 72 h (p < 0.005). The inflammatory cytokines, TGFB (protein and mRNA), IL 1β, 1L6, and TNFα (mRNA) demonstrated a time-dependent increased expression. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was downregulated after 72 h (p < 0.05). Evidence of smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation included increased αSMA, vimentin, and desmin. Evidence of pro-fibrotic changes included increased CTGF, SMAD 2, and SMAD 3 as well as collagens 1, 2, 3, and 4, fibronectin, aggrecan, and TIMP 1 transcripts (p < 0.05). Total collagen proteins also increased time-dependently (p < 0.05). Together, these results show that exposure of hbSMC to low oxygen tension results in intense hypoxic cascade, including inflammation, de-differentiation, pro-fibrotic changes, and increased extracellular matrix expression. This elucidates mechanisms of hypoxia-driven bladder deterioration in bladder cells, which is important in tailoring in vivo experiments and may ultimately translate into improved clinical outcomes.

  19. The administration of a high refined carbohydrate diet promoted an increase in pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Karina Braga; Ramos, Camila de Oliveira; Soares, Nícia Pedreira; da Silva, Pamela Félix; Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar; Costa, Guilherme de Paula; Cangussú, Sílvia Dantas; Talvani, André; Bezerra, Frank Silva

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a high refined carbohydrate diet and pulmonary inflammatory response in C57BL/6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Twenty-four male mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG), which received a standard diet; cigarette smoke group (CSG), which was exposed to CS; a high refined carbohydrate diet group (RG), which received a high refined carbohydrate diet; and a high refined carbohydrates diet and cigarette smoke group (RCSG), which received a high refined carbohydrate diet and was exposed to CS. The animals were monitored for food intake and body weight gain for 12 weeks. After this period, the CSG and RCSG were exposed to CS for five consecutive days. At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were euthanized for subsequent analyses. There was an increase of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of CSG compared to CG and RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG. In addition, in the BALF, there was an increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha in RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG; interferon gamma increase in RCSG compared to the CSG; and increase in interleukin-10 in RCSG compared to CG and RG. Lipid peroxidation increased in RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG. Furthermore, the oxidation of proteins increased in CSG compared to CG. The analysis of oxidative stress showed an increase in superoxide dismutase in RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG and an increase in the catalase activity in RCSG compared with CG. In addition, there was a decrease in the glutathione reduced/glutathione total ratio of CSG, RG, and RCSG compared to CG. Therefore, the administration of a high refined carbohydrate diet promoted an increase in pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to CS. PMID:28008246

  20. Local injections of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells modulate inflammation and increase angiogenesis ameliorating the dystrophic phenotype in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano da Justa; de Queiroz, Jean César Farias; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Nachbar, Renato Tadeu; de Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira; de Souza-Jr, Alcione Lescano; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Curi, Rui

    2012-06-01

    The effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) transplantation on degeneration, regeneration and skeletal muscle function were investigated in dystrophin-deficient mice (24-week-old). ADMSC transplantation improved muscle strength and, resistance to fatigue. An increase in fiber cross-sectional area and in the number of fibers with centralized nuclei and augment of myogenin content were observed. In ADMSC-treated muscles a decrease in muscle content of TNF-α, IL-6 and oxidative stress measured by Amplex(®) reagent were observed. The level of TGF-β1 was lowered whereas that of VEGF, IL-10 and IL-4 were increased by ADMSC treatment. An increase in markers of macrophage M1 (CD11 and F4-80) and a decrease in T lymphocyte marker (CD3) and arginase-1 were also observed in ADMSCs-treated dystrophic muscle. No change was observed in iNOS expression. Increased phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6k and 4E-BP1 was found in dystrophic muscles treated with ADMSC. These results suggest that ADMSC transplantation modulates inflammation and improves muscle tissue regeneration, ameliorating the dystrophic phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mice.

  1. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  2. Tissue Engineering Considerations in Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrat, Ali; Kim, Jong Ryul; Verma, Prashant; S. Chand, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedure is introduced as a biologically based treatment for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes following regenerative procedures have been reported in landmark case reports. Retrospective studies have shown that this conservative treatment allows for continued root development and increases success and survival rate of the treated teeth compared to other treatment options. Although the goal of treatment is regeneration of a functional pulp tissue, histological analyses show a different outcome. Developing predictable protocols would require the use of key elements for tissue engineering: stem cells, bioactive scaffolds, and growth factors. In this study we will review the evidence based steps and outcomes of regenerative endodontics. PMID:24396373

  3. Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Blancas, A.; Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

  4. Effect of 4-Allyl-1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene (Eugenol) on Inflammatory and Apoptosis Processes in Dental Pulp Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Herrera, Andrea; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Vértiz-Hernández, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eugenol (mixed with zinc oxide powder) is widely used as direct capping material during pulp therapy in primary teeth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of eugenol on diverse genes involved in inflammatory and cell apoptosis processes. The regulatory effect of eugenol on the expression of inflammation and apoptotic genes was evaluated in dental pulp fibroblasts from extracted third molars, cultured under concentration of eugenol of 13 μM. Eugenol allowed the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic genes when compared with positive and negative controls. Eugenol is a proinflammatory agent when it is in direct contact with healthy tissues and behaves as an anti-inflammatory agent in tissues undergoing inflammatory/apoptotic processes, as in cases of pulp inflammation in primary teeth. These findings are relevant for dentistry, when considering the application of safer pulp treatments to grossly carious children's teeth. PMID:28044068

  5. Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

  6. Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ji, Xingxiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp, i.e. decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity. Results showed that 48.8-35.1% of cellulase activity can be recovered from the filtered liquor in five recycle rounds, which can be reused for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp. As a result, the recycling cellulase with addition fresh cellulase of 1mg/g led to the pulp of viscosity 470mL/g and Fock reactivity 80%, which is comparable with cellulase charge of 2mg/g. Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process.

  7. Depth and activity of carious lesions as indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp after intervention.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars; Demant, Sune; Dabelsteen, Sally

    2014-04-01

    Studies on dental regeneration involving interventions for pulp therapy such as regeneration and revascularization procedures are promising for the injured tooth; however, a complete replication of the original pulp tissue does not seem to take place. In cases in which we wish to preserve or maintain parts of the pulp during treatment, it is apparent that the effectiveness of healing or biological regeneration is dependent on the degree of inflammation of the pulp tissue. Thus, the control or prevention of a pulp infection is still a major issue for the clinicians. Data indicate that the typical reason for performing endodontic treatment is deep caries. The biological concept of vital pulp therapy associated with deep caries takes the treatment and evaluation of the unexposed as well as the exposed pulp into account. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis is typically the same. Deep caries with reversible pulpitis may receive differing treatments such as excavation procedures aiming to avoid pulp exposure or more pulp invasive treatments such as pulp capping or pulpotomy. This should not be the case. Consequently, huge treatment variation is noted among clinicians based on the same caries diagnosis. Which treatment should be selected? High-quality trials are needed, and it is important to obtain information on the actual lesion depth and an estimate of the lesion activity before treatment. These may be basic indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp. Recent clinical trials dealing with the treatment of deep caries lesion are discussed, including pulp invasive and noninvasive concepts, to attempt to solve the task of getting the best clinical outcome for adult patients.

  8. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  9. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement. PMID:26523145

  10. Distinct Effects of miR-210 Reduction on Neurogenesis: Increased Neuronal Survival of Inflammation But Reduced Proliferation Associated with Mitochondrial Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Voloboueva, Ludmila A; Sun, Xiaoyun; Xu, Lijun; Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Giffard, Rona G

    2017-03-15

    Neurogenesis is essential to brain development and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs); however, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by postinjury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of miR-210 inhibition to enhance and protect mitochondrial function through upregulation of mitochondrial proteins. Here, miR-210 inhibition significantly increased neuronal survival and protected the activity of mitochondrial enzymes cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase in differentiating NSC cultures exposed to inflammatory mediators. Unexpectedly, we found that reducing miR-210 significantly attenuated NSC proliferation upon induction of differentiation. Further investigation revealed that increased mitochondrial function suppressed the shift to primarily glycolytic metabolism and reduced mitochondrial length characteristic of dividing cells. Activation of AMP-regulated protein kinase-retinoblastoma signaling is important in NSC proliferation and the reduction of this activation observed by miR-210 inhibition is one mechanism contributing to the reduced proliferation. Postinjury neurogenesis occurs as a burst of proliferation that peaks in days, followed by migration and differentiation over weeks. Our studies suggest that mitochondrial protective miR-210 inhibition should be delayed until after the initial burst of proliferation, but could be beneficial during the prolonged differentiation stage.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Increasing the success of endogenous neurogenesis after brain injury

  11. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Giera, Martin; Bouazzaoui, Fatiha El; Lips, Mirjam A; Pijl, Hanno; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-09-11

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  12. Histological evaluation of pulp tissue from second primary molars correlated with clinical and radiographic caries findings

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Anwar, Khurshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Managing dental caries in young children is demanding due to the elusions present on the right diagnostic criteria for treatment. The present study evaluated the histological status of pulp tissues extracted from primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical and radiographic assessment. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted on upper or lower second primary molars with occlusal (22 teeth) or proximal (22 teeth) dental caries. Selected children were below 6 years of age. Percentage of caries involvement, residual dentin thickness (RDT), radiographic assessment of interradicular and periapical areas, clinical caries depth and signs and symptoms are the parameters considered for comparing with the histological findings. The specimens were grouped based on the nature of the inflammatory process as acute or chronic. The data were analyzed by Student t-test to compare histological types of inflammation with clinical parameters. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Four cases revealed severe acute inflammation in coronal and relatively mild acute inflammation in radicular pulp. In the rest of the specimen coronal and radicular pulp had similar acute or chronic inflammatory changes. Histological evidence of pulpitis correlated with dental caries depth of ≥80%, RDT of ≤1 mm, radiographic rarefactions in the interradicular regions and symptoms of pain. Conclusion: Primary second molars with more than two-third caries involvement with symptoms of pain histologically showed inflammation of both coronal and radicular pulp tissues in all cases. PMID:24932190

  13. Fenofibrate increases cardiac autophagy via FGF21/SIRT1 and prevents fibrosis and inflammation in the hearts of Type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Cheng, Yanli; Gu, Junlian; Wang, Shudong; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Yuehui; Tan, Yi; Feng, Wenke; Fu, Yaowen; Mellen, Nicholas; Cheng, Rui; Ma, Jianxing; Zhang, Chi; Li, Zhanquan; Cai, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Fenofibrate (FF), as a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, has been used clinically for decades to lower lipid levels. In the present study, we examined whether FF can be repurposed to prevent the pathogenesi of the heart in Type 1 diabetes and to describe the underlying mechanism of its action. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and their age-matched control mice were treated with vehicle or FF by gavage every other day for 3 or 6 months. FF prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction (e.g. decreased ejection fraction and hypertrophy), inflammation and remodelling. FF also increased cardiac expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in non-diabetic and diabetic conditions. Deletion of FGF21 gene (FGF21-KO) worsened diabetes-induced pathogenic effects in the heart. FF treatment prevented heart deterioration in the wild-type diabetic mice, but could not do so in the FGF21-KO diabetic mice although the systemic lipid profile was lowered in both wild-type and FGF21-KO diabetic mice. Mechanistically, FF treatment prevented diabetes-impaired autophagy, reflected by increased microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, in the wild-type diabetic mice but not in the FGF21-KO diabetic mice. Studies with H9C2 cells in vitro demonstrated that exposure to high glucose (HG) significantly increased inflammatory response, oxidative stress and pro-fibrotic response and also significantly inhibited autophagy. These effects of HG were prevented by FF treatment. Inhibition of either autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3MA) or Sirt1 by sirtinol (SI) abolished FF's prevention of HG-induced effects. These results suggested that FF could prevent Type 1 diabetes-induced pathological and functional abnormalities of the heart by increasing FGF21 that may up-regulate Sirt1-mediated autophagy.

  14. Dental pulp cells produce neurotrophic factors, interact with trigeminal neurons in vitro, and rescue motoneurons after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, I V; Widenfalk, J; Olson, L; Nosrat, C A

    2001-10-01

    Interactions between ingrowing nerve fibers and their target tissues form the basis for functional connectivity with the central nervous system. Studies of the developing dental pulp innervation by nerve fibers from the trigeminal ganglion is an excellent example of nerve-target tissue interactions and will allow specific questions regarding development of the dental pulp nerve system to be addressed. Dental pulp cells (DPC) produce an array of neurotrophic factors during development, suggesting that these proteins might be involved in supporting trigeminal nerve fibers that innervate the dental pulp. We have established an in vitro culture system to study the interactions between the dental pulp cells and trigeminal neurons. We show that dental pulp cells produce several neurotrophic factors in culture. When DPC are cocultured with trigeminal neurons, they promote survival and a specific and elaborate neurite outgrowth pattern from trigeminal neurons, whereas skin fibroblasts do not provide a similar support. In addition, we show that dental pulp tissue becomes innervated when transplanted ectopically into the anterior chamber of the eye in rats, and upregulates the catecholaminergic nerve fiber density of the irises. Interestingly, grafting the dental pulp tissue into hemisected spinal cord increases the number of surviving motoneurons, indicating a functional bioactivity of the dental pulp-derived neurotrophic factors in vivo by rescuing motoneurons. Based on these findings, we propose that dental pulp-derived neurotrophic factors play an important role in orchestrating the dental pulp innervation.

  15. Quercetin transiently increases energy expenditure but persistently decreases circulating markers of inflammation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Laura K.; Soileau, Jeff L.; Ribnicky, David; Wang, Zhong Q.; Raskin, Ilya; Poulev, Alexander; Majewski, Martin; Cefalu, William T.; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound and a major bioflavonoid in the human diet, has anti-inflammatory properties and has been postulated to enhance energy expenditure (EE). We sought to determine whether quercetin alters body weight, body composition, EE, and circulating markers of inflammation. At 6 weeks (W) of age, 2 cohorts of C57BL/6J mice (N = 80) were placed on one of 2 diets for 3W or 8W: (1) high fat (HF) (45% kcal fat) or (2) high fat + quercetin (HF + Q) (45% kcal fat + 0.8% quercetin). Quercetin concentrations in the diet and plasma were evaluated using mass spectrometry. Body weight, composition (nuclear magnetic resonance), and food consumption were measured weekly. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry at 3 and 8W, and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma obtained at 8W. The presence of quercetin in the HF diet did not alter food consumption over time in the HF + Q group and did not differ from the HF group at any time point. However, circulating plasma quercetin concentrations declined between 3 and 8W. At 3W, EE was higher during both day and night phases (P < .0001) in the HF + Q group compared with the HF group; but this difference was not detected at 8W and did not translate into significant differences between the HF + Q and HF groups with respect to body weight or body composition. During the night phase, concentrations of the inflammatory markers (interferon-γ, interleukin-1α, and interleukin-4) were significantly lower when compared with HF treatment group (P < .05). Dietary supplementation with quercetin produces transient (3W) increases in EE that are not detected after 8W on the diet. A corresponding decrease in circulating quercetin between 3 and 8W suggests that metabolic adaptation may have diminished the impact of quercetin's early effect on EE and diminished its overall effect on nutrient partitioning and adiposity. However, quercetin at the levels provided was effective in reducing circulating markers of

  16. A comparative study on dental pulp response to calcium hydroxide, white and grey mineral trioxide aggregate as pulp capping agents

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarizadeh, Ali; Shahpasandzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahpasandzadeh, Mahdieh; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Context: Vital pulp therapy has been known as one of the treatment options to preserve pulp after being exposed by trauma or caries. Aim: To investigate human pulpal response to white and grey mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA, GMTA) and Dycal (MTA) as pulp capping agents. Setting and Design: Human volunteers were participated in this randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 90 intact first and second premolars of human maxillary and mandibular teeth. The teeth were randomly assigned into three groups of 30 each. Under local anesthesia, teeth were exposed and capped either with GMTA, WMTA, or Dycal. After 30, 60, and 90 days 10 teeth of each group were extracted and prepared for histologic observation. Statistical Analysis: Histopathologic data were analyzed by χ2, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. Results: the calcified bridge in teeth that were capped with GMTA was significantly thicker than Dycal at 30 and 60 days (P= 0.015 and P=0.002, respectively); whereas WMTA showed significantly thicker calcified bridge than Dycal at 90 days (P=0.02). In addition, GMTA specimens showed significantly less inflammation compared to Dycal samples at 90 days interval (P=0.019). No significant difference was found between GMTA and WMTA in terms of calcified bridge thickness and pulp inflammatory response to the capping materials (P>0.05). Conclusions: Based on the result of this study, both types of MTA can be suggested as the materials of choice for direct pulp capping procedure instead of Dycal as hard setting calcium hydroxide cement. PMID:22144801

  17. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  18. [Effects of pulpal inflammation on the activities of periodontal mechanoreceptive afferent fibers].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    Response properties of periodontal single afferents were investigated in cats with inflammatory irritant-induced pulpitis. A deep dentin cavity was prepared on the right mandibular canine in order to apply an inflammatory agent and small fiber excitant, allyl-isothiocyanate (mustard oil: MO), and single afferents innervating the canine periodontal mechanoreceptor were dissected from the mandibular nerve bundle by examining impulse responses while applying mechanical stimuli to the tip of the crown. Evoked impulses by mechanical stimuli were increased in number for 15 minutes with MO application to the pulp when compared with those with mineral oil. The mechanoreceptive thresholds of single nerve fibers were decreased after the MO application to the pulp when compared with those with mineral oil. These results suggest that the alteration of responses in the periodontal afferent fiber, or the peripheral sensitization, can be produced by MO-induced pulpal inflammation probably due to the axon reflex mechanism in the furcating branches of nerve fibers innervating both the tooth pulp and periodontal ligament.

  19. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production.

  20. Electric pulp testing: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Chandler, N P

    2008-05-01

    Electric pulp testing (EPT) has been available for more than a century and used in dental practices worldwide. This article provides an overview of this diagnostic aid. The PubMed database from 1953 was used initially; the reference list for pulp testing featured 1071 articles, and for EPT identified 121 papers. A forward search was undertaken on these articles and using selected author names. Potentially relevant material was also sought in contemporary endodontic texts, while older textbooks on endodontics, operative dentistry and pain revealed historic information and primary research not found electronically. A short account of the innervation of the pulp is followed by an historic overview. Clinical considerations discussed include tooth isolation, glove wearing and tester electrode placement. Orthodontic treatment, pacemaker wearing and patient medications are considered. Research applications are also discussed. While EPT is valuable, no single pulp testing technique can reliably diagnose all pulp conditions. Careful collection of patient history regarding the problem tooth and prudent use of appropriate radiographs are also helpful. The shortcomings of electric tests, especially in the case of immature and concussed teeth, must be understood. The demeanour of the patient and the responses given by control teeth also require careful consideration.

  1. Associated inflammation or increased flow-mediated shear stress, but not pressure alone, disrupts endothelial caveolin-1 in infants with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dereddy, Narendra; Huang, Jing; Erb, Markus; Guzel, Sibel; Wolk, John H; Sett, Suvro S; Gewitz, Michael H; Mathew, Rajamma

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial caveolin-1 loss is an important feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH); the rescue of caveolin-1 abrogates experimental PH. Recent studies in human PH suggest that the endothelial caveolin-1 loss is followed by an enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in smooth muscle cells (SMC) with subsequent neointima formation. In order to evaluate caveolin-1 expression in infants with PH, we examined the available clinical histories, hemodynamic data, and the expression of caveolin-1, PECAM-1, vWF, and smooth muscle α-actin in the lung biopsy/autopsy specimens obtained from infants with congenital heart disease (CHD, n = 8) and lung disease (n = 9). In CHD group, PH associated with increased pulmonary blood flow exhibited loss of endothelial caveolin-1 and PECAM-1 in pulmonary arteries; additional vWF loss was associated with enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC. In the absence of PH, increased or decreased pulmonary blood flow did not disrupt endothelial caveolin-1, PECAM-1, or vWF; nor was there any enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC. In Lung Disease + PH group, caveolin-1, PECAM-1, and vWF were well preserved in seven infants, and importantly, SMC in these arteries did not exhibit enhanced caveolin-1 expression. Two infants with associated inflammatory disease exhibited loss of endothelial caveolin-1 and PECAM-1; additional loss of vWF was accompanied by enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC. Thus, associated flow-induced shear stress or inflammation, but not elevated pulmonary artery pressure alone, disrupts endothelial caveolin-1. Subsequent vWF loss, indicative of extensive endothelial damage is associated with enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC, which may worsen the disease. PMID:23372934

  2. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hydrotropic Pulps at Different Substrate Loadings.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Marina N; Makarova, Ekaterina I; Pavlov, Igor N; Budaeva, Vera V; Sakovich, Gennady V

    2016-03-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic raw materials to produce nutrient broths for microbiological synthesis of ethanol and other valuable products is an important field of modern biotechnology. Biotechnological processing implies the selection of an effective pretreatment technique for raw materials. In this study, the hydrotropic treatment increased the reactivity of the obtained substrates toward enzymatic hydrolysis by 7.1 times for Miscanthus and by 7.3 times for oat hulls. The hydrotropic pulp from oat hulls was more reactive toward enzymatic hydrolysis compared to that from Miscanthus, despite that the substrates had similar compositions. As the initial substrate loadings were raised during enzymatic hydrolysis of the hydrotropic Miscanthus and oat hull pulps, the concentration of reducing sugars increased by 34 g/dm(3) and the yield of reducing sugars decreased by 31 %. The findings allow us to predict the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrotropic pulps from Miscanthus and oat hulls when scaling up the process by volume.

  3. Stability and microstructure of freeze-dried guava pulp (Psidium guajava L.) with added sucrose and pectin.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2016-06-01

    Freeze-dried guava pulp powders, formulated with the addition of sucrose (0-20 g/100 g pulp) and pectin (0-1.0 g/100 g pulp), were obtained, and their stability was evaluated with respect to the water adsorption isotherms, thermal analysis and microstructure. The GAB (Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer), Peleg and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) models were used to evaluate the water adsorption. The microstructure was examined using optical microscopy with polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GAB and BET parameters showed that the moisture content of the monolayer (Xm) increases with increasing pectin concentration in the adsorption isotherms. Optical microscopy micrographs showed that the pulp consisting of sucrose showed crystalline structures present in a higher amount and size, and this behavior is enhanced with increasing relative moisture. SEM showed that the increase in sucrose and pectin concentrations produced powders with lower porosity, providing greater stability to the product. The glass transition temperature increased slightly with increasing pectin concentration and decreased with increasing moisture content in the guava pulp powder. The kinetic curves, ratio of the increase of the water content against the storage time, of the guava pulp treated with 20 g sucrose per 100 g pulp and higher pectin concentration (0.5 or 1.0 g pectin per 100 g pulp) showed reduced adsorption and yielded freeze-dried pulps that were more stable.

  4. Pulp response to ferric sulfate, diluted formocresol and IRM in pulpotomized primary baboon teeth.

    PubMed

    Fuks, A B; Eidelman, E; Cleaton-Jones, P; Michaeli, Y

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the pulp response to a 15.5 percent ferric sulfate solution (FS) and a 20 percent dilution of formocresol (DFC) in pulpotomized primary teeth of baboons, after four and eight weeks. Pulpotomies were performed in seventy-nine primary teeth of 4 baboons. After coronal pulp resection, the pulp stumps were painted with ferric sulfate for fifteen seconds, in thirty-two teeth (group 1); in another thirty-two teeth, a cotton pellet moistened with dilution of formocresol was placed over the pulp stumps for five minutes, and removed (group 2). In fifteen teeth, IRM was placed directly over the pulp stumps after hemostasis (group 3--control). The teeth of all groups were sealed with IRM, and examined for inflammatory changes under a microscope by two blinded examiners. Seventy-seven teeth were assessed. Mild or no inflammation was found in 58 percent (18/31) of the teeth of group 1, in 48 percent (15/31) of those of group 2, and in 73 percent (11/15) of those of group 3. Severe inflammation was found in 35 percent (11/31) of group 1, 29 percent (9/31) of group 2, and in 7 percent (1/15) of group 3. No statistically significant difference between the three groups was observed for degree of inflammation, periradicular or interradicular abscess or inflammatory root resorption (chi-square p > 0.05). Dentin bridges were observed in 52 percent (16/31) of the teeth in group 1, 52 percent (16/31) of those of group 2, and in 73 percent (11/15) of those of group 3. No difference was found between the experimental and control groups for the presence of dentin bridge, (p > 0.05). Ferric sulfate produced pulp responses that compared favorably to those of diluted formocresol.

  5. A Histological Comparison of a New Pulp Capping Material and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in Rat Molars

    PubMed Central

    Moazzami, Fariborz; Ghahramani, Yasmin; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad; Dehghani Nazhavani, Ali; Adl, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent investigations have attempted to improve regenerative endodontics with the help of stem cell therapy. In vitro studies have shown the ability of different agents to stimulate the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) into odontoblast-like cells. A combination of dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate and Vitamin D has been proven to induce a successful differentiation. The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the effect of this combination, named odontoblastic differentiating material (ODM), on pulp tissue when used as a capping material. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary right and left molars of 30 Sprague-dawley rats were selected for this study. The teeth were exposed under sterile condition. Half of the teeth were capped with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and the other half with ODM. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer. The rats were sacrificed at post-operative intervals of 2 weeks and 2 months. Samples were histologically evaluated for the degree of inflammation and reparative dentin formation. Finally the data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests. Results: Reparative dentin formed in all groups within both time periods and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the mentioned time periods. The MTA group, however, showed a statistically significant reduction in inflammation at both time intervals (P<0.05). Compared to MTA, ODM samples showed a greater amount of inflammation in the pulp tissue. Conclusion: ODM, as a pulp capping material, can induce dentinal bridge formation. PMID:24396376

  6. Bleach-boosting effect of crude xylanase from Bacillus stearothermophilus SDX on wheat straw pulp.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Mahajan, Ritu; Kaur, Amanjot; Sharma, Jitender

    2011-01-31

    Pretreatment of wheat straw pulp using cellulase-free xylanase produced from Bacillus stearothermophilus SDX at 60°C for 120min resulted in 4.75% and 22.31% increase in brightness and whiteness, respectively. Enzyme dose of 10U/g of oven dried pulp at pH 9 decreased the kappa number and permanganate number by 7.14% and 5.31%, respectively. Further chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequences (CDED(1)D(2)) resulted in 1.76% and 3.63% increase in brightness and whiteness, respectively. Enzymatic prebleaching of pulp decreased 20% of chlorine consumption without any decrease in brightness. Improvement in various pulp properties like viscosity, burst factor, burstness, breaking length, double fold, gurley porosity, tear factor, and tearness were also observed after bleaching of xylanase treated wheat straw pulp.

  7. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL.

  8. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  9. Characterization of Progenitor Cells in Pulps of Murine Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Balic, A.; Mina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The continuous growth of rodent incisors requires the presence of stem cells capable of generating ameloblasts and odontoblasts. While epithelial stem cells giving rise to ameloblasts have been well-characterized, cells giving rise to the odontoblasts in incisors have not been fully characterized. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the potential population in dental pulps of unerupted and erupted incisors that give rise to odontoblasts. We show that pulps from unerupted incisors contain a significant mesenchymal-stem-cell (MSC)-like population (cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45-) and few CD45+ cells. Our in vitro studies showed that these cells displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential, but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulps from erupted incisors displayed increased percentages of CD45+ and decreased percentages of cells expressing markers of an MSC-like population. Despite these differences, pulps from erupted incisors also displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential and inability to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. These results provide evidence that continuous generation of odontoblasts and dentin on the labial and lingual sides of unerupted and erupted incisors is supported by a progenitor population and not multipotent MSCs in the dental pulp. PMID:20739699

  10. CAPN5 mutation in hereditary uveitis: the R243L mutation increases calpain catalytic activity and triggers intraocular inflammation in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wert, Katherine J.; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Gakhar, Lokesh; Coglan, Diana; Mahajan, MaryAnn; Wu, Shu; Yang, Jing; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Tsang, Stephen H.; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2015-01-01

    A single amino acid mutation near the active site of the CAPN5 protease was linked to the inherited blinding disorder, autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, OMIM #193235). In homology modeling with other calpains, this R243L CAPN5 mutation was situated in a mobile loop that gates substrate access to the calcium-regulated active site. In in vitro activity assays, the mutation increased calpain protease activity and made it far more active at low concentrations of calcium. To test whether the disease allele could yield an animal model of ADNIV, we created transgenic mice expressing human (h) CAPN5R243L only in the retina. The resulting hCAPN5R243L transgenic mice developed a phenotype consistent with human uveitis and ADNIV, at the clinical, histological and molecular levels. The fundus of hCAPN5R243L mice showed enhanced autofluorescence (AF) and pigment changes indicative of reactive retinal pigment epithelial cells and photoreceptor degeneration. Electroretinography showed mutant mouse eyes had a selective loss of the b-wave indicating an inner-retina signaling defect. Histological analysis of mutant mouse eyes showed protein extravasation from dilated vessels into the anterior chamber and vitreous, vitreous inflammation, vitreous and retinal fibrosis and retinal degeneration. Analysis of gene expression changes in the hCAPN5R243L mouse retina showed upregulation of several markers, including members of the Toll-like receptor pathway, chemokines and cytokines, indicative of both an innate and adaptive immune response. Since many forms of uveitis share phenotypic characteristics of ADNIV, this mouse offers a model with therapeutic testing utility for ADNIV and uveitis patients. PMID:25994508

  11. Correlation between Histological Status of the Pulp and Its Response to Sensibility Tests

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mandana; Khayat, Akbar; Zamaheni, Sara; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sensibility tests by correlating it with histologic pulp condition. Methods and Materials: Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms were performed on 65 permanent teeth that were scheduled to be extracted for periodontal, prosthodontic or orthodontic reasons. The normal pulp and reversible pulpitis were considered as treatable tooth conditions while irreversible pulpitis and necrosis were considered as untreatable conditions. The teeth were then extracted and sectioned for histological analysis of dental pulp. Histologic status and classification corresponded to the treatable or untreatable pulp condition. Comparisons between histological treatable and untreatable pulp condition were performed with chi-square analysis for sensibility test responses. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy to detect untreatable from treatable pulp condition were calculated for each test. Results: A significant difference was detected in the normal and a sharp lingered response to heat and cold tests. There was significant difference in the negative response to EPT between histological groups. The kappa agreement coefficient between clinical and histological diagnosis of pulp condition was about 0.843 (P<0.001). The accuracy of cold and heat tests and EPT to detect treatable pulp or untreatable pulp states were 78, 74 and 62%, respectively. The sensibility tests diagnosed untreatable pulpitis with a higher probability (NPV=63%-67% -54%, PPV=83%-91% -95% for heat, cold and EPT, respectively). Conclusion: Sensibility test results were more likely to diagnose pulpal disease or untreatable pulp conditions. However, to increase the diagnostic accuracy patient history, clinical signs and symptoms and also radiographic findings in conjunction with sensibility tests must be used. The result of this small study demonstrated a good agreement between clinical and histological pulp

  12. The prevalence of pulp stones in historical populations from the middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Szopiński, Kazimierz; Olczyk-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There are many reports in the literature concerning pulp stones in contemporary living populations, but there are no descriptions of cases of pulp stones and their prevalence in populations of the past. Here we present a study of pulp stones in a series of archaeologically derived samples from the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria) obtained from two sites: Terqa and Tell Masaikh. The specimens were assigned to five periods: Early Bronze (2650-2350 BC); Middle Bronze (2200-1700 BC); late Roman (AD 200-400); Islamic (AD 600-1200); and Modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950). A total of 529 teeth representing 117 adult individuals of both sexes were examined. Pulp stones were identified by X-ray and 10 selected specimens were sectioned for histological study. Pulp stones were found in 99 of 117 individuals (85%) and in 271 of 529 (51%) teeth. Pulp stone prevalence was found to increase with age, for individuals of older age classes have more pulp stones than younger individuals. Intriguingly, the prevalence of single pulp stones was higher among older individuals (36-45, >46), while younger individuals (17-25, 26-35) more often possessed multiple stones. Individuals with moderate to highly advanced dental wear have pulp stones significantly more often than individuals whose tooth wear is limited to invisible or very small facets. Though there is no statistical significance in the prevalence of pulp stones across chronological periods, it appears that a high level of calcium in the diet is accompanied by a greater prevalence of pulp stones.

  13. Nestin expressions of exposed pulp after direct pulp capping by calcium hydroxide and platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Puspita, Sartika; Utoro, Totok; Haniastuti, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate nestin expression of pulp tissue following direct pulp capping with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Materials and Methods: The thirty sound teeth from Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into two groups: Groups 1, teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide/Ca(OH)2 (n = 15) and Group 2 with PRP (n = 15). After 1st, 7th, and 21st days, respectively, 5 teeth each group (American Dental Association 41) were processed for light microscopic examination. Expressions of nestin were assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Results: Nestin expression of Ca(OH)2 on the distance place of exposure at 1st and 7th days were 80% and at 21st day were 60%. Nestin expression of PRP on the distance place at 1st day was 80%, 7th 100%, and 21st day was 80%. At day 21 observation, Kruskal–Wallis test shows nestin expression was increased significantly in PRP groups (P < 0.05), but it was not increase significantly compare with Ca(OH)2. Conclusion: PRP had ability as a direct pulp capping material to induce nestin expression. PMID:27403050

  14. Cellular response to orthodontically-induced short-term hypoxia in dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Römer, Piero; Wolf, Michael; Fanghänel, Jochen; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic force application is well known to induce sterile inflammation, which is initially caused by the compression of blood vessels in tooth-supporting apparatus. The reaction of periodontal ligament cells to mechanical loading has been thoroughly investigated, whereas knowledge on tissue reactions of the dental pulp is rather limited. The aim of the present trial is to analyze the effect of orthodontic treatment on the induction and cellular regulation of intra-pulpal hypoxia. To investigate the effect of orthodontic force on dental pulp cells, which results in circulatory disturbances within the dental pulp, we used a rat model for the immunohistochemical analysis of the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement. To further examine the regulatory role of circulatory disturbances and hypoxic conditions, we analyze isolated dental pulp cells from human teeth with regard to their specific reaction under hypoxic conditions by means of flow cytometry, immunoblot, ELISA and real-time PCR on markers (Hif-1α, VEGF, Cox-2, IL-6, IL-8, ROS, p65). In vivo experiments showed the induction of hypoxia in dental pulp after orthodontic tooth movement. The induction of oxidative stress in human dental pulp cells showed up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic genes Cox-2, VEGF, IL-6 and IL-8. The present data suggest that orthodontic tooth movement affects dental pulp circulation by hypoxia, which leads to an inflammatory response inside treated teeth. Therefore, pulp tissue may be expected to undergo a remodeling process after tooth movement.

  15. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers.

  16. A Comparative Study of Lidocaine and Lidocaine­ Mannitol in Anesthetizing Human Teeth with Inflamed Pulps

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Ali; Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghi, Ghazal; Nezami, Hossein

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Failure to achieve adequate and profound anesthesia in teeth with acute pulp inflammation is a common condition during emergency visits in root canal therapy. Many different anesthetic solutions such as morphine and capsaicin have accordingly been examined. Mannitol­ an alcoholic sugar with high osmotic pressure level- is applicated for reducing intracranial and post retinal pressure in medicine. It has also been used for its diuretic effect. In combination with local anesthetic solution, it increases permeability of the nerve fiber sheath and leads to influx of the local anesthetic through cytoplasmic membrane .The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of routine local anesthesia with or without using mannitol in teeth with inflamed pulps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: one hundred patients with acute dental pain in posterior teeth were selected. Vials with 3 ml anesthetic solution containing 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine or 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine and 0.5 mol mannitol were used for anesthesia. For each patient, the routine injection technique was applied, during the removal of decay and dentine. Depth of anesthesia was evaluated and the supplementary injection was done in case of pain feeling and then pulpotomy was done. The analysis of data was done using chi-square statistical test. RESULTS: The results showed that complete anesthesia after the first injection was obtained with lidocaine mannitol in 46% and with lidocaine alone in 38% of cases. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: These finding suggest that the addition of mannitol to the standard anesthetic solution could insignificantly increase the level of anesthesia in teeth with inflamed pulps. PMID:24494021

  17. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum.

  18. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  19. Deinked pulp manufacturers make a midwest market

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M. ); Meade, K.

    1993-09-01

    Deinked pulp manufacturers, a burgeoning trend in recycling, are opening up the market for office waste paper in the Midwest. Great Lakes Pulp and Fibre, Inc., (Menominee, Michigan), a new paper group formed by industry veterans, is planning a major deinked pulp mill in Michigan's Upper Peninsula that will recycle large amounts of office waste paper. The mill will have the capacity to process nearly 275,000 tons per year (tpy)-673 tpd-of mixed office paper into 182,000 tpd of sheet-dried, deinked pulp. That pulp would be sold to nearby fine paper manufacturers that want to have recycled content without adding their own deinking.

  20. Exposure to O-16 particle irradiation causes age-like decrements in rats through increased oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation, disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication, and alters cognitive behaviors. Even though exposure to these highly charged particles occurs at low fluence rates, p...

  1. Changes in composition of caecal microbiota associated with increased colon inflammation in interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice inoculated with Enterococcus species.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shalome A; Young, Wayne; Barnett, Matthew P G; Cookson, Adrian L; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-03-11

    Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease where the resident microbiota contributes to disease development, yet the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/-) mice develop inflammation similar to IBD, due in part to an inappropriate response to commensal bacteria. We have previously reported changes in intestinal morphology and colonic gene expression in Il10-/- mice in response to oral bacterial inoculation. In this study, we aimed to identify specific changes in the caecal microbiota associated with colonic inflammation in these mice. The microbiota was evaluated using pyrotag sequencing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR. Microbiota profiles were influenced by genotype of the mice and by bacterial inoculation, and a strong correlation was observed between the microbiota and colonic inflammation scores. Although un-inoculated Il10-/- and C57 mice had similar microbiota communities, bacterial inoculation resulted in different changes to the microbiota in Il10-/- and C57 mice. Inoculated Il10-/- mice had significantly less total bacteria than un-inoculated Il10-/- mice, with a strong negative correlation between total bacterial numbers, relative abundance of Escherichia/Shigella, microbiota diversity, and colonic inflammation score. Our results show a putative causative role for the microbiota in the development of IBD, with potentially key roles for Akkermansia, or for Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, and Alistipes, depending on the composition of the bacterial inoculum. These data support the use of bacterially-inoculated Il10-/- mice as an appropriate model to investigate human IBD.

  2. Gene expression profiling by mRNA sequencing reveals increased expression of immune/inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus of individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y; Kim, J; Shin, J Y; Kim, J Ii; Seo, J S; Webster, M J; Lee, D; Kim, S

    2013-10-29

    Whole-genome expression profiling in postmortem brain tissue has recently provided insight into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous microarray and RNA-Seq studies identified several biological processes including synaptic function, mitochondrial function and immune/inflammation response as altered in the cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Now using RNA-Seq data from the hippocampus, we have identified 144 differentially expressed genes in schizophrenia cases as compared with unaffected controls. Immune/inflammation response was the main biological process over-represented in these genes. The upregulation of several of these genes, IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, APOL1 (Apolipoprotein L1), ADORA2A (adenosine receptor 2A), IGFBP4 and CD163 were validated in the schizophrenia subjects using data from the SNCID database and with quantitative RT-PCR. We identified a co-expression module associated with schizophrenia that includes the majority of differentially expressed genes related to immune/inflammation response as well as with the density of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the hippocampus. The results indicate that abnormal immune/inflammation response in the hippocampus may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may be associated with abnormalities in the parvalbumin-containing neurons that lead to the cognitive deficits of the disease.

  3. [The significance of endogenous peptides for dental pulp pain].

    PubMed

    Göres, M; Oehme, P; Zuhrt, R

    1989-01-01

    The increase of knowledges in the field of endorphines and other peptides causes new aspects of development and transmission of dental pain. Methionin-enkephalin (ME) and substance P (SP) are found also in the dental pulp and the dentine. The concentration of SP is higher in the pulp, than in some other tissues. The concentration of both, ME and SP, in the endodont is different with respect to different functional situations, e.g. it is lower in case of pain. We suppose, there is a peptiderg reception and transmission of pain in dentine. Interaction with this new system opens new ways for opposing pulpal pain.

  4. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively.

  5. Pulp size in molars: underestimation on radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Ford, T R Pitt; Monteith, B D

    2004-08-01

    The aim was to determine whether radiographs provide a clinically useful indication of pulp size in diseased/restored human first molar teeth, and to investigate accessibility of pulp tissue for diagnostic testing using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Extracted teeth of known age were collected. Restorative materials were removed and teeth with evidence of pulp exposures excluded. Fifty-six teeth were radiographed from buccal and mesial aspects, and then their crowns were sectioned axiobuccolingually and photographed. Images were digitally scanned and measurements made of the total pulp area (above a line across the most superior part of the pulpal floor) and the pulp area in the clinical crown (superior to a line between the amelocemental junctions). The pulp width at the cervix and the highest point of the pulp were also recorded. Data were analysed using Pearson correlations. Pulp areas within the clinical crowns were significantly larger than indicated by radiographs, by 23% in the case of the clinically attainable buccal view (P < 0.05). Pulps may be more accessible to flowmeter testing than they appear. Absence of pulp tissues in the crown was recorded in equal numbers of teeth on radiographs and sections, but with agreement for only one tooth. Sixteen per cent of the teeth had no pulp area in the clinical crown when sectioned, but might still be suitable for testing using LDF.

  6. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  7. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    PubMed

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  8. Pannexin3 inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory response by suppressing NF-κB signalling pathway in human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangfang; Sun, Hualing; Wang, Yake; Yang, Hongye; Huang, Liyuan; Fu, Dongjie; Gan, Jing; Huang, Cui

    2017-03-01

    Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) play a crucial role in dental pulp inflammation. Pannexin 3 (Panx3), a member of Panxs (Pannexins), has been recently found to be involved in inflammation. However, the mechanism of Panx3 in human dental pulp inflammation remains unclear. In this study, the role of Panx3 in inflammatory response was firstly explored, and its potential mechanism was proposed. Immunohistochemical staining showed that Panx3 levels were diminished in inflamed human and rat dental pulp tissues. In vitro, Panx3 expression was significantly down-regulated in HDPCs following a TNF-α challenge in a concentration-dependent way, which reached the lowest level at 10 ng/ml of TNF-α. Such decrease could be reversed by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Unlike MG132, BAY 11-7082, a NF-κB inhibitor, even reinforced the inhibitory effect of TNF-α. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to investigate the role of Panx3 in inflammatory response of HDPCs. TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were significantly lessened when Panx3 was overexpressed in HDPCs. Conversely, Panx3 knockdown exacerbated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, Western blot, dual-luciferase reporter assay, immunofluorescence staining, qRT-PCR and ELISA results showed that Panx3 participated in dental pulp inflammation in a NF-κB-dependent manner. These findings suggested that Panx3 has a defensive role in dental pulp inflammation, serving as a potential target to be exploited for the intervention of human dental pulp inflammation.

  9. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  10. Unusual Volar Pulp Location of Glomus Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Ian A.; Argenta, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Glomus tumors are benign, painful growths originating from glomus bodies and comprise just 1% of tumors arising in the hand, with fewer than 10% in the volar pulp of digits. Hallmark symptoms of glomus tumors include hypersensitivity to cold, heightened pinprick sensitivity, and paroxysmal pain. We report a 72-year-old, right-hand dominant man who presented with pain in the left middle finger, localized to the tip. The fingertip was incredibly sensitive to touch, and his pain increased at night. He reported no recollection of trauma. Palpation of the finger revealed no mass, although it did indicate a focal point of pain within the distal pulp of the digit. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left hand revealed a round 7.0 × 4.0 × 6.0-mm soft tissue lesion along the volar ulnar aspect of the distal third digit. An incision was made in the mid-axial plane, circumscribing and removing the mass bluntly. It was a tan-yellow, soft tissue nodule of 0.8-cm in diameter without stalk or adherences to joints. Pathology revealed the mass was a glomus tumor. Symptoms improved on removal, and he healed without complication. Glomus tumors in the volar digital pulp can be difficult to diagnose. However, the presence of localized pain in the fingertip was reason to consider glomus tumor and proceed with treatment. Complete surgical removal of a glomus tumor is necessary to resolve symptoms and prevent recurrence. PMID:28203512

  11. Permittivities of watermelon pulp and juice and correlation with quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permittivities from 10 to 4500 MHz at 24 'C were measured on pulp and juice of watermelons of different maturities with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. The dielectric constant of both materials decreased monotonically with increasing frequency and loss factor had minimum at ab...

  12. New Approaches in Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of new approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth. PMID:24396371

  13. Pelletization of biomass waste with potato pulp content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidziński, Sławomir

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a research on the influence of potato pulp content in a mixture with oat bran on the power demand of the pelletization process and on the quality of the produced pellets, in the context of use thereof as a heating fuel. The tests of the densification of the pulp and bran mixture were carried out on a work stand whose main element was a P-300 pellet mill with the `flat matrix-densification rolls' system. 24 h after the pellets left the working system, their kinetic durability was established with the use of a Holmen tester. The research results obtained in this way allowed concluding that increasing the potato pulp content in a mixture with oat bran from 15 to 20% caused a reduction of the power demand of the pellet mill. It was also established that as the pulp content in a mixture with oat bran increases from 15 to 25%, the value of the kinetic durability of the pellets determined using Holmen and Pfost methods decreases.

  14. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    PubMed

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  15. Nano-fibrillation of pulp fibers for the processing of transparent nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, S.; Nakagaito, A. N.; Yano, H.

    2007-11-01

    Pulp fibers were fibrillated uniformly into nano-sized fibers using a grinder with a specially designed set of grinding disks. To investigate the effect of the fibrillation through the grinder on the physical properties of the composites, dissolved pulp fibers were subjected to various passes through the grinder, and the resulting fibrillated pulp fibers were used to make fibrillated pulp fibers/acrylic resin composites. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that at above five passes, the structure of the fibrillated pulp fibers did not change significantly. The light transmittances of the composites were increased to 80% up to five passes through the grinder, and did not change after further passes. However, the tensile test and thermal expansion analysis indicated that a degradation of the fibrillated pulp occurred during the grinding treatment. To evaluate the fiber degradation, the degree of crystallinity and degree of polymerization of cellulose were measured. Both decreased as the number of passes through the grinder increased. In addition, to reduce the thermal expansion of composites, the fibrillated pulp fibers were additionally treated by sulfuric acid. The thermal expansion of composites was decreased, because the amorphous region of cellulose was removed.

  16. Histological and scanning electron microscopy assessment of various vital pulp-therapy materials.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Mercedes S; Witherspoon, David E; Gutmann, James L; Opperman, Lynne A

    2003-05-01

    Pulp capping and pulpotomy procedures were performed on 15 male mongrel dogs. Three materials were used: calcium hydroxide, acid-etched dentin bonding, and mineral trioxide aggregate. Six of the animals were killed at 50 days and nine were killed at 150 days. Samples from 11 dogs were used for histological evaluation, and the remaining dog samples were used for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. Each slide was graded histologically according to previously published criteria. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed, and the weight percentage of elements found in the dentin of a nontreated tooth versus the bridge formed in the exposed specimen was established. By evaluating pulp inflammation in vital pulp-therapy treatments, it was found that mineral trioxide aggregate was not significantly different from the untreated control group, both in pulp-capping procedures at 50 days (p = 0.357) or 150 days (p = 0.198) and pulpotomy procedures at 50 days (p = 0.357) or 150 days (p = 0.198). Moreover, histologically mineral trioxide aggregate was a considerably better material than calcium hydroxide or acid-etched dentin bonding in maintaining the integrity of the pulp.

  17. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hee Woong; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR). The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation. PMID:26576076

  18. Histopathological changes in dental pulp of rats following radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Zahra Sadat; Azarakhsh, Soheil; Shakib, Pouyan Amini; Karimi, Masoomeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is one of the oral and pharyngeal cancer treatment methods that can cause damage to the tissues in the radiation area; the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on dental pulp tissue in rats. Materials and Methods: In this interventional, experimental double-blind study, 30 rats were studied in three groups (n = 10 each). The first group received 12 gray (Gy), the second group received 18 Gy in one session, and the third group was not exposed to radiation (control group). The 5 μm sections of mandibular molar tooth were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Samples were studied under optical microscope to evaluate and score inflammation, necrosis, hyalinization, and vascular congestion. The data were coded and analyzed by statistical tests of χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. The significant level of P = 0.05. Results: In Group 1, necrosis in two cases, inflammation in one case, hyalinization in one case, and vascular congestion in four cases were observed. In Group 2, inflammation in four cases, hyalinization in two cases, and vascular congestion in five cases were observed. In Group 3, inflammation was observed only in one case. In comparison between the groups, no significant differences were observed in inflammation (P > 0.05), necrosis (P > 0.05), and hyalinization (P > 0.05). However, the difference was significant for vascular congestion (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Radiotherapy with doses of 12 and 18 Gy had no significant effect on inflammation, necrosis, and hyalinization in all groups; however, the difference was significant for vascular congestion. PMID:28348613

  19. On hexenuronic acid (HexA) removal and mediator coupling to pulp fiber in the laccase/mediator treatment.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edith M; Du, Xueyu; Gellerstedt, Göran; Li, Jiebing; Fillat, Amanda; García-Ubasart, Jordi; Vidal, Teresa; Colom, Josep F

    2011-02-01

    Flax soda/AQ pulps were treated with different fungal laccase-mediator combinations followed by physical and chemical characterization of the pulps to obtain a thorough understanding of the laccase/mediator effects on hexenuronic acid (HexA) removal and the coupling of mediator onto pulps for fiber functionalization. Large differences were found and the presence of lauryl gallate (LG) during Trametes villosa laccase (TvL) treatment (TvL+LG) resulted in a much larger reduction of pulp-linked HexA than the combination of p-coumaric acid (PCA) and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase (PcL). A major portion of LG became attached to the pulp as revealed by an increase in the kappa number and further confirmed by thioacidolysis and (1)H NMR analysis of solubilized pulp fractions. Additional experiments with other chemical pulps and isolated pulp xylan and lignin revealed that HexA seems to be the sole pulp component attacked by TvL+LG. As a substrate for TvL, the reaction preference order is PCA>HexA>LG.

  20. Cortical stimulation and tooth pulp evoked potentials in rats: a model of direct anti-nociception.

    PubMed

    Rusina, Robert; Barek, Stephane; Vaculin, Simon; Azérad, Jean; Rokyta, Richard

    2010-01-01

    While the effect of cortex stimulation on pain control is widely accepted, its physiological basis remains poorly understood. We chose an animal model of pain to study the influence of sensorimotor cortex stimulation on tooth pulp stimulation evoked potentials (TPEPs). Fifteen awake rats implanted with tooth pulp, cerebral cortex, and digastric muscle electrodes were divided into three groups, receiving 60 Hz, 40 Hz and no cortical stimulation, respectively. TPEPs were recorded before, one, three and five hours after continuous stimulation. We observed an inverse relationship between TPEP amplitude and latency with increasing tooth pulp stimulation. The amplitudes of the early components of TPEPs increased and their latency decreased with increasing tooth pulp stimulation intensity. Cortical stimulation decreased the amplitude of TPEPs; however, neither the latencies of TPEPs nor the jaw-opening reflex were changed after cortical stimulation. The decrease in amplitude of TPEPs after cortical stimulation may reflect its anti-nociceptive effect.

  1. Waste paper and pulp sludge as feedstock for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Sosulski, K.; Swerhone, B.

    1993-12-31

    Samples of newsprint, office, cardboard and magazine paper, paper towels, pulp waste and sludge were evaluated for their cellulose contents and rates of cellulose conversion to glucose. Several pretreatments were evaluated to increase the rate of conversion of newsprint cellulose to glucose. The influence of printers` inks on enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation were determined for printed newsprint and magazine paper and corresponding imprinted controls. Two streams of mixed paper were formed to determine the need for separation of paper prior to processing. A modified, two-stage process was evaluated for hydrolyses of paper samples. The process consisted of sample hydrolysis with one-half of total enzymes for 24 hr, separation of sugars by filtration and hydrolysis of the residue with fresh enzymes for an additional 24 hr. In this way, at the same enzyme loading, the rates of cellulose conversion were increased by 18 to 59%, depending on sample. The maximum cellulose conversion rates were: 62.4% for newsprint, 65.4% for cardboard, 65.7% for office paper, 54.5% for magazine paper and 55.0% for paper towel. Bleached pulp waste was hydrolysed to the level of 62.7%, and the rates of conversion of pulp sludge cellulose were 32.4 to 74.6%, depending on paper waste used for reprocessing by pulp mills. The degrees of saccharification determined for the mixed paper samples were comparable or slightly lower than those calculated based on the best conversion rates for each of the constituents and their contents in mixed sample. Based on the findings of this study, it became apparent that ethanol plants would be able to process all types of paper and pulp wastes blends, at varying ratios, without the need for separation of waste streams. Also, there was no need for other pretreatments than particle size reduction by grinding, prior to enzyme hydrolysis. Printers` inks had no adverse affect on enzyme hydrolysis or yeast fermentation.

  2. Expression and Function of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pulp Tissue of Teeth under Orthodontic Movement.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fulan; Yang, Shuangyan; Xu, Hui; Guo, Qingyuan; Li, Qi; Hu, Lihua; Liu, Dongxu; Wang, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic force may lead to cell damage, circulatory disturbances, and vascular changes of the dental pulp, which make a hypoxic environment in pulp. In order to maintain the homeostasis of dental pulp, hypoxia will inevitably induce the defensive reaction. However, this is a complex process and is regulated by numerous factors. In this study, we established an experimental animal model of orthodontic tooth movement to investigate the effects of mechanical force on the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α in dental pulp. Histological analysis of dental pulp and expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins in dental pulp were examined. The results showed that inflammation and vascular changes happened in dental pulp tissue in different periods. Additionally, there were significant changes in the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins under orthodontic force. After application of mechanical load, expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was markedly positive in 1, 3, 7 d, and 2 w groups, and then it weakened in 4 w group. These findings suggested that the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was enhanced by mechanical force. HIF-1α and VEGF may play an important role in retaining the homeostasis of dental pulp during orthodontic tooth movement.

  3. Clinical and Histological Evaluation of Direct Pulp Capping on Human Pulp Tissue Using a Dentin Adhesive System

    PubMed Central

    Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna; Sobolewska, Ewa; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study presents a clinical and histological evaluation of human pulp tissue responses after direct capping using a new dentin adhesive system. Methods. Twenty-eight caries-free third molar teeth scheduled for extraction were evaluated. The pulps of 22 teeth were mechanically exposed and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Single Bond Universal or calcium hydroxide. Another group of 6 teeth acted as the intact control group. The periapical response was assayed, and a clinical examination was performed. The teeth were extracted after 6 weeks, and a histological analysis was performed. The pulp status was assessed, and the thickness of the dentin bridge was measured and categorized using a histological scoring system. Results. The clinical phase was asymptomatic for Single Bond Universal patients. Patients in the calcium hydroxide group reported mild symptoms of pain, although the histological examination revealed that dentin bridges with or without limited pulpitis had begun forming in each tooth. The universal adhesive system exhibited nonsignificantly increased histological signs of pulpitis (P > 0.05) and a significantly weaker thin mineralized tissue layer (P < 0.001) compared with the calcium hydroxide group. Conclusion. The results suggest that Single Bond Universal is inappropriate for human pulp capping; however, further long-term studies are needed to determine the biocompatibility of this agent. PMID:27803922

  4. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-initiated alcohol-promoted hepatic inflammation and precancerous lesions by flavonoid luteolin is associated with increased sirtuin 1 activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rafacho, Bruna Paola Murino; Stice, Camilla Peach; Liu, Chun; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Ausman, Lynne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption is an established risk for hepatic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Luteolin is one of the most common flavonoids present in plants and has potential beneficial effects against cancer. In this study, we examined the effect and potential mechanisms of luteolin supplementation in a carcinogen initiated alcohol-promoted pre-neoplastic liver lesion mouse model. Methods C57BL/6 mice were injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) [i.p. 25 mg/kg of body weight (BW)] at 14 days of age. At 8 weeks of age mice were group pair-fed with Lieber-DeCarli liquid control diet or alcoholic diet [ethanol (EtOH) diet, 27% total energy from ethanol] and supplemented with a dose of 30 mg luteolin/kg BW per day for 21 days. Results DEN-injected mice fed EtOH diet displayed a significant induction of pre-neoplastic lesions, a marker associated with presence of steatosis and inflammation. Dietary luteolin significantly reduced the severity and incidence of hepatic inflammatory foci and steatosis in DEN-injected mice fed EtOH diet, as well the presence of preneoplastic lesions. There was no difference on hepatic protein levels of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) among all groups; however, luteolin supplementation significantly reversed alcohol-reduced SIRT1 activity assessed by the ratio of acetylated and total forkhead box protein O1 (FoXO1) and SIRT1 target proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). Conclusions Dietary intake of luteolin prevents alcohol promoted pre-neoplastic lesions, potentially mediated by SIRT1 signaling pathway. PMID:26005679

  5. Hypothermic machine perfusion increases A20 expression which protects renal cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing inflammation, apoptosis and necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZIXUAN; ZHONG, ZIBIAO; LI, MINGXIA; XIONG, YAN; WANG, YANFENG; PENG, GUIZHU; YE, QIFA

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the quality of donor organs obtained after cardiac death. In the present study, we examined the potential mechanisms through which A20 protects renal cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) following either hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) or static cold storage (CS) of the kidneys in a rabbit model. The expression of markers of apoptosis, necroptosis and inflammation in frozen kidney tissues were detected by western blot analysis, RT-qPCR and ELISA. Compared with the CS group, A20 expression was significantly higher in the tissue from the HMP group (P<0.01). By contrast, the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly lower in HMP group (P<0.01), whereas IκBα expression was significantly higher (P<0.01). The expression of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), phosphorylated (p-)c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and activated caspase-3 in the HMP group was significantly downregulated compared with that in the CS group (all P<0.01). In addition, A20 inhibited receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated necroptosis in the kidney. RIPK3 expression in the HMP group was significantly lower than that in the CS group (P<0.01), although the levels in both groups were higher than those in the sham group (P<0.01). Based on these findings, we propose a novel mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effect of A20 in renal cells in which A20 binds to ASK1 and promotes the degradation of ASK1 leading to the suppression of JNK activation and eventually, to the blockade of apoptosis. Thus, HMP reduces inflammation, apoptosis and necroptosis by upregulating the expression of A20; this mechanism may be responsible for protecting the kidney against IRI. PMID:27177159

  6. Improved paper pulp from plants with suppressed cinnamoyl-CoA reductase or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Ann; Holt, Karen; Piquemal, Joël; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Boudet, Alain; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Petit-Conil, Michel; Schuch, Wolfgang; Halpin, Claire

    2002-10-01

    Transgenic plants severely suppressed in the activity of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were produced by introduction of a partial sense CCR transgene into tobacco. Five transgenic lines with CCR activities ranging from 2 to 48% of wild-type values were selected for further study. Some lines showed a range of aberrant phenotypes including reduced growth, and all had changes to lignin structure making the polymer more susceptible to alkali extraction. The most severely CCR-suppressed line also had significantly decreased lignin content and an increased proportion of free phenolic groups in non-condensed lignin. These changes are likely to make the lignin easier to extract during chemical pulping. Direct Kraft pulping trials confirmed this. More lignin could be removed from the transgenic wood than from wild-type wood at the same alkali charge. A similar improvement in pulping efficiency was recently shown for poplar trees expressing an antisense cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Pulping experiments performed here on CAD-antisense tobacco plants produced near-identical results--the modified lignin was more easily removed during pulping without any adverse effects on the quality of the pulp or paper produced. These results suggest that pulping experiments performed in tobacco can be predictive of the results that will be obtained in trees such as poplar, extending the utility of the tobacco model. On the basis of our results on CCR manipulation in tobacco, we predict that CCR-suppressed trees may show pulping benefits. However, it is likely that CCR-suppression will not be the optimal target for genetic manipulation of pulping character due to the potential associated growth defects.

  7. In situ testing of CO2 laser on dental pulp function: Effects on microcirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.; Liu, M.; Doerscher-Kim, J.K.; Kim, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The effect of CO2 laser irradiation on pulpal microcirculation was studied in cat canines. The enamel surfaces of 4 teeth were exposed with energy densities of 304-1440J/cm2, using either a handpiece or a microslad, with a focal spot of 0.21mm and 0.33mm respectively. Pulpal blood flow (PBF) before and following lasing was recorded through the intact tooth surface by a laser Doppler flowmeter. CO2 laser irradiation caused an increase in PBF, which was immediate and transient. The PBF increase was higher in a large pulp than in a small pulp, and it was inversely related to the focal spot size. These findings confirm that the dental pulp is thermally affected by CO2 lasing of the tooth surface, however, without extensive pulp coagulation. It is concluded that the effects of laser irradiation on the pulpal microcirculation may be studied in situ by means of the presented methodology.

  8. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  9. Experimental studies on waste paper pulp biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Sharma, D; Rao, K S; Jain, R C

    2002-07-01

    In continuation of their studies on Biodegradation of cellulosic waste materials, the authors have presented their experimental data on biodegradation on waste paper pulp. Greater efficiency in the cow dung and M3 culture experimental setups have been pointed out and discussed. Necessity of detailed data evaluation of temperature, pH, dry weight, cellulose, protein, carbohydrate, Nitrate, Phosphate & Potassium levels is suggested. Derivation of %, absolute and increase/decrease % of BOO, COD and VS have been pointed out for the first time in solid waste Biodegradation. Further data evaluation and derivation of critical reaction rate kinetics have been recommended for further studies in solid waste-degradation to achieve quicker Bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into compost.

  10. Nerve Growth Factor Secretion From Pulp Fibroblasts is Modulated by Complement C5a Receptor and Implied in Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chmilewsky, Fanny; Ayaz, Warda; Appiah, James; About, Imad; Chung, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of sensory innervation in tooth vitality, the identification of signals that control nerve regeneration and the cellular events they induce is essential. Previous studies demonstrated that the complement system, a major component of innate immunity and inflammation, is activated at the injured site of human carious teeth and plays an important role in dental-pulp regeneration via interaction of the active Complement C5a fragment with pulp progenitor cells. In this study, we further determined the role of the active fragment complement C5a receptor (C5aR) in dental nerve regeneration in regards to local secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) upon carious injury. Using ELISA and AXIS co-culture systems, we demonstrate that C5aR is critically implicated in the modulation of NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts, which is negatively regulated by C5aR activation, has a role in the control of the neurite outgrowth length in our axon regeneration analysis. Our data provide a scientific step forward that can guide development of future therapeutic tools for innovative and incipient interventions targeting the dentin-pulp regeneration process by linking the neurite outgrowth to human pulp fibroblast through complement system activation. PMID:27539194

  11. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment. PMID:17200707

  13. Increased cell-free mitochondrial DNA is a marker of ongoing inflammation and better neurocognitive function in virologically suppressed HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Santiago, Josué; De Oliveira, Michelli F; Var, Susanna R; Day, Tyler R C; Woods, Steven P; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2017-04-01

    Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR. We measured soluble CD14, soluble CD163, interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), neopterin, and neurofilament light chain (NFL) by immunoassays in CSF supernatant or blood plasma. Higher levels of mtDNA in CSF were associated with higher levels of MCP-1 (r = 0.56, p < 0.01) in CSF and TNF-α (r = 0.43, p < 0.01) and IL-8 (r = 0.44, p < 0.01) in blood plasma. Subjects with a previous diagnosis of AIDS showed significantly higher levels of mtDNA (p < 0.01) than subjects without AIDS. The associations between mtDNA and MCP-1 in CSF and TNF-α in blood remained significant after adjusting for previous diagnosis of AIDS (p < 0.01). Additionally, higher levels of mtDNA were associated with a lower CD4 nadir (r = -0.41, p < 0.01) and lower current CD4% (r = -0.34, p = 0.03). Paradoxically, higher levels of mtDNA in CSF were significantly associated with better neurocognitive performance (r = 0.43, p = 0.02) and with less neuronal damage (i.e. lower NFL). Higher cell-free mtDNA is associated with inflammation during treated HIV infection, but the impact on neurocognitive functioning and neuronal damage remains unclear and may differ in the setting of suppressive ART.

  14. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    To examine the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature changes in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum temperature rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the temperature rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of temperature in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of temperature was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the temperature rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.

  15. Nano-Hydroxyapatite and Calcium-Enriched Mixture for Pulp Capping of Sound Primary Teeth: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Roza; Asgary, Saeed; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Montazeri Hedeshi, Roshanak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) has been used for regeneration of osseous defects. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is also used for various dental treatments. This trial compared the efficacy of NHA and CEM cement for direct pulp capping (DPC) of sound primary teeth. Methods and Materials: In this randomized clinical trial with split-mouth design, after attaining informed consent, 20 sound primary canines scheduled for orthodontic extraction, were selected. After mechanical pulp exposure, the exposed site was capped with either NHA or CEM cement and then immediately restored with glass-ionomer and resin composite. The teeth were extracted after two months and examined histologically. Parameters of hard tissue bridge (HTB) formation, its type and quality as well as pulpal inflammation scores were compared between the two experimental groups. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U and Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at 0.001. Results: All CEM specimens showed inflammation score of 0 (less than 10%). However, in NHA group, inflammation scores of 0 (less than 10%), 1 (10%-30%) and 2 (30%-50%) were observed in 2 (20%), 4 (40%) and 4 (40%) specimens, respectively (P<0.001). HTB was formed in all CEM specimens while it was developed in 2 specimens of NHA (20%; P<0.001). All CEM specimens showed normal pulp; only two cases in NHA group (20%) demonstrated uninflamed normal pulp. Conclusion: CEM cement was superior to NHA as a DPC agent in terms of HTB formation and pulp inflammation scores. It is a suitable material for the DPC of primary teeth. PMID:25834594

  16. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  17. TWEAK Promotes Peritoneal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belen; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Bellon, Teresa; del Peso, Gloria; Jimenez-Heffernan, Jose; Santamaria, Beatriz; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Selgas, Rafael; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. An improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. There is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 during peritoneal injury. Fn14 expression and soluble TWEAK levels were measured in human PD peritoneal effluent cells or fluids with or without peritonitis. Fn14 expression was also analyzed in peritoneal biopsies from PD patients. Actions of intraperitoneal TWEAK were studied in mice in vivo. sTWEAK levels were increased in peritoneal effluent in PD peritonitis. Effluent sTWEAK levels correlated with the number of peritoneal macrophages (r = 0.491, p = 0.002). Potential TWEAK targets that express the receptor Fn14 include mesothelial cells and macrophages, as demonstrated by flow cytometry of peritoneal effluents and by analysis of peritoneal biopsies. Peritoneal biopsy Fn14 correlated with mesothelial injury, fibrosis and inflammation, suggesting a potential deleterious effect of TWEAK/Fn14. In this regard, intraperitoneal TWEAK administration to mice promoted peritoneal inflammation characterized by increased peritoneal effluent MCP-1, Fn14 and Gr1+ macrophages, increased mesothelial Fn14, MCP-1 and CCL21 expression and submesothelial tissue macrophage recruitment. Taken together these data suggest that the TWEAK/Fn14 system may promote inflammation and tissue injury during peritonitis and PD. PMID:24599047

  18. The Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Direct Pulp Capping in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Moushekhian, Siavash; Gharechahi, Maryam; Talati, Ali; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Bojarpour, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the histologic effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) with or without the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on exposed pulp tissues of dogs. Methods: Twenty-five premolar teeth in three healthy mature dogs were randomly divided into five groups. In group 1, the pulp tissue was capped with MTA. In groups 2 and 3, before capping with MTA, the exposure site was irradiated by low power lasers at 630 nm (20 mW, 150 seconds, 7.5 J/cm(2)) and 810 nm (peak power 80 W, average power 50 mW, 1500 Hz, 50 seconds, 6.25 J/cm(2)) wavelengths, respectively. In groups 4 and 5, the exposure site was irradiated similar to that described in groups 2 and 3, but the pulp tissue was covered by gold foil instead of MTA. After 2 months, the animals were sacrificed and the samples were prepared for histologic evaluation. Results: There were differences in pulpal response and dentinal barrier formation among the study groups. The morphology of pulpal tissue and the integrity of dentinal barrier and formation of odontoblastic layer were more favorable in the first three groups. The occurrence of extensive and intense inflammation and necrosis was more frequent in groups 4 and 5. Conclusion: Under the conditions used in this study, the presence of MTA as a pulp capping material was more important than laser therapy in the success of direct pulp capping (DPC) treatment. MTA proved to be an effective material either alone or in combination with laser irradiation in vital pulp therapy.

  19. The Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Direct Pulp Capping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Moushekhian, Siavash; Gharechahi, Maryam; Talati, Ali; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Bojarpour, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the histologic effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) with or without the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on exposed pulp tissues of dogs. Methods: Twenty-five premolar teeth in three healthy mature dogs were randomly divided into five groups. In group 1, the pulp tissue was capped with MTA. In groups 2 and 3, before capping with MTA, the exposure site was irradiated by low power lasers at 630 nm (20 mW, 150 seconds, 7.5 J/cm2) and 810 nm (peak power 80 W, average power 50 mW, 1500 Hz, 50 seconds, 6.25 J/cm2) wavelengths, respectively. In groups 4 and 5, the exposure site was irradiated similar to that described in groups 2 and 3, but the pulp tissue was covered by gold foil instead of MTA. After 2 months, the animals were sacrificed and the samples were prepared for histologic evaluation. Results: There were differences in pulpal response and dentinal barrier formation among the study groups. The morphology of pulpal tissue and the integrity of dentinal barrier and formation of odontoblastic layer were more favorable in the first three groups. The occurrence of extensive and intense inflammation and necrosis was more frequent in groups 4 and 5. Conclusion: Under the conditions used in this study, the presence of MTA as a pulp capping material was more important than laser therapy in the success of direct pulp capping (DPC) treatment. MTA proved to be an effective material either alone or in combination with laser irradiation in vital pulp therapy. PMID:28144439

  20. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    PubMed

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  1. Panus tigrinus strains used in delignification of sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Adilson R; Costa, Sirlene M; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    Three strains of the white-rot fungus Panus tigrinus (FTPT-4741, FTPT-4742, and FTPT-4745) were cultivated on sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping. Pulp yields, kappa number, and viscosity of all pulps were determined and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from the samples were recorded. The growth of P. tigrinus strains in plastic bags increased the manganese peroxide and xylanase activities. Lignin peroxidase was not detected in the three systems (shaken and nonshaken flasks and plastic bags). FTIR spectra were reduced to their principal components, and a clear separation between FTPT-4742 and the control was observed. Strain FTPT-4745 decayed lignin more selectively in the three systems utilized. Yields of kraft pulping were low, ranging from 20 to 45% for the plastic bag samples and from 12 to 38% for the flask samples. Kappa numbers were 1-18 and viscosity ranged from 2.3 to 6.8 cP.

  2. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vidya; Sivadas, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% This report presents the case of a 10-year-old patient with a nonvital young permanent tooth which was managed by pulp revascularization. Following disinfection of the canal by irrigation with NaOCl and use of a triantibiotic paste, a scaffold was created by inducing the formation of a blood clot within the canal. At the subsequent follow-up visits, the patient was asymptomatic, with normal response to percussion, normal periodontal probing depths, and no abnormal mobility. The radiographs showed evidence of continued apical root development with increase in root length, signs of apical closure and increase in thickness of dentinal walls. Thus, this case adds to the growing evidence supporting the revascularization approach as an option for management of nonvital young permanent teeth. How to cite this article: Chandran V, Chacko V, Sivadas G. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):213-216. PMID:25709305

  3. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 12,2016 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  4. Analysis of reasons for decline of bioleaching efficiency of spent Zn-Mn batteries at high pulp densities and exploration measure for improving performance.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Jiang, Wenfeng; Li, Xin; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Changhao; Wang, Renqing; Wang, Yutao

    2012-05-01

    The reasons for decline of bioleaching efficiency of Zn and Mn from spent batteries at high pulp densities were analyzed; the measures for improving bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The results showed that extraction efficiency of Zn dropped from 100% at 1% of pulp density to 29.9% at 8% of pulp density, with Mn from 94% to only 2.5%. It was almost the linear reduction of the activity of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with increase of pulp density that witnessed declined bioleaching efficiency of Zn; it was the complete inactivation of the iron-oxidizing bacteria at 2% of pulp density or higher that witnessed declined bioleaching dose of Mn. By means of reducing initial pH value of leaching media, increasing concentration of energy matters and exogenous acid adjustment of media during bioleaching, the maximum extraction efficiency of almost 100% for Zn and 89% for Mn at 4% of pulp density was attained, respectively.

  5. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have hypothesized that replacing barley with high proportions of dried citrus pulp in a concentrate-based diet for lambs could increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids and could reduce the rate of the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA, with a consequent improvement of the intramuscular fatty acid composition. To test this hypothesis, 26 Comisana lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 56 d were fed a barley-based concentrate diet (CON; 8 lambs) or 2 diets in which barley was replaced with 24% (CIT24; 9 lambs) or 35% (CIT35; 9 lambs) dried citrus pulp. An overall improvement of the fatty acid composition of LM from lambs fed citrus pulp-containing diets was found. The PUFA/SFA ratio was lower (P < 0.05) in the LM from lambs in the CON group compared with both the CIT24 and CIT35 groups. The thrombogenic index was lower (P < 0.05) in meat from lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. The CIT35 diet increased the proportion of C20:5 n-3 in the LM (P < 0.05), whereas the CIT24 diet enhanced that of C22:6 -3 (P < 0.05) compared with the CON diet. Some of these results might be explained considering that feeding the CIT24 and CIT35 diets increased the intake of total fatty acids (P < 0.05) and of C18:3 n-3 (P < 0.01) compared with feeding the CON treatment. On the other hand, phenolic compounds present in citrus pulp could have inhibited the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. This is supported by the fact that regardless of the level of inclusion in the diet, citrus pulp increased the proportion of rumenic acid (P < 0.001) in LM compared with the CON diet. The plasma from lambs fed both CIT24 and CIT35 diets had a greater percentage of vaccenic acid (VA; < 0.001) compared with that from lambs fed the CON diet, and the CIT35 diet increased the proportion of rumenic acid in plasma compared with the CON treatment (P < 0.05). In the ruminal fluid, stearic acid (SA) tended to decrease, and the sum of CLA tended to increase

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases brain MAPK signaling, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity and sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of heart failure (HF) rats and is reduced by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The present study further examined the relationship between brain MAPK signaling, ER stress, and sympathetic excitation in HF. Sham-operated (Sham) and HF rats received a 4-wk intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of vehicle (Veh) or the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 10 μg/day). Lower mRNA levels of the ER stress biomarkers GRP78, ATF6, ATF4, and XBP-1s in the SFO and PVN of TUDCA-treated HF rats validated the efficacy of the TUDCA dose. The elevated levels of phosphorylated p44/42 and p38 MAPK in SFO and PVN of Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Sham rats, were significantly reduced in TUDCA-treated HF rats as shown by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Plasma norepinephrine levels were higher in Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Veh-treated Sham rats, and were significantly lower in the TUDCA-treated HF rats. TUDCA-treated HF rats also had lower mRNA levels for angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB p65, and a higher mRNA level of IκB-α, in the SFO and PVN than Veh-treated HF rats. These data suggest that ER stress contributes to the augmented sympathetic activity in HF by inducing MAPK signaling, thereby promoting inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in key cardiovascular regulatory regions of the brain.

  7. CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement ‘peppering’ the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long

  8. CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

    2014-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement 'peppering' the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long

  9. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). Methods hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. Results The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. Conclusions The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin. PMID:24098955

  10. Xylanase and laccase based enzymatic kraft pulp bleaching reduces adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) in bleach effluents: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abha; Thakur, Vasanta Vadde; Shrivastava, Anita; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Mathur, Rajeev Mohan; Gupta, Rishi; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-10-01

    In present study, xylanase and laccase were produced in a cost-effective manner up to 10 kg substrate level and evaluated in elemental chlorine free bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Compared to the pulp pre-bleached with xylanase (15%) or laccase (25%) individually, the ClO2 savings were higher with sequential treatment of xylanase followed by laccase (35%) at laboratory scale. The sequential enzyme treatment when applied at pilot scale (50 kg pulp), resulted in improved pulp properties (50% reduced post color number, 15.71% increased tear index) and reduced AOX levels (34%) in bleach effluents. The decreased AOX level in effluents will help to meet AOX discharge limits, while improved pulp properties will be value addition to the paper.

  11. Biological modification of loblolly pine chips with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora prior to kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, Laura L.

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to selectively degrade lignin in loblolly pine chips and the effect on kraft pulps was investigated. The effect of fungal treatment was assessed by comparing changes in untreated wood chips with chips incubated for two and four weeks. The kraft pulping step included two different cooking times and two levels of chemical dosage as the variables, 16 and 22% for the effective alkali and 60 and 90 min at 170°C. The other cooking variables were kept constant for all the experiments and were: sulfidity, 22%; liquor/wood ratio 4:1; time to Tmax 90 min.; Tmax 170°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the colonization introduced significant chemical and physical changes. Pore size distribution analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in the average pore size as fungal treatment progressed. Significant reduction in the extractives content (23%) was found in the first 2 weeks, after which the reduction leveled off. Lignin losses reached 2% in the first 2 weeks of incubation, followed by an 11% loss after 4 weeks of treatment. Lignin phenolic hydroxyl groups increased 14% after 4 weeks of incubation. Fungal treatment caused 4 and 6% carbohydrate loss in 2 and 4 weeks-treated chips, respectively. The selectivity of the fungal treatment was emphasized in the subsequent kraft pulping. The best response regarding improved delignification was found in kraft pulps processed at the mildest pulping conditions without affecting pulp viscosity. Benefits of fungal treatment regarding freeness of kraft pulps were evidenced after 4 weeks of incubation with a maximum of 35% freeness reduction in kraft pulps refined at 12,000 rev in a PFI mill. Strength properties of kraft pulps of fungal treated chips were superior to those of the control. This method involves chemical and physical modification of wood chips using fungi. The approach improved chip impregnation, which in turn, led to more uniform

  12. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  13. The Microbial Challenge to Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pulp regeneration is considered in cases where the dental pulp has been destroyed because of microbial irritation. Diverse oral and food-borne micro-organisms are able to invade the pulp space, form biofilm on canal walls, and infiltrate dentinal tubules. Prior to pulp regeneration procedures, the pulp space and dentinal walls need to be sufficiently disinfected to allow for and promote regeneration. The necessary level of disinfection is likely higher than that accepted for traditional endodontic therapy, because in traditional techniques the mere lowering of bacterial loads and prevention of bacterial access to periapical tissues is conducive to healing. Moreover, several of the non-specific antimicrobials used in traditional endodontic therapy may cause significant changes in remaining dentin that interfere with its inherent potential to mediate regeneration. Non-specific antimicrobials also suppress all microbial taxa, which may allow residual virulent micro-organisms to preferentially repopulate the pulp space. Therefore, it is important for endodontic pathogens to be studied by molecular methods that allow for a broad depth of coverage. It is then essential to determine the most effective protocols to disinfect the pulp space, with minimal disruption of remaining dentin. These protocols include the topical use of effective antibiotics, including newer agents that have demonstrated efficacy against endodontic pathogens. PMID:21677080

  14. Biomechanical pulping: A mill-scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Scott, G.M.; Swaney, R.E.; Shipley, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, fifty tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for two weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, the authors were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

  15. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 1. Effects on feed intake, chewing behavior, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on intake, milk production, and chewing behavior were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) d in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a dry matter basis. Diet concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0 and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Increasing beet pulp in the diet caused a linear decrease in dry matter intake (DMI). Time spent eating per day and per kilogram of DMI increased, and sorting against NDF tended to increase, with added beet pulp. Substituting beet pulp for corn caused a quadratic response in milk fat yield, with the highest yield for the 6% beet pulp treatment. A tendency was detected for a similar quadratic response in 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield. Lower plasma insulin concentration may have resulted in lower body condition gain for cows fed diets with higher beet pulp concentration. Partial substitution of pelleted beet pulp for high-moisture corn decreased intake but also may have permitted greater fat-corrected milk yield.

  16. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of pulp capping agents with direct contact test method

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Muhammet; Arslan, Ugur; Dundar, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Calcium hydroxide has been used in dentistry as a major capping material having the capacity to introduce the formation of a mineralized dentin bridge, but it has no direct inducing effect to the pulp cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of three different pulp capping agents using a direct contact test (DCT). Materials and Methods: The antibacterial properties of three pulp capping agents were evaluated a DCT. For the DCT, wells (n = 12) of 96-microtiter plates were coated with the tested cements (Dycal, Dentsply, USA; DiaRoot BioAggregate, Diadent, Holland; Calcimol LC, Voco, Germany) and Kalzinol (zinc oxide/eugenol cement, Dentsply, USA) was used as control material. A Lactobacillus casei suspension was placed on the surface of each specimen for 1 h at 37°C. Bacterial growth was monitored for 16 h with a temperature-controlled microplate spectrophotometer. The kinetics of the outgrowth in each well were recorded continuously at 650 nm every 30 min. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and Tamhane's T2 multiple comparison test. The level of significance was determined as P < 0.05. Results: All pulp capping agents showed an increase in the logarithmic growth rate of L. casei when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Therefore, all pulp capping agents did not show antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The tested pulp capping agents haven't got antibacterial properties. Therefore, they should be used carefully when pulp is exposed or only very thin dentin remained over the pulp to avoid bacterial contamination. PMID:24966754

  18. Extraction optimization and nanoencapsulation of jujube pulp and seed for enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2 °C, 38 h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58 °C, 34 h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product.

  19. A moderately thermophilic mixed microbial culture for bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate at high pulp density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage.

  20. Enhancing fermentable sugar yield from cassava pulp for bioethanol production: microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis approach.

    PubMed

    Sudha, A; Sivakumar, V; Sangeetha, V; Devi, K S Priyenka

    2015-08-01

    Cassava pulp, a potential biological feedstock for ethanol production has been subjected to microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. Liquid to solid ratio for the pretreatment of cassava pulp was found to be 20:1. Cassava pulp was pretreated at various NaOH concentration, microwave temperature and gave maximum yield of reducing sugar with 1.5% NaOH at 90 °C in 30 min than conventional alkali pretreatment after enzymatic hydrolysis. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated cassava pulp using α amylase dosage of 400 IU at microwave temperature of 90 °C resulted in highest reducing sugar yield of 723 mg/g pulp. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp by increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis are found to be efficient for improving the yield of reducing sugar.

  1. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  2. A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage. PMID:24242252

  3. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How This Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    McEneny, Jane; Daniels, Jane-Ann; McGowan, Anne; Gunness, Anjuli; Moore, Kevin; Stevenson, Michael; Young, Ian S.; Gibney, James

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL) protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA-) related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P = 0.088), and significantly in HDL2(P = 0.003) and HDL3(P = 0.005). When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%), serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was <8.34% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, regression analysis illustrated, that for every 1%-unit increase in HbA1c, SAA increased by 20% and 23% in HDL2 and HDL3, respectively, independent of BMI. HsCRP did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk. PMID:26557720

  5. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing on active lesion into on arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented.

  6. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing an active lesion into an arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented.

  7. GHGRP Pulp and Paper Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Pulp and Paper industry.

  8. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  9. Increased accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in female GSTA4/PPAR alpha double knockout mice enhance steatosis and inflammation in a model of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatocellular injury resulting from increased lipid peroxidation products and oxidative stress is considered a potential mechanism driving the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitsis (NASH). To test the significance of lipid peroxidation and protein...

  10. Missing Concepts in De Novo Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, G.T.-J.; Garcia-Godoy, F.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in the past decade because it offers an alternative approach in treating endodontically involved teeth. Instead of filling the canal space with artificial materials, it attempts to fill the canal with vital tissues. The objective of regeneration is to regain the tissue and restore its function to the original state. In terms of pulp regeneration, a clinical protocol that intends to reestablish pulp/dentin tissues in the canal space has been developed—termed revitalization or revascularization. Histologic studies from animal and human teeth receiving revitalization have shown that pulp regeneration is difficult to achieve. In tissue engineering, there are 2 approaches to regeneration tissues: cell based and cell free. The former involves transplanting exogenous cells into the host, and the latter does not. Revitalization belongs to the latter approach. A number of crucial concepts have not been well discussed, noted, or understood in the field of regenerative endodontics in terms of pulp/dentin regeneration: (1) critical size defect of dentin and pulp, (2) cell lineage commitment to odontoblasts, (3) regeneration vs. repair, and (4) hurdles of cell-based pulp regeneration for clinical applications. This review article elaborates on these missing concepts and analyzes them at their cellular and molecular levels, which will in part explain why the non-cell-based revitalization procedure is difficult to establish pulp/dentin regeneration. Although the cell-based approach has been proven to regenerate pulp/dentin, such an approach will face barriers—with the key hurdle being the shortage of the current good manufacturing practice facilities, discussed herein. PMID:24879576

  11. The Calcium Binding Protein, S100B, is Increased in the Amniotic Fluid of Women with Intra-Amniotic Infection/Inflammation Following Preterm Labor with Intact or Ruptured Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Lara A.; Romero, Roberto; Edwin, Sam; Nien, Jyh Kae; Gomez, Ricardo; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Hassan, Sonia S.; Espinoza, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective S100B is produced by glia of the central and peripheral nervous systems and is considered a marker of neurologic injury in the perinatal period. Indeed, increased neonatal urine S100B concentration is associated with adverse neurological outcomes including intraventricular hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, while elevated adult serum concentrations are associated with infectious diseases/sepsis. The objective of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid (AF) S100B concentrations change with advancing gestational age and intra-amniotic infection (IAI). Study Design S100B concentration was measured in the AF of women in midtrimester, at term, and in pregnancies with preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), with and without IAI. Placental pathology was performed and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. Results (1) AF S100B concentration did not change during gestation; (2) patients with IAI had significantly higher AF S100B concentration than those without IAI following an episode of PTL or PPROM and; (3) neonates who had morbidity/mortality had had an elevated AF S100B concentration; however, this could be explained by the association with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation. Thus, AF S100B concentration was not an independent predictor of neonatal morbidity or fetal/neonatal death. Conclusions An elevated concentration of AF S100B may reflect intra-amniotic infection/inflammation and not necessarily fetal neurologic damage. PMID:17624933

  12. Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung and liver tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Attas, Omar S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Mohammed, Arif A; De Rosas, Edgard; Ibrahim, Shebl; Vinodson, Benjamin; Ansari, Mohammed G; El-Din, Khaled I Alam

    2014-06-01

    Incense smoke is increasingly being recognized as a potential environmental contaminant and is linked to malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. The detoxification of environmental contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) involves the induction of cytochrome P-450 family enzymes (CYPs) by PAHs. However, the detoxification of PAHs also results in the generation of reactive and unstable intermediary metabolites which are implicated in the oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation. It is unclear whether CYPs are similarly induced by incense smoke, which incidentally contains substantial amounts of PAHs. Here, we examined the impact of long-term incense smoke exposure on the induction of CYPs in male Wister Albino rats. Incense smoke exposure significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs in both lung and liver tissues. The extent of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction was significantly higher in the liver compared to that in the lung, while that of CYP1A2 was greater in the lung than in liver. Incense smoke exposure also increased malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels in lung and liver tissues, and the catalase activity in the liver tissues to significant levels. Furthermore incense smoke exposure led to a marked increase in TNF-α and IL-4 levels. The data demonstrate for the first time the capacity of incense smoke to induce CYP1 family enzymes in the target and non-target tissues. Induction of CYPs increased oxidative stress and inflammation appear to be intimately linked to promote the carcinogenesis and health complications in people chronically exposed to incense smoke.

  13. Exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes results in aggravation of airway inflammation and remodeling and in increased production of epithelium-derived innate cytokines in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Ronzani, Carole; Casset, Anne; Pons, Françoise

    2014-02-01

    With the development of nanotechnologies, the potential adverse effects of nanomaterials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the respiratory tract of asthmatics are questioned. Furthermore, investigations are necessary to understand how these effects might arise. In the present study, we hypothesized that epithelium-derived innate cytokines that are considered as important promoting factors in allergy may contribute to an aggravating effect of MWCNT on asthma. We investigated in the mouse the effect of MWCNT on systemic immune response and airway inflammation and remodeling induced by the most frequent allergen so far associated with asthma, house dust mite (HDM), and we examined the production of the innate cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF. Mice exposed to HDM exhibited specific IgG1 in serum and inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased Th2 cytokine production, mucus hyperproduction, and collagen deposition in the airways when compared to naïve animals. Levels of total IgG1 and HDM-specific IgG1, influx of macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils, production of collagen, TGF-β1, and mucus, as well as levels of IL-13, eotaxin, and TARC, were dose-dependently increased in mice exposed to HDM and MWCNT compared to HDM alone. These effects were associated with an increased production of TSLP, IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF in the airways. Our data demonstrate that MWCNT increase in a dose-dependent manner systemic immune response, as well as airway allergic inflammation and remodeling induced by HDM in the mouse. Our data suggest also a role for airway epithelium and innate cytokines in these effects.

  14. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  15. Lignin from rice straw Kraft pulping: effects on soil aggregation and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Bolton, R; Pan, W L

    2007-05-01

    Lignin contained in pulping liquor that is generated during the pulping process for papermaking is a disposal problem for the pulp and paper industry. Separating lignin and other organic components from pulping liquor with inorganic acids may improve its applicability to fields as a beneficial soil amendment while offering a potential disposal alternative. Sulfuric acid-precipitated lignin from rice straw pulping liquor applied at rates of 1.67 and 3.34 g C kg(-1) soil was incubated to evaluate its effects on soil properties over 8 weeks of incubation. Addition of this acid-precipitated lignin at these rates decreased soil pH by 0.24-0.53 units over 8 weeks of incubation, suggesting that this sulfuric acid-precipitated lignin from pulping liquor may have potential as a soil acidifying agent. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) only increased by up to 0.36 d Sm(-1), but highest EC levels were less than 4 d Sm(-1), indicating that lignin applied at both rates would not cause salinity problems. Application of this lignin increased soil organic C by 1.46 and 3.13 g C kg(-1), and total soil N by 0.07 and 0.17 g N kg(-1) over the incubation period. Lignin improved the macroaggregation of >2mm size fraction, and increased wet microaggregate stability of >2mm and 0.5-0.25 mm aggregates compared to a nonamended control. The results of this study suggest that this acid-precipitated lignin from pulping liquor may have potential as a beneficial soil amendment.

  16. Bioceramic/poly (glycolic)-poly (lactic acid) composite induces mineralized barrier after direct capping of rat tooth pulp tissue.

    PubMed

    Gala-Garcia, Alfonso; Teixeira, Karina Imaculada Rosa; Wykrota, Francisco Henrique Lana; Sinisterra, Rubén Dario; Cortés, Maria Esperanza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the histopathological pulp response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth in rats with a composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic (BC) and poly (glycolic)-poly (lactic acid) (PLGA) material or a calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] material, compared to BC alone and a negative control of water. Pulp of the maxillary molars was exposed, followed by capping with the experimental material. The pulpal tissue response was assessed post-operatively at 1, 7, 14 and 30 d, followed by histological analysis. The Ca(OH)2 group exhibited severe acute inflammatory cell infiltration at day 14. However after 30 d, a new hard tissue with macro porous obliteration of the pulp chamber and a characteristic necrotic area had appeared. BC and Ca(OH)2 capping were associated with moderate inflammation and dentinal bridge similar. Meanwhile, in the BC/PLGA composite group, there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate and formation of a dense and complete dentinal bridge. In conclusion, the BC/PLGA composite material showed a large zone of tertiary dentin, and effectively reorganized the dentin-pulp complex.

  17. Protective Effects of Guava Pulp on Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jian; Yue, Chunyan; Qiu, Kai; Chen, Jie; Aller, Maria-Angeles; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cholestatic liver injury is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases involved with oxidative stress changes and inflammation; thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammation compound-rich guava may play a pivotal role in protecting against the cholestatic liver damages. Our aims for this study are to determine whether guava pulp (GP) has protective effects on cholestatic liver injury-induced mouse model and on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated proliferation of QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Methods. Mice were induced to cholestatic liver damage by left and median bile duct ligation (LMBDL) surgery and then treated with GP. Plasma and liver samples were collected for biochemical and pathological assays. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and Western blots were used to detect proliferation and gene expression in QBC939 cells, respectively. Results. Compared with LMBDL only group, in GP-treated mice, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin decreased, biliary epithelial cell proliferation and liver fibrogenesis were suppressed, Src/MEK/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway and expressions of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases TIMP), and procollagen 1α1(COL1α1) were downregulated significantly. Moreover, the GP extract reduced IL-6-enhanced QBC939 cell proliferation, p-ERK, and c-Myc expression as well. Conclusions. GP may provide a new perspective for the treatment of cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27335829

  18. SEM evaluation of pulp reaction to different pulp capping materials in dog’s teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Parirokh, Masoud; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This investigation evaluates the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) as pulp capping materials on dental pulp tissues. Materials and Methods: The experimental procedures were performed on eighteen intact dog canine teeth. The pulps were exposed. Cavities were randomly filled with CEM, MTA, or CH followed by glass ionomer filling. After 2 months, animals were sacrificed, each tooth was sectioned into halves, and the interface between each capping material and pulp tissue was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) in profile view of the specimens. Results: Dentinal bridge formation as the most characteristic reaction was resulted from SEM observation in all examined groups. Odontoblast-like cells were formed and create dens collagen network, which was calcified gradually by deposition of calcosphirit structures to form newly dentinal bridge. Conclusion: Based on the results of this in vivo study, it was concluded that these test materials are able to produce calcified tissue in underlying pulp in the case of being used as a pulp capping agent. Additionally, it appears that CEM has the potential to be used as a direct pulp capping material during vital pulp therapy. PMID:24379876

  19. MMP-8 Deficiency Increases TLR/RAGE Ligands S100A8 and S100A9 and Exacerbates Lung Inflammation during Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    González-López, Adrián; Aguirre, Alina; López-Alonso, Inés; Amado, Laura; Astudillo, Aurora; Fernández-García, María Soledad; Suárez, María F.; Batalla-Solís, Estefanía; Colado, Enrique; Albaiceta, Guillermo M.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-8, released mainly from neutrophils, is a critical regulator of the inflammatory response by its ability to cleave multiple mediators. Herein, we report the results of a model of endotoxemia after intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice lacking MMP-8 and their wildtype counterparts. Control, saline-treated animals showed no differences between genotypes. However, there was an increased lung inflammatory response, with a prominent neutrophilic infiltration in mutant animals after LPS treatment. Using a proteomic approach, we identify alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 as two of the main differences between genotypes. Mice lacking MMP-8 showed a significant increase in these two molecules in lung homogenates, but not in spleen and serum. Mice lacking MMP-8 also showed an increase in MIP-1α levels and a marked activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, with no differences in CXC-chemokines such as MIP-2 or LIX. These results show that MMP-8 can modulate the levels of S100A8 and S100A9 and its absence promotes the lung inflammatory response during endotoxemia. PMID:22768176

  20. Biomechanical and biochemical pulping of sugarcane bagasse with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora fungal and xylanase pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J; González, M; Ramírez, F; Young, R; Zúñiga, V

    2001-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with both the white-rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, and xylanase enzyme for 2 weeks before soda chemithermomechanical (CTMP) and soda chemical (CP) cooking. For fungi-CTMP (BCTMP) and enzyme-fungi-CTMP (EBCTMP), the bagasse, after bio-pretreatment, was cooked with 5% sodium hydroxide, at 130 degrees C for 20 min. For the chemical pulping (CP), after fungi pretreatment (BCP) or after xylanase and fungal pretreatment (EBCP), the bagasse was cooked with 14.5% sodium hydroxide. With the BCTMP, the Klason lignin was reduced, all of the pulp strength properties were increased, and a 28% savings in refining energy consumption was obtained, but the brightness was reduced 5 points compared to the control. With the EBCTMP, the brightness losses were overcome but with a mild reduction in the pulp strength properties compared to the BCTMP. The energy savings were 5% greater than from BCTMP and 33% over the control. The BCP treatment increases somewhat the pulp strength properties, reduces the energy consumption 23%, and reduces the brightness by 9 points compared to the control; however, the kappa no. was 5.5 points higher than the control. EBCP treatment reduces brightness losses and increases the pulp yield 2% compared to the control, but with some reduction in the strength properties compared to BCP.

  1. The Four-Herb Chinese Medicine Formula Tuo-Li-Xiao-Du-San Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats through Reducing Inflammation and Increasing Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Na; Ma, Ze-Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Yu-Zhu; Sun, Bei; Guo, Xin; Pan, Cong-Qing; Chen, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is a serious complication that often leads to amputation or even death with limited effective treatments. Tuo-Li-Xiao-Du-San (TLXDS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula for refractory wounds, has been prescribed for nearly 400 years in China and shows good efficacy in promoting healing. In this study, we explored the effect of TLXDS on healing of diabetic wounds and investigated underlying mechanisms. Four weeks after intravenous injection of streptozotocin, two full-thickness excisional wounds were created with a 10 mm diameter sterile biopsy punch on the back of rats. The ethanol extract of TLXDS was given once daily by oral gavage. Wound area, histological change, inflammation, angiogenesis, and collagen synthesis were evaluated. TLXDS treatment significantly accelerated healing of diabetic rats and improved the healing quality. These effects were associated with reduced neutrophil infiltration and macrophage accumulation, enhanced angiogenesis, and increased collagen deposition. This study shows that TLXDS improves diabetes-impaired wound healing.

  2. An improved murine model of asthma: selective airway inflammation, epithelial lesions and increased methacholine responsiveness following chronic exposure to aerosolised allergen

    PubMed Central

    Temelkovski, J.; Hogan, S.; Shepherd, D.; Foster, P.; Kumar, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Existing murine models of asthma lack many of the inflammatory and epithelial changes that are typical of the human disease. Moreover, these models are frequently complicated by allergic alveolitis.
METHODS—High IgE responder BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised to ovalbumin and chronically challenged with low particle mass concentrations of aerosolised ovalbumin. Titres of anti-ovalbumin IgE in serum were measured at two weekly intervals by enzyme immunoassay, accumulation of inflammatory cells and histopathological abnormalities of the epithelium were quantified morphometrically in the trachea and the lungs, and airway reactivity was assessed by measuring bronchoconstriction following intravenous administration of methacholine.
RESULTS—Mice sensitised by two intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin developed high titres of IgE antibodies to ovalbumin. Following exposure to low concentrations of aerosolised antigen for up to eight weeks these animals developed a progressive inflammatory response in the airways, characterised by the presence of intraepithelial eosinophils and by infiltration of the lamina propria with lymphoid/mononuclear cells, without associated alveolitis. Goblet cell hyperplasia/metaplasia was induced in the intrapulmonary airways, while epithelial thickening and subepithelial fibrosis were evident following chronic exposure. In parallel, the mice developed increased sensitivity to induction of bronchospasm, as well as increased maximal reactivity. Non-immunised mice exposed to aerosolised ovalbumin had low or absent anti-ovalbumin IgE and did not exhibit inflammatory or epithelial changes, but developed airway hyperreactivity.
CONCLUSIONS—This experimental model replicates many of the features of human asthma and should facilitate studies of pathogenetic mechanisms and of potential therapeutic agents. 

 PMID:10193371

  3. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup

    PubMed Central

    Nullens, Sara; Staessens, Michael; Peleman, Cédric; Plaeke, Philip; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Francque, Sven; De Man, Joris G.; De Winter, Benedicte Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model. Methods OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed. Results Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant. Conclusions Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro

  4. Increased expression of HCN2 channel protein in L4 dorsal root ganglion neurons following axotomy of L5- and inflammation of L4-spinal nerves in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Al Otaibi, M; Sathish, J; Djouhri, L

    2015-06-04

    A hallmark of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) is chronic spontaneous pain and/or hypersensitivity to normally painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) or normally nonpainful stimuli (allodynia).This pain results partly from abnormal hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We have previously shown, using a modified version of the lumbar 5 (L5)-spinal nerve ligation model of PNP (mSNA model involving L5-spinal nerve axotomy plus loose ligation of the lumbar 4 (L4)-spinal nerve with neuroinflammation-inducing chromic-gut), that L4 DRG neurons exhibit increased spontaneous activity, the key characteristic of neuronal hyperexcitability. The underlying ionic and molecular mechanisms of the hyperexcitability of L4 DRG neurons are incompletely understood, but could result from changes in expression and/or function of ion channels including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which are active near the neuron's resting membrane potential, and which produce an excitatory inward current that depolarizes the membrane potential toward the threshold of action potential generation. Therefore, in the present study we used the mSNA model to investigate whether: (a) expression of HCN1-HCN3 channels is altered in L4 DRG neurons which, in the mSNA model, are essential for transmission of the evoked pain, and which contribute to chronic spontaneous pain, and (b) local (intraplantar) blockade of these HCN channels, with a specific blocker, ZD7288, attenuates chronic spontaneous pain and/or evoked pain in mSNA rats. We found 7days after mSNA: (1) a significant increase in HCN2-immunoreactivity in small (<30μm) DRG neurons (predominantly IB4-negative neurons), and in the proportion of small neurons expressing HCN2 (putative nociceptors); (2) no significant change in HCN1- or HCN3-immunoreactivity in all cell types; and (3) attenuation, with ZD7288 (100μM intraplantar), of chronic spontaneous pain behavior (spontaneous foot lifting) and mechanical

  5. Vaccenic acid suppresses intestinal inflammation by increasing anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines in the JCR:LA-cp rat[S

    PubMed Central

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Vacca, Claudia; Mangat, Rabban; Diane, Abdoulaye; Nelson, Randy C.; Reaney, Martin J.; Shen, Jianheng; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Vine, Donna F.; Field, Catherine J.; Igarashi, Miki; Piomelli, Daniele; Banni, Sebastiano; Proctor, Spencer D.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA), the predominant ruminant-derived trans fat in the food chain, ameliorates hyperlipidemia, yet mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether VA could influence tissue endocannabinoids (ECs) by altering the availability of their biosynthetic precursor, arachidonic acid (AA), in membrane phospholipids (PLs). JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet with or without VA (1% w/w), cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (1% w/w) or VA+CLA (1% + 0.5% w/w) for 8 weeks. VA reduced the EC, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) relative to control diet (P < 0.001), but did not change AA in tissue PLs. There was no additive effect of combining VA+CLA on 2-AG relative to VA alone (P > 0.05). Interestingly, VA increased jejunal concentrations of anandamide and those of the noncannabinoid signaling molecules, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, relative to control diet (P < 0.05). This was consistent with a lower jejunal protein abundance (but not activity) of their degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, as well as the mRNA expression of TNFα and interleukin 1β (P < 0.05). The ability of VA to reduce 2-AG in the liver and VAT provides a potential mechanistic explanation to alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation. The opposing regulation of ECs and other noncannabinoid lipid signaling molecules by VA suggests an activation of benefit via the EC system in the intestine. PMID:26891736

  6. Depression, anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of social stress.

    PubMed

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Allam, Farida; Salim, Samina

    2013-11-20

    In the present study, we have examined the behavioral and biochemical effect of induction of psychological stress using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (social defeat). At the end of the social defeat protocol, body weights, food and water intake were recorded, depression and anxiety-like behaviors as well as memory function was examined. Biochemical analysis including oxidative stress measurement, inflammatory markers and other molecular parameters, critical to behavioral effects were examined. We observed a significant decrease in the body weight in the socially defeated rats as compared to the controls. Furthermore, social defeat increased anxiety-like behavior and caused memory impairment in rats (P<0.05). Socially defeated rats made significantly more errors in long term memory tests (P<0.05) as compared to control rats. Furthermore, brain extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), and an inflammatory marker, interleukin (IL)-6 were activated (P<0.05), while the protein levels of glyoxalase (GLO)-1, glutathione reductase (GSR)-1, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type (CAMK)-IV, cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly less (P<0.05) in the hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of socially defeated rats, when compared to control rats. We suggest that social defeat stress alters ERK1/2, IL-6, GLO1, GSR1, CAMKIV, CREB, and BDNF levels in specific brain areas, leading to oxidative stress-induced anxiety-depression-like behaviors and as well as memory impairment in rats.

  7. [Study on dioxin emission for typical non-wood pulp making in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Fang; Ding, Qiong; Wang, Kai-Xiang; Wu, Chang-Min; Qu, Yun-Huan; Zhao, Xiao-Dong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the requirement of National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (NIP), six industries including pulp and paper industry have been set as the priority key sectors to implement the best available technology and best environmental practice (BAT/BEP) within a specific time for UPOPs reduction. Non-wood pulping has always played important role in virgin pulp production in China, its elemental chlorinated bleaching process has been confirmed as main source of Dioxin emission for the sector. As the signature party of Stockholm Convention and long time existing country of non-wood pulping, identification of Dioxin emission situation is significant importance to China to committee the obligation of Stockholm Convention. The Dioxin concentrations in outflow water of bamboo, straw, reed, and bagasse pulping processes (chlorination alkaline extraction hypochlorite, CEH) are 41.8 pg x L(-1), 72.7 pg x L(-1), 7.46 pg x L(-1), and 19.7 pg x L(-1) respectively, which are all around the national waste water discharge standard (30 pg x L(-1)). But relevant data will easily exceed national standard while the limitation of unit water consumption for pulp making is decreased. So the application of best available techniques/best environmental practices (BAT/BEP) is very necessary to improve relevant mills up to the above standard, and proceed the sector meeting the national and international requirements for Dioxin emission. At the same time, the text calculates emission factors on bamboo, straw, reed and bagasse pulp making process through whole process monitoring, which will provide meaningful reference for increasing relevant factors in UNEP Toolkit.

  8. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  9. Rubber and pulp plantations represent a double threat to Hainan's natural tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Slik, J W Ferry; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Dai, Zhi-Cong

    2012-04-15

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and harbors large areas of tropical forests, particularly in the uplands. The Changhua watershed is the cradle of Hainan's main river and a center of endemism for plants and birds. The watershed contains great habitat diversity and is an important conservation area. We analyzed the impact of rubber and pulp plantations on the distribution and area of tropical forest in the watershed, using remote sensing analysis of Landsat images from 1988, 1995 and 2005. From 1988 to 1995, natural forest increased in area (979-1040 sq km) but decreased rapidly (763 sq km) over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily through the study period while pulp plantations appeared after 1995 but occupied 152 sq km by 2005. Rubber and pulp plantations displace different types of natural forest and do not replace one another. Because pulp is not as profitable as rubber and existing pulp processing capacity greatly exceeds local supply, considerable pressure exists on remaining upland forests. We recommend for future management that these plantation forests be reclassified as 'industrial', making a clear policy distinction between natural and industrial forestry. Additionally, the local government should work to enforce existing laws preventing forest conversion on marginal and protected areas.

  10. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  11. Potential dental pulp revascularization and odonto-/osteogenic capacity of a novel transplant combined with dental pulp stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jin; Zhao, Yin-Hua; Zhao, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nan-Xia; Lv, Xin; Li, Qiang; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Min

    2015-08-01

    Our aim is to investigate the cytobiological effects of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and to explore the ectopic and orthotopic possibilities of dental pulp revascularization and pulp-dentin complex regeneration along the root canal cavities of the tooth by using a novel tissue-engineered transplant composed of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules. Canine DPSCs were isolated and characterized by assaying their colony-forming ability and by determining their cell surface markers and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential. The biological effects of autologous PRF on DPSCs, including cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and odonto-/osteogenic gene expression, were then investigated and quantified. A novel transplant consisting of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules was adopted to regenerate pulp-dentin-like tissues in the root canal, both subcutaneously in nude mice and in the roots of canines. PRF promoted the proliferation of DPSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced the differentiation of DPSCs to odonto-/osteoblastic fates by increasing the expression of the Alp, Dspp, Dmp1 and Bsp genes. Transplantation of the DPSC/PRF construct led both to a favorable regeneration of homogeneous and compact pulp-like tissues with abundantly distributed blood capillaries and to the deposition of regenerated dentin along the intracanal walls at 8 weeks post-operation. Thus, the application of DPSC/PRF tissue constructs might serve as a potential therapy in regenerative endodontics for pulp revitalization or revascularization.

  12. Effect of microwave power on kinetics and characteristics of microwave vacuum-dried longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yuanyuan

    2015-03-01

    The drying kinetics of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp processed by microwave vacuum under different microwave levels (2.67, 5.33, 8.00, and 10.67 W/g) was investigated (pressure controlled at -85 ± 2 kPa) in the present study. It was found that the drying rate of longan pulp was dependent on the microwave power, and the rehydration rate increased from 1.96 to 2.17 with the increase of microwave power from 2.67 to 10.67 W/g. Among nine selected thin layer models, the microwave vacuum drying of longan pulp was well represented by five models, which were Page, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Wang and Singh, Logarithmic, and Midilli models. Furthermore, the results of statistical analysis indicated that the Midilli model could describe the best experimental data. In addition, scanning electron microscope observation showed that the microwave vacuum-dried longan pulp had a porous structure.

  13. Cellulose micro/nanofibres from Eucalyptus kraft pulp: preparation and properties.

    PubMed

    Tonoli, G H D; Teixeira, E M; Corrêa, A C; Marconcini, J M; Caixeta, L A; Pereira-da-Silva, M A; Mattoso, L H C

    2012-06-05

    There is growing interest in cellulose nanofibres from renewable sources for several industrial applications. However, there is a lack of information about one of the most abundant cellulose pulps: bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp. The objective of the present work was to obtain Eucalyptus cellulose micro/nanofibres by three different processes, namely: refining, sonication and acid hydrolysis of the cellulose pulp. The refining was limited by the low efficiency of isolated nanofibrils, while sonication was more effective for this purpose. However, the latter process occurred at the expense of considerable damage to the cellulose structure. The whiskers obtained by acid hydrolysis resulted in nanostructures with lower diameter and length, and high crystallinity. Increasing hydrolysis reaction time led to narrower and shorter whiskers, but increased the crystallinity index. The present work contributes to the different widespread methods used for the production of micro/nanofibres for different applications.

  14. Treatment of crown fractures with pulp exposure.

    PubMed

    de Blanco, L P

    1996-11-01

    Thirty permanent incisors with vital pulps and complicated crown fractures were treated by a partial pulpotomy (Cvek technique). This consisted of amputation of 1 to 2 mm of the exposed pulp, placement of calcium hydroxide powder, and a temporary restoration. Clinical and radiographic assessment of the hard tissue barrier was done after 3 months and again after 1 to 8 years. The treatment was successful in all incisors. No differences were found in stage of root development, size of exposure, and length of time exposed. In conclusion, the partial pulpotomy technique is a successful and permanent treatment for crown fractures with pulp exposure regardless of the size of exposure, the maturity of the root, or the interval between accident and dental treatment.

  15. Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests. Methods The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay. Results The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition. Conclusions Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity. PMID:25002921

  16. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  17. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  18. Inhibiting macrophage proliferation suppresses atherosclerotic plaque inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E; Hassing, Laurien; van der Staay, Susanne; van Rijs, Sarian M; Calcagno, Claudia; Braza, Mounia S; Baxter, Samantha; Fay, Francois; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Sager, Hendrik; Astudillo, Yaritzy M; Leong, Wei; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Storm, Gert; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Cormode, David P; Strijkers, Gustav J; Stroes, Erik S G; Swirski, Filip K; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fisher, Edward A; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture, and is a compelling therapeutic target. Consequently, attenuating inflammation by reducing local macrophage accumulation is an appealing approach. This can potentially be accomplished by either blocking blood monocyte recruitment to the plaque or increasing macrophage apoptosis and emigration. Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, we used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E deficient mice (Apoe(-/-) ) with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This resulted in rapid reduction of plaque inflammation and favorable phenotype remodeling. We then combined this short-term nanoparticle intervention with an eight-week oral statin treatment, and this regimen rapidly reduced and continuously suppressed plaque inflammation. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation can effectively treat inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  19. Inhibiting macrophage proliferation suppresses atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E.; Hassing, Laurien; van der Staay, Susanne; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Calcagno, Claudia; Braza, Mounia S.; Baxter, Samantha; Fay, Francois; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Sager, Hendrik B.; Astudillo, Yaritzy M.; Leong, Wei; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Storm, Gert; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Cormode, David P.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture, and is a compelling therapeutic target. Consequently, attenuating inflammation by reducing local macrophage accumulation is an appealing approach. This can potentially be accomplished by either blocking blood monocyte recruitment to the plaque or increasing macrophage apoptosis and emigration. Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, we used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice (Apoe−/−) with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This resulted in the rapid reduction of plaque inflammation and favorable phenotype remodeling. We then combined this short-term nanoparticle intervention with an 8-week oral statin treatment, and this regimen rapidly reduced and continuously suppressed plaque inflammation. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation can effectively treat inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:26295063

  20. Pulp Revascularization- It’s your Future Whether you Know it or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Grover, Shibani; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pulpal regeneration after tooth injury is not easy to accomplish. In teeth with immature apices and exposed vital pulp tissue, partial or complete pulpotomy is indicated to preserve pulpal function and allow continued root development. In many cases, injury causes loss of pulp vitality and arrested root development leading to a tooth with poor crown root ratio, a root with very thin walls, an open blunderbuss apex and development of apical pathosis. The ideal treatment in such cases would be to obtain further root development and thickening of dentinal walls by stimulating the regeneration of a functional pulp dentin complex. This outcome has been observed after reimplantation in avulsed immature permanent teeth but has been thought impossible in a necrotic infected tooth. This case series evaluates the efficacy of revascularization procedure in immature, non vital permanent teeth. Pulp regeneration was attempted in four patients at Department of Conservative Dentistry, ESIC Dental College, New Delhi using blood clotting approach. The cases were treated and followed up regularly at regular intervals ranging from 6 months to 3 years to assess the treatment response clinically and radiographically. The patients remained clinically asymptomatic with three out of four patients even responding positively to pulp responsiveness tests. Radiographic examination also revealed increased root formation and thickening of dentinal walls. It was concluded that the triad of a disinfected canal, a matrix (blood clot) in to which new tissue could grow and an effective coronal seal produced the desirable environment for successful revascularization. PMID:26023665

  1. Effects of VEGF and FGF2 on the revascularization of severed human dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Mullane, E M; Dong, Z; Sedgley, C M; Hu, J C-C; Botero, T M; Holland, G R; Nör, J E

    2008-12-01

    The long-term outcome of replanted avulsed permanent teeth is frequently compromised by lack of revascularization, resulting in pulp necrosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on the revascularization of severed human dental pulps. Tooth slices were prepared from non-carious human molars and treated with 0-50 ng/mL rhVEGF(165) or rhFGF-2 for 7 days in vitro. Both angiogenic factors enhanced pulp microvessel density compared with untreated controls (p < 0.05). Tooth slices were also treated with 0 or 50 ng/mL rhVEGF(165) for one hour prior to implantation into the subcutaneous space of immunodeficient mice. Treatment with rhVEGF(165) increased pulp microvessel density in vivo (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that rhVEGF(165) enhanced neovascularization of severed human dental pulps and suggest that topical application of an angiogenic factor prior to replantation might be beneficial for the treatment of avulsed teeth.

  2. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P < 0.05) during storage. The surface redness (a* value) increased (P < 0.05) with the incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp. Furthermore, metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation were lower (P < 0.05) in tomato- and guava-treated emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  3. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  4. Pulp Revascularization- It's your Future Whether you Know it or Not?

    PubMed

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Grover, Shibani; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-04-01

    Pulpal regeneration after tooth injury is not easy to accomplish. In teeth with immature apices and exposed vital pulp tissue, partial or complete pulpotomy is indicated to preserve pulpal function and allow continued root development. In many cases, injury causes loss of pulp vitality and arrested root development leading to a tooth with poor crown root ratio, a root with very thin walls, an open blunderbuss apex and development of apical pathosis. The ideal treatment in such cases would be to obtain further root development and thickening of dentinal walls by stimulating the regeneration of a functional pulp dentin complex. This outcome has been observed after reimplantation in avulsed immature permanent teeth but has been thought impossible in a necrotic infected tooth. This case series evaluates the efficacy of revascularization procedure in immature, non vital permanent teeth. Pulp regeneration was attempted in four patients at Department of Conservative Dentistry, ESIC Dental College, New Delhi using blood clotting approach. The cases were treated and followed up regularly at regular intervals ranging from 6 months to 3 years to assess the treatment response clinically and radiographically. The patients remained clinically asymptomatic with three out of four patients even responding positively to pulp responsiveness tests. Radiographic examination also revealed increased root formation and thickening of dentinal walls. It was concluded that the triad of a disinfected canal, a matrix (blood clot) in to which new tissue could grow and an effective coronal seal produced the desirable environment for successful revascularization.

  5. Differentiation of dental pulp stem cells into neuron-like cells in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Kermani, Shabnam; Zainol Abidin, Intan Zarina; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya; Yamamoto, Zulham; Senafi, Sahidan; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Abdul Razak, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue contains dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Dental pulp cells (also known as dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are capable of differentiating into multilineage cells including neuron-like cells. The aim of this study was to examine the capability of DPSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells without using any reagents or growth factors. DPSCs were isolated from teeth extracted from 6- to 8-week-old mice and maintained in complete medium. The cells from the fourth passage were induced to differentiate by culturing in medium without serum or growth factors. RT-PCR molecular analysis showed characteristics of Cd146(+) , Cd166(+) , and Cd31(-) in DPSCs, indicating that these cells are mesenchymal stem cells rather than hematopoietic stem cells. After 5 days of neuronal differentiation, the cells showed neuron-like morphological changes and expressed MAP2 protein. The activation of Nestin was observed at low level prior to differentiation and increased after 5 days of culture in differentiation medium, whereas Tub3 was activated only after 5 days of neuronal differentiation. The proliferation of the differentiated cells decreased in comparison to that of the control cells. Dental pulp stem cells are induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when cultured in serum- and growth factor-free medium.

  6. Molecular analysis of the biological bleaching of kraft pulps by Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Dumonceaux, T.J.; Archibald, F.S.

    1996-10-01

    Biological bleaching of kraft pulps by the fungus Trametes versicolor, based on the biodegradation of the recalcitrant polymer, lignin, could replace chlorine-based bleaching in Canadian pulp and paper mills. Enzymes that may be involved in lignin degradation include manganese peroxidase (MnP), laccase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase (CBQase). All three of these enzymatic activities are thought to interact extensively in cyclic oxidation/reduction reactions which ultimately bring about the degradation of lignin. We have constructed a cDNA library from T versicolor with the aim of isolating clones encoding factors that are relevant to biobleaching. We first determined the optimum growth conditions for expression of bleaching-related mRNA. A clear induction of bleaching ability was observed when the fungus was preincubated with 0.25% acid-washed pulp; the augmentation of bleaching was not explained by differences in MnP or laccase levels, suggesting that the expression of either CBQase or unidentified biobleaching factors was responsible for the increased pulp brightness. mRNA isolated from induced cultures was used to construct a cDNA library in a XZAP vector. This library has been probed with a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based upon a peptide sequence derived from purified CBQase, resulting in the identification of several hybridizing cDNA molecules. The CBQase clone will be used to examine in further detail the potential role of this enzyme in pulp biobleaching and lignin degradation.

  7. Biological Markers for Pulpal Inflammation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Galicia, Johnah C.; Peters, Ove A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the presence of biomarkers in pulpitis. Methods The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and other sources were searched for English and non-English articles published through February 2015. Two independent reviewers extracted information regarding study design, tissue or analyte used, outcome measures, results and conclusions for each article. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale. Results and Conclusions From the initial 847 publications evaluated, a total of 57 articles were included in this review. In general, irreversible pulpitis was associated with different expression of various biomarkers compared to normal controls. These biomarkers were significantly expressed not only in pulp tissue, but also in gingival crevicular fluid that can be collected non-invasively, and in dentin fluid that can be analyzed without extirpating the entire pulpal tissue. Such data may then be used to accurately differentiate diseased from healthy pulp tissue. The interplay of pulpal biomarkers and their potential use for a more accurate and biologically based diagnostic tool in endodontics is envisaged. PMID:27898727

  8. A combination of vermiculite and paper pulp supporting material for the photoautotrophic micropropagation of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Afreen-Zobayed; Zobayed; Kubota; Kozai; Hasegawa

    2000-08-22

    A mixture of vermiculite (hydrous silicates) and paper pulp (waste product of paper industry) was used as a supporting material for the in vitro photoautotrophic micropropagation of plantlets. Sweet potato was used as a model plant to find out the appropriate proportion of vermiculite and paper pulp for the optimum growth of the plantlets. The plantlets grown in the conventional supporting material, agar, were used as the control. The study revealed that in all aspects, the plantlets grown in vermiculite mixed with 30% (w/w) paper pulp exhibited the highest growth performance. The shoot and root fresh mass were x2.7 greater than those in agar (control); the leaf, stem and root dry mass were also greater and at least two fold in this treatment compared with those in the control. The net photosynthetic rate per plantlet was highest in this treatment, and on day 20 it was 15.3 µmol CO(2) h(-1) as compared with 9.8 µmol CO(2) h(-1) in the control. The growth of both shoots and roots decreased gradually with the increase or decrease of percentage of paper pulp in the supporting material. In general, the growth was significantly poorer in the plantlets grown in 100% vermiculite than that in vermiculite mixed with 30% paper pulp but still greater than in the control. The porosity of the supporting materials increased with the increase in the percentage of paper pulp in the supporting material. After transplanting to the ex vitro condition the survival percentage did not vary significantly (90-100%) among the treatments, except in control where it was only 73%. The number of unfolded leaves and the stem height were similar among the treatments except those in the control.

  9. Surgical inflammation: a pathophysiological rainbow

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jose-Ignacio; Aller, María-Angeles; Arias, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Tetrapyrrole molecules are distributed in virtually all living organisms on Earth. In mammals, tetrapyrrole end products are closely linked to oxygen metabolism. Since increasingly complex trophic functional systems for using oxygen are considered in the post-traumatic inflammatory response, it can be suggested that tetrapyrrole molecules and, particularly their derived pigments, play a key role in modulating inflammation. In this way, the diverse colorfulness that the inflammatory response triggers during its evolution would reflect the major pathophysiological importance of these pigments in each one of its phases. Therefore, the need of exploiting this color resource could be considered for both the diagnosis and treatment of the inflammation. PMID:19309494

  10. Maltodextrin/ascorbic acid stimulates wound closure by increasing collagen turnover and TGF-β1 expression in vitro and changing the stage of inflammation from chronic to acute in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rosa M; Cruz-Castañeda, Otilia; Elizondo-Vázquez, Francisco; Pat, Lucia; De la Garza, Anabel; Cano-Colín, Saúl; Baena-Ocampo, Leticia; Krötzsch, Edgar

    2017-02-01

    It has been reported that carbohydrates confer physicochemical properties to the wound environment that improves tissue repair. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo wound healing during maltodextrin/ascorbic acid treatment. In a fibroblast monolayer scratch assay, we demonstrated that maltodextrin/ascorbic acid stimulated monolayer repair by increasing collagen turnover coordinately with TGF-β1 expression (rising TGF-β1 and MMP-1 expression, as well as gelatinase activity, while TIMP-1 was diminished), similar to in vivo trends. On the other hand, we observed that venous leg ulcers treated with maltodextrin/ascorbic acid diminished microorganism population and improved wound repair during a 12 week period. When maltodextrin/ascorbic acid treatment was compared with zinc oxide, almost four fold wound closure was evidenced. Tissue architecture and granulation were improved after the carbohydrate treatment also, since patients that received maltodextrin/ascorbic acid showed lower type I collagen fiber levels and increased extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity and blood vessels than those treated with zinc oxide. We hypothesize that maltodextrin/ascorbic acid treatment stimulated tissue repair of chronic wounds by changing the stage of inflammation and modifying collagen turnover directly through fibroblast response.

  11. Kraft pulp biobleaching using an extracellular enzymatic fluid produced by Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Eugenio, M E; Santos, S M; Carbajo, J M; Martín, J A; Martín-Sampedro, R; González, A E; Villar, J C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain a LMS pre-treatment applicable to industrial TCF bleaching. Kraft pulp from Eucalyptus globulus was treated at 40 degrees C/pH 3 and 60 degrees C/pH 5 for 1h using an extracellular fluid enriched in laccase produced by Pycnoporus sanguineus and acetosyringone as mediator (HBT was used as a control mediator) (L). Alkaline extraction (E) and hydrogen peroxide (P) stages were then assayed. The LEP alternative was an efficient sequence to bleach kraft pulp since the enzymatic pre-treatment boosted the subsequent chemical bleaching. The best L pre-treatment was obtained with laccase-acetosyringone at 40 degrees C/pH 3. It reduces kappa number and hexenuronic acids, increases pulp viscosity, lowers hydrogen peroxide consumption down to an 87.4% (94.0% without L) and enhances brightness up to a 59% ISO (51% ISO without L).

  12. Influence of process variables on the properties of laccase biobleached pulps.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Miranda, Jesús; García-Fuentevilla, Luisa L; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, Maria E; Diaz, Manuel J; Eugenio, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    A laccase stage can be used as a pre-treatment of a standard chemical bleaching sequence to reduce environmental concerns associated to this process. The importance of each independent variable and its influence on the properties of the bleached pulp have been studied in depth in this work, using an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with four independent variables (laccase, buffer, mediator and oxygen) as input. Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp was biobleached using a laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus and a natural mediator (acetosyringone). Later, an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide treatment were applied. Most biobleaching processes showed a decrease in kappa number and an increase in brightness with no significant impact on the viscosity values, compared with the control. Oxygen was the variable with the smallest influence on the final pulp properties while the laccase and buffer solution showed a significant influence.

  13. Dynamic rheology behavior of electron beam-irradiated cellulose pulp/NMMO solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruimin; Deng, Bangjun; Hao, Xufeng; Zhou, Fei; Wu, Xinfeng; Chen, Yongkang

    2008-08-01

    The rheological behavior of irradiated cellulose pulp solution by electron beam was investigated. Storage modulus G', loss modulus G″, the dependence of complex viscosity η* and frequency ω of cellulose solutions were measured by DSR-200 Rheometer (Rheometrics co., USA). The molecular weight of irradiated cellulose was measured via the intrinsic viscosity measurement using an Ubbelohde capillary viscometer. The crystalline structure was studied by FTIR Spectroscopy. The results congruously showed that the molecular weight of pulp cellulose decrease and the molecular weight distribution of cellulose become narrow with increase in the irradiation dose. Moreover, the crystalline structure of the cellulose was destroyed, the force of the snarl between the cellulose molecules weakens and the accessibility of pulp spinning is improved. The study supplies some useful data for spinnability of irradiated cellulose and technical data to the filature industry.

  14. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2010-11-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted.

  15. Expression of DMP-1 in the human pulp tissue using low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Oliveira Rodini, Camila; Cruvinel Silva, Thiago; Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade; Marchini Oliveira, Thais

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on DMP-1 expression in pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I—Buckley’s Formocresol (FC); Group II—Calcium Hydroxide (CH); Group III—LLLT + CH and Group IV—LLLT + Zinc oxide/Eugenol. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Descriptive analysis was performed on the dentin pulp complex. Histopathological assessment showed internal resorption in group FC. Groups CH and LLLT + CH provided better pulpal repair due to the absence of inflammation and the formation of hard tissue barrier. These two groups presented odontoblastic layer expressing DMP-1. According to this study, low level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory bio-inductive activity on pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. However, other histological and cellular studies are needed to confirm the laser tissue action and efficacy.

  16. Treatment of pulp floor and stripping perforation by mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Ling; Lan, Wan-Hong; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2006-06-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been widely used to repair various kinds of tooth perforations, but its use for obturation of the entire root canal has not been reported. We report two cases of tooth perforation successfully repaired with MTA. The first patient was a 78-year-old male with calcified canal and pulp floor perforation in the left maxillary first premolar. After bypass of the calcified palatal canal, both buccal and palatal canals were filled with gutta percha, and the pulp floor perforation was repaired with MTA. Clinical success with no evident radicular lesion was found at the 18-month follow-up. The second patient was a 51-year-old female with a stripping perforation in a C-shaped root canal of the right mandibular second molar detected after removal of a post. Following root canal debridement and calcium hydroxide therapy to control inflammation at the stripping perforation site, apical and furcation bone healing were observed by radiographic examination. The stripping perforation was repaired by obturation of the entire C-shaped root canal with MTA. Observation at the 9-month follow-up revealed bone healing without any clinical symptoms and signs. These cases suggest that MTA is an alternative root canal obturation material for treatment of stripping perforation in a C-shaped root canal and for repair of pulp floor perforation.

  17. Immunolocalization of dentin matrix protein-1 in human primary teeth treated with different pulp capping materials.

    PubMed

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Marques, Nádia C T; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila O; Sakai, Vivien T; Abdo, Ruy Cesar C; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Santos, Carlos F; Oliveira, Thais M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunolocalization of dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1 in human primary teeth treated with different pulp capping materials. Twenty-five primary molars were divided into the following groups: formocresol (FC), calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), corticosteroid/antibiotic solution + CH (O + CH), and Portland cement (PC), and all received conventional pulpotomy treatment. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test (p < 0.05). Histological analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the comparison among the groups through the use of a score system regarding the presence of hard tissue barrier, odontoblastic layer, and internal resorption, but not regarding pulp calcification. Immunohistochemical analysis showed immunostaining for DMP-1 in groups CH, MTA, O + CH, and PC. Internal resorption was observed in the groups FC and CH. MTA and PC showed pulp repair without inflammation and with the presence of hard tissue barrier. DMP-1 immunostaining was higher for MTA and PC, confirming the reparative and bioinductive capacity of these materials.

  18. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOEpatents

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  19. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  20. Practical energy and water management through pinch analysis for the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Koufos, D; Retsina, T

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe pinch technology as a practical tool for effective energy management in the pulp and paper industry. Results indicate good steam savings. Recently pinch technology has been extended to water management. We have developed a customized methodology for the pulp and paper industry, to eliminate or reduce fresh water intake. Although the methodology is not fully developed it is a "proof of concept" that pinch principles can be applied to water related problems. The eventual combination of both thermal and water pinch will thus provide a structured and comprehensive approach for plant wide efficiency increase.

  1. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  2. Cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash content of some organic materials and their suitability for use as paper pulp supplements.

    PubMed

    Ververis, C; Georghiou, K; Danielidis, D; Hatzinikolaou, D G; Santas, P; Santas, R; Corleti, V

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater algal biomass and orange and lemon peels were assessed as tissue paper pulp supplements. Cellulose and hemicellulose contents of algal biomass were 7.1% and 16.3%, respectively, whereas for citrus peels cellulose content ranged from 12.7% to 13.6% and hemicellulose from 5.3% to 6.1%. For all materials, lignin and ash content was 2% or lower, rendering them suitable for use as paper pulp supplements. The addition of algal biomass to paper pulp increased its mechanical strength significantly. However, brightness was adversely affected by chlorophyll. The addition of citrus peels in paper pulp had no effect on breaking length, increased bursting strength and decreased tearing resistance. Brightness was negatively affected at proportions of 10%, because citrus peel particles behave as coloured pigments. The cost of both materials is about 45% lower than that of conventional pulp, resulting in a 0.9-4.5% reduction in final paper price upon their addition to the pulp.

  3. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    PubMed

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  4. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    PubMed

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Digestion coefficient of organic matter in dry matter and metabolisable energy were also decreased in treated lemon pulp (p < 0.05). Compared with untreated lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p < 0.05), but digestibility of crude fat was lower (p < 0.05). In general, processing of lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF.

  5. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alamy, Marya; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Results Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents. Key words:Dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, isolation method. PMID:26946201

  6. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  7. Alkaliphilic endoxylanase from lignocellulolytic microbial consortium metagenome for biobleaching of eucalyptus pulp.

    PubMed

    Weerachavangkul, Chawannapak; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Boonyapakron, Katewadee; Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Nimchua, Thidarat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Pootanakit, Kusol; Igarashi, Yasuo; Champreda, Verawat

    2012-12-01

    Enzymatic pre-bleaching by modification of pulp fibers with xylanases is an attractive approach to reduce the consumption of toxic bleaching chemicals in the paper industry. In this study, an alkaliphilic endoxylanase gene was isolated from metagenomic DNA of a structurally stable thermophilic lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortium using amplification with conserved glycosyl hydrolase family 10 primers and subsequent genome walking. The full-length xylanase showed 78% sequence identity to an endo-beta-1,4-xylanase of Clostridium phytofermentans and was expressed in a mature form with an N-terminal His6 tag fusion in Escherichia coli. The recombinant xylanase Xyn3F was thermotolerant and alkaliphilic, working optimally at 65-70 degrees C with an optimal pH at 9- 10 and retaining >80% activity at pH 9, 60 degrees C for 1 h. Xyn3F showed a Vmax of 2,327 IU/mg and Km of 3.5 mg/ml on birchwood xylan. Pre-bleaching of industrial eucalyptus pulp with no prior pH adjustment (pH 9) using Xyn3F at 50 IU/g dried pulp led to 4.5-5.1% increase in final pulp brightness and 90.4-102.4% increase in whiteness after a single-step hypochlorite bleaching over the untreated pulp, which allowed at least 20% decrease in hypochlorite consumption to achieve the same final bleaching indices. The alkaliphilic xylanase is promising for application in an environmentally friendly bleaching step of kraft and soda pulps with no requirement for pH adjustment, leading to improved economic feasibility of the process.

  8. Process modeling and analysis of pulp mill-based integrated biorefinery with hemicellulose pre-extraction for ethanol production: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Ramaswamy, Shri; Al-Dajani, Waleed Wafa; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform to use more effectively an abundant, renewable bio-resource - wood. Modification of the modern day pulp mills into integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) presents an excellent opportunity to produce, in addition to valuable cellulose fiber, co-products including fuel grade ethanol and additional energy, thus resulting in increased revenue streams and profitability and potentially lower the greenhouse gas emissions. A process model to simulate the integrate forest biorefinery manufacturing pulp and other co-products has been developed. This model has been used to compare three integrated biorefinery scenarios: the conventional Kraft pulping process, the pulp mill-based IFBR with hemicelluloses extraction prior to pulping for ethanol production, and the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber for ethanol production. Based on a fixed feedstock throughput of 2000 dry Mg wood/day, results show that the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber cellulose converted to ethanol can produce 0.038 MM m(3) (10.04 MM gal) ethanol per year at a minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) of $491/m(3) ($1.86/gal). The economic feasibility of IFBR can be further improved by using further improvements in the pre-extraction process, other biomass such as corn stover for producing ethanol, and taking advantage of the economies of scale.

  9. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp.

  10. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth.

  11. [New cellulases efficiently hydrolyzing lignocellulose pulp].

    PubMed

    Skomarovskiĭ, A A; Markov, A V; Gusakov, A V; Kondrat'eva, E G; Okunev, O N; Bekkerevich, A O; Matys, V Iu; Sinitsyn, A P

    2006-01-01

    Commercial and pilot enzyme preparations from fungi of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma have been compared with regard to their action on conifer wood pretreated with acidified aqueous ethanol (organosolve). In most experiments, enzymes from the genus Penicillium allowed higher yields of reducing sugars and glucose than those from Trichoderma. High beta-glucosidase activity is essential for deep pulp hydrolysis.

  12. Archaea prevalence in inflamed pulp tissues

    PubMed Central

    Efenberger, Magdalena; Agier, Justyna; Pawłowska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Archaea have been detected in several ecological niches of the human body such as the large intestine, skin, vagina as well as the oral cavity. At present, archaea are recognized as nonpathogenic microorganisms. However, some data indicate that they may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of several diseases, including intestinal diseases as well as oral diseases: periodontitis, peri-implantitis and endodontitis. In this study, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we examined whether archaea might be present in inflamed pulp tissues and contribute to the development of endodontic infection. In comparison, we also determined selected bacterial species associated with endodontitis. We detected archaea in 85% of infected endodontic samples. In addition, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were present in inflamed pulp tissue samples and Treponema denticola occurred with the highest frequency (70%). Further analysis revealed the presence of methanogenic archaea in analyzed samples. Direct sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA gene PCR products indicated the occurrence of methanogenic archaea in inflamed pulp tissues; phylogenetically most similar were Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Therefore, our results show that methanogenic archaea are present in inflamed pulp tissues and may participate in the development of endodontic infection. PMID:26557034

  13. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high...

  14. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high...

  15. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high...

  16. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high...

  17. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... food packaging containers. (c) The ingredient is used in paper and paperboard made by conventional... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT...

  3. Wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with emdogain gel.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Hikaru; Hamachi, Takafumi; Anan, Hisashi; Maeda, Katsumasa

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with Emdogain gel (EMD). Pulpotomy was performed for the first molars of the mandibles in rats. EMD or Vitapex (VIT)-containing calcium hydroxide was applied to the exposed pulp tissues. The treated teeth were extracted after 7, 14, and 28 days and prepared for histologic examination. In the VIT-treated group, the number of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-expressing macrophages initially increased, followed by that of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-expressing macrophages. The number of cells expressing bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) gradually increased with reparative dentin formation. Meanwhile, in the EMD-treated group, cells expressing IL-1 beta or TGF-beta1 were few. However, the number of BMP-expressing cells, partly macrophages, increased in the early phase, and large amounts of reparative dentin were observed. This study demonstrated that different healing processes existed for EMD and VIT. BMP-expressing macrophages might play important roles in reparative dentin formation.

  4. The Interplay of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Endothelial Cells in an Injectable Peptide Hydrogel on Angiogenesis and Pulp Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Jin, Lijian; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2015-01-01

    Securing an adequate blood supply for the survival of cell transplants is critical for a successful outcome in tissue engineering. Interactions between endothelial and progenitor/stem cells are important for vascularization of regenerating tissue. Recently, self-assembling peptide nanofibers were described as a promising environment for pulp regeneration due to their synthetic nature and controlled physicochemical properties. In this study, the peptide hydrogel PuraMatrix™ was used as a scaffold system to investigate the role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in triggering angiogenesis and the potential for regenerating vascularized pulp in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), DPSCs, or cocultures of both cell types were encapsulated in three-dimensional PuraMatrix. The peptide nanofiber microenvironment supported cell survival, cell migration, and capillary network formation in the absence of exogenous growth factors. DPSCs increased early vascular network formation by facilitating the migration of HUVECs and by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Both the DPSC-monoculture and coculture groups exhibited vascularized pulp-like tissue with patches of osteodentin after transplantation in mice. The cocultured groups exhibited more extracellular matrix, vascularization, and mineralization than the DPSC-monocultures in vivo. The DPSCs play a critical role in initial angiogenesis, whereas coordinated efforts by the HUVECs and DPSCs are required to achieve a balance between extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. The findings of this study also highlighted the importance of a microenvironment that supports cell–cell interactions and cell migration, which contribute to successful dental pulp regeneration. PMID:25203774

  5. The Four-Herb Chinese Medicine Formula Tuo-Li-Xiao-Du-San Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats through Reducing Inflammation and Increasing Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-na; Ma, Ze-jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Yu-zhu; Sun, Bei; Guo, Xin; Pan, Cong-qing; Chen, Li-ming

    2016-01-01

    Impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is a serious complication that often leads to amputation or even death with limited effective treatments. Tuo-Li-Xiao-Du-San (TLXDS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula for refractory wounds, has been prescribed for nearly 400 years in China and shows good efficacy in promoting healing. In this study, we explored the effect of TLXDS on healing of diabetic wounds and investigated underlying mechanisms. Four weeks after intravenous injection of streptozotocin, two full-thickness excisional wounds were created with a 10 mm diameter sterile biopsy punch on the back of rats. The ethanol extract of TLXDS was given once daily by oral gavage. Wound area, histological change, inflammation, angiogenesis, and collagen synthesis were evaluated. TLXDS treatment significantly accelerated healing of diabetic rats and improved the healing quality. These effects were associated with reduced neutrophil infiltration and macrophage accumulation, enhanced angiogenesis, and increased collagen deposition. This study shows that TLXDS improves diabetes-impaired wound healing. PMID:27057551

  6. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  7. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 2. Effects on digestion and ruminal digestion kinetics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on digestion and ruminal digestion kinetics were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) d in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a dry matter basis. Diet concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0 and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Ruminal dry matter pool decreased and NDF turnover rate increased as dietary beet pulp content increased. Potentially digestible NDF was digested more extensively and at a faster rate in the rumen with increasing beet pulp, resulting in increased total tract NDF digestibility. Passage rates of potentially digestible NDF and of indigestible NDF were not affected by treatment. True ruminal digestibility of starch decreased with increasing beet pulp substitution. This was caused by a linear increase in starch passage rate, possibly because of increasing ruminal fill, and a linear decrease in digestion rate of starch in the rumen, possibly because of reduced amylolytic enzyme activity for lower-starch diets. Although true ruminal starch digestibility decreased when more beet pulp was fed, whole tract starch digestibility was not affected because of compensatory digestion of starch in the intestines. Due to more thorough digestion of fiber in diets containing more beet pulp, whole-tract digestibility of organic matter increased linearly, and intake of digestible organic matter was not affected. Partially replacing high-moisture corn with beet pulp in low-forage diets increased fiber digestibility without

  8. Inflammation, Sanitation, and Consternation

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Rook, Graham A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Context Inflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD), even in individuals who are otherwise medically healthy. Most studies in search of sources for this increased inflammation have focused on factors such as psychosocial stress and obesity that are known to activate inflammatory processes and increase the risk for depression. However, MDD may be so prevalent in the modern world not just because proinflammatory factors are widespread, but also because we have lost contact with previously available sources of anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory signaling. Objective To examine evidence that disruptions in co-evolved relationships with a variety of tolerogenic microorganisms that were previously ubiquitous in soil, food, and the gut, but that are largely missing from industrialized societies, may contribute to increasing rates of MDD in the modern world. Data Sources Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. Study Selection Included were laboratory animal and human studies relevant to immune functioning, the hygiene hypothesis, and major depressive disorder identified via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE searches. Data Extraction Studies were reviewed by all authors, and data considered to be potentially relevant to the contribution of hygiene-related immune variables to major depressive disorder were extracted. Data Synthesis Significant data suggest that a variety of microorganisms (frequently referred to as the “old friends”) were tasked by coevolutionary processes with training the human immune system to tolerate a wide array of nonthreatening but potentially proinflammatory stimuli. Lacking such immune training, vulnerable individuals in the modern world are at significantly increased risk of mounting inappropriate inflammatory attacks on harmless environmental antigens (leading to asthma), benign food contents and commensals in the gut (leading to inflammatory bowel disease), or

  9. Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.H.

    1997-12-01

    Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

  10. Biological evaluation of a new pulp capping material developed from Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Negm, Ahmed M; Hassanien, Ehab E; Abu-Seida, Ashraf M; Nagy, Mohamed M

    2017-03-02

    This study evaluates the biological properties of a new pulp capping material developed from Portland cement. This study was conducted on 48 teeth in 4 dogs (12 teeth/dog). The dogs were classified into two equal groups (n=24 teeth) according to the evaluation period including: group A (3 weeks) and group B (3 months). Each group was further subdivided into three equal subgroups (n=8 teeth) according to the capping material including: subgroup 1: mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), subgroup2: Portland cement+10% calcium hydroxide+20% bismuth oxide (Port Cal) and subgroup 3: Portland cement+bismuth oxide. After general anesthesia, a class V buccal cavity was prepared coronal to the gingival margin. After pulp exposure and hemostasis,the capping materials and glass ionomer filling were placed on the exposure sites. All histopathological findings, inflammatory cell count and dentin bridge formation were recorded. Data were analyzed statistically. After 3 months, the histopathological picture of the pulp in subgroup 1 showed normal pulp, continuous odontoblastic layer and complete dentin bridge formation while subgroup 2 showed partial and complete dentin bridge over a normal and necrotic pulps. Subgroup 3 showed loss of normal architecture, areas of necrosis, complete, or incomplete dentin bridge formation, attached and detached pulp stones and fatty degeneration in group B. For group A, MTA subgroup showed the least number of inflammatory cell infiltrate followed by Port Cal subgroup. While subgroup 3 showed the highest number of inflammatory cell infiltrate. For group B, the mean inflammatory cell count increased with the three tested materials with no statistical difference. Regarding dentin bridge formation at group A, no significant differences was found between subgroups, while at group B, MTA subgroup exhibited significantly higher scores than other subgroups. In conclusion, addition of calcium hydroxide to Portland cement improves the dentin bridge formation

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. pulp and paper industry consumes over $7 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pulp and paper industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR(R) for Industry energy efficiency guidebook (a.k.a. the"Energy Guide") for pulp and paper manufacturers. The Energy Guide discusses a wide range of energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Also provided is a discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pulp and paper industry along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Many energy efficiency measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in pulp and paper mills and related industries worldwide. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. pulp and paper industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  12. The Effect of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Chlorhexidine as Direct Pulp Capping Agent in Dogs Teeth: A Histologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Manochehrifar, Hamed; Parirokh, Masoud; Kakooei, Sina; Oloomi, Mohammad Mehdi; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present investigation was to compare the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) mixture to pure MTA, as a pulp capping material. Methods and Materials: The pulp of 24 lateral incisors and canines from four dogs were exposed and capped either with MTA or MTA+0.2% CHX. After 2 months the animals were sacrificed and the teeth were prepared for histological evaluation in terms of calcified bridge formation, the degree of inflammation and presence of necrosis. The Fisher’s exact test was used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that formation of complete calcified bridge in MTA specimens was significantly more than MTA+CHX (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the degree of inflammation and necrosis between MTA and MTA+CHX groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Mixing MTA with CHX as pulp capping agent had a significant negative impact on formation of calcified bridge on directly capped dog’s teeth. PMID:27790263

  13. Allergic Lung Inflammation Reduces Tissue Invasion and Enhances Survival from Pulmonary Pneumococcal Infection in Mice, Which Correlates with Increased Expression of Transforming Growth Factor β1 and SiglecF(low) Alveolar Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Alan M; Furuya, Yoichi; Roberts, Sean; Salmon, Sharon L; Metzger, Dennis W

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is generally thought to confer an increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in humans. However, recent reports suggest that mortality rates from IPD are unaffected in patients with asthma and that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition similar to asthma, protects against the development of complicated pneumonia. To clarify the effects of asthma on the subsequent susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation (ALI) was induced in mice followed by intranasal infection with A66.1 serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae. Surprisingly, mice with ALI were significantly more resistant to lethal infection than non-ALI mice. The heightened resistance observed following ALI correlated with enhanced early clearance of pneumococci from the lung, decreased bacterial invasion from the airway into the lung tissue, a blunted inflammatory cytokine and neutrophil response to infection, and enhanced expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Neutrophil depletion prior to infection had no effect on enhanced early bacterial clearance or resistance to IPD in mice with ALI. Although eosinophils recruited into the lung during ALI appeared to be capable of phagocytizing bacteria, neutralization of interleukin-5 (IL-5) to inhibit eosinophil recruitment likewise had no effect on early clearance or survival following infection. However, enhanced resistance was associated with an increase in levels of clodronate-sensitive, phagocytic SiglecF(low) alveolar macrophages within the airways following ALI. These findings suggest that, while the risk of developing IPD may actually be decreased in patients with acute asthma, additional clinical data are needed to better understand the risk of IPD in patients with different asthma phenotypes.

  14. Characterization of vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, and of their ethyleneglycol pulps.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Luis; Pérez, Antonio; de la Torre, María Jesús; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis

    2007-12-01

    We characterized vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus as pulping raw materials and found C. proliferus and cotton stalks to be the best for the intended purpose on the grounds of their increased contents in holocellulose (79.73% and 72.86%) and alpha-cellulose (45.37% and 58.48%), and their decreased contents in ethanol-benzene extractables (2.64% and 1.42%), hot water solubles (2.79% and 3.33%) and 1% soda solubles (16.67% and 20.34%). These properties resulted in increased pulp yields and hence in efficient use of these two types of raw material. The previous raw materials were pulped by using an ethyleneglycol concentration of 65% at 180 degrees C for 75min, followed by beating at 1500 revolutions in a PFI refiner. The paper sheets obtained were characterized and those from C. proliferus found to be the best overall as they exhibited an increased breaking length (4644m), stretch (2.87%), burst index (2.46kN/g) tear index (0.33mNm(2)/g) and brightness (49.92% ISO); in addition C. proliferus pulp was obtained with a high-yield (62.88%). On the other hand, vine shoots provided the poorest results among the studied raw materials.

  15. Solid-State Fermentation: an Alternative to Improve the Nutritive Value of Coffee Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza, Walter; Molina, Mario R.; Brenes, Roberto Gomez; Bressani, Ricardo

    1985-01-01

    Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = −0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35°C, and an aeration of 8 liters/min per kg as fermentation conditions, it was found that the maximum concentration of total amino acids was attained after 43 h. The fermented product had a higher total amino acid content and a lower cell wall constituent value (primarily cellulose and hemicellulose) than the original pulp. A growing chicken's ration containing 10% of the fermented product had a feed efficiency (2.14) similar to that of the standard ration (2.19) and was significantly better than that of the diet containing 10% of the original pulp (2.53). The difference observed in feed intake and weight gain between the standard diet and that with 10% of the fermented product is considered to be due to palatability factors which should be studied further. PMID:16346724

  16. Histopathologic Responses of the Dental Pulp to Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM) and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Zahra Sadat; Haddadi, Azam; Mesgarani, Abbas; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Bijani, Ali; Ashraphpour, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which affects the healing ability of the pulp and periodontium. The aim of the present study was to assess the histopathologic response of dental pulp to pulp capping using MTA or CEM cement in diabetic rats. Thirty two Wistar male rats aged between 8 and 10 weeks (weight: 200-250g) were divided into two groups of diabetic (n=16) and healthy (n=16) animals and then subdivided into MTA and CEM subgroups. In each group, 10 MTA treated, 10 CEM treated and 12 intact (without any intervention) teeth were analyzed. Intact teeth were considered as a baseline inflammation control. Then, class I cavity was made in the maxillary first molars teeth with pinpoint pulpal exposure. Either MTA or CEM cement was then placed over exposed pulp as pulp capping agent and the cavities were restored using resin- modified glass ionomer cement. Both teeth of rats in subgroups remained intact without any intervention. After four weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the teeth were subjected to histological evaluation in terms of inflammation intensity, dentin bridge formation and dentin bridge continuity. The CEM cement treated diabetic rats exhibited a significant higher inflammatory response when compared to healthy control group (P=0.004) whereas, MTA treated diabetic rats did not exhibit a significant higher inflammatory response in comparison to healthy controls. There was no significant difference between MTA and CEM cement in the induction of dentin bridge formation in diabetic and healthy controls. This preliminary study suggests that MTA is a superior dental material than CEM cement for pulp therapy in subjects with diabetes. PMID:25635253

  17. Histopathologic Responses of the Dental Pulp to Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM) and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Madani, Zahra Sadat; Haddadi, Azam; Mesgarani, Abbas; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Bijani, Ali; Ashraphpour, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which affects the healing ability of the pulp and periodontium. The aim of the present study was to assess the histopathologic response of dental pulp to pulp capping using MTA or CEM cement in diabetic rats. Thirty two Wistar male rats aged between 8 and 10 weeks (weight: 200-250g) were divided into two groups of diabetic (n=16) and healthy (n=16) animals and then subdivided into MTA and CEM subgroups. In each group, 10 MTA treated, 10 CEM treated and 12 intact (without any intervention) teeth were analyzed. Intact teeth were considered as a baseline inflammation control. Then, class I cavity was made in the maxillary first molars teeth with pinpoint pulpal exposure. Either MTA or CEM cement was then placed over exposed pulp as pulp capping agent and the cavities were restored using resin- modified glass ionomer cement. Both teeth of rats in subgroups remained intact without any intervention. After four weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the teeth were subjected to histological evaluation in terms of inflammation intensity, dentin bridge formation and dentin bridge continuity. The CEM cement treated diabetic rats exhibited a significant higher inflammatory response when compared to healthy control group (P=0.004) whereas, MTA treated diabetic rats did not exhibit a significant higher inflammatory response in comparison to healthy controls. There was no significant difference between MTA and CEM cement in the induction of dentin bridge formation in diabetic and healthy controls. This preliminary study suggests that MTA is a superior dental material than CEM cement for pulp therapy in subjects with diabetes.

  18. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  19. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    PubMed

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  20. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  1. Pulp Vascularization during Tooth Development, Regeneration, and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Jeanneau, C; About, I

    2017-02-01

    The pulp is a highly vascularized tissue situated in an inextensible environment surrounded by rigid dentin walls, with the apical foramina being the only access. The pulp vascular system is not only responsible for nutrient supply and waste removal but also contributes actively to the pulp inflammatory response and subsequent regeneration. This review discusses the underlying mechanisms of pulp vascularization during tooth development, regeneration, and therapeutic procedures, such as tissue engineering and tooth transplantation. Whereas the pulp vascular system is established by vasculogenesis during embryonic development, sprouting angiogenesis is the predominant process during regeneration and therapeutic processes. Hypoxia can be considered a common driving force. Dental pulp cells under hypoxic stress release proangiogenic factors, with vascular endothelial growth factor being one of the most potent. The benefit of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor application in tissue engineering has been well demonstrated. Interestingly, dental pulp stem cells have an important role in pulp revascularization. Indeed, recent studies show that dental pulp stem cell secretome possesses angiogenic potential that actively contributes to the angiogenic process by guiding endothelial cells and even by differentiating themselves into the endothelial lineage. Although considerable insight has been obtained in the processes underlying pulp vascularization, many questions remain relating to the signaling pathways, timing, and influence of various stress conditions.

  2. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 3. Effects on ruminal fermentation, pH, and microbial protein efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on ruminal fermentation, pH, and microbial efficiency were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) DIM at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a DM basis. Diet concentrations of NDF and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0, and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Substituting beet pulp for corn did not affect daily mean or minimum ruminal pH but tended to reduce pH range. Ruminal acetate:propionate responded in a positive exponential relationship to added beet pulp. Rate of valerate absorption from the rumen was not affected by treatment. Substituting beet pulp for corn up to 24% of diet DM did not affect efficiency of ruminal microbial protein production, expressed as microbial N flow to the duodenum as a percentage of OM truly digested in the rumen. Microbial efficiency was not correlated to mean pH or daily minimum pH. While microbial efficiency was not directly related to concentration of beet pulp fed, it was positively correlated with passage rate of particulate matter, as represented by starch and indigestible NDF, probably due to reduced turnover of microbial protein in the rumen.

  3. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  4. Citrus pulp as an ingredient in ostrich diet: effects on meat quality.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Fasone, V; Galofaro, V; Barbagallo, D; Bella, M; Pennisi, P

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this trial was to study the effects of citrus pulp inclusion in ostrich diets on meat quality, evaluated on iliofibularis and gastrocnemius muscles. M. iliofibularis had a lower ultimate pH (P<0.05) and was lighter in colour (P<0.05) than M. gastrocnemius. The latter had higher moisture (P<0.05) and lower crude protein contents (P<0.05) as compared to M. iliofibularis. M. gastrocnemius had a lower proportion of C14:0 (P<0.05), C16:0 (P<0.05) and C16:1 (P<0.05) and a higher percentage of C18:0 (P<0.05), C20:2ω6 (P<0.05), C20:4ω6 (P<0.05) and C20:5ω3 (P<0.05) than M. iliofibularis. Citrus pulp diet increased (P<0.05) meat ultimate pH and reduced cooking losses (P<0.05) as compared to the control diet. Meat from animals given citrus pulp had lower crude fat (P<0.05) and ash percentages (P<0.05) in comparison to that from the control group. The proportions of intramuscular saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were lower (P<0.05) in the citrus pulp group as compared to the control one. Meat from the citrus pulp treatment group had a higher (P<0.05) percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids than meat from the control treatment. In particular, meat from ostriches given citrus pulp diet exhibited higher C18:2ω6 (P<0.05) and C20:4ω6 (P<0.05) contents that accounted for a higher ω6/ω3 ratio (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. Overall, the use of a citrus pulp-included diet in ostrich feeding did not adversely affect meat quality and, therefore, citrus pulp seems to be a possible ingredient to reduce feeding costs.

  5. The impact of inflammation on respiratory plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hocker, Austin D; Stokes, Jennifer A; Powell, Frank L; Huxtable, Adrianne G

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is a vital homeostatic behavior and must be precisely regulated throughout life. Clinical conditions commonly associated with inflammation, undermine respiratory function may involve plasticity in respiratory control circuits to compensate and maintain adequate ventilation. Alternatively, other clinical conditions may evoke maladaptive plasticity. Yet, we have only recently begun to understand the effects of inflammation on respiratory plasticity. Here, we review some of common models used to investigate the effects of inflammation and discuss the impact of inflammation on nociception, chemosensory plasticity, medullary respiratory centers, motor plasticity in motor neurons and respiratory frequency, and adaptation to high altitude. We provide new data suggesting glial cells contribute to CNS inflammatory gene expression after 24h of sustained hypoxia and inflammation induced by 8h of intermittent hypoxia inhibits long-term facilitation of respiratory frequency. We also discuss how inflammation can have opposite effects on the capacity for plasticity, whereby it is necessary for increases in the hypoxic ventilatory response with sustained hypoxia, but inhibits phrenic long term facilitation after intermittent hypoxia. This review highlights gaps in our knowledge about the effects of inflammation on respiratory control (development, age, and sex differences). In summary, data to date suggest plasticity can be either adaptive or maladaptive and understanding how inflammation alters the respiratory system is crucial for development of better therapeutic interventions to promote breathing and for utilization of plasticity as a clinical treatment.

  6. Purinergic receptors in ocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Gasull, Xavier; Diebold, Yolanda; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly "tuned," can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P(1),P(4)-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), and P(1),P(5)-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101) have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases) can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  7. Gestational and lactational exposition to Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) increases inflammation and preneoplastic lesions in prostate of wistar rats after carcinogenic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) plus testosterone protocol.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, André R; Santos, Talita M; Brandt, Joyce Z; Delella, Flávia K; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Campos, Silvana G P; Taboga, Sebastião R; Favaro, Wagner J; Domeniconi, Raquel F; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated the susceptibility of prostatic lesions in male adult rats exposed to Di-N-butyl-phthalate during fetal and lactational periods and submitted to MNU plus testosterone carcinogenesis protocol. Pregnant females were distributed into four experimental groups: CN (negative control); CMNU (MNU control); TDBP100 (100 mg/kg of DBP); TDBP500 (500 mg/kg of DBP). Females from the TDBP groups received DBP, by gavage, from gestation day 15 (GD15) to postnatal day 21 (DPN21), while C animals received the vehicle (corn oil). CMNU, TDBP100, and TDBP500 groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (50 mg/kg) on the sixth postnatal week. After that, testosterone cypionate was administered subcutaneously two times a week (2 mg/kg) for 24 weeks. The animals were euthanized on PND220. Distal segment fragments of the ventral (VP) and dorsolateral prostate (DLP) were fixed and processed for histopathological analysis. Protein extracts from ventral prostate were obtained, and western blotting was performed to AR, ERα, MAPK (ERK1/2), and pan-AKT. Stereological analysis showed an increase in the epithelial compartment in TDBP100 and TDBP500 compared to CN. In general, there was increase in the incidence of inflammation and metaplasia/dysplasia in the DBP-treated groups, mainly in DLP, compared to CN and CMNU. Proliferation index was significant higher in TDBP500 and PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) was more frequent in this group compared to CMNU. Western blot assays showed an increase in the expressions of AR and MAPK (ERK1/2) in the TDBP100 compared to CN, and ERα and AKT expressions were higher in the TDBP500 group compared do CN. These results showed that different doses of DBP during prostate organogenesis in Wistar rats could increase the incidence of premalignant lesions in initiated rats inducing distinct biological responses in the adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1185-1195, 2016.

  8. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunil; Shin, Su-Jung; Song, Yunjung; Kim, Euiseong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration. PMID:26688616

  9. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms.

  10. Does removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation influence ingrowth of new tissue in the pulp chamber?

    PubMed

    Laureys, Wim G M; Dermaut, Luc R; Cuvelier, Claude A; De Pauw, Guy A M

    2010-10-01

    In an attempt to extend the indication area for autotransplantation of vital teeth, two possibilities can be proposed: (i) The enlargement of the apical foramen, with the aim to facilitate revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue. The ingrowth of tissue will eliminate the need for endodontic treatment when mature teeth are transplanted and (ii) the cryopreservation of teeth in case they cannot be transplanted immediately to the receptor site. Teeth with an ideal stage of root formation can be cryopreserved to perform transplantation later. Although pulpcell cultures survive crypreservation in vitro, the pulp tissue cannot survive the cryopreservation procedures when it is kept inside the pulpchamber. Therefore, the pulp tissue has to be removed before cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue can occur in an empty pulp chamber (1). The aim of this study was to find out if revascularization and ingrowth of new pulp tissue is influenced by removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation. Twenty nine single-rooted teeth from three adult beagle dogs were transplanted after resection of the root tip. One group of teeth (n = 14) had the pulp tissue removed before transplantation. The other group (n = 15) had the original pulp left in situ. The transplanted teeth were histologically analysed 90 days post-transplantation. In the group with the tissue left in situ, 12 teeth (80%) showed a pulp chamber totally filled or at least 1/3 to 2/3 filled with viable tissue. In the group with the pulp tissue removed, 11 teeth (79%) had no or little vital tissue in the pulp chamber. The necrotic masses that develop in the original pulp tissue immediately after transplantation are a possible stimulating factor in the repair process of the pulp. As a conclusion, it can be stated that in case of autotransplantation of teeth, it is advisable to leave the pulp tissue in situ to stimulate the revascularization and

  11. Effect of steam explosion and enzymatic pre-treatments on pulping and bleaching of Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Villar, J C

    2012-05-01

    A non-wood raw material with high potential for pulp and paper applications (Hesperaloe funifera) was subjected to a steam explosion pre-treatment, and the subsequent effect of this pretreatment on biopulping and biobleaching was studied. An increase in the delignification rate, bigger than that reported for autohydrolysis and acid hydrolysis pre-treatments, and a reduction in chemical consumption were found during kraft pulping of the exploded samples. However, biopulping with the laccase-mediator system (LMS) did not lead to a reduction in the kappa number in either non-exploded or exploded unbleached pulps. On the other hand, the steam explosion pretreatment boosted the advantages of the LMS pre-treatment (decrease in kappa number and increase in brightness) favored biobleaching, with a 53.1% delignification rate and a final brightness of 67% ISO. Finally, the steam explosion pre-treatment also improved the color properties of the bleached pulp and reduced the hydrogen peroxide consumption by 24.6%.

  12. Six-Month Chronic Toxicity Study of Tamarind Pulp (Tamarindus indica L.) Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Irene; Setiawan, Finna; Sasongko, Lucy D N; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2017-03-08

    Tamarind water extract has been shown to demonstrate an anti-obesity effect. In this research, long-term use of tamarind pulp water extract safety was evaluated. Tamarind pulp was extracted by reflux method, followed by freeze-drying to obtain dry extract. Wistar rats were divided into six groups, with 20 animals of each sex per group. The control group and satellite control group received carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) 0.5% 1 mL/100 g bw (body weight) per day. Treatment groups received tamarind pulp extract at doses of 75, 200, 1000, satellite 1000 mg/kg bw per day for six months. After six months, control groups and the treatment group were sacrificed. Satellite groups were sacrificed one month later. Relative organ weights, hematology and clinical biochemistry profiles were determined. After six months, there were no significant change in body weight, hematologic, and clinical biochemistry profiles of the tested group. Body weight of male rats in the satellite 1000 mg/kg bw group was significantly increased in week 30 compared to the satellite control group (p < 0.05). The relative spleen weight of female rats of the 200 mg/kg bw group was reduced (p < 0.05). The relative kidney weight of male rats in the 1000 mg/kg bw group was increased (p < 0.05). This study showed that tamarind pulp extract was generally safe and well tolerated at the tested dose.

  13. Human dental pulp cell apoptosis: immunohistochemical study after applying orthodontic traction.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Angelova Volponi, A; Campanella, C; Guarnotta, C; Abdallah Hajj Hussein, I; Cappello, F; Gerbino, A; Jurjus, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare human dental pulp stress and programmed cell death after 3 and 6 months of orthodontic treatments by assessing the degree of apoptosis and related proteins. Human dental pulps were collected from twenty young patients orthodontically treated by Straight Wire technique. Samples were fixed, paraffin-embedded and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry using anti-heat shock protein 60 kDa (Hsp60), -caspase 3, -caspase 9, and -PCNA antibodies, as well as TUNEL reactions. Moreover, we performed immunoprecipitation for Hsp60 and caspase 3, and for Hsp60 and caspase 9, from paraffin extracted tissues. Increased levels of both caspases and Hsp60 occurred in 6-months treated samples; at the same time, we found increased levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive cells. Immunoprecipitation showed that Hsp60 forms a complex with both Pro-caspase 3 and Caspase 3, and this may accelerate Pro-caspase 3 activation, especially in the 6-months treated group. On the contrary, no complex between Hsp60 and Pro-caspase 9 was detected. The orthodontic tractions may be a cause of stress, apoptosis and proliferation in pulp tissue. These results suggest the need of further studies about the effects of long term orthodontic treatments on the dental pulp.

  14. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials.

  15. Use of laccase in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Virk, Antar Puneet; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Laccase, through its versatile mode of action, has the potential to revolutionize the pulping and paper making industry. It not only plays a role in the delignification and brightening of the pulp but has also been described for the removal of the lipophilic extractives responsible for pitch deposition from both wood and nonwood paper pulps. Laccases are capable of improving physical, chemical, as well as mechanical properties of pulp either by forming reactive radicals with lignin or by functionalizing lignocellulosic fibers. Laccases can also target the colored and toxic compounds released as effluents from various industries and render them nontoxic through its polymerization and depolymerization reactions. This article reviews the use of both fungal and bacterial laccases in improving pulp properties and bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluents.

  16. Wastes from paper and pulp mills

    PubMed Central

    Makkonen, Osmo A. P.

    1956-01-01

    The disposal of wastes from paper and pulp mills—a problem of particular importance in the northern European countries of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, where wood-processing is one of the main industries—is discussed. The various types of waste produced are described, and their pollution potential is assessed, in terms of population equivalents, with special reference to the present position in Finland. The methods available for the treatment of these wastes are briefly outlined. PMID:13374536

  17. Mechanical behaviors of molded pulp material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; Wang, Huaiwen; Chen, Jinlong

    2008-11-01

    Many mechanical phenomena of interest for web-like materials, such as molded pulp, take place at the micro-scale. A SEM (scanning electron microscope) with SHIMADZU electrohydraulic servo experimental system was employed to study the micro-scale mechanical behavior of molded pulp materials. Uniaxial tension tests of molded pulp specimens were carried out, resulting in the stress-strain curves. Experimental results indicated that the material is not only elasticplastic, but also emplastic. The surface morphology evolution of the tensile specimen was visually monitored during the process of loading, and some SEM micrographs were captured under different load levels. Full-field deformations over an area of 190x170 μm2 were obtained using the digital image correlation method. The higher strains occurred at the fibre fines zone or around voids whereas the lower strains were obviously found at long fibres, demonstrating that the strain distribution is obviously uneven. The reason may be due to the random orientation and the fraction of the fibres, and the presence of impurities and voids as well.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    sludge) and primary sludge is still in its infancy. Current research is mainly focused on developing efficient pretreatment methods that enable fast hydrolysis of complex organic matter, shorter sludge residence times and as a consequence, smaller sludge digesters. Previous experimental studies indicate that the anaerobic digestibility of non-pretreated biosludge from pulp and paper mills varies widely, with volatile solids (VS) removal rates of 21-55% and specific methane yields ranging between 40 and 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Pretreatment can increase the digestibility to some extent, however in almost all reported cases, the specific methane yield of pretreated biosludge did not exceed 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Increases in specific methane yield mostly range between 0 and 90% compared to non-pretreated biosludge, whereas larger improvements were usually achieved with more difficult-to-digest biosludge. Thermal treatment and microwave treatment are two of the more effective methods. The heat required for the elevated temperatures applied in both methods may be provided from surplus heat that is often available at pulp and paper mills. Given the large variability in specific methane yield of non-pretreated biosludge, future research should focus on the links between anaerobic digestibility and sludge properties. Research should also involve mill-derived primary sludge. Although biosludge has been the main target in previous studies, primary sludge often constitutes the bulk of mill-generated sludge, and co-digestion of a mixture between both types of sludge may become practical. The few laboratory studies that have included mill primary sludge indicate that, similar to biosludge, the digestibility can range widely. Long-term studies should be conducted to explore the potential of microbial adaptation to lignocellulosic material which can constitute more than half of the organic matter in pulp and paper mill sludge.

  19. Bioceramic Materials and the Changing Concepts in Vital Pulp Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yangpei; Bogen, George; Lim, Jung; Shon, Won-Jun; Kang, Mo K

    2016-05-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is devised to preserve and maintain vitality of pulpally involved teeth challenged by a variety of intraoral conditions. Notable progress has been made in this field due to a better understanding of pulp physiology, improved clinical protocols and advanced bioceramic materials paired with adhesive technology. With focused case selection, conservative VPT can provide reliable treatment options for permanent teeth diagnosed with normal pulps or reversible pulpitis.

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp, dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose.

    PubMed

    Palme, Anna; Theliander, Hans; Brelid, Harald

    2016-01-20

    The behaviour of different cellulosic fibres during acid hydrolysis has been investigated and the levelling-off degree of polymerisation (LODP) has been determined. The study included a bleached kraft pulp (both never-dried and once-dried) and two dissolving pulps (once-dried). Additionally, cotton cellulose from new cotton sheets and sheets discarded after long-time use was studied. Experimental results from the investigation, together with results found in literature, imply that ultrastructural differences between different fibres affect their susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis. Drying of a bleached kraft pulp was found to enhance the rate of acid hydrolysis and also result in a decrease in LODP. This implies that the susceptibility of cellulosic fibres towards acid hydrolysis is affected by drying-induced stresses in the cellulose chains. In cotton cellulose, it was found that use and laundering gave a substantial loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP), but that the LODP was only marginally affected.

  1. Indirect pulp capping in young patients: immunohistological study of pulp-dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Ţuculină, Mihaela Jana; Răescu, Mihaela; Dascălu, Ionela Teodora; Popescu, Mihaela; Andreescu, Claudia Florina; Dăguci, C; Cumpătă, C N; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2013-01-01

    Indirect capping is a complex therapy exclusively needed in deep cavities that provides, using biomaterials, a disinfection of the dentinary sore and seals the dentinary tubules, protects the pulp of physical mechanisms and chemical agents and stimulates the mechanisms that produce new dentin. Following this idea, we studied the histological changes in the dental pulp tissue and also the specific immunohistochemical response in various structures when an indirect capping technique was used. We used special histological techniques followed by classical staining or by immunohistochemical reaction in order to assess the odontoblastic, and the vascular reaction. The immunohistochemical study allows us to evaluate the changes in the pulp-dentin complex, as the result of the changes in the dentinal tubules permeability and the biological reactions at this level.

  2. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ

  3. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  4. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  5. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of different pulp capping materials

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct pulp capping involves the application of a dental material to seal communications between the exposed pulp and the oral cavity (mechanical and carious pulp exposures) in an attempt to act as a barrier, protect the dental pulp complex and preserve its vitality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by the agar disc diffusion test, the antimicrobial activity of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), Biodentine (Septodont). Material and Methods Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion test of different pulp capping materials. Paper disks were impregnated whit each pulp capping materials and placed onto culture agar-plates pre-adsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each pulp capping materials were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. Results For the investigation of the antibacterial properties the ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various materials. Tukey test showed that MTA-based materials induced lower growth inhibition zones. Conclusions MTA-based products show a discrete antibacterial activity varying from calcium hydroxide-based materials which present an higher antibacterial activity. Key words:Agar disc diffusion test, antimicrobial activity, calcium hydroxide, MTA, pulp capping materials. PMID:26644833

  7. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  8. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-07

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

  9. Ultrastructural changes in feline dental pulp with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2003-08-01

    A light and transmission electron microscopic study was conducted on dental pulp on cats suffering periodontal disease. After extraction, pulp tissues were fixed and embedded in Epon-Araldite. Thick layers of predentin (50 microm) and odontoblasts (30 microm) were observed. In thin sections, odontoblasts showed many mitochondria and secretary vesicles. Some capillaries with several fenestrations were located within the odontoblastic layer. All the sections of pulp examined displayed a generalized infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts displayed lytic changes in some areas. These findings imply that the pulp is significantly affected by periodontal disease and furcation-involved teeth should be a carefully considered factor when dental treatment is planned.

  10. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  11. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lontchi-Yimagou, Eric; Sobngwi, Eugene; Matsha, Tandi E; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly common worldwide. Related complications account for increased morbidity and mortality, and enormous healthcare spending. Knowledge of the pathophysiological derangements involved in the occurrence of diabetes and related complications is critical for successful prevention and control solutions. Epidemiologic studies have established an association between inflammatory biomarkers and the occurrence of T2DM and complications. Adipose tissue appears to be a major site of production of those inflammatory biomarkers, as a result of the cross-talk between adipose cells, macrophages, and other immune cells that infiltrate the expanding adipose tissue. The triggering mechanisms of the inflammation in T2DM are still ill-understood. Inflammatory response likely contributes to T2DM occurrence by causing insulin resistance, and is in turn intensified in the presence of hyperglycemia to promote long-term complications of diabetes. Targeting inflammatory pathways could possibly be a component of the strategies to prevent and control diabetes and related complications.

  12. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films.

  13. SCF promotes dental pulp progenitor migration, neovascularization, and collagen remodeling - potential applications as a homing factor in dental pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuang; Dangaria, Smit; Gopinathan, Gokul; Yan, Xiulin; Lu, Xuanyu; Kolokythas, Antonia; Niu, Yumei; Luan, Xianghong

    2013-10-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a powerful chemokine that binds to the c-Kit receptor CD117 and has shown promise as a homing agent capable of progenitor cell recruitment. In the present study we have documented high levels of both SCF and its receptor c-Kit in differentiating dental pulp (DP) cells and in the sub-odontoblastic layer of Höhl. In vitro studies using human DP progenitors revealed a significant increase in cell proliferation after100 nM SCF application, explained by a 2-fold upregulation in cyclin D3 and FGF2 cell cycle regulators, and a 7-fold increase in CDK4 expression. DP cell migration in the presence of SCF was up-regulated 2.7-fold after a 24 h culture period, and this effect was accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangement, a 1.5-fold increase in polymeric F-actin over G-actin, and a 1.8-fold increase in RhoA expression. Explaining the signaling effect of SCF on DP migration, PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathway inhibitors were demonstrated to significantly reduce DP cell migration, while SCF alone doubled the number of migrated cells. ERK and AKT phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated already 3-5 min after SCF addition to the culture medium and declined thereafter, classifying SCF as a fast acting chemokine. When applied as an agent to promote tissue regeneration in subcutaneously implanted collagen sponges, SCF resulted in a 7-fold increase in the cell number in the implanted tissue construct, a more than 9-fold increase in capillaries, as well as collagen sponge remodeling and collagen fiber neogenesis. Together, these studies demonstrate the suitability of SCF as a potent aid in the regeneration of dental pulp and other mesenchymal tissues, capable of inducing cell homing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling.

  14. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of inflammation, is decreased but plasma lipids are increased, especially with magnesium (Mg) deprivation, in rats made obese by high dietary butter oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic low-grade inflammation and low Mg status often are concomitant in obesity. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine whether Mg deprivation exacerbates inflammatory stress in obesity. Groups of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6 wk were fed dietary Mg at 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg...

  15. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  16. Effects of Dates Pulp Extract and Palm Sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on Gastrointestinal Transit Activity in Healthy Rats

    PubMed Central

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation. PMID:24611963

  17. The resolution of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Christopher D; Gilroy, Derek W; Serhan, Charles N; Stockinger, Brigitta; Tak, Paul P

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Nature Reviews Immunology organized a conference that brought together scientists and clinicians from both academia and industry to discuss one of the most pressing questions in medicine--how do we turn off rampant, undesirable inflammation? There is a growing appreciation that, similarly to the initiation of inflammation, the resolution of inflammation is an intricate and active process. Can we therefore harness the mediators involved in resolution responses to treat patients with chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases? Here, we ask five of the speakers from the conference to share their thoughts on this emerging field.

  18. Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union

    SciTech Connect

    Monte, M.C.

    2009-01-15

    Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics. Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes. Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain. For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments.

  19. Effect of Cellulases and Xylanases on Refining Process and Kraft Pulp Properties

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz Buzała, Kamila; Kalinowska, Halina; Derkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities) or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp’s susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time), increased water retention value (WRV) and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced. These changes of pulp parameters caused deterioration of paper strength properties. The treatment with the xylanase, which partially hydrolyzed xylan, small amounts of which are associated with cellulose fibers, only slightly loosened the structure of fibers. These subtle changes positively affected the susceptibility of the pulp to refining (refining energy was significantly reduced) and improved the static strength properties of paper. Thus, the treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases may lead to substantial savings of refining energy without negative effects on paper characteristics. PMID:27557079

  20. Use of cellulases and recombinant cellulose binding domains for refining TCF kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edith M; Chriac, A Iulia; Pastor, F I Javier; Diaz, Pilar; Vidal, Teresa; Torres, Antonio L

    2010-01-01

    The modular endoglucanase Cel9B from Paenibacillus barcinonensis is a highly efficient biocatalyst, which expedites pulp refining and reduces the associated energy costs as a result. In this work, we set out to identify the specific structural domain or domains responsible for the action of this enzyme on cellulose fibre surfaces with a view to facilitating the development of new cellulases for optimum biorefining. Using the recombinant enzymes GH9-CBD3c, Fn3-CBD3b, and CBD3b, which are truncated forms of Cel9B, allowed us to assess the individual effects of the catalytic, cellulose binding, and fibronectin-like domains of the enzyme on the refining of TCF kraft pulp from Eucalyptus globulus. Based on the physico-mechanical properties obtained, the truncated form containing the catalytic domain (GH9-CBD3c) has a strong effect on fibre morphology. Comparing its effect with that of the whole cellulase (Cel9B) revealed that the truncated enzyme contributes to increasing paper strength through improved tensile strength and burst strength and also that the truncated form is more effective than the whole enzyme in improving tear resistance. Therefore, the catalytic domain of Cel9B has biorefining action on pulp. Although cellulose binding domains (CBDs) are less efficient toward pulp refining, evidence obtained in this work suggests that CBD3b alters fibre surfaces and influences paper properties as a result.

  1. Microbial xylanases and their industrial application in pulp and paper biobleaching: a review.

    PubMed

    Walia, Abhishek; Guleria, Shiwani; Mehta, Preeti; Chauhan, Anjali; Parkash, Jyoti

    2017-05-01

    Xylanases are hydrolytic enzymes which cleave the β-1, 4 backbone of the complex plant cell wall polysaccharide xylan. Xylan is the major hemicellulosic constituent found in soft and hard food. It is the next most abundant renewable polysaccharide after cellulose. Xylanases and associated debranching enzymes produced by a variety of microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast and fungi bring hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. Despite thorough knowledge of microbial xylanolytic systems, further studies are required to achieve a complete understanding of the mechanism of xylan degradation by xylanases produced by microorganisms and their promising use in pulp biobleaching. Cellulase-free xylanases are important in pulp biobleaching as alternatives to the use of toxic chlorinated compounds because of the environmental hazards and diseases caused by the release of the adsorbable organic halogens. In this review, we have focused on the studies of structural composition of xylan in plants, their classification, sources of xylanases, extremophilic xylanases, modes of fermentation for the production of xylanases, factors affecting xylanase production, statistical approaches such as Plackett Burman, Response Surface Methodology to enhance xylanase production, purification, characterization, molecular cloning and expression. Besides this, review has focused on the microbial enzyme complex involved in the complete breakdown of xylan and the studies on xylanase regulation and their potential industrial applications with special reference to pulp biobleaching, which is directly related to increasing pulp brightness and reduction in environmental pollution.

  2. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  3. Combination of steam explosion and laccase-mediator treatments prior to Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Carbajo, J M; Villar, J C

    2011-07-01

    The effect of a pretreatment consisting of steam explosion (SE) followed by a laccase mediator system (LMS) stage on Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping has been evaluated and compared with fungal pretreatments. Pretreatment with SE and LMS was more efficient than pretreatments using Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes sp. I-62. Steam explosion not only improved the enzyme penetration into the wood chips and shortened the pulping process by 60%, but also extracted around 50% of the hemicelluloses which could be converted into value-added products. The optimal conditions for the LMS treatment were 3h, 3UA/g and 40°C. Compared to SE, the SE/LMS treatment yielded an increase in delignification of 13.9% without affecting pulp properties, provided a similar screened kraft yield, and reduced consumption of chemical reagents Na(2)S and NaOH by 11.5% and 6.3%, respectively. Therefore, SE/LMS is a promising pretreatment for converting the pulp mill into a forest bio-refinery.

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure.

    PubMed

    Glanpracha, Naraporn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide-containing cassava pulp with pig manure was evaluated using laboratory scale mesophilic digester. The digester was operated in a semi-continuous mode with the mixed feedstock having C/N ratio of 35:1. Digester startup was accomplished in 60days with loading of 0.5-1kgVS/m(3)d. Subsequently, the loading to digester was increased step-wise from 2 to 9kgVS/m(3)d. Digester performance was stable at loading between 2 and 6kgVS/m(3)d with an average volatile solid removal and methane yield of 82% and 0.38m(3)/kgVSadded, respectively. However, beyond loading of 7kgVS/m(3)d, solubilization of particulate matter did not take place efficiently. Cyanide present in cassava pulp was successfully degraded indicating that anaerobic sludge in the digester was well acclimatized to cyanide. The results show that cassava pulp can be successfully digested anaerobically with pig manure as co-substrate without any inhibitory effect of cyanide present in the cassava pulp.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber and dental permeability after bleaching.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Tabchoury, Cinthia Pereira Machado; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Giannini, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to quantify the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (HP) in the pulp chamber and evaluate changes on dental permeability after bleaching with 3 HP concentrations (10%, 35%, and 50%). This study was divided into 2 experiments and the bleaching treatments consisted of 3 applications of HP for 30 minutes during a single session. The first experiment tested HP penetration into the pulp chamber of 4 experimental groups (n = 10) of bovine crowns, which were divided by HP concentration: an unbleached control group (0% HP), 10% HP, 35% HP, and 50% HP. Acetate buffer solution was placed into the pulp chamber and after each application of HP. This solution was collected to determine spectrophotometrically the concentration of HP that reached the pulp chamber. The second experiment evaluated dental permeability. Bovine crowns were divided into 3 groups (n = 10). The crowns were connected to a permeability device and the initial permeability was measured at 10 psi. Three different concentrations of HP gels (10%, 35% and 50%) were applied to the buccal enamel surfaces and the dental permeability was measured after the first, second, and third applications of HP. The data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05). All concentrations of HP reached the pulp chamber, although no significant differences were noted between the 3 concentrations tested (P > 0.05). However, the increase of dental permeability in the group that received 50% HP was significantly higher than the 10% HP group (P < 0.05). The results indicate that the HP bleaching treatments increased dental permeability.